HOME
The Info List - Sub-Saharan Africa


--- Advertisement ---



Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa
Africa
that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara.[2] It contrasts with North Africa, whose territories are part of the League of Arab
Arab
states within the Arab world. Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros
Comoros
and Mauritania
Mauritania
are geographically in Sub-Saharan Africa, but are likewise Arab
Arab
states and part of the Arab world.[3] The Sahel
Sahel
is the transitional zone in between the Sahara
Sahara
and the tropical savanna of the Sudan
Sudan
region and farther south the forest-savanna mosaic of tropical Africa. Since probably 3500 BCE,[4][5] the Saharan and Sub-Saharan regions of Africa
Africa
have been separated by the extremely harsh climate of the sparsely populated Sahara, forming an effective barrier interrupted by only the Nile
Nile
in Sudan, though the Nile
Nile
was blocked by the river's cataracts. The Sahara
Sahara
pump theory explains how flora and fauna (including Homo sapiens) left Africa
Africa
to penetrate the Middle East and beyond. African pluvial periods are associated with a "wet Sahara" phase during which larger lakes and more rivers existed.[6] The use of the term has been criticized because it refers to the South only by cartography conventions and projects a connotation of inferiority; a vestige of colonialism, which some say, divided Africa into European terms of homogeneity.[7][8]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Climate zones and ecoregions 3 History

3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Central Africa 3.3 Horn of Africa 3.4 Southern Africa 3.5 Southeast Africa 3.6 Sudan 3.7 Western Africa

4 Demographics

4.1 Population 4.2 Languages and ethnic groups

4.2.1 Afroasiatic 4.2.2 Khoisan 4.2.3 Niger–Congo 4.2.4 Nilo-Saharan

5 Economy

5.1 Energy and power 5.2 Media 5.3 Infrastructure 5.4 Oil and minerals 5.5 Agriculture

6 Education 7 Health care 8 Religion 9 Culture 10 Music 11 Art 12 Cuisine 13 Clothing 14 Sports 15 Tourism 16 List of countries and regional organization

16.1 Central Africa 16.2 East Africa

16.2.1 Horn of Africa 16.2.2 Southeast Africa

16.3 Southern Africa 16.4 Sudan 16.5 West Africa

17 See also 18 Notes 19 References 20 Further reading 21 External links

Etymology[edit]

Ethnographic map of Africa, from Meyers Blitz-Lexikon (1932).

Geographers historically divided the region into several distinct ethnographic sections based on each area's respective inhabitants.[9] Commentators in Arabic
Arabic
in the medieval period used the general term bilâd as-sûdân ("Land of the Blacks") for the vast Sudan
Sudan
region (an expression denoting West and Central Africa[10]), or sometimes extending from the coast of West Africa
Africa
to Western Sudan.[11] Its equivalent in Southeast Africa
Africa
was Zanj ("Country of the Blacks"), which was situated in the vicinity of the Great Lakes region.[9][11] The geographers drew an explicit ethnographic distinction between the Sudan
Sudan
region and its analogue Zanj, from the area to their extreme east on the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast in the Horn of Africa.[9] In modern-day Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea
Eritrea
was Al-Habash or Abyssinia,[12] which was inhabited by the Habash or Abyssinians, who were the forebears of the Habesha.[13] In northern Somalia
Somalia
was Barbara or the Bilad al-Barbar ("Land of the Berbers"), which was inhabited by the Eastern Baribah or Barbaroi, as the ancestors of the Somalis were referred to by medieval Arab
Arab
and ancient Greek geographers, respectively.[9][14][15][16] In the 19th and 20th centuries, the populations south of the Sahara were divided into three broad ancestral groups: Hamites
Hamites
and Semites in the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and Sahel
Sahel
related to those in North Africa, who spoke languages belonging to the Afroasiatic family; Negroes in most of the rest of the subcontinent (hence, the former toponym Black Africa
Africa
for Tropical Africa[17]), who spoke languages belonging to the Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
families; and Khoisan
Khoisan
in Southern Africa, who spoke languages belonging to the Khoisan
Khoisan
family.[18] Climate zones and ecoregions[edit] Further information: Afrotropic ecozone; Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands; and List of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests ecoregions

Climate zones of Africa, showing the ecological break between the hot desert climate of North Africa
Africa
and the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
(red), the hot semi-arid climate of the Sahel
Sahel
and areas surrounding deserts (orange) and the tropical climate of Central and Western Africa
Africa
(blue). Southern Africa
Southern Africa
has a transition to semi-tropical or temperate climates (green), and more desert or semi-arid regions, centered on Namibia
Namibia
and Botswana.

Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
has a wide variety of climate zones or biomes. South Africa
Africa
and the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
in particular are considered Megadiverse countries. It has a dry winter season and a wet summer season.

The Sahel
Sahel
shoots across all of Africa
Africa
at a latitude of about 10° to 15° N. Countries that include parts of the Sahara
Sahara
Desert proper in their northern territories and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
in their southern region include Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad
Chad
and Sudan. The Sahel
Sahel
has a hot semi-arid climate. South of the Sahel, there is a belt of savanna (Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic), widening to include most of South Sudan
Sudan
and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in the east (East Sudanese savanna). The Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
globally includes hot desert climate along the coast but hot semi-arid climate can be found much more in the interior, contrasting with savannah and moist broadleaf forests in the interior of Ethiopia. Tropical Africa
Africa
encompasses tropical rainforest stretching along the southern coast of West Africa
Africa
and across most of Central Africa
Africa
(the Congo) west of the African Great Lakes The Eastern Miombo woodlands are an ecoregion of Tanzania, Malawi, and Mozambique. The Serengeti
Serengeti
ecosystem is located in northwestern Tanzania
Tanzania
and extends to southwestern Kenya. The Kalahari Basin
Kalahari Basin
includes the Kalahari Desert
Kalahari Desert
surrounded by a belt of semi-desert. The Bushveld
Bushveld
is a tropical savanna ecoregion of Southern Africa. The Karoo
Karoo
is a semi-desert in western South Africa.

History[edit] Main article: History of Africa Prehistory[edit]

Stone chopping tool from Olduvai Gorge

According to paleontology, early hominid skull anatomy was similar to that of their close cousins, the great African forest apes, gorilla and chimpanzee, but they had adopted a bipedal locomotion and freed hands, giving them a crucial advantage enabling them to live in both forested areas and on the open savanna at a time when Africa
Africa
was drying up, with savanna encroaching on forested areas. This occurred 10 million to 5 million years ago.[19] By 3 million years ago several australopithecine hominid species had developed throughout southern, eastern and central Africa. They were tool users rather than tool manufacturers. The next major evolutionary step occurred around 2.3 million BCE, when primitive stone tools were used to scavenge the carcasses of animals killed by other predators, both for their meat and their marrow. In hunting, H. habilis was most likely not capable of competing with large predators and was more prey than hunter, although H. habilis probably did steal eggs from nests and may have been able to catch small game and weakened larger prey such as cubs and older animals. The tools were classed as Oldowan.[20] Roughly 1.8 million years ago, Homo ergaster
Homo ergaster
first appeared in the fossil record in Africa. From Homo ergaster, Homo erectus
Homo erectus
(upright man) evolved 1.5 million years ago. Some of the earlier representatives of this species were small-brained and used primitive stone tools, much like H. habilis. The brain later grew in size, and H. erectus eventually developed a more complex stone tool technology called the Acheulean. Potentially the first hominid to engage in hunting, H. erectus mastered the art of making fire. They were the first hominids to leave Africa, going on to colonize the entire Old World, and perhaps later on giving rise to Homo floresiensis. Although some recent writers suggest that H. georgicus, a H. habilis descendant, was the first and most primitive hominid to ever live outside Africa, many scientists consider H. georgicus
H. georgicus
to be an early and primitive member of the H. erectus species.[21] The fossil record shows Homo sapiens living in southern and eastern Africa
Africa
anywhere from 100,000 to 150,000 years ago. Between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago, their expansion out of Africa
Africa
launched the colonization of the planet by modern humans. By 10,000 BCE, Homo sapiens had spread to all corners of the world. This dispersal of the human species is suggested by linguistic, cultural and genetic evidence.[20][22][23] After the Sahara
Sahara
became a desert, it did not present a totally impenetrable barrier for travelers between north and south because of the application of animal husbandry towards carrying water, food, and supplies across the desert. Prior to the introduction of the camel,[24] the use of oxen, mule, and horses for desert crossing was common, and trade routes followed chains of oases that were strung across the desert. The trans-saharan trade was in full motion by 500 BCE with Carthage
Carthage
being a major economic force for its establishment.[25][26][27] It is thought that the camel was first brought to Egypt
Egypt
after the Persian Empire conquered Egypt
Egypt
in 525 BCE, although large herds did not become common enough in North Africa
Africa
for camels to be the pack animal of choice for the trans-saharan trade.[28] Central Africa[edit] Main article: Central Africa

Nzinga Mbande, queen of the Bantu Ndongo and Matamba kingdoms

Archaeological finds in Central Africa
Africa
provide evidence of human settlement that may date back over 10 000 years.[29] According to Zangato and Holl, there is evidence of iron-smelting in the Central African Republic and Cameroon
Cameroon
that may date back to 3000 to 2500 BCE.[30] Extensive walled sites and settlements have recently been found in Zilum, Chad. The area is located approximately 60 km (37 mi) southwest of Lake Chad, and has been radiocarbon dated to the first millennium BCE.[31][32] Trade and improved agricultural techniques supported more sophisticated societies, leading to the early civilizations of Sao, Kanem, Bornu, Shilluk, Baguirmi, and Wadai.[33] Following the Bantu Migration
Bantu Migration
into Central Africa, during the 14th century, the Luba Kingdom
Luba Kingdom
in southeast Congo came about under a king whose political authority derived from religious, spiritual legitimacy. The kingdom controlled agriculture and regional trade of salt and iron from the north and copper from the Zambian/Congo copper belt.[34] Rival kingship factions which split from the Luba Kingdom
Luba Kingdom
later moved among the Lunda people, marrying into its elite and laying the foundation of the Lunda Empire
Lunda Empire
in the 16th century. The ruling dynasty centralised authority among the Lunda under the Mwata Yamyo or Mwaant Yaav. The Mwata Yamyo's legitimacy, like that of the Luba king, came from being viewed as a spiritual religious guardian. This imperial cult or system of divine kings was spread to most of central Africa
Africa
by rivals in kingship migrating and forming new states. Many new states received legitimacy by claiming descent from the Lunda dynasties.[34] The Kingdom of Kongo
Kingdom of Kongo
existed from the Atlantic west to the Kwango river to the east. During the 15th century, the Bakongo farming community was united with its capital at M'banza-Kongo, under the king title, Manikongo.[34] Other significant states and peoples included the Kuba Kingdom, producers of the famous raffia cloth, the Eastern Lunda, Bemba, Burundi, Rwanda, and the Kingdom of Ndongo. Horn of Africa[edit] Main article: Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
§ History Further information: History of Ethiopia, History of Somalia, History of Eritrea, History of Djibouti, and Ethiopian historiography

Stone city of Gondershe, Somalia

The Axumite Empire
Axumite Empire
spanned the southern Sahara, south Arabia and the Sahel
Sahel
along the western shore of the Red Sea. Located in northern Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea, Aksum was deeply involved in the trade network between India
India
and the Mediterranean. Growing from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age
Iron Age
period circa the 4th century BCE, it rose to prominence by the 1st century CE. The Aksumites constructed monolithic stelae to cover the graves of their kings, such as King Ezana's Stele. The later Zagwe dynasty, established in the 12th century, built churches out of solid rock. These rock-hewn structures include the Church of St. George at Lalibela.

Fasilides Castle, Ethiopia

In ancient Somalia, city-states flourished such as Opone, Mosyllon and Malao that competed with the Sabaeans, Parthians and Axumites for the wealthy Indo–Greco–Roman trade.[35] In the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade including the Ajuran Sultanate, which excelled in hydraulic engineering and fortress building,[36] the Sultanate of Adal, whose General Ahmed Gurey
Ahmed Gurey
was the first African commander in history to use cannon warfare on the continent during Adal's conquest of the Ethiopian Empire,[37] and the Geledi Sultanate, whose military dominance forced governors of the Omani empire north of the city of Lamu
Lamu
to pay tribute to the Somali Sultan Ahmed Yusuf.[38] In the late 19th century after the Berlin conference
Berlin conference
had ended, European empires sailed with their armies to the Horn of Africa. The imperial armies in Somalia
Somalia
alarmed the Dervish leader Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, who gathered Somali soldiers from across the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and began one of the longest anti-colonial wars known as the Somaliland Campaign. Southern Africa[edit] Main article: History of Southern Africa Further information: Kingdom of Mutapa

Great Zimbabwe: Tower in the Great Enclosure

Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century displacing and absorbing the original Khoisan
Khoisan
speakers. They slowly moved south, and the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan inhabitants. They reached the Fish River in today's Eastern Cape Province. Monomotapa
Monomotapa
was a medieval kingdom (c. 1250–1629), which existed between the Zambezi
Zambezi
and Limpopo rivers of Southern Africa
Southern Africa
in the territory of modern-day Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
and Mozambique. Its old capital was located at Great Zimbabwe. In 1487, Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
became the first European to reach the southernmost tip of Africa. In 1652, a victualling station was established at the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
by Jan van Riebeeck
Jan van Riebeeck
on behalf of the Dutch East India
India
Company. For most of the 17th and 18th centuries, the slowly expanding settlement was a Dutch possession. Great Britain seized the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
area in 1795, ostensibly to prevent it from falling into the hands of the French but also to use Cape Town
Cape Town
in particular as a stop on the route to Australia and India. It was later returned to the Dutch in 1803, but soon afterwards the Dutch East India
India
Company declared bankruptcy, and the British annexed the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
in 1806. The Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
was a Southern African tribal state in what is now KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
in southeastern South Africa. The small kingdom gained world fame during and after the Anglo-Zulu War. During the 1950s and early 1960s, most Sub-Saharan African nations achieved independence from colonial rule.[39] Southeast Africa[edit] Further information: Southeast Africa According to the theory of recent African origin of modern humans, the mainstream position held within the scientific community, all humans originate from either Southeast Africa
Africa
or the Horn of Africa.[40] During the first millennium CE, Nilotic
Nilotic
and Bantu-speaking peoples moved into the region, and the latter now account for three-quarters of Kenya's population.

The Tongoni Ruins
Tongoni Ruins
south of Tanga in Tanzania

On the coastal section of Southeast Africa, a mixed Bantu community developed through contact with Muslim
Muslim
Arab
Arab
and Persian traders, leading to the development of the mixed Arab, Persian and African Swahili City States.[41] The Swahili culture
Swahili culture
that emerged from these exchanges evinces many Arab
Arab
and Islamic influences not seen in traditional Bantu culture, as do the many Afro- Arab
Arab
members of the Bantu Swahili people. With its original speech community centered on the coastal parts of Tanzania
Tanzania
(particularly Zanzibar) and Kenya – a seaboard referred to as the Swahili Coast – the Bantu Swahili language
Swahili language
contains many Arabic
Arabic
loan-words as a consequence of these interactions.[42] The earliest Bantu inhabitants of the Southeast coast of Kenya
Kenya
and Tanzania
Tanzania
encountered by these later Arab
Arab
and Persian settlers have been variously identified with the trading settlements of Rhapta, Azania and Menouthias[43] referenced in early Greek and Chinese writings from 50 CE to 500 CE,[44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51] ultimately giving rise to the name for Tanzania.[52][53] These early writings perhaps document the first wave of Bantu settlers to reach Southeast Africa
Africa
during their migration.[54] Between the 14th and 15th centuries, large medieval Southeast African kingdoms and states emerged, such as the Buganda[55] and Karagwe[55] kingdoms of Uganda
Uganda
and Tanzania. During the early 1960s, the Southeast African nations achieved independence from colonial rule. Sudan[edit] Further information: History of Sudan

Sphinx
Sphinx
of the Nubian Emperor Taharqa

Nubia
Nubia
in present-day Northern Sudan
Sudan
and southernmost of Egypt, was referred to as "Aethiopia" ("land of the burnt face") by the Greeks.[56] Nubia
Nubia
at her greatest phase is considered Sub-Saharan Africa's oldest urban civilisation. Nubia
Nubia
was a major source of gold for the ancient world. Nubians built famous structures and numerous pyramids. Sudan, the site of ancient Nubia, has more pyramids than anywhere in the world.[57] Western Africa[edit] Main article: History of West Africa Further information: Ghana
Ghana
Empire, Mali
Mali
Empire, Songhay Empire, Kingdom of Benin, and Kingdom of Nri

Nok sculpture, terracotta, Louvre

The Bantu expansion
Bantu expansion
is a major migration movement originating in West Africa
Africa
around 2500 BCE, reaching East and Central Africa
Africa
by 1000 BCE and Southern Africa
Southern Africa
by the early centuries CE. The Djenné-Djenno
Djenné-Djenno
city-state flourished from 250 BCE to 900 CE and was influential to the development of the Ghana
Ghana
Empire. The Nok culture
Nok culture
is known from a type of terracotta figure found in Nigeria, dating to between 500 BCE and 200 CE. There were a number of medieval empires of the southern Sahara
Sahara
and the Sahel, based on trans-Saharan trade, including the Ghana Empire
Ghana Empire
and the Mali
Mali
Empire, Songhai Empire, the Kanem Empire
Kanem Empire
and the subsequent Bornu Empire.[58] They built stone structures like in Tichit, but mainly constructed in adobe. The Great Mosque of Djenne
Great Mosque of Djenne
is most reflective of Sahelian architecture and is the largest adobe building in the world. In the forest zone, several states and empires emerged. The Ashanti Empire arose in the 16th century in modern-day Ghana
Ghana
and Ivory Coast. The Kingdom of Nri, was established by the Igbo in the 11th century. Nri was famous for having a priest-king who wielded no military power. Nri was a rare African state which was a haven for freed slaves and outcasts who sought refuge in their territory. Other major states included the kingdoms of Ifẹ and Oyo in the western block of Nigeria which became prominent about 700–900 and 1400 respectively, and center of Yoruba culture. The Yoruba's built massive mud walls around their cities, the most famous being Sungbo's Eredo. Another prominent kingdom in southwestern Nigeria
Nigeria
was the Kingdom of Benin
Kingdom of Benin
9th–11th century whose power lasted between the 15th and 19th century and was one of the greatest Empires of African history documented all over the world. Their dominance reached as far as the well-known city of Eko which was named Lagos
Lagos
by the Portuguese traders and other early European settlers. The Edo speaking people of Benin
Benin
are known for their famous bronze casting and rich coral, wealth, ancient science and technology and the Walls of Benin, which is the largest man-made structure in the world. In the 18th century, the Oyo and the Aro confederacy
Aro confederacy
were responsible for most of the slaves exported from Nigeria, with Great Britain, France and Portugal shipping the majority of the slaves.[59] Following the Napoleonic Wars, the British expanded trade with the Nigerian interior. In 1885, British claims to a West African sphere of influence received international recognition, and in the following year the Royal Niger
Niger
Company was chartered under the leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie. In 1900, the company's territory came under the control of the British Government, which moved to consolidate its hold over the area of modern Nigeria. On 1 January 1901, Nigeria
Nigeria
became a British protectorate, part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time. By 1960, most of the region achieved independence from colonial rule. Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Africa Population[edit]

Population density
Population density
in Africa, 2006

Fertility rates and life expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[60], the population of sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
was 995,694,907 in 2016. The current growth rate is 2.3%. The UN predicts for the region a population between 1.5 and 2 billion by 2050[61] with a population density of 80 per km2 compared to 170 for Western Europe, 140 for Asia and 30 for the Americas. Sub-Saharan African countries top the list of countries and territories by fertility rate with 40 of the highest 50, all with TFR greater than 4 in 2008. All are above the world average except South Africa
Africa
and Seychelles.[62] More than 40% of the population in sub-Saharan countries is younger than 15 years old, as well as in Sudan, with the exception of South Africa.[63]

Country Population Area (km2) Literacy (M/F)[64] GDP per Capita[64] Trans (Rank/Score)[65] Life (Exp.)[64] HDI EODBR/SAB[66] PFI (RANK/MARK)

 Angola 18,498,000 1,246,700 82.9%/54.2% 6000 168/2 42.4 0.486 172/171 132/58,43

 Burundi 8,988,091 27,830 67.3%/52.2% 101 168/1.8 49 0.316 176/130 103/29,00

 Democratic Republic of the Congo 68,692,542 2,345,410 80.9%/54.1% 91 162/11.9 46.1 0.286 182/152 146/53,50

 Cameroon 18,879,301 475,440 77%/59.8% 687 146/2.2 50.3 0.482 171/174 109/30,50

 Central African Republic 4,511,488 622,984 64.8%/33.5% 22 158/2.8 44.4 0.343 183/159 80/17,75

 Chad 10,329,208 1,284,000 40.8%/12.8% 266 175/1.6 50.6 0.328 178/182 132/44,50

 Republic of the Congo 3,700,000 342,000 90.5%/ 79.0% 1,145 162/1.9 54.8 0.533 N/A 116/34,25

 Equatorial Guinea 633,441 28,051 93.4%/80.3% 7,470 168/1.8 51.1 0.537 170/178 158/65,50

 Gabon 1,514,993 267,667 88.5%/79.7% 4,263 106/2.9 56.7 0.674 158/152 129/43,50

 Kenya 39,002,772 582,650 77.7%/70.2 976 146/2.2 57.8 0.519 95/124 96/25,00

 Nigeria 174,507,539 923,768 84.4%/72.7%[67] 6,204 136/27 57 0.504 131/120 112/34.24

 Rwanda 10,473,282 26,338 71.4%/59.8% 263 89/3.3 46.8 0.429 67/11 157/64,67

  São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe 212,679 1,001 92.2%/77.9% N/A 111/2.8 65.2 0.509 180/140 NA

 Tanzania 44,928,923 945,087 77.5%/62.2% 339 126/2.6 51.9 0.466 131/120 NA/15,50

 Uganda 32,369,558 236,040 76.8%/57.7 274 130/2.5 50.7 0.446 112/129 86/21,50

 Sudan 31,894,000 1,886,068 79.6%/60.8% 2,500[68] 176/1.5 62.57[69] 0.408 154/118 148/54,00

 South Sudan 8,260,490 619,745

 Djibouti 516,055 23,000 N/A 817 111/2.8 54.5 0.430 163/177 110/31,00

 Eritrea 5,647,168 121,320 N/A 160 126/2.6 57.3 0.349 175/181 175/115,50

 Ethiopia 85,237,338 1,127,127 50%/28.8% 161 120/2.7 52.5 0.363 107/93 140/49,00

 Somalia 9,832,017 637,657 N/A N/A 180/1.1 47.7 N/A N/A 164/77,50

 Botswana 1,990,876 600,370 80.4%/81.8% 8,532 37/5.6 49.8 0.633 45/83 62/15,50

 Comoros 752,438 2,170 N/A 382 143/2.3 63.2 0.433 162/168 82/19,00

 Lesotho 2,130,819 30,355 73.7%/90.3% 528 89/3.3 42.9 0.450 130/131 99/27,50

 Madagascar 19,625,000 587,041 76.5%/65.3% 238 99/3.0 59 0.480 134/12 134/45,83

 Malawi 14,268,711 118,480 N/A 145 89/3.3 47.6 0.400 132/128 62/15,50

 Mauritius 1,284,264 2,040 88.2%/80.5% 4,522 42/5.4 73.2 0.728 17/10 51/14,00

 Mozambique 21,669,278 801,590 N/A 330 130/2.5 42.5 0.322 135/96 82/19,00

 Namibia 2,108,665 825,418 86.8%/83.6% 2166 56/4.5 52.5 0.625 66/123 35/9,00

 Seychelles 87,476 455 91.4%/92.3% 7,005 54/4.8 72.2 0.773 111/81 72/16,00

 South Africa 52,981,991 1,219,912 N/A 3,562 55/4.7 50.7 0.619 34/67 33/8,50

 Swaziland 1,123,913 17,363 80.9%/78.3% 1,297 79/3.6 40.8 0.522 115/158 144/52,50

 Zambia 11,862,740 752,614 N/A 371 99/3.0 41.7 0.430 90/94 97/26,75

 Zimbabwe 11,392,629 390,580 92.7%/86.2% N/A 146/2.2 42.7 0.376 159/155 136/46,50

 Benin 8,791,832 112,620 47.9%/42.3% 323 106/2.9 56.2 0.427 172/155 97/26,75

 Mali 12,666,987 1,240,000 32.7%/15.9% 290 111/2.8 53.8 0.359 156/139 38/8,00

 Burkina Faso 15,730,977 274,200 25.3% 1,360 79/3.6 51 0.331 150/116 N/A

 Cape Verde 499,000 322,462

 Ivory Coast 20,617,068 322,463

 Gambia 1,782,893 11,295

 Ghana 24,200,000 238,535

 Guinea 10,057,975 245,857

 Guinea-Bissau 1,647,000 36,125

 Liberia 4,128,572 111,369

 Mauritania 3,359,185 1,030,700

 Niger 17,129,076 1,267,000

 Senegal 12,855,153 196,712

 Sierra Leone 6,190,280 71,740

 Togo 7,154,237 56,785

GDP per Capita (2006 in dollars (US$)), Life (Exp.) (Life Expectancy 2006), Literacy (Male/Female 2006), Trans (Transparency 2009), HDI (Human Development Index), EODBR (Ease of Doing Business Rank June 2008 through May 2009), SAB (Starting a Business June 2008 through May 2009), PFI (Press Freedom Index 2009) Languages and ethnic groups[edit] Further information: Languages of Africa
Africa
and List of African ethnic groups

Map showing the traditional language families spoken in Africa:   Afroasiatic   Austronesian   Indo-European   Khoisan   Niger-Congo   Nilo-Saharan

A San man (Khoisan)

An Afrikaner
Afrikaner
family (Indo-European)

Saho women (Afroasiatic)

Maasai women and children (Nilo-Saharan)

Yoruba drummers (Niger-Congo)

Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
contains over 1,000 languages, which is around 1/6 of the world's total.[70] Afroasiatic[edit] With the exception of the extinct Sumerian (a language isolate) of Mesopotamia, Afro-Asiatic
Afro-Asiatic
has the oldest documented history of any language family in the world. Egyptian was recorded as early as 3200 BCE. The Semitic branch was recorded as early as 2900 BCE in the form of the Akkadian language
Akkadian language
of Mesopotamia ( Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia) and circa 2500 BCE in the form of the Eblaite language
Eblaite language
of north eastern Syria.[71] The distribution of the Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
within Africa
Africa
is principally concentrated in North Africa
Africa
and the Horn of Africa. Languages belonging to the family's Berber branch are mainly spoken in the north, with its speech area extending into the Sahel
Sahel
(northern Mauritania, northern Mali, northern Niger).[72][73] The Cushitic branch of Afroasiatic is centered in the Horn, and is also spoken in the Nile
Nile
Valley and parts of the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
region. Additionally, the Semitic branch of the family, in the form of Arabic, is widely spoken in the parts of Africa
Africa
that are within the Arab world. South Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are also spoken in parts of the Horn of Africa
Africa
(Ethiopia, Eritrea). The Chadic branch is distributed in Central and West Africa.[74] Hausa, its most widely spoken language, serves as a lingua franca in West Africa
Africa
(Niger, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Cameroon, and Chad).[75] Khoisan[edit] The several families lumped under the term Khoi-San
Khoi-San
include languages indigenous to Southern Africa
Southern Africa
and Tanzania, though some, such as the Khoi languages, appear to have moved to their current locations not long before the Bantu expansion.[76] In Southern Africa, their speakers are the Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
and San (Bushmen), in Southeast Africa, the Sandawe and Hadza. Niger–Congo[edit] The Niger–Congo
Niger–Congo
family is the largest in the world in terms of the number of languages (1,436) it contains.[77] The vast majority of languages of this family are tonal such as Yoruba, and Igbo, However, others such as Fulani and Wolof are not. A major branch of Niger–Congo languages
Niger–Congo languages
is the Bantu family, which covers a greater geographic area than the rest of the family put together. Bantu speakers represent the majority of inhabitants in southern, central and southeastern Africa, though San, Pygmy, and Nilotic
Nilotic
groups, respectively, can also be found in those regions. Bantu-speakers can also be found in parts of Central Africa
Africa
such as the Gabon, Equatorial Guinea
Guinea
and southern Cameroon. Swahili, a Bantu language with many Arabic, Persian and other Middle Eastern and South Asian loan words, developed as a lingua franca for trade between the different peoples in southeastern Africa. In the Kalahari Desert
Kalahari Desert
of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as Bushmen (also "San", closely related to, but distinct from "Hottentots") have long been present. The San evince unique physical traits, and are the indigenous people of southern Africa. Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous peoples of Central Africa. Nilo-Saharan[edit] The Nilo-Saharan languages
Nilo-Saharan languages
are concentrated in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile
Nile
rivers of Central Africa
Africa
and Southeast Africa. They are principally spoken by Nilotic
Nilotic
peoples and are also spoken in Sudan among the Fur, Masalit, Nubian and Zaghawa peoples and in West and Central Africa
Africa
among the Songhai, Zarma and Kanuri. The Old Nubian language is also a member of this family. Major languages of Africa
Africa
by region, family and number of primary language speakers in millions:

Central Africa

Niger–Congo, Bantu

Lingala[78] Kinyarwanda: 12[79] Kongo: 5+[78][80][81] Tshiluba[78] Kirundi[82]

Nilo-Saharan

Nubian: 5+[83] Fur: 5+[84] Zaghawa[85] Masalit

Niger–Congo

Kordofanian languages

Nuba[86]

Horn of Africa

Afro-Asiatic

Semitic

Amharic: 20+ Tigrinya: 5

Cushitic

Somali: 10–15 Oromo: 30–35

Nilo-Saharan: <1[87][88]

Gumuz Anuak Kunama Nara

Niger–Congo: <1[89][90]

Zigula

Southeast Africa

Niger–Congo, Bantu:

Swahili: 5–10 Gikuyu: 9[91] Ganda: 6[92] Luhya: 6[91]

Austronesian

Malagasy: 20+[93]

Niger-Congo, Ubangian

Gbaya: 2[94] Banda: 1–2[94] Zande[95]

Nilo-Saharan

Kanuri: 10[96][97][98] Luo: 5[91][92] Sara: 3–4[94][98] Kalenjin: 5[91] Dinka[95] Nuer[95] Shilluk[95] Maasai: 1–2[99][100]

Southern Africa

Niger–Congo, Bantu

Zulu: 10[101] Xhosa: 8[101] Shona: 7 Sotho: 5 Tswana: 4[101][102] Umbundu: 4[80] Northern Sotho: 4[101] Chichewa: 8[103][104] Makua: 8[105]

Indo-European

Germanic

Afrikaans: 7–10

Romance

Portuguese: 14[106]

West Africa

Niger–Congo

Benue–Congo

Ibibio (Nigeria): 7[96]

Volta–Niger

Igbo (Nigeria): 30–35[96] Yoruba: 40[96]

Kwa:

Akan (Ghana, Ivory Coast): 20–25

Gur

More: 5

Senegambian

Fula (West Africa): 40[96][97][107][108][109] Wolof: 8[107][108]

Afro-Asiatic

Chadic

Hausa: 50[96][97]

Nilo-Saharan

Saharan

Kanuri: 10[97][98] Songhai: 5[97][110] Zarma: 5[97][110]

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Africa

The Athlone Power Station
Athlone Power Station
in Cape Town, South Africa

In the mid-2010s, private capital flows to Sub-Saharan Africa – primarily from the BRICs, private-sector investment portfolios, and remittances – began to exceed official development assistance.[111] As of 2011, Africa
Africa
is one of the fastest developing regions in the world. Six of the world's ten fastest-growing economies over the previous decade were situated below the Sahara, with the remaining four in East and Central Asia. Between 2011 and 2015, the economic growth rate of the average nation in Africa
Africa
is expected to surpass that of the average nation in Asia. Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
is by then projected to contribute seven out of the ten fastest growing economies in the world.[112] According to the World Bank, the economic growth rate in the region had risen to 4.7% in 2013, with a rate of 5.2% forecasted for 2014. This continued rise was attributed to increasing investment in infrastructure and resources as well as steady expenditure per household.[113] Energy and power[edit] Main article: Mineral industry of Africa

Oil production by country (with other key actors of African or oil economy)

Rank Area bb/day Year Like...

_ W: World 85540000 2007 est.

01 E: Russia 9980000 2007 est.

02 Ar: Saudi Arb 9200000 2008 est.

04 As: Libya 4725000 2008 est. Iran

10 Af: Nigeria/Africa 2352000 2011 est. Norway

15 Af: Algeria 2173000 2007 est.

16 Af: Angola 1910000 2008 est.

17 Af: Egypt 1845000 2007 est.

27 Af: Tunisia 664000 2007 est. Australia

31 Af: Sudan 466100 2007 est. Ecuador

33 Af: Eq.Guinea 368500 2007 est. Vietnam

38 Af: DR Congo 261000 2008 est.

39 Af: Gabon 243900 2007 est.

40 Af: Sth Africa 199100 2007 est.

45 Af: Chad 156000 2008 est. Germany

53 Af: Cameroon 87400 2008 est. France

56 E: France 71400 2007

60 Af: Ivory Coast 54400 2008 est.

_ Af: Africa 10780400 2011 Russia

Source: CIA.gov, World Facts Book
Book
> Oil exporters.

As of 2009[update], fifty percent of Africa
Africa
is rural with no access to electricity. Africa
Africa
generates 47 GW of electricity, less than 0.6% of the global market share. Many countries are affected by power shortages.[114] Because of rising prices in commodities such as coal and oil, thermal sources of energy are proving to be too expensive for power generation. Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
is expected to build additional hydropower generation capacity of at least 20,165 MW by 2014. The region has the potential to generate 1,750 TWh of energy, of which only 7% has been explored. The failure to exploit its full energy potential is largely due to significant underinvestment, as at least four times as much (approximately $23 billion a year) and what is currently spent is invested in operating high cost power systems and not on expanding the infrastructure.[115] African governments are taking advantage of the readily available water resources to broaden their energy mix. Hydro Turbine Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
generated revenues of $120.0 million in 2007 and is estimated to reach $425.0 million.[when?] Asian countries, notably China, India, and Japan, are playing an active role in power projects across the African continent. The majority of these power projects are hydro-based because of China's vast experience in the construction of hydro-power projects and part of the Energy & Power Growth Partnership Services programme.[116] With electrification numbers, Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
with access to the Sahara
Sahara
and being in the tropical zones has massive potential for solar photovoltaic electrical potential.[117] Six hundred million people could be served with electricity based on its photovoltaic potential.[118] China is promising to train 10,000 technicians from Africa
Africa
and other developing countries in the use of solar energy technologies over the next five years. Training African technicians to use solar power is part of the China- Africa
Africa
science and technology cooperation agreement signed by Chinese science minister Xu Guanhua and African counterparts during premier Wen Jiabao's visit to Ethiopia in December 2003.[119] The New Partnership for Africa's Development
New Partnership for Africa's Development
(NEPAD) is developing an integrated, continent-wide energy strategy. This has been funded by, amongst others, the African Development Bank
African Development Bank
(AfDB) and the EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund. These projects must be sustainable, involve a cross-border dimension and/or have a regional impact, involve public and private capital, contribute to poverty alleviation and economic development, involve at least one country in Sub-Saharan Africa.[115] Media[edit] Radio is the major source of information in Sub-Saharan Africa.[120] Average coverage stands at more than a third of the population. Countries such as Gabon, Seychelles, and South Africa
Africa
boast almost 100% penetration. Only five countries – Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia – still have a penetration of less than 10%. Broadband penetration outside of South Africa
Africa
has been limited where it is exorbitantly expensive.[121][122] Access to the internet via cell phones is on the rise.[123] Television is the second major source of information.[120] Because of power shortages, the spread of television viewing has been limited. Eight percent have television, a total of 62 million. But those in the television industry view the region as an untapped green market. Digital television and pay for service are on the rise.[124] Infrastructure[edit] See also: Water supply
Water supply
and sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Skyline of Libreville, Gabon

According to researchers at the Overseas Development Institute, the lack of infrastructure in many developing countries represents one of the most significant limitations to economic growth and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs).[115][125][126] Less than 40% of rural Africans live within two kilometers of an all-season road, the lowest level of rural accessibility in the developing world. Spending on roads averages just below 2% of GDP with varying degree among countries. This compares with 1% of GDP that is typical in industrialised countries, and 2–3% of GDP found in fast-growing emerging economies. Although the level of effort is high relative to the size of Africa's economies, it remains little in absolute terms, with low-income countries spending an average of about US$7 per capita per year.[127] Infrastructure investments and maintenance can be very expensive, especially in such as areas as landlocked, rural and sparsely populated countries in Africa.[115]

Downtown Luanda, Angola

Infrastructure investments contributed to Africa's growth, and increased investment is necessary to maintain growth and tackle poverty.[115][125][126] The returns to investment in infrastructure are very significant, with on average 30–40% returns for telecommunications (ICT) investments, over 40% for electricity generation and 80% for roads.[115] In Africa, it is argued that in order to meet the MDGs by 2015 infrastructure investments would need to reach about 15% of GDP (around $93 billion a year).[115] Currently, the source of financing varies significantly across sectors.[115] Some sectors are dominated by state spending, others by overseas development aid (ODA) and yet others by private investors.[115] In Sub-Saharan Africa, the state spends around $9.4 billion out of a total of $24.9 billion.[115] In irrigation, SSA states represent almost all spending; in transport and energy a majority of investment is state spending; in ICT and water supply and sanitation, the private sector represents the majority of capital expenditure.[115] Overall, aid, the private sector and non- OECD
OECD
financiers between them exceed state spending.[115] The private sector spending alone equals state capital expenditure, though the majority is focused on ICT infrastructure investments.[115] External financing increased from $7 billion (2002) to $27 billion (2009). China, in particular, has emerged as an important investor.[115] Oil and minerals[edit]

Phenakite
Phenakite
from the Jos Plateau, Plateau State, Nigeria

The region is a major exporter to the world of gold, uranium, chrome, vanadium, antimony, coltan, bauxite, iron ore, copper and manganese. South Africa
Africa
is a major exporter of manganese[128] as well as Chromium. A 2001 estimate is that 42% of the world's reserves of chromium may be found in South Africa.[129] South Africa
Africa
is the largest producer of platinum, with 80% of the total world's annual mine production and 88% of the world's platinum reserve.[130] Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
produces 33% of the world's bauxite with Guinea
Guinea
as the major supplier.[131] Zambia
Zambia
is a major producer of copper.[132] Democratic Republic of Congo
Democratic Republic of Congo
is a major source of coltan. Production from Congo is very small but has 80% of proven reserves.[133] Sub-saharan Africa
Africa
is a major producer of gold, producing up to 30% of global production. Major suppliers are South Africa, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Guinea, and Mali. South Africa
Africa
had been first in the world in terms of gold production since 1905, but in 2007 it moved to second place, according to GFMS, the precious metals consultancy.[134] Uranium
Uranium
is major commodity from the region. Significant suppliers are Niger, Namibia, and South Africa. Namibia
Namibia
was the number one supplier from Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
in 2008.[135] The region produces 49% of the world's diamonds. By 2015, it is estimated that 25% of North American oil will be from Sub-Saharan Africa, ahead of the Middle East. Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
has been the focus of an intense race for oil by the West, China, India, and other emerging economies, even though it holds only 10% of proven oil reserves, less than the Middle East. This race has been referred to as the second Scramble for Africa. All reasons for this global scramble come from the reserves' economic benefits. Transportation cost is low and no pipelines have to be laid as in Central Asia. Almost all reserves are offshore, so political turmoil within the host country will not directly interfere with operations. Sub-Saharan oil is viscous, with a very low sulfur content. This quickens the refining process and effectively reduces costs. New sources of oil are being located in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
more frequently than anywhere else. Of all new sources of oil, ⅓ are in Sub-Saharan Africa.[136] Agriculture[edit]

Agricultural fields in Rwanda's Eastern Province

Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
has more variety of grains than anywhere in the world. Between 13,000 and 11,000 BCE wild grains began to be collected as a source of food in the cataract region of the Nile, south of Egypt. The collecting of wild grains as source of food spread to Syria, parts of Turkey, and Iran by the eleventh millennium BCE. By the tenth and ninth millennia southwest Asians domesticated their wild grains, wheat, and barley after the notion of collecting wild grains spread from the Nile.[137] Numerous crops have been domesticated in the region and spread to other parts of the world. These crops included sorghum, castor beans, coffee, cotton[138] okra, black-eyed peas, watermelon, gourd, and pearl millet. Other domesticated crops included teff, enset, African rice, yams, kola nuts, oil palm, and raffia palm.[137][139] Domesticated animals include the guinea fowl and the donkey.

The Naute Fruit Farm at the Naute Dam
Naute Dam
outside of Keetmanshoop, Namibia

Agriculture represents 20% to 30% of GDP and 50% of exports. In some cases, 60% to 90% of the labor force are employed in agriculture.[140] Most agricultural activity is subsistence farming. This has made agricultural activity vulnerable to climate change and global warming. Biotechnology has been advocated to create high yield, pest and environmentally resistant crops in the hands of small farmers. The Bill and Melinda Gates foundation is a strong advocate and donor to this cause. Biotechnology and GM crops have met resistance both by natives and environmental groups.[141] Cash crops include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar, and tobacco.[70] The OECD
OECD
says Africa
Africa
has the potential to become an agricultural superbloc if it can unlock the wealth of the savannahs by allowing farmers to use their land as collateral for credit.[142] There is such international interest in Sub-Saharan agriculture, that the World Bank increased its financing of African agricultural programs to $1.3 billion in the 2011 fiscal year.[143] Recently, there has been a trend to purchase large tracts of land in Sub- Sahara
Sahara
for agricultural use by developing countries.[125][126] Early in 2009, George Soros highlighted a new farmland buying frenzy caused by growing population, scarce water supplies and climate change. Chinese interests bought up large swathes of Senegal
Senegal
to supply it with sesame. Aggressive moves by China, South Korea and Gulf states to buy vast tracts of agricultural land in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
could soon be limited by a new global international protocol.[144] Education[edit]

The University of Botswana's Earth
Earth
Science building in Gaborone, Botswana

Forty percent of African scientists live in OECD
OECD
countries, predominantly in Europe, the United States and Canada.[145] This has been described as an African brain drain. According to Naledi Pandor, the South African Minister of Science and Technology, even with the drain enrollments in Sub-Saharan African universities tripled between 1991 and 2005, expanding at an annual rate of 8.7%, which is one of the highest regional growth rates in the world. In the last 10 to 15 years interest in pursuing university level degrees abroad has increased. In some OECD
OECD
countries, like the United States, Sub-Saharan Africans are the most educated immigrant group.[145]

The University of Antananarivo
University of Antananarivo
in Antananarivo, Madagascar

According to the CIA, low global literacy rates are concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa, West Asia
West Asia
and South Asia. However, the literacy rates in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
vary significantly between countries. The highest registered literacy rate in the region is in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(90.7%; 2003 est.), while the lowest literacy rate is in South Sudan (27%).[146] Sub-Saharan African countries spent an average of 0.3% of their GDP on science and technology on in 2007. This represents an increase from US$1.8 billion in 2002 to US$2.8 billion in 2007, a 50% increase in spending.[147][148]

Health care[edit] Further information: HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
in Africa

The Komfo Anokye Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana

In 1987, the Bamako Initiative conference organised by the World Health Organization was held in Bamako, the capital of Mali, and helped reshape the health policy of Sub-Saharan Africa.[149] The new strategy dramatically increased accessibility through community-based healthcare reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost.[150][151] In 2011, Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
was home to 69% of all people living with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
worldwide.[152] In response, a number of initiatives have been launched to educate the public on HIV/AIDS. Among these are combination prevention programmes, considered to be the most effective initiative, the abstinence, be faithful, use a condom campaign, and the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation's outreach programs.[153] According to a 2013 special report issued by the Joint United Nations
United Nations
Programme on HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
(UNAIDS), the number of HIV positive people in Africa receiving anti-retroviral treatment in 2012 was over seven times the number receiving treatment in 2005, with an almost 1 million added in the last year alone.[154][155]:15 The number of AIDS-related deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
in 2011 was 33 percent less than the number in 2005.[156] The number of new HIV infections in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
in 2011 was 25 percent less than the number in 2001.[156]

Estimated prevalence in % of HIV among young adults (15–49) per country as of 2011.[157]

Malaria
Malaria
is an endemic illness in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of malaria cases and deaths worldwide occur.[158] Routine immunization has been introduced in order to prevent measles.[159] Onchocerciasis
Onchocerciasis
("river blindness"), a common cause of blindness, is also endemic to parts of the region. More than 99% of people affected by the illness worldwide live in 31 countries therein.[160] In response, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis
Onchocerciasis
Control (APOC) was launched in 1995 with the aim of controlling the disease.[160] Maternal mortality
Maternal mortality
is another challenge, with more than half of maternal deaths in the world occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa.[161] However, there has generally been progress here as well, as a number of countries in the region have halved their levels of maternal mortality since 1990.[161] Additionally, the African Union
African Union
in July 2003 ratified the Maputo
Maputo
Protocol, which pledges to prohibit female genital mutilation (FGM).[162] National health systems vary between countries. In Ghana, most health care is provided by the government and largely administered by the Ministry of Health and Ghana
Ghana
Health Services. The healthcare system has five levels of providers: health posts which are first level primary care for rural areas, health centers and clinics, district hospitals, regional hospitals and tertiary hospitals. These programs are funded by the government of Ghana, financial credits, Internally Generated Fund (IGF), and Donors-pooled Health Fund.[163] Religion[edit] Further information: Religion in Africa, Christianity
Christianity
in Africa, Islam in Africa, Hinduism in Africa, and African traditional religion

The Bujumbura
Bujumbura
Cathedral in Bujumbura, Burundi

Mosque in Nouakchott, Mauritania

African countries below the Sahara
Sahara
are largely Christian, while those above the Sahara, in North Africa, are predominantly Islamic. There are also Muslim
Muslim
majorities in parts of the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
(Djibouti and Somalia) and in the Sahel
Sahel
and Sudan
Sudan
regions (the Gambia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Mali, Niger
Niger
and Senegal), as well as significant Muslim communities in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea, and on the Swahili Coast ( Tanzania
Tanzania
and Kenya).[164] Mauritius
Mauritius
is the only country in Africa
Africa
to have a Hindu
Hindu
majority. Traditional African religions can be broken down into linguistic cultural groups, with common themes. Among Niger–Congo-speakers is a belief in a creator God; ancestor spirits; territorial spirits; evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits; priest of territorial spirits. New world religions such as Santería, Vodun, and Candomblé, would be derived from this world view. Among Nilo-Saharan speakers is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man. Among Afro-Asiatic-speakers is henotheism, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits. The Semitic Abrahamic religion
Abrahamic religion
of Judaism
Judaism
is comparable to the latter world view.[165] San religion is non-theistic but a belief in a Spirit or Power of existence which can be tapped in a trance-dance; trance-healers.[166] Traditional religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
often display complex ontology, cosmology and metaphysics. Mythologies, for example, demonstrated the difficulty fathers of creation had in bringing about order from chaos. Order is what is right and natural and any deviation is chaos. Cosmology
Cosmology
and ontology is also neither simple or linear. It defines duality, the material and immaterial, male and female, heaven and earth. Common principles of being and becoming are widespread: Among the Dogon, the principle of Amma (being) and Nummo (becoming), and among the Bambara, Pemba (being) and Faro (becoming).[167]

Ifá
Ifá
divination and its four digit binary code

West Africa

Akan mythology Ashanti mythology
Ashanti mythology
(Ghana) Dahomey (Fon) mythology Efik mythology (Nigeria, Cameroon) Igbo mythology
Igbo mythology
(Nigeria, Cameroon) Serer religion
Serer religion
and Serer creation myth
Serer creation myth
(Senegal, Gambia
Gambia
and Mauritania) Yoruba mythology
Yoruba mythology
(Nigeria, Benin)

Central Africa

Dinka mythology (South Sudan) Lotuko mythology (South Sudan) Bushongo mythology (Congo) Bambuti (Pygmy) mythology (Congo) Lugbara mythology (Congo)

Southeast Africa

Akamba mythology
Akamba mythology
(eastern Kenya) Masai mythology (Kenya, Tanzania)

Southern Africa

Khoisan
Khoisan
religion Lozi mythology (Zambia) Tumbuka mythology (Malawi) Zulu mythology (South Africa)

Sub-Saharan traditional divination systems display great sophistication. For example, the bamana sand divination uses well established symbolic codes that can be reproduced using four bits or marks. A binary system of one or two marks are combined. Random outcomes are generated using a fractal recursive process. It is analogous to a digital circuit but can be reproduced on any surface with one or two marks. This system is widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa.[168][page needed] Culture[edit] Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
is diverse, with many communities, villages and cities, each with their own beliefs and traditions. Traditional African Societies are communal, they believe that the needs of the many far out weigh an individual needs and achievements. Basically, an individual's keep must be shared with other extended family members. Extended families are made up of various individuals and families who have shared responsibilities within the community. This extended family is one of the core aspects of every African community. “An African will refer to an older person as auntie or uncle. Siblings of parents will be called father or mother rather than uncle and aunt. Cousins will be called brother or sister”. This system can be very difficult for outsiders to understand; however, it is no less important. “Also reflecting their communal ethic, Africans are reluctant to stand out in a crowd or to appear different from their neighbors or colleagues, a result of social pressure to avoid offense to group standards and traditions." Women also have a very important role in African culture because they take care of the house and children. Traditionally “men do the heavy work of clearing and plowing the land, women sow the seeds, tend the fields, harvest the crops, haul the water, and bear the major burden for growing the family’s food”. Despite their work in the fields women are expected to be subservient to men in some African cultures. “When young women migrate to cities, this imbalance between the sexes, as well as financial need, often causes young women of lower economic status, who lack education and job training, to have sexual relationships with older men who are established in their work or profession and can afford to support a girlfriend or two”.[169] Music[edit] Further information: Music of Africa
Africa
and African popular music

A traditional polyrhythmic kalimba

Traditional Sub-Saharan African music is as diverse as the region's various populations. The common perception of Sub-Saharan African music is that it is rhythmic music centered around the drums. It is partially true. A large part of Sub-Saharan music, mainly among speakers of Niger–Congo
Niger–Congo
and Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
languages, is rhythmic and centered around the drum. Sub-Saharan music is polyrhythmic, usually consisting of multiple rhythms in one composition. Dance involves moving multiple body parts. These aspect of Sub-Saharan music has been transferred to the new world by enslaved Sub-Saharan Africans and can be seen in its influence on music forms as Samba, Jazz, Rhythm and Blues, Rock & Roll, Salsa, Reggae
Reggae
and Rap
Rap
music.[170] But Sub-Saharan music involves a lot of music with strings, horns, and very little poly-rhythms. Music from the eastern sahel and along the nile, among the Nilo-Saharan, made extensive use of strings and horns in ancient times. Among the Afro-Asiatics, we see extensive use of string instruments. Dancing involve swaying body movements and footwork. Among the San is extensive use of string instruments with emphasis on footwork.[171] Modern Sub-Saharan African music has been influence by music from the New World (Jazz, Salsa, Rhythm and Blues
Rhythm and Blues
etc.) vice versa being influenced by enslaved Sub-Saharan Africans. Popular styles are Mbalax in Senegal
Senegal
and Gambia, Highlife
Highlife
in Ghana, Zoblazo in Ivory Coast, Makossa in Cameroon, Soukous in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kizomba
Kizomba
in Angola, and Mbaqanga in South Africa. New World styles like Salsa, R&B/Rap, Reggae, and Zouk also have widespread popularity. Art[edit] Further information: African art

Two Bambara Chiwara
Chiwara
c. late 19th early 20th centuries. Female (left) and male Vertical styles.

The oldest abstract art in the world is a shell necklace, dated to 82,000 years in the Cave of Pigeons in Taforalt, eastern Morocco.[172] The second oldest abstract form of art and the oldest rock art is found in the Blombos Cave
Blombos Cave
at the Cape in South Africa, dated 77,000 years.[173] Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
has some of the oldest and most varied style of rock art in the world.[174] Although Sub-Saharan African art
African art
is very diverse there are some common themes. One is the use of the human figure. Second, there is a preference for sculpture. Sub-Saharan African art
African art
is meant to be experienced in three dimensions, not two. A house is meant to be experienced from all angles. Third, art is meant to be performed. Sub-Saharan Africans have specific name for masks. The name incorporates the sculpture, the dance, and the spirit that incorporates the mask. The name denotes all three elements. Fourth, art that serves a practical function, utilitarian. The artist and craftsman are not separate. A sculpture shaped like a hand can be used as a stool. Fifth, the use of fractals or non-linear scaling. The shape of the whole is the shape of the parts at different scales. Before the discovery of fractal geometry], Leopold Sedar Senghor, Senegal's first president, referred to this as "dynamic symmetry." William Fagg, the British art historian, compared it to the logarithmic mapping of natural growth by biologist D’Arcy Thompson. Lastly, Sub-Saharan African art
African art
is visually abstract, instead of naturalistic. Sub-Saharan African art
African art
represents spiritual notions, social norms, ideas, values, etc. An artist might exaggerated the head of a sculpture in relations to the body not because he does not know anatomy but because he wants to illustrate that the head is the seat of knowledge and wisdom. The visual abstraction of African art
African art
was very influential in the works of modernist artist like Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, and Jacques Lipchitz.[175][176] Cuisine[edit] Further information: African cuisine

A plate of fufu accompanied with peanut soup

Sub-Saharan African cuisine
African cuisine
like everything about Africa
Africa
is very diverse. A lot of regional overlapping occurs, but there are dominant elements region by region. West African cuisine
African cuisine
can be described as starchy, flavorfully spicey. Dishes include fufu, kenkey, couscous, garri, foutou, and banku. Ingredients are of native starchy tubers, yams, cocoyams, and cassava. Grains include millet, sorghum, and rice, usually in the sahel, are incorporated. Oils include palm oil and shea butter(sahel). One finds recipes that mixes fish and meat. Beverages are palm wine(sweet or sour) and millet beer. Roasting, baking, boiling, frying, mashing, and spicing are all cooking techniques.

Ugali
Ugali
and cabbage

Southeast African cuisine
African cuisine
especially those of the Swahilis reflects its Islamic, geographical Indian Ocean
Ocean
cultural links. Dishes include ugali, sukumi wiki, and halva. Spices such as curry, saffron, cloves, cinnamon, pomegranate juice, cardamon, ghee, and sage are used, especially among Muslims. Meat includes cattle, sheep, and goats, but is rarely eaten since its viewed as currency and wealth. In the Horn of Africa, pork and non-fish seafood is avoided by Christians and Muslims. Dairy products and all meats are avoided during lent by Ethiopians. Maize (corn) is a major staple. Cornmeal is used to make ugali, a popular dish with different names. Teff
Teff
is used to make injera or canjeero (Somali) bread. Other important foods include enset, noog, lentils, rice, banana, leafy greens, chiles, peppers, coconut milk and tomatoes. Beverages are coffee (domesticated in Ethiopia), chai tea, fermented beer from banana or millet. Cooking techniques include roasting and marinating.

This meal, consisting of injera and several kinds of wat (stew), is typical of Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine.

Central African cuisine
African cuisine
connects with all major regions of Sub-Saharan Africa: Its cuisine reflects that. Ugali
Ugali
and fufu are eaten in the region. Central African cuisine
African cuisine
is very starchy and spicy hot. Dominant crops include plantains, cassava, peanuts, chillis, and okra. Meats include beef, chicken, and sometimes exotic meats called bush meat (antelope, warthog, crocodile). Widespread spicy hot fish cuisine is one of the differentiating aspects. Mushroom is sometimes used as a meat substitute. Traditional Southern African cuisine
African cuisine
surrounds meat. Traditional society typically focused on raising, sheep, goats, and especially cattle. Dishes include braai (barbecue meat), sadza, bogobe, pap (fermented cornmeal), milk products (buttermilk, yoghurt). Crops utilised are sorghum, maize (corn), pumpkin beans, leafy greens, and cabbage. Beverages include ting (fermented sorghum or maize), milk, chibuku (milky beer). Influences from the Indian and Malay community can be seen its use of curries, sambals, pickled fish, fish stews, chutney, and samosa. European influences can be seen in cuisines like biltong (dried beef strips), potjies (stews of maize, onions, tomatoes), French wines, and crueler or koeksister (sugar syrup cookie). Clothing[edit] Further information: Clothing in Africa

The Ashanti Kente
Kente
cloth patterns

Like most of the world, Sub-Saharan Africans have adopted Western-style clothing. In some country like Zambia, used Western clothing has flooded markets, causing great angst in the retail community. Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
boasts its own traditional clothing style. Cotton
Cotton
seems to be the dominant material. In East Africa, one finds extensive use of cotton clothing. Shemma, shama, and kuta are types of Ethiopian clothing. Kanga are Swahili cloth that comes in rectangular shapes, made of pure cotton, and put together to make clothing. Kitenges are similar to kangas and kikoy, but are of a thicker cloth, and have an edging only on a long side. Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and South Sudan
Sudan
are some of the African countries where kitenge is worn. In Malawi, Namibia
Namibia
and Zambia, kitenge is known as Chitenge. One of the unique materials, which is not a fiber and is used to make clothing is barkcloth,[177] an innovation of the Baganda people of Uganda. It came from the Mutuba tree (Ficus natalensis).[178] On Madagascar
Madagascar
a type of draped cloth called lamba is worn.

Kangas

In West Africa, again cotton is the material of choice. In the Sahel and other parts of West Africa
Africa
the boubou and kaftan style of clothing are featured. Kente
Kente
cloth is created by the Akan people
Akan people
of Ghana
Ghana
and Ivory Coast, from silk of the various moth species in West Africa. Kente
Kente
comes from the Ashanti twi word kenten which means basket. It is sometimes used to make dashiki and kufi. Adire is a type of Yoruba cloth that is starch resistant. Raffia cloth[179] and barkcloth are also utilised in the region. In Central Africa, the Kuba people developed raffia cloth[179] from the raffia plant fibers. It was widely used in the region. Barkcloth was also extensively used. In Southern Africa
Southern Africa
one finds numerous uses of animal hide and skins for clothing. The Ndau in central Mozambique
Mozambique
and the Shona mix hide with barkcloth and cotton cloth. Cotton
Cotton
cloth is referred to as machira. Xhosa, Tswana, Sotho, and Swazi also made extensive use of hides. Hides come from cattle, sheep, goat, and elephant. Leopard skins were coveted and were a symbol of kingship in Zulu society. Skins were tanned to form leather, dyed, and embedded with beads. Sports[edit]

The Stade Félix Houphouët-Boigny in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan men are its main patrons. Major competitions include the African Champions League, a competition for the best clubs on the continent and the Confederation Cup, a competition primarily for the national cup winner of each African country. The Africa
Africa
Cup of Nations is a competition of 16 national teams from various African countries held every two years. South Africa
Africa
hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup, a first for a Sub-Saharan country. In 2010, Cameroon
Cameroon
played in the World Cup for the sixth time, which is the current record for a Sub-Saharan team. In 1996 Nigeria
Nigeria
won the Olympic gold for football. In 2000 Cameroon
Cameroon
maintained the continent's supremacy by winning the title too. Momentous achievements for Sub-Saharan African football. Famous Sub-Saharan football stars include Abedi Pele, Emmanuel Adebayor, George Weah, Michael Essien, Didier Drogba, Roger Milla, Nwankwo Kanu, Jay-Jay Okocha, Bruce Grobbelaar, Samuel Eto'o, Kolo Touré, Yaya Touré, Sadio Mané
Sadio Mané
and Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang. The most talented Sub-Saharan African football players find themselves courted and sought after by European leagues. There are currently more than 1000 Africans playing for European clubs. Sub-Saharan Africans have found themselves the target of racism by European fans. FIFA has been trying hard to crack down on racist outburst during games.[180][181][182]

The Namibia
Namibia
rugby team

Rugby is also popular in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Confederation of African Rugby governs rugby games in the region. South Africa
Africa
is a major force in the game and won the Rugby World Cup
Rugby World Cup
in 1995 and in 2007. Africa
Africa
is also allotted one guaranteed qualifying place in the Rugby World Cup. Boxing is also a popular sport. Battling Siki
Battling Siki
the first world champion to come out of Sub-Saharan Africa. Countries such as Nigeria, Ghana and South Africa
Africa
have produced numerous professional world champions such as Dick Tiger, Hogan Bassey, Gerrie Coetzee, Samuel Peter, Azumah Nelson and Jake Matlala. Cricket has a following. The African Cricket Association
African Cricket Association
is an international body which oversees cricket in African countries. South Africa
Africa
and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
have their own governing bodies. In 2003 the Cricket World Cup
Cricket World Cup
was held in South Africa, first time it was held in Sub-Saharan Africa. Over the years, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Kenya
Kenya
have produced many notable long-distance athletes. Each country has federations that identify and cultivate top talent. Athletes from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Kenya
Kenya
hold, save for two exceptions, all the men's outdoor records for Olympic distance events from 800m to the marathon.[183] Famous runners include Haile Gebrselassie, Kenenisa Bekele, Paul Tergat, and John Cheruiyot Korir.[184]

Tourism[edit] The development of tourism in this region has been identified as having the ability to create jobs and improve the economy. South Africa, Namibia, Mauritius, Botswana, Ghana, Cape Verde, Tanzania, and Kenya
Kenya
have been identified as having well developed tourism industries.[185] Cape Town
Cape Town
and the surrounding area is very popular with tourists.[186] List of countries and regional organization[edit]

Geo-political map of Africa
Africa
divided for ethnomusicological purposes, after Alan P. Merriam, 1959.

Only seven African countries are not geopolitically a part of Sub-Saharan Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara
Sahara
(claimed by Morocco) and Sudan; they form the UN subregion
UN subregion
of Northern Africa, which also makes up the largest bloc of the Arab World. Nevertheless, some international organisations include Sudan
Sudan
as part of Sub-Saharan Africa. Although a long-standing member of the Arab
Arab
League, Sudan
Sudan
has around 30% non- Arab
Arab
populations in the west (Darfur, Masalit, Zaghawa), far north (Nubian) and south (Kordofan, Nuba).[187][188][189][190][191][192] Mauritania
Mauritania
and Niger
Niger
only include a band of the Sahel
Sahel
along their southern borders. All other African countries have at least significant portions of their territory within Sub-Saharan Africa. Central Africa[edit]

  Central Africa   Middle Africa
Africa
(UN subregion)    Central African Federation
Central African Federation
(defunct)

 South Sudan[95][193] cap. Juba
Juba
cur. Sudanese pound
Sudanese pound
(SDG) lang. English

ECCAS (Economic Community of Central African States)

  Angola
Angola
(also in SADC) cap. Luanda
Luanda
cur. Angolan kwanza (Kz) lang. Portuguese   Burundi
Burundi
(also in EAC) cap. Bujumbura
Bujumbura
cur. Burundian franc
Burundian franc
(FBu) lang. French   Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
(also in SADC) cap. Kinshasa cur. Congolese franc
Congolese franc
(FC) lang. Kurundi, French   Rwanda
Rwanda
(also in EAC) cap. Kigali
Kigali
cur. Rwandan franc
Rwandan franc
(RF) lang. Kinyarwanda, French, English   São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
cap. São Tomé
São Tomé
cur. São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe dobra (Db) lang. Portuguese

CEMAC (Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa)

  Cameroon
Cameroon
cap. Yaoundé
Yaoundé
cur. Central African CFA franc
Central African CFA franc
(FCFA) lang. English, French   Central African Republic
Central African Republic
cap. Bangui
Bangui
cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. Sango, French   Chad
Chad
cap. N'Djamena
N'Djamena
cur. Central African CFA franc
Central African CFA franc
(FCFA) lang. French, Arabic   Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
cap. Brazzaville
Brazzaville
cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. French   Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
cap. Malabo
Malabo
cur. Central African CFA franc (FCFA) lang. Spanish, French   Gabon
Gabon
cap. Libreville
Libreville
cur. Central African CFA franc
Central African CFA franc
(FCFA) lang. French

East Africa[edit]

  Eastern Africa
Africa
(UN subregion)   East African Community    Central African Federation
Central African Federation
(defunct)   Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion
UN subregion
and East African Community

Horn of Africa[edit]

  Djibouti
Djibouti
cap. Djibouti
Djibouti
cur. Djiboutian franc
Djiboutian franc
(Fdj) lang. Arabic, French   Eritrea
Eritrea
cap. Asmara
Asmara
cur. Eritrean nakfa
Eritrean nakfa
(Nfk) 'lang.' Tigrinya, Arabic, Italian, English   Ethiopia
Ethiopia
cap. Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
cur. Ethiopian birr
Ethiopian birr
(Br) lang. Amharic   Somalia
Somalia
cap. Mogadishu
Mogadishu
cur. Somali shilling
Somali shilling
(So.Sh) lang. Somali, Arabic

Southeast Africa[edit]

EAC

  Burundi
Burundi
(also in ECCAS) cap. Bujumbura
Bujumbura
cur. Burundian franc (FBu) lang. Kirundi, French   Kenya
Kenya
cap. Nairobi
Nairobi
cur. Kenyan shilling
Kenyan shilling
(KSh) lang. Swahili, English   Rwanda
Rwanda
(also in ECCAS) cap. Kigali
Kigali
cur. Rwandan franc
Rwandan franc
(RF) lang. Kinyarwanda, French, English   Tanzania
Tanzania
(also in SADC) cap. Dodoma
Dodoma
cur. Tanzanian shilling (x/y) lang. Swahili, English   Uganda
Uganda
cap. Kampala
Kampala
cur. Ugandan shilling
Ugandan shilling
(USh) lang. Swahili, English

Southern Africa[edit]

   Southern Africa
Southern Africa
(UN subregion)   geographic, including above    Southern African Development Community
Southern African Development Community
(SADC)

SADC (Southern African Development Community)

  Angola
Angola
(also in ECCAS) cap. Luanda
Luanda
cur. Angolan kwanza (Kz) lang. Portuguese   Botswana
Botswana
cap. Gaborone
Gaborone
cur. Botswana
Botswana
pula (P) lang. Tswana, English   Comoros
Comoros
cap. Moroni cur. Comorian franc
Comorian franc
(CF) lang. Comorian, Arabic, French   Lesotho
Lesotho
cap. Maseru
Maseru
cur. Lesotho
Lesotho
loti (L)(M) lang. Sesotho, English   Madagascar
Madagascar
cap. Antananarivo
Antananarivo
cur. Malagasy ariary
Malagasy ariary
(MGA) lang. Malagasy, French   Malawi
Malawi
cap. Lilongwe
Lilongwe
cur. Malawian kwacha
Malawian kwacha
(MK) lang. English   Mauritius
Mauritius
cap. Port Louis
Port Louis
cur. Mauritian rupee
Mauritian rupee
(R) lang. English   Mozambique
Mozambique
cap. Maputo
Maputo
cur. Mozambican metical (MTn) lang. Portuguese   Namibia
Namibia
cap. Windhoek
Windhoek
cur. Namibian dollar
Namibian dollar
(N$) lang. English   Seychelles
Seychelles
cap. Victoria cur. Seychellois rupee
Seychellois rupee
(SR)(SRe) lang. Seychellois Creole, English, French  South Africa
Africa
cap. Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Pretoria
Pretoria
cur. South African rand (R) lang. 11 official languages   Swaziland
Swaziland
cap. Mbabane
Mbabane
cur. Swazi lilangeni
Swazi lilangeni
(L)(E) lang. SiSwati, English   Zambia
Zambia
cap. Lusaka
Lusaka
cur. Zambian kwacha
Zambian kwacha
(ZK) lang. English   Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
cap. Harare
Harare
cur. Zimbabwean dollar
Zimbabwean dollar
($) lang. English

Sudan[edit] Depending on classification Sudan
Sudan
is often not considered part of Sub-Saharan Africa, as it is considered part of North Africa.

  Sudan
Sudan
cap. Khartoum
Khartoum
cur. Sudanese pound
Sudanese pound
(SDG) lang. Arabic
Arabic
and English

West Africa[edit]

  Western Africa
Africa
(UN subregion)   Maghreb

  Mauritania
Mauritania
cap. Nouakchott
Nouakchott
cur. Mauritanian ouguiya (UM)(sometimes, like Sudan, considered part of North Africa)

ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States)

  Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
cap. Abidjan, Yamoussoukro
Yamoussoukro
cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)   The Gambia
The Gambia
cap. Banjul
Banjul
cur. Gambian dalasi
Gambian dalasi
(D)   Ghana
Ghana
'cap. Accra
Accra
cur. Ghanaian cedi
Ghanaian cedi
(GH₵)   Guinea
Guinea
cap. Conakry
Conakry
cur. Guinean franc
Guinean franc
(FG)   Liberia
Liberia
cap. Monrovia
Monrovia
cur. Liberian dollar
Liberian dollar
(L$)   Nigeria
Nigeria
cap. Abuja
Abuja
cur. Nigerian naira
Nigerian naira
(N)   Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
cap. Freetown
Freetown
cur. Sierra Leonean leone
Sierra Leonean leone
(Le)

UEMOA (West African Economic and Monetary Union)

  Benin
Benin
cap. Porto-Novo
Porto-Novo
cur. West African CFA franc
West African CFA franc
(CFA)   Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
cap. Ouagadougou
Ouagadougou
cur. West African CFA franc
West African CFA franc
(CFA)   Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
cap. Abidjan, Yamoussoukro
Yamoussoukro
cur. West African CFA franc (CFA)   Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
cap. Bissau
Bissau
cur. West African CFA franc
West African CFA franc
(CFA)   Mali
Mali
cap. Bamako
Bamako
cur. West African CFA franc
West African CFA franc
(CFA)   Niger
Niger
cap. Niamey
Niamey
cur. West African CFA franc
West African CFA franc
(CFA)   Senegal
Senegal
cap. Dakar
Dakar
cur. West African CFA franc
West African CFA franc
(CFA)   Togo
Togo
cap. Lomé
Lomé
cur. West African CFA franc
West African CFA franc
(CFA)

See also[edit]

Geography of Africa

Notes[edit]

^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations
United Nations
Statistics Division. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.  "The designation sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
is commonly used to indicate all of Africa
Africa
except northern Africa, with the Sudan included in sub-Saharan Africa." ^ "Political definition of "Major regions", according to the UN". Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 15 December 2010.  ^ League of Arab
Arab
States " Arab
Arab
States". UNESCO.  Infosamak. "Centre for Marketing, Information and Advisory Services for Fishery Products in the Arab
Arab
Region". Infosamak.  Halim Barakat, The Arab
Arab
World: Society, Culture, and State, (University of California Press: 1993), p. 80 Khair El-Din Haseeb et al., The Future of the Arab
Arab
Nation: Challenges and Options, 1 edition (Routledge: 1991), p. 54 John Markakis, Resource conflict in the Horn of Africa, (Sage: 1998), p. 39 Ḥagai Erlikh, The struggle over Eritrea, 1962–1978: war and revolution in the Horn of Africa, (Hoover Institution Press: 1983), p. 59 Randall Fegley, Eritrea, (Clio Press: 1995), p. mxxxviii Michael Frishkopf, Music and Media in the Arab
Arab
World, (American University in Cairo Press: 2010), p. 61

^ "Sahara's Abrupt Desertification Started by Changes in Earth's Orbit, Accelerated by Atmospheric and Vegetation Feedbacks", Science Daily. ^ Claussen, Mark; Kubatzki, Claudia; Brovkin, Victor; Ganopolski, Andrey; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Pachur, Hans-Joachim (1999). "Simulation of an Abrupt Change in Saharan Vegetation in the Mid-Holocene". Geophysical Research Letters. 26 (14): 2037–40. Bibcode:1999GeoRL..26.2037C. doi:10.1029/1999GL900494.  "Sahara's Abrupt Desertification Started By Changes In Earth's Orbit, Accelerated By Atmospheric And Vegetation Feedbacks". Science Daily. Science Daily. 12 July 1999. 

^ van Zinderen-Bakker E. M. (14 April 1962). "A Late-Glacial and Post-Glacial Climatic Correlation between East Africa
Africa
and Europe". Nature. 194 (4824): 201–03. Bibcode:1962Natur.194..201V. doi:10.1038/194201a0.  ^ Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe (2 May 2014). "What exactly does 'sub-Sahara Africa' mean?". Pambazuka News.  ^ "Contemptuousness Of A "Sub-Saharan Africa" By Chika Onyeani". Africannewsworld. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ a b c d Raunig, Walter (2005). Afrikas Horn: Akten der Ersten Internationalen Littmann-Konferenz 2. bis 5. Mai 2002 in München. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 130. ISBN 3-447-05175-2. ancient Arabic
Arabic
geography had quite a fixed pattern in listing the countries from the Red Sea
Red Sea
to the Indian Ocean: These are al-Misr (Egypt) – al-Muqurra (or other designations for Nubian kingdoms) – al-Habasha (Abyssinia) – Barbara (Berber, i.e. the Somali coast) – Zanj (Azania, i.e. the country of the "blacks"). Correspondingly almost all these terms (or as I believe: all of them!) also appear in ancient and medieval Chinese geography  ^ International Association for the History of Religions (1959), Numen, Leiden: EJ Brill, p. 131, West Africa
Africa
may be taken as the country stretching from Senegal
Senegal
in the west, to the Cameroons in the east; sometimes it has been called the central and western Sudan, the Bilad as-Sūdan, 'Land of the Blacks', of the Arabs  ^ a b Nehemia Levtzion, Randall Lee Pouwels, The History of Islam
Islam
in Africa, (Ohio University Press, 2000), p. 255. ^ Sven Rubenson, The survival of Ethiopian independence, (Tsehai, 2003), p. 30. ^ Jonah Blank, Mullahs on the mainframe: Islam
Islam
and modernity among the Daudi Bohras, (University of Chicago Press, 2001), p. 163. ^ F.R.C. Bagley et al., The Last Great Muslim
Muslim
Empires, (Brill: 1997), p. 174 ^ Bethwell A. Ogot, Zamani: A Survey of East African History, (East African Publishing House: 1974), p. 104 ^ James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 12: V. 12, (Kessinger Publishing, LLC: 2003), p. 490 ^ Edgar Harry Brookes, Amry Vandenbosch (1964). The city of God and the city of man in Africa. University of Kentucky Press. pp. Chapter 3. Retrieved 8 January 2018. About two-thirds of the population speaks Negritic and one-third Hamitic and Semitic languages. The former are found in central, or tropical, and southern Africa; the latter in Ethiopia, the Sahara
Sahara
region, and the northern part of the continent. Tropical Africa
Africa
is often spoken of as "Black Africa."  ^ Cole, Sonia Mary (1963). Races of Man. British Museum. pp. 111, 78–80, 112–121, 121–124. Retrieved 8 January 2018.  ^ Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 2, ISBN 0-333-59957-8. ^ a b Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 2–3, ISBN 0-333-59957-8. ^ Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 3, ISBN 0-333-59957-8. ^ The genetic studies by Luca Cavalli-Sforza
Luca Cavalli-Sforza
are considered pioneering[by whom?] in tracing the spread of modern humans from Africa. ^ Tishkoff SA, Reed FA, Friedlaender FR, et al. (May 2009). "The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans". Science. 324 (5930): 1035–44. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357 . PMID 19407144.  ^ Stearns, Peter N. (2001) The Encyclopedia of World History, Houghton Mifflin Books. p. 16. ISBN 0-395-65237-5. ^ Collins, Robert O. and Burns, James. M(2007). A History of Sub-saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 62, ISBN 978-0-521-86746-7 ^ Davidson, Basil. Africa
Africa
History, Themes and Outlines, revised and expanded edition. New York: Simon & Schuster, p. 54, ISBN 0-684-82667-4. ^ Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 47, ISBN 0-333-59957-8. ^ McEvedy, Colin (1980) Atlas of African History, p. 44. ISBN 0-87196-480-5. ^ Philippe Lavachery; et al. (2012). Komé-Kribi: Rescue Archaeology Along the Chad- Cameroon
Cameroon
Oil Pipeline.  ^ É. Zangato; A.F.C. Holl (2010). "On the Iron
Iron
Front: New Evidence from North-Central". Africa
Africa
Journal of African Archaeology. 8 (1): 7–23. doi:10.3213/1612-1651-10153.  ^ J. Cameron Monroe. Akinwumi Ogundiran, Power and Landscape in Atlantic West Africa: Archeological Perspectives. p. 316. , citing Magnavita 2004; Magnavita et al. 2004, 2006; Magnavita and Schleifer 2004. ^ Peter Mitchell et al., The Oxford Handbook of African Archeology (2013), p. 855: "The relatively recent discovery of extensive walled settlements at the transition from the Neolithic to the Early Iron
Iron
Age in the Chad
Chad
Basin (Magnavita et al., 2006) indicates what enormous sites and processes may still await recognition." ^ Appiah & Gates 2010, p. 254. ^ a b c Shillington, Kevin(2005). History of Africa, Rev. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 138–39, 142, ISBN 0-333-59957-8. ^ Oman
Oman
in history By Peter Vine Page 324 ^ Shaping of Somali society Lee Cassanelli pg.92 ^ Futuh Al Habash Shibab ad Din ^ Sudan
Sudan
Notes and Records – 147 ^ M. Martin, Phyllis and O'Meara, Patrick (1995). Africa
Africa
3rd edition, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, p. 156, ISBN 0-253-32916-7. ^ Hua Liu, et al. A Geographically Explicit Genetic Model of Worldwide Human-Settlement History. The American Journal of Human Genetics, volume 79 (2006), pp. 230–37, ^ James De Vere Allen (1993). Swahili Origins: Swahili Culture & the Shungwaya Phenomenon.  ^ Daniel Don Nanjira, African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st Century, ABC-CLIO, 2010, p. 114 ^ Jens Finke (2010). The Rough Guide to Tanzania.  ^ Casson, Lionel (1989). The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Lionel Casson. (Translation by H. Frisk, 1927, with updates and improvements and detailed notes). Princeton, Princeton University Press. ^ Chami, F. A. (1999). "The Early Iron Age
Iron Age
on Mafia island and its relationship with the mainland." Azania Vol. XXXIV 1999, pp. 1–10. ^ Chami, Felix A. 2002. "The Egypto-Graeco-Romans and Paanchea/Azania: sailing in the Erythraean Sea." From: Red Sea
Red Sea
Trade and Travel. The British Museum. Sunday 6 October 2002. Organised by The Society for Arabian Studies ^ "Weilue: The Peoples of the West". Depts.washington.edu. 2004-05-23. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ Miller, J. Innes. 1969. Chapter 8: "The Cinnamon Route". In: The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 0-19-814264-1 ^ books.google.com/books?id=Ua_tAAAAMAAJ ^ Hill, John E. 2004. "The Peoples of the West from the Weilue by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE". Archived from the original on 15 March 2005. Retrieved 2016-09-17. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Draft annotated English translation. See especially Section 15 on Zesan = Azania and notes. ^ Evelyne Jone Rich; Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein (1971). Africa: Tradition and Change. p. 124. ISBN 9780394009384.  ^ W.H. Ingrams (1967). Zanzibar: Its History and Its People. p. 24.  ^ Mary Fitzpatrick; Tim Bewer (2012). Lonely Planet Tanzania.  ^ Rhonda M. Gonzales (30 August 2009). Societies, religion, and history: central-east Tanzanians and the world they created, c. 200 BCE to 1800 CE. Columbia University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-231-14242-7.  ^ a b Roland Oliver, et al. " Africa
Africa
South of the Equator," in Africa Since 1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 24–25. ^ Thompson, Lloyd A. (1989). Romans and blacks. Taylor & Francis. p. 57. ISBN 0-415-03185-0.  ^ Mokhtar (editor), AnciGent Civilizations of Africa
Africa
Vo. II, General History of Africa, UNESCO, 1990 ^ Davidson, Basil. Africa
Africa
History, Themes and Outlines, revised and expanded edition. New York: Simon & Schuster, pp. 87–107, ISBN 0-684-82667-4. ^ "The Slave Trade". Countrystudies.us.  ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division". Esa.un.org. 2015-07-29. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ "Fertility rate, total (births per woman) Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2016-07-21.  ^ According to the CIA Factbook: Angola, Benin, Burundi, Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Chad, the Republic of Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia ^ a b c (2009). Africa
Africa
Development Indicators 2008/2009: From the World Bank
World Bank
Africa
Africa
Database African Development Indicators. World Bank Publications, p. 28, ISBN 978-0-8213-7787-1. ^ "Research – CPI – Overview". Transparency.org. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ World Bank. Doing Business 2010, Economy Ranking ^ "National Literacy Survey". National Bureau of Statistics. June 2010. Archived from the original on 17 September 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2015.  ^ "Sudan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 21 April 2012.  ^ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ a b Bowden, Rob (2007). Africa
Africa
South of the Sahara. Coughlan Publishing: p. 37, ISBN 1-4034-9910-1. ^ Brown, Keith and Ogilvie, Sarah(2008). Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world Concise Encyclopedias of Language and Linguistics Series. Elsevier, p. 12, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7. ^ Maaroufi, Youssef. "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat 2004".  ^ African Languages at Michigan State University (ASC) Michigan State University". Isp.msu.edu. 2010-10-08. Archived from the original on April 20, 2010. Retrieved 2013-04-30 ^ Peek, Philip M. and Yankah, Kwesi(2004). African folklore: an encyclopedia. London:(Rourledge)Taylor & Francis, p. 205, ISBN 0-415-93933-X, 9780415939331 ^ Schneider, Edgar Werner and Kortmann, Bernd(2004). A handbook of varieties of English: a multimedia reference tool, Volume 1. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 867–68, ISBN 978-3-11-017532-5. ^ Güldemann, Tom and Edward D. Elderkin (forthcoming) "On external genealogical relationships of the Khoe family". In Brenzinger, Matthias and Christa König (eds.), Khoisan
Khoisan
languages and linguistics: the Riezlern symposium 2003. Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung 17. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe. ^ Bellwood, Peter S.(2005). First farmers: the origins of agricultural societies. Wiley-Blackwell, p. 218, ISBN 978-0-631-20566-1. ^ a b c "DRC". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 November 2014. ^ "Rwanda". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014. ^ a b "Angola". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 18 November 2014. ^ "Republic of the Congo". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 18 November 2014. ^ "Burundi". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014. ^ "Memories of Utopia – Infoshop, World Bank" (PDF). secid.org. South East Consortium for International Development. 31 May 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  ^ Darfur
Darfur
Relief and Documentation Centre (2010). 5th Population and Housing Census in Sudan
Sudan
– An Incomplete Exercise Archived 15 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Geneva: DRDC. Retrieved 16 November 2014. ^ John A. Shoup (2011). Ethnic Groups of Africa
Africa
and the Middle East. p. 333.  "The Zaghawa is one of the major divisions of the Beri peoples who live in western Sudan
Sudan
and eastern Chad, and their language, also called Zaghawa, belongs to the Saharan branch of the Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
language group." ^ "Sudan". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014. ^ "Summary and Statistical Report of the 2007: Population and Housing Census Results" (PDF). New York City: United Nations
United Nations
Population Fund. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  ^ "Eritrea". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014. ^ "Report on minority groups in Somalia" (PDF). somraf.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  ^ "Somalia". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014. ^ a b c d "Kenya". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014. ^ a b "Uganda". CIA World Factbook. 20 November 2014. ^ Ethnologue, most of them are native speakers ^ a b c "Central African Republic". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014. ^ a b c d e "South Sudan". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014. ^ a b c d e f "Nigeria". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014. ^ a b c d e f "Niger". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 13 November 2014. ^ a b c "Chad" Archived 26 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 November 2014. ^ "Population and Housing Census". www.knbs.or.ke. Kenya
Kenya
National Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  ^ "The Maasai of Kenya
Kenya
and Tanzania". The Language Journal. 2012-04-22. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ a b c d "South Africa". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 November 2014. ^ "Botswana". CIA World Factbook. 20 November 2014. ^ "Malawi". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 November 2014. ^ "Zambia". CIA World Factbook. 20 November 2014. ^ "Mozambique". CIA World Factbook. 20 November 2014. ^ "The Future of Portuguese". BB Portuguese. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ a b "Senegal". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014. ^ a b "The Gambia". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014. ^ "Cameroon". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014. ^ a b "Mali". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 November 2014. ^ Pugliese, Jessica (2 January 2014). "Rethinking Financing for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa". brookings.edu. Retrieved 5 January 2014.  ^ "Africa's impressive growth". The Economist. 29 August 2014.  ^ "Africa's impressive growth". World Bank. 29 August 2014.  ^ Creamer Media Reporter (12 November 2009). "Africa's energy problems threatens growth, says Nepad CEO". www.engineeringnews.co.za. Engineering
Engineering
News. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Christian K.M. Kingombe 2011. Mapping the new infrastructure financing landscape Archived 18 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. London: Overseas Development Institute ^ "Creamer Media" (PDF). Us-cdn.creamermedia.co.za. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ RedOrbit.com Redorbit Archived 20 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Flatow, Ira. Could Africa
Africa
Leapfrog The U.S. In Solar Power?. Science Friday 6 June 2008. ^ Hepeng, Jia (20 August 2004). "China to train developing nations in solar technologies". scidev.net.  ^ a b English, Cynthia. Radio the Chief Medium for News in Sub-Saharan Africa. Gallup 23 June 2008. ^ Africa
Africa
Calling: Cellphone usage sees record rise. Mail&Guardian: 23 October 2009. ^ Aker, Jenny C.(2008). “Can You Hear Me Now?”How Cell Phones are Transforming Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa, Center for Global Development. ^ "MG.co.za". MG.co.za. 23 December 2009.  ^ Pfanner, Eric. Competition increases for pay TV in sub-Saharan Africa. New York Times 6 August 2007. ^ a b c John J. Saul and Colin Leys, Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
in Global Capitalism, Monthly Review, 1999, Volume 51, Issue 03 (July–August) ^ a b c Fred Magdoff, Twenty-First-Century Land Grabs: Accumulation by Agricultural Dispossession, Monthly Review, 2013, Volume 65, Issue 06 (November) ^ Ken Gwilliam, Vivien Foster, Rodrigo Archondo-Callao, Cecilia Briceño-Garmendia, Alberto Nogales, and Kavita Sethi(2008). Africa infrastructure country diagnostic, Roads in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank and the SSATP: p. 4 ^ Lisa A. Corathers (January 2009). "Manganese" (PDF). Minerals.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-19. Land-based manganese resources are large but irregularly distributed; those of the United States are very low grade and have potentially high extraction costs. South Africa
Africa
accounts for about 80% of the world's identified manganese resources, and Ukraine accounts for 10%.  ^ John F. Papp (2001). "Chromium" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook. Minerals.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-19. About 42% of world reserves and about 75% of the world reserve base are located in South Africa.  ^ Vronsky (May 1, 1997). "Platinum: The Rich Man's Gold". Gold-Eagle.com. Retrieved 2015-10-19.  ^ E. Lee Bray (January 2009). " Bauxite
Bauxite
and Alumina" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries. Minerals.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ Daniel L. Edelstein (January 2009). "Copper" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries. Minerals.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-19.  ^ "From the SelectedWorks of Maheta Matteo : From "Blood Diamond" to "Blood Coltan": Should International Corporations Pay the Price for the Rape of the DR Congo?". Works.bepress.com. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ "MBendi.com". MBendi.com.  ^ "World-Nuclear.org". World-Nuclear.org.  ^ Ghazvinian, John (2008). Untapped: The Scramble for Africa's Oil. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, pp. 1–16, ISBN 978-0-15-603372-5. ^ a b Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilization of Africa. University of Virginia Press: Charlottesville, p. 98, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X. ^ Vandaveer, Chelsie(2006). What was the cotton of Kush? Archived 14 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine. KillerPlants.com, Plants That Change History Archive. ^ National Research Council (U.S.). Board on Science and Technology for International Development (1996). Lost Crops of Africa: Grains. National Academy Press, ISBN 978-0-309-04990-0. ^ "WorldDefenseReview.com". WorldDefenseReview.com.  ^ Business24-7.ae Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Evans, Ambrose (12 October 2009). "Blogspot.com". Tradeafrica.blogspot.com.  ^ " Africa
Africa
Regional Brief" (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ Mathiason, Nick (2 November 2009). "Global protocol could limit Sub-Saharan land grab". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 April 2010.  ^ a b Gabara, Nthambeleni (12 November 2009). "Developed nations should invest in African universities". buanews.gov.za. BuaNews Online. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2015.  ^ "World". CIA Factbook.  ^ Nordling, Linda (29 October 2009). " Africa
Africa
Analysis: Progress on science spending?". scidev.net.  ^ "South Africa's Investment in Research and Development on the Rise" (Press release). Department of Science and Technology. 22 June 2006. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011.  ^ "User fees for health: a background". Archived from the original on 28 November 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2006.  ^ Knippenberg R, Alihonou E, Soucat A, et al. (June 1997). "Implementation of the Bamako
Bamako
Initiative: strategies in Benin
Benin
and Guinea". The International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 12 (Suppl 1): S29–47. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1751(199706)12:1+<S29::AID-HPM465>3.0.CO;2-U. PMID 10173105.  ^ "Manageable Bamako Initiative schemes". Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2006.  ^ "World Aids Day 2012" (PDF). Unaids.org. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ "Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation: What we do". Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.  ^ "UNAIDS reports more than 7 million people now on HIV treatment across Africa—with nearly 1 million added in the last year—while new HIV infections and deaths from AIDS continue to fall". Joint United Nations
United Nations
Programme on HIV/AIDS. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ " Special
Special
Report: How Africa
Africa
Turned AIDS Around" (PDF). Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. 2013. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ a b "UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 13 May 2013.  ^ "AIDSinfo". UNAIDS. Retrieved 4 March 2013.  ^ "WHO Malaria". Who.int. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ Verguet S, Jassat W, Hedberg C, Tollman S, Jamison DT, Hofman KJ (February 2012). " Measles
Measles
control in Sub-Saharan Africa: South Africa as a case study". Vaccine. 30 (9): 1594–600. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.12.123. PMID 22230581.  ^ a b "WHO Onchocerciasis". Who.int. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ a b "WHO Maternal mortality". Who.int. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ Emma Bonino, "A brutal custom: Join forces to banish the mutilation of women", The New York Times, 15 September 2004; Charlotte Feldman-Jacobs, "Commemorating International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation", Population Reference Bureau, February 2009. ^ Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Ye, Xiao (April 2001). Public Health and Education Spending in Ghana
Ghana
in 1992-98 (PDF). World Bank
World Bank
Publication. p. 21.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Book
Book
of the Year 2003. Encyclopædia Britannica, (2003) ISBN 978-0-85229-956-2 p. 306 However, Southern Africa
Southern Africa
is predominantly Christian. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 376,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa. Ian S. Markham,(A World Religions Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.) is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid-1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total. These numbers are estimates and remain a matter of conjecture. See Amadu Jacky Kaba. The spread of Christianity
Christianity
and Islam
Islam
in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, June 2005. Discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopedium, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarised here, as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam
Islam
and Pentecostal Christianity
Christianity
are highest, see: The List: The World’s Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007. ^ Baldick, Julian (1997). Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim
Muslim
religions. Syracuse University Press:ISBN 0-8156-0522-6 ^ Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, pp. 102–03, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X. ^ Davidson, Basil (1969). The African Genius, An Introduction to African Social and Cultural History. Little Brown and Company: Boston, pp. 168–80. LCCN 70-80751. ^ Eglash, Ron: "African Fractals: Modern computing and indigenous design." Rutgers 1999 ISBN 0-8135-2613-2 ^ Richmond, Yale; Gestrin, Phyllis (2009). Into Africa: a guide to Sub-Saharan culture and diversity. Boston: Intercultural Press. ISBN 978-1-931930-91-8.  ^ Bowden, Rob(2007). Africa
Africa
South of the Sahara. Coughlan Publishing: p. 40, ISBN 1-4034-9910-1. ^ Christopher Ehret, (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, p. 103, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X. ^ "ScienceDaily.com". ScienceDaily.com. 18 June 2007.  ^ "'Oldest' prehistoric art unearthed". BBC News. 10 January 2002. Retrieved 9 April 2010.  ^ ">TARA – Trust for African Rock Art: Rock Art in Africa". 6 January 2009. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009.  ^ "African Influences in Modern Art Thematic Essay Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History The Metropolitan Museum of Art". Metmuseum.org. 2014-06-02. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ Alexandre, Marc(1998). World Bank
World Bank
Publication: DC. ISBN 978-0-8213-4195-7 ^ "Intangible Heritage Home –- intangible heritage – Culture Sector". UNESCO.  ^ Yoshida, Reiko. Proclamation 2005: Barcloth making in Uganda
Uganda
Unesco: Intangible Cultural Heritage (Uganda) 13 May 2009 ^ a b http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/11/sfc/ho_1999.522.15.htm ^ "About.com". Goafrica.about.com.  ^ "AllAfrica.com". AllAfrica.com. 16 November 2009.  ^ "European Soccer's Racism Problem". Deutsche Welle. Deutsche Welle. 2 December 2005.  ^ "Men's outdoor world records". iaaf.org. Retrieved 26 October 2013.  As can be seen: 800m is Kenya; 5000m is Ethiopia; 10000m is Ethiopia; marathon is Kenya. The two exceptions are the 1500m and 3000m steeplechase records, though the latter is held by Stephen Cherono, who was born and raised in Kenya. ^ Tucker, Ross and Dugas, Jonathan. Sport's great rivalries: Kenya
Kenya
vs. Ethiopia, and a one-sided battle (at least on the track), The Science of Sport, 14 July 2008. ^ " Tourism
Tourism
in Africa : Harnessing Tourism
Tourism
for Growth and Improved Livelihoods" (PDF). Worldbank.org. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ "South Africa: Political Issues: Constitution: Provincial Government". BBC. 2014-10-29. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ Malik, Nesrine (23 November 2009). "'Nubian monkey' song and Arab racism". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 April 2010.  ^ Towson.edu Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Worldbank.org". Web.worldbank.org. 27 October 2006.  ^ "CDCdevelopmentSolutions.org". CDCdevelopmentSolutions.org. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010.  ^ "Where We Work U.S. Agency for International Development". Usaid.gov. 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ Transparency.org Archived 13 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "U.N. doubles force in turbulent South Sudan
Sudan
[UPDATE 2". UPI.com. Retrieved 2015-09-29. 

References[edit]

Taking Action to Reduce Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank Publications (1997), ISBN 0-8213-3698-3.

Further reading[edit]

Chido, Diane E. From Chaos to Cohesion: A Regional Approach to Security, Stability, and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Carlisle, Pa.: Strategic Studies Institute
Strategic Studies Institute
and U.S. Army War College Press, 2013. Petringa, Maria: Brazza, A Life for Africa. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4259-1198-0 Wm. Roger Louis and Jean Stengers: E.D. Morel's History of the Congo Reform Movement, Clarendon Press Oxford, 1968.

External links[edit]

African People Website 50 Factoids about Sub-Saharan Africa The Story of Africa
Africa
– BBC World Service

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea
Guinea
region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad
Chad
Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros
Comoros
Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile
Nile
Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile
Nile
Delta Nuba
Nuba
Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold
Gold
Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea
Guinea
region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger
Niger
Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger
Niger
Delta Inner Niger
Niger
Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab
Arab
world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic
Arabic
is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan
Sudan
(region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu
Hindu
Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton
Cotton
Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique
Mozambique
Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

Articles related to Sub-Saharan Africa

v t e

History of Africa

Sovereign states

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde
Cape Verde
(Cabo Verde) Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
(Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

States with limited recognition

Sahrawi Arab
Arab
Democratic Republic Somaliland

Dependencies and other territories

Canary Islands / Ceuta / Melilla  (Spain) Madeira (Portugal) Mayotte / Réunion (France) Saint Helena / Ascension Island / Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom) Western Sahara

v t e

Geography of Africa

Sovereign states

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde
Cape Verde
(Cabo Verde) Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
(Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

States with limited recognition

Sahrawi Arab
Arab
Democratic Republic Somaliland

Dependencies and other territories

Canary Islands / Ceuta / Melilla  (Spain) Madeira (Portugal) Mayotte / Réunion (France) Saint Helena / Ascension Island / Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom) Western Sahara

v t e

Languages of Africa

Sovereign states

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde
Cape Verde
(Cabo Verde) Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
(Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

States with limited recognition

Sahrawi Arab
Arab
Democratic R

.