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The SUBDIVISIONS OF ENGLAND constitute a hierarchy of administrative divisions and non-administrative ceremonial areas.

Overall, England
England
is divided into nine regions and 48 ceremonial counties , although these have only a limited role in public policy. For the purposes of local government , the country is divided into counties , districts and parishes . In some areas, counties and districts form a two-tier administrative structure, while in others they are combined under a unitary authority . Parishes cover only part of England.

The current system is the result of incremental reform which has its origins in legislation enacted in 1965 and 1972 .

CONTENTS

* 1 Regions

* 2 Counties and districts

* 2.1 Two-tier non-metropolitan counties * 2.2 Metropolitan counties * 2.3 London * 2.4 Unitary authorities * 2.5 Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly

* 3 Civil parishes

* 4 Lists of subdivisions

* 4.1 Regions * 4.2 Two-tier non-metropolitan counties * 4.3 Metropolitan counties * 4.4 London * 4.5 Unitary authorities * 4.6 Sui generis * 4.7 Civil parishes * 4.8 Hierarchical list of regions, counties and districts

* 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links

REGIONS

Main article: Regions of England
England

At the highest level, all of England
England
is divided into nine regions that are each made up of a number of counties and districts. The 'government office regions' were created in 1994 and since the 1999 Euro-elections have been used as the European Parliament constituencies in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and in England's European Parliament constituencies.

The regions vary greatly in their areas covered, populations and contributions to the national economy. All have the same status, except London which has substantive devolved powers .

There was a failed attempt to create elected regional assemblies outside London in 2004 and since then the structures of regional governance (regional assemblies , regional development agencies and local authority leaders\' boards ) have been subject to review. Following the change of government in 2010, these have been scheduled for abolition by 2012.

COUNTIES AND DISTRICTS

Main articles: Counties of England
England
and Districts of England
England

For non-administrative purposes, England
England
is wholly divided into 48 counties, commonly known, but not named in statute, as ceremonial counties . These counties are used for the purposes of appointing Lords Lieutenant who are historically the Crown's representatives in those areas. Ceremonial counties are often different from the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties used for local government as they include the areas covered by unitary authorities. They are taken into consideration when drawing up Parliamentary constituency boundaries.

For local government, England
England
is divided into areas with a two-tier structure of counties and districts governed by two local authorities, and unitary authority areas where there is one local authority. The arrangement varies in different parts of the country and there are four main configurations: non-metropolitan two-tier 'shire' areas, six metropolitan counties, unitary authorities, and Greater London.

TWO-TIER NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTIES

Most of the geographical area of England
England
is within a two-tier non-metropolitan arrangement. In 27 of these areas the county councils provide the majority of services, including education and social services, and the 201 district councils have a more limited role. Non-metropolitan districts can additionally have the status of borough or city, although this has no effect on their powers or functions. All two-tier non-metropolitan counties are also ceremonial counties.C3 Berkshire
Berkshire
is an anomaly in this arrangement whereby its districts are unitary authorities, but the non-metropolitan county was not formally abolished and it is also a ceremonial county. Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
and Cheshire
Cheshire
are two former non-metropolitan counties that continue to exist only as ceremonial counties.

METROPOLITAN COUNTIES

regional boundary ceremonial county boundary unitary authority boundary two-tier non-metropolitan county metropolitan county Greater London
Greater London
(including City of London
City of London
) unitary authority (non-metropolitan county)

Six large conurbations of England
England
correspond to metropolitan counties . Each metropolitan county had a county council providing limited strategic services, such as public transport and planning, from 1974 to 1986. Despite no longer having county councils the metropolitan counties still legally exist, and are each a ceremonial county. County-level functions, such as public transport, are exercised by joint-boards and other arrangements organised by the district councils. In the metropolitan counties, the 36 district councils operate effectively as unitary authorities and provide the majority of services, including education and social services. All metropolitan districts additionally have the status of borough, and some are cities, although this has no effect on their powers or functions. From April 2011 there has been a formal upper-tier structure in Greater Manchester
Manchester
with the creation of the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Combined Authority .

LONDON

The Greater London
Greater London
administrative area created in 1965 corresponds to the London region. Through incremental change, culminating in 2000, the upper-tier authority is the Greater London
Greater London
Authority , comprising an elected Mayor of London and the London Assembly . Greater London is divided into 32 London boroughs , also dating from 1965, each governed by a London borough
London borough
council. The ancient City of London
City of London
forms a 33rd division and is governed by the City of London
City of London
Corporation , a sui generis authority unlike any other in England
England
that has largely avoided any of the reforms of local government in the 19th and 20th centuries. The City of London, and the rest of Greater London, each form a ceremonial county. The London borough
London borough
councils and the City of London Corporation provide the majority of services, for example they are education authorities and co-ordinate waste management, whereas the Greater London
Greater London
Authority is responsible for the key strategic services of public transport, the police, economic development and emergency planning.

UNITARY AUTHORITIES

Main article: Unitary authorities of England

Outside London and the metropolitan counties, some parts of England are governed by a single council, commonly called (but not named in statute) as a unitary authority. Unitary authorities are a combined non-metropolitan county and non-metropolitan district, undertaking the functions of both. Unitary authorities can additionally have the status of borough or city , although this has no effect on their powers or functions.

46 unitary authorities were created between 1995 and 1998 and nine more were created in 2009 . They were formed either by non-metropolitan districts taking on county-level functions, or by counties taking on district-level functions. In some cases, borders were altered or districts were combined during this reorganisation. Berkshire
Berkshire
is an anomaly in this arrangement whereby its districts became unitary authorities, but the non-metropolitan county was not formally abolished.

For ceremonial purposes, unitary authorities are considered to be part of the county to which they formerly belonged. Politically, however, they are fully independent entities, unaffiliated with the council of their former county. For instance, the unitary authority of Plymouth
Plymouth
is traditionally considered part of County Devon
Devon
, though politically it is not part of the county. In the case of Berkshire
Berkshire
, there is no county council, as all of its former territory is now covered by six unitary authorities, unaffiliated with each other politically. Although there is no county council in Berkshire, these six unitary authorities comprise the ceremonial county of Berkshire.

ISLES OF SCILLY

The Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
are governed by a sui generis local authority called the Council of the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
. The authority was established in 1890 as the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
Rural District Council. It was renamed but otherwise unreformed by the changes in local government that occurred in 1974 in the rest of England
England
outside Greater London. Although effectively a unitary authority, for example it is an education authority, the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
are part of the Cornwall
Cornwall
ceremonial county and combine with Cornwall
Cornwall
Council for services such as health and economic development.

CIVIL PARISHES

Main article: Civil parishes in England
England

The civil parish is the most local unit of government in England. A parish is governed by a parish council or parish meeting , which exercises a limited number of functions that would otherwise be delivered by the local authority. There is one civil parish in Greater London (Queen\'s Park , in the City of Westminster
City of Westminster
), and not all of the rest of England
England
is parished. The number of parishes and total area parished is growing.

LISTS OF SUBDIVISIONS

REGIONS

TYPE CREATED NUMBER UNITS

Region 1994 9

* East of England
England
* East Midlands
East Midlands
* London * North East * North West * South East * South West * West Midlands * Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber

TWO-TIER NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTIES

TYPE CREATED NUMBER UNITS

Non-metropolitan county 1974 27

* Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
* Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
* Cumbria
Cumbria
* Derbyshire
Derbyshire
* Devon
Devon
* Dorset
Dorset
* East Sussex
East Sussex
* Essex
Essex
* Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
* Hampshire
Hampshire
* Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
* Kent
Kent
* Lancashire
Lancashire
* Leicestershire
Leicestershire
* Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
* Norfolk
Norfolk
* Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
* North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
* Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
* Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
* Somerset
Somerset
* Staffordshire
Staffordshire
* Suffolk
Suffolk
* Surrey
Surrey
* Warwickshire
Warwickshire
* West Sussex
West Sussex
* Worcestershire
Worcestershire

Non-metropolitan district 1974 201 List of districts

METROPOLITAN COUNTIES

TYPE CREATED NUMBER UNITS

Metropolitan county 1974 6 Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Merseyside
Merseyside
South Yorkshire Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
West Midlands West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire

Metropolitan district
Metropolitan district
1974 36

* Bolton * Bury * Manchester
Manchester
* Oldham * Rochdale * Salford * Stockport * Tameside * Trafford
Trafford
* Wigan

* Knowsley * Liverpool
Liverpool
* Sefton * St Helens * Wirral

* Barnsley * Doncaster * Rotherham * Sheffield
Sheffield

* Gateshead * Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
* North Tyneside * South Tyneside
South Tyneside
* Sunderland

* Birmingham
Birmingham
* Coventry
Coventry
* Dudley * Sandwell * Solihull * Walsall * Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton

* Bradford * Calderdale * Kirklees * Leeds * Wakefield

LONDON

TYPE CREATED NUMBER UNITS

London borough
London borough
1965 32

* Barking and Dagenham * Barnet * Bexley * Brent * Bromley * Camden * City of Westminster
City of Westminster
* Croydon * Ealing
Ealing
* Enfield * Greenwich * Hackney * Hammersmith and Fulham * Haringey * Harrow * Havering
Havering
* Hillingdon
Hillingdon
* Hounslow * Islington
Islington
* Kensington and Chelsea * Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames
* Lambeth
Lambeth
* Lewisham
Lewisham
* Merton * Newham
Newham
* Redbridge * Richmond upon Thames
Richmond upon Thames
* Southwark
Southwark
* Sutton * Tower Hamlets * Waltham Forest * Wandsworth
Wandsworth

Sui generis in antiquity 1

* City of London
City of London
(including Inner Temple and Middle Temple
Middle Temple
)

TOTAL 33

UNITARY AUTHORITIES

TYPE CREATED NUMBER UNITS

County gained district functions 2009 5

* Cornwall
Cornwall
C2 * Durham C2 * Northumberland
Northumberland
C1 * Shropshire
Shropshire
C2 * Wiltshire
Wiltshire
C2

District(s) gained county functions 2009 4

* Bedford * Central Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
* Cheshire
Cheshire
East * Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester

District(s) gained county functions 1998 15

* Blackburn with Darwen * Blackpool
Blackpool
* Halton * Herefordshire
Herefordshire
C1 * Medway
Medway
* Nottingham
Nottingham
* Peterborough
Peterborough
* Plymouth
Plymouth
* Southend-on-Sea * Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
* Swindon * Telford and Wrekin * Thurrock
Thurrock
* Torbay
Torbay
* Warrington
Warrington

District(s) gained county functions when Berkshire
Berkshire
County Council was wound-up 1998 6

* Bracknell Forest * Reading * Slough
Slough
* West Berkshire
Berkshire
* Windsor and Maidenhead
Windsor and Maidenhead
* Wokingham

District(s) gained county functions 1997 11

* Bournemouth * Brighton and Hove * Derby
Derby
* Darlington * Leicester
Leicester
* Luton
Luton
* Milton Keynes * Poole
Poole
* Portsmouth
Portsmouth
* Rutland
Rutland
C1 * Southampton
Southampton

District gained county functions 1996 13

* Bath and North East Somerset
Somerset
* Bristol
Bristol
C1 * East Riding of Yorkshire
East Riding of Yorkshire
C2 * Hartlepool * Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
* Middlesbrough * North East Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
* North Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
* North Somerset
Somerset
* Redcar and Cleveland
Redcar and Cleveland
* South Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
* Stockton-on-Tees * York
York

County gained district functions 1995 1

* Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
C1

TOTAL 55

SUI GENERIS

* Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly

CIVIL PARISHES

* List of civil parishes in England
England

HIERARCHICAL LIST OF REGIONS, COUNTIES AND DISTRICTS

REGION CEREMONIAL COUNTY Metropolitan or non-metropolitan county DISTRICTS, BOROUGHS AND CITIES

EAST OF ENGLAND Essex
Essex
1. Thurrock
Thurrock
U.A.

2. Southend-on-Sea U.A.

3. Essex
Essex
† a) Harlow
Harlow
, b) Epping Forest , c) Brentwood , d) Basildon , e) Castle Point
Castle Point
, f) Rochford , g) Maldon , h) Chelmsford , i) Uttlesford , j) Braintree , k) Colchester , l) Tendring

4. Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
† a) Three Rivers , b) Watford
Watford
, c) Hertsmere
Hertsmere
, d) Welwyn Hatfield , e) Broxbourne , f) East Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, g) Stevenage
Stevenage
, h) North Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, i) St Albans , j) Dacorum

Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
5. Luton
Luton
U.A.

6. Bedford U.A.

7. Central Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
U.A.

Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
8. Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
† a) Cambridge
Cambridge
, b) South Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
, c) Huntingdonshire
Huntingdonshire
, d) Fenland
Fenland
, e) East Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire

9. Peterborough
Peterborough
U.A.

10. Norfolk
Norfolk
† a) Norwich
Norwich
, b) South Norfolk
Norfolk
, c) Great Yarmouth , d) Broadland
Broadland
, e) North Norfolk
Norfolk
, f) Breckland , g) King\'s Lynn and West Norfolk
Norfolk

11. Suffolk
Suffolk
† a) Ipswich , b) Suffolk
Suffolk
Coastal , c) Waveney , d) Mid Suffolk
Suffolk
, e) Babergh , f) St. Edmundsbury , g) Forest Heath

EAST MIDLANDS Derbyshire
Derbyshire
1. Derbyshire
Derbyshire
† a) High Peak , b) Derbyshire
Derbyshire
Dales , c) South Derbyshire
Derbyshire
, d) Erewash , e) Amber Valley , f) North East Derbyshire
Derbyshire
, g) Chesterfield , h) Bolsover

2. Derby
Derby
U.A.

Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
3. Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
† a) Rushcliffe , b) Broxtowe , c) Ashfield , d) Gedling , e) Newark and Sherwood , f) Mansfield , g) Bassetlaw
Bassetlaw

4. Nottingham
Nottingham
U.A.

Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
(part only) 5. Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
† a) Lincoln , b) North Kesteven
North Kesteven
, c) South Kesteven
South Kesteven
, d) South Holland , e) Boston , f) East Lindsey
East Lindsey
, g) West Lindsey
West Lindsey

Leicestershire
Leicestershire
6. Leicestershire
Leicestershire
† a) Charnwood , b) Melton , c) Harborough
Harborough
, d) Oadby and Wigston
Oadby and Wigston
, e) Blaby , f) Hinckley and Bosworth , g) North West Leicestershire
Leicestershire

7. Leicester
Leicester
U.A.

8. Rutland
Rutland
U.A.

9. Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
† a) South Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
, b) Northampton
Northampton
, c) Daventry , d) Wellingborough , e) Kettering , f) Corby
Corby
, g) East Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire

LONDON (Greater London) 1. Greater London
Greater London

a) City of Westminster
City of Westminster
, b) Kensington and Chelsea , c) Hammersmith and Fulham , d) Wandsworth
Wandsworth
, e) Lambeth
Lambeth
, f) Southwark
Southwark
, g) Tower Hamlets , h) Hackney , i) Islington
Islington
, j) Camden , k) Brent , l) Ealing , m) Hounslow , n) Richmond , o) Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames
, p) Merton , q) Sutton , r) Croydon , s) Bromley , t) Lewisham
Lewisham
, u) Greenwich , v) Bexley , w) Havering
Havering
, x) Barking and Dagenham , y) Redbridge , z) Newham
Newham
, aa) Waltham Forest , ab) Haringey , ac) Enfield , ad) Barnet , ae) Harrow , af) Hillingdon
Hillingdon

2. City of London
City of London
a) City of London
City of London

NORTH EAST ENGLAND 1. Northumberland
Northumberland
U.A.

2. Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
* a) Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
, b) Gateshead , c) North Tyneside , d) South Tyneside
South Tyneside
, e) Sunderland

Durham 3. Durham U.A.

4. Darlington U.A.

5. Hartlepool U.A.

6. Stockton-on-Tees U.A.

North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
(part only)

7. Redcar and Cleveland
Redcar and Cleveland
U.A.

8. Middlesbrough U.A.

NORTH WEST ENGLAND Cheshire
Cheshire
1. Cheshire
Cheshire
East U.A.

2. Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester U.A.

3. Halton U.A.

4. Warrington
Warrington
U.A.

5. Cumbria
Cumbria
† a) Barrow-in-Furness , b) South Lakeland
South Lakeland
, c) Copeland , d) Allerdale , e) Eden , f) Carlisle

6. Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
* a) Bolton , b) Bury , c) Manchester
Manchester
, d) Oldham , e) Rochdale , f) Salford , g) Stockport , h) Tameside , i) Trafford
Trafford
, j) Wigan

Lancashire
Lancashire
7. Lancashire
Lancashire
† a) West Lancashire
Lancashire
, b) Chorley , c) South Ribble
South Ribble
, d) Fylde , e) Preston , f) Wyre , g) Lancaster , h) Ribble Valley
Ribble Valley
, i) Pendle , j) Burnley , k) Rossendale , l) Hyndburn

8. Blackpool
Blackpool
U.A.

9. Blackburn with Darwen U.A.

10. Merseyside
Merseyside
* a) Knowsley , b) Liverpool
Liverpool
, c) St. Helens , d) Sefton , e) Wirral

SOUTH EAST ENGLAND 1. Berkshire
Berkshire
† a) West Berkshire
Berkshire
U.A., b) Reading U.A., c) Wokingham U.A., d) Bracknell Forest U.A., e) Windsor and Maidenhead
Windsor and Maidenhead
U.A., f) Slough
Slough
U.A.

Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
2. Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
† a) South Bucks , b) Chiltern , c) Wycombe , d) Aylesbury Vale

3. Milton Keynes U.A.

East Sussex
East Sussex
4. East Sussex
East Sussex
† a) Hastings
Hastings
, b) Rother
Rother
, c) Wealden , d) Eastbourne
Eastbourne
, e) Lewes

5. Brighton width:1.5em; height:1.5em; margin:1px 0; border:1px solid silver; background-color: #fff1f1; color:black; font-size:100%; text-align:center;"> † non-metropolitan county (all two-tier except for Berkshire) non-metropolitan district

U.A. unitary authority (non-metropolitan county and district) (except for Berkshire
Berkshire
districts which are not counties)

* metropolitan county metropolitan district

Local government district in London (the London boroughs and City of London
City of London
)

SEE ALSO

* Combined authority * List of English counties leaders

NOTES

* ^C1 Also a ceremonial county of identical area. * ^C2 Also a ceremonial county covering a larger area. * ^C3 Cumbria, Hertfordshire, Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Oxfordshire, Suffolk, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Sussex
West Sussex
and Worcestershire
Worcestershire
occupy the same area as the ceremonial county; Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Derbyshire, Devon, Dorset, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Kent, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, North Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Somerset
Somerset
and Staffordshire
Staffordshire
are larger for ceremonial purposes, being combined with one or more unitary authorities. * ^D1 Metropolitan (36); non-metropolitan two-tier (201); unitary authority (55); London borough
London borough
(32); sui generis (2). * ^NC Berkshire
Berkshire
has no county council and the districts function as unitary authorities.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F Jones, B., Kavanagh, D., Moran, M. & Norton, P., Politics UK, (2004), Pearson Longman. * ^ A B C Atkinson, H. & Wilks-Heeg, S. (2000). Local Government from Thatcher to Blair. Polity. * ^ Collins, S., Colville, I & Pengelly, S., A Guide to the Greater London Authority, (2000), Sweet and Maxwell * ^ A B C "Lieutenancies Act 1997". Office of Public Sector Information. 1997. Retrieved 8 August 2010. * ^ A B "The Berkshire
Berkshire
(Structural Change) Order 1996". National Archives(legislation.gov.uk). 1996. Retrieved 13 September 2012. * ^ Association of Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Authorities (March 2010). " Greater Manchester Combined Authority Final Scheme" (PDF). agma.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 August 2010. * ^ A B C Travers, T., The Politics of London, (2004), Palgrave * ^ Hebbert, Michael (1998). London: More by fortune than design. John Wiley & Sons. * ^ "Local Government Act 1992". Office of Public Sector Information. 1992. Retrieved 8 August 2010. * ^ "Local Government Act 1972". Office of Public Sector Information. 1972. Retrieved 9 August 2010. * ^ "Education and Learning". Council of the Isles of Scilly. Retrieved 9 August 2010. * ^ "About Us". Cornwall
Cornwall
and Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
Primary Care Trust. Retrieved 9 August 2010. * ^ "The Cornwall
Cornwall
and Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
Enterprise Partnership". Cornwall
Cornwall
Council. 30 July 2