Stuttgart (/ˈʃtʊtɡɑːrt/ SHTUUT-gart; German:
[ˈʃtʊtɡaʁt] ( listen); Swabian: Schduagert, pronounced
[ˈʒ̊d̥ua̯ɡ̊ɛʕd̥]; names in other languages) is the capital
and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart
is located on the
Neckar river in a fertile valley known locally as
Stuttgart Cauldron." It lies an hour from the
Swabian Jura and
the Black Forest. Its urban area has a population of 609,219,
making it the sixth largest city in Germany. 2.7 million people
live in the city's administrative region and another 5.3 million
people in its metropolitan area, making it the fourth largest
metropolitan area in Germany. The city and metropolitan area are
consistently ranked among the top 20 European metropolitan areas by
GDP; Mercer listed
Stuttgart as 21st on its 2015 list of cities by
quality of living,[a] innovation agency 2thinknow ranked the city
24th globally out of 442 cities [b] and the Globalization and
World Cities Research Network ranked the city as a Beta-status world
city in their 2014 survey.
Since the 6th millennium BC, the
Stuttgart area has been an important
agricultural area and has been host to a number of cultures seeking to
utilize the rich soil of the
Neckar valley. The
Roman Empire conquered
the area in 83 AD and built a massive castrum near Bad Cannstatt,
making it the most important regional center for several centuries.
Stuttgart's roots were truly laid in the 10th century with its
founding by Liudolf,
Duke of Swabia, as a stud farm for his warhorses.
Initially overshadowed by nearby Cannstatt, the town grew steadily and
was granted a charter in 1320. The fortunes of
Stuttgart turned with
those of the House of Württemberg, and they made it the capital of
their county, duchy, and kingdom from the 15th century to 1918.
Stuttgart prospered despite setbacks in the
Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War and
devastating air raids by the Allies on the city and its automobile
production. However, by 1952, the city had bounced back and it became
the major economic, industrial, tourism and publishing center it is
Stuttgart is also a transport junction, and possesses the
sixth-largest airport in Germany. Several major companies are
headquartered in Stuttgart, including Porsche, Bosch ,
Mercedes-Benz, Daimler AG, and Dinkelacker.
Stuttgart is unusual in the scheme of German cities. It is spread
across a variety of hills (some of them covered in vineyards),
valleys (especially around the
Neckar river and the
and parks. This often surprises visitors who associate the city with
its reputation as the "cradle of the automobile". The city's
tourism slogan is "
Stuttgart offers more". Under current plans to
improve transport links to the international infrastructure (as part
Stuttgart 21 project), the city unveiled a new logo and slogan
in March 2008 describing itself as "Das neue Herz Europas" ("The new
Heart of Europe"). For business, it describes itself as "Where
business meets the future". In July 2010,
Stuttgart unveiled a new
city logo, designed to entice more business people to stay in the city
and enjoy breaks in the area.
Stuttgart is a city with a high number of immigrants. According to
Dorling Kindersley's Eyewitness Travel Guide to Germany, "In the city
of Stuttgart, every third inhabitant is a foreigner." 40% of
Stuttgart's residents, and 64% of the population below the age of
five, are of immigrant background.
2.2 Middle Ages
2.3 Early Modern Era
Kingdom of Württemberg
Kingdom of Württemberg and German Empire
2.5 Weimar Republic
2.6 Nazi Germany
2.7.1 US Military in Stuttgart
4 Landmarks and culture
4.1 The inner city
4.2 Architecture in other districts
4.3 Parks, lakes, cemeteries and other places of interest
4.4 Culture and events
5.4 Crime rates
6.1 City government past and present
6.3 Recent election results
7.1 The cradle of the automobile
7.2 Science and research and development
7.3 Financial services
7.4 A history of wine and beer
8 Education and research
8.1 Tertiary education
8.2 Primary and secondary education
8.3 International School
9 Media and publishing
10.1 Local transport
10.2 Rail links
10.3 Rail: The
Stuttgart 21 project
10.4 Air transport
10.5 Road transport
11.2 Other sports
11.3 Sporting events
12 International relations
12.1 Twin towns and sister cities
13 Notable residents
14 In popular culture
14.3 TV and Cinema
17.1 Further reading
18 External links
Stuttgart, often nicknamed the "Schwabenmetropole" (English: Swabian
metropolis) in reference to its location in the center of
the local dialect spoken by the native Swabians, has its etymological
roots in the
Old High German
Old High German word Stuotgarten, or "stud farm",
because the city was founded in 950 AD by
Duke Liudolf of Swabia
to breed warhorses.
History of Stuttgart
History of Stuttgart and Timeline of Stuttgart
Roman Empire 83–475
Duchy of Württemberg
Duchy of Württemberg 1495–1803
Electorate of Württemberg
Electorate of Württemberg 1803-1805
Kingdom of Württemberg
Kingdom of Württemberg 1805–1918
German Empire 1871–1918
Weimar Republic 1918–1933
Coat of Arms
Coat of Arms (1286)[c]
1634 Drawing of
Stuttgart by Matthäus Merian
Drawing of Stuttgart, 1794.
Map of Stuttgart, 1888
Stuttgart area, 1888
Stuttgart from Alexanderstraße, 1895. The Rotebühlkaserne is
visible to the left, and the Old Castle and Stiftskirche to the right.
Marktplatz looking west, 1881.
Stuttgart Rathaus on the Marktplatz, 1907. The building was destroyed
by Allied bombing during World War Two. What was left of the building
was used to build the current City Hall.
Villa Berg, the summer residence of the royalty of Wurttemberg built
from 1845–1853, in a colorized photograph from 1910.
A colorized photo from 1911 of the Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft
factory in Untertürkheim. Today, this building is the seat of Daimler
Front and back sides of a 50-pfennig
Notgeld from 1921 featuring the
state capital, Stuttgart.
Demonstration at the
Marktplatz on German Hiking Day
(German: Deutschen Wandertag), 1938.
Map of the destruction of
Stuttgart after the air raids.
Neues Schloss at Schlossplatz prior to restoration,
Stuttgart's Hauptbahnhof from the Königstraße, 1965.
Originally, the most important location in the
Neckar river valley as
the hilly rim of the
Stuttgart basin at what is today Bad
Cannstatt. Thus, the first settlement of
Stuttgart was a massive
Castra stativa (
Cannstatt Castrum) built c. 90 AD to protect
the Villas and vineyards blanketing the landscape and the road from
Mogontiacum (Mainz) to
Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg). As with many
military installations, a settlement sprang up nearby and remained
there even after the
Limes moved further east. When they did, the town
was left in the capable hands of a local brickworks that produced
sophisticated architectural ceramics and pottery. When the Romans
were driven back past the
Danube rivers in the 3rd century
by the Alamanni, the settlement temporarily vanished from history
until the 7th century.
Germany in the Middle Ages
Gotfrid mentions a "Chan Stada" in a document regarding
property. Archaeological evidence shows that later Merovingian era
Frankish farmers continued to till the same land the Romans did.
Cannstatt is mentioned in the Abbey of St. Gall's archives as "Canstat
ad Neccarum" (German: Cannstatt-on-Neckar) in 708.
The etymology of the name "Cannstatt" is not clear, but as the site is
mentioned as condistat in the
Annals of Metz (9th century),[citation
needed] it is mostly derived from the Latin word condita
("foundation"), suggesting that the name of the Roman settlement might
have had the prefix "Condi-." Alternatively, Sommer (1992) suggested
that the Roman site corresponds to the Civitas Aurelia G attested to
in an inscription found near Öhringen. There have also been
attempts at a derivation from a Gaulish *kondâti-
In 950 AD,
Duke Liudolf of Swabia, son of the current Holy Roman
Emperor Otto I, decided to establish a stud farm for his cavalry
Hungarian invasions of Europe
Hungarian invasions of Europe on a widened area of the
Nesenbach river valley 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of the old
Roman castrum. The land and title of
Duke of Swabia
Duke of Swabia remained in
Liudolf's hands until his rebellion was quashed by his father four
years later. In 1089, Bruno of Calw built the precursor building to
the Old Castle.
Stuttgart's viticulture, first documented in the Holy
Roman Empire in
the year 1108 AD, kept people in the area of that stud farm for
some time, but the area was still largely overshadowed by nearby
Cannstatt because of its role as a local crossroad for many major
European trade routes. Nevertheless, the existence of a settlement
here (despite the terrain being more suited for that original stud
farm) during the
High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages is provided by a gift registry from
Hirsau Abbey dated to around 1160 that mentions a "Hugo de
Stuokarten." A settlement at this locale was again mentioned in
1229, but this time by Pope Gregory IX. In 1219 AD, Stuttgart
(then Stuotgarten) became a possession of Herman V, Margrave of
Baden. In addition to Backnang, Pforzheim, and Besigheim, Hermann
would also found the
Stuttgart we know today in c. 1220. In 1251,
the city passed to the Ulrich I von
Württemberg as part of Mechthild
von Baden's dowry. His son, Eberhard I "the Illustrious," would be
the first to begin the many major expansions of
Stuttgart under the
House of Württemberg.
Eberhard desired to expand the realm his father had built through
military action with the aid of the anti-king Henry Raspe IV,
Landgrave of Thuringia, but was thwarted by the action of Emperor
Rudolph I. Further resistance by Eberhard I against the Emperor's
created Vogts and Bailiwicks as well as the newly appointed
Swabia Rudolf II,
Austria eventually led to armed conflict and
initial successes upon Emperor Rudolph I's death in 1291 against the
Emperor's men. After initially defeating his regional rivals, Henry
VII, newly elected as Emperor, decided to take action against Eberhard
I in 1311 during his war with the
Free imperial city
Free imperial city of Esslingen by
ordering his Vogt, Konrad IV von Weinberg, to declare war on Eberhard
I. Eberhard I, defeated on the battlefield, lost
Stuttgart and his
castle (razed in 1311) to Esslingen and the city was thus managed
by the city state from 1312 to 1315. Total destruction of the
County was prevented by Henry VII's death in 24 August 1313 and the
elections of Louis IV as King of the Germans and Frederick III as
anti-king. Eberhard seized the opportunity granted to him by the
political chaos, and recaptured his hometown and birthplace in
1316, and made much territorial gain. With peace restored at last,
Eberhard began repairs and expansion to
Stuttgart beginning with the
reconstruction of Wirtemberg Castle, ancestral home to the House of
Württemberg, in 1317 and then began expansion of the city's defenses.
The early 1320s were an important one for Stuttgart: Eberhard I moved
the seat of the County to the city to a new and expanded castle,
the collegiate church in Beutelsbach, where previous members of the
Württemberg dynasty had been buried prior to its destruction in
1311, moved to its current location in
Stuttgart in 1320, and
the town's Stiftkirche was expanded into an abbey, and the control of
the Martinskirche by the Bishopric of Constance was broken by Papal
order in 1321. A year after the city became the principal seat of
the Counts of
Württemberg in 1320, the city was granted status as
a city and given civic rights. At the end of the 14th Century, new
suburbs sprang up around Leonhard Church and near the city's
fortifications as well. Towards the end of the 15th Century, Count
Ulrich V began construction of a new suburb on the northeastern edge
of the city around the Dominican monastery Hospitalkirche. In the
1457, the first
Landtag of the
Estates of Württemberg
Estates of Württemberg was established
Stuttgart and a similar institution was established in Leonberg.
After the temporary partitions of the
County of Württemberg
County of Württemberg by the
Treaties of Nürtingen, Münsingen, and Esslingen,
Stuttgart was once
again declared the capital of the County in 1483.
Early Modern Era
Stuttgart finally officially became the de facto residence of
the Count himself as opposed to the location of his home, the Old
Castle. Eberhard I, then Count Eberhard V, became the first Duke
of Württemberg[d] in 1495, and made
Stuttgart the seat of the
Duchy of Württemberg
Duchy of Württemberg in addition to the County thereof. All this
would be lost to the Württembergs during the reign of his son,
Ulrich. Though Ulrich initially made territorial gains as a result of
his decision to fight alongside the Emperor Maximilian I, he was
no friend of the powerful
Swabian League nor of his own subjects,
who launched the
Poor Conrad rebellion of 1514. Despite this
and his rivalry with the Swabian League, his undoing would actually
come in the form of his unhappy marriage to Sabina of Bavaria. In
1515, Ulrich killed an imperial knight and lover of Sabina's by the
name of Hans von Hutten, obliging her to flee to the court of her
brother, William IV,
Duke of Bavaria, who successfully had Ulrich
Imperial ban twice. When the Emperor died in 1519, Ulrich
struck, seizing the Free Imperial City of Reutlingen, prompting the
League to intervene. That same year, Ulrich was soundly defeated and
he was and driven into exile in
Switzerland following the
League's conquest of Württemberg.
Württemberg was then sold by
the League to Emperor Charles V, who then granted it to his
brother, Ferdinand I, thus beginning the 12 year ownership of the
county by the Habsburgs. When the peasants Ulrich had crushed
before rose once again in the German Peasants' War, Stuttgart
was occupied by the peasant armies for a few days in the Spring of
1525. Ulrich, with the help of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, seized
the chance to restore himself to power (albeit as an Austrian
vassal) in the turmoil of the Reformation and War with the Turks
Erhard Schnepf to bring the Reformation to Stuttgart. He
accepted, was named Court Preacher in Stuttgart, and worked in concert
Ambrosius Blarer until his dismissal following his resistance to
Augsburg Interim by the
Duke in 1548.
Duke Ulrich himself died
two years later, and was succeeded by his son, Christoph. He had grown
up in a
Württemberg in turmoil, and wished to rebuild its image. To
this end, he once again began a construction boom all over the Duchy
under the direction of Court Architect Aberlin Tretsch; knowing
full well that the time of the Reisekönigtum was over, Christoph and
Tretsch rebuilt and remodeled the Old Castle into a Renaissance
palace, and from 1542–44, what is today the Schillerplatz was
built as a town square.
Duke Christoph also responded to the
increasing made for drinking water by embarking upon a massive
hydraulic engineering project in the form of a 2,810 feet (860 m)
tunnel to Pffaf Lake, the Glems, and the
Nesenbach from 1566–75. In
1575, Georg Beer was also appointed Court Architect, and he built the
Lusthaus. But it was architect Heinrich Schickhardt who would carry
Tretsch's torch further; Schickhardt constructed the Stammheim Castle
in the suburb of Stammheim, rebuilt the Fruchtkasten in the today's
Schillerplatz, and expanded the Prinzebau.
Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War devastated the city, and it would slowly
decline for a period of time from then on. After the catastrophic
defeat of the Protestant
Heilbronn League by the
Nörlingen in 1634,
Duke Eberhard III and his court fled in exile to
Strasbourg, abandoning the Duchy to looting by pro-Habsburg forces.
Habsburgs once again had full reign of the city for another four
years, and in that time
Stuttgart had to carry the burden of billeting
the pro-Habsburg armies in Swabia. Ferdinand III, King of the Romans,
entered the city in 1634 and, two years later in 1636, once again
attempted to re-Catholicize Württemberg. The next year, the
Bubonic plague struck and devastated the population. The Duke
returned in 1638 to a realm somewhat partitioned to Catholic factions
in the region, and entirely ravaged by the war. In the Duchy itself,
battle, famine, plague and war reduced the Duchy's population of
350,000 in 1618 to 120,000 in 1648 – about 57% of the population of
Württemberg. Recovery would be slow for the next several decades,
but began nonetheless with the city's first bookstore in 1650 and high
school in 1686. This progress was almost entirely undone when
French soldiers under Ezéchiel du Mas appeared outside the city's
walls in 1688 during the Nine Years' War, but the city was saved
from another sack due to the diplomatic ability of Magdalena
Sibylla, reigning over
Württemberg as regent for her son,
For the first time in centuries,
Duke Eberhard Ludwig moved the seat
of the Duchy out of the declining city of
Stuttgart to Ludwigsburg,
founded in 1704, in 1718 while the namesake
Baroque palace, known as
the "Versailles of Swabia," was still under construction. When
Eberhard Ludwig died, his nephew Charles Alexander, ascended to the
throne. Charles Alexander himself died in 1737, meaning his son
Charles Eugene became the premature
Duke (and later King) at the age
of nine. When he came of age and returned from his tutoring at the
court of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, Charles desired to move
the capital back to Stuttgart. He commissioned the construction of the
New Castle in 1746,
Castle Solitude in 1763, Castle Hohenheim
in 1785, and the Karlsschule in 1770. The rule of Charles
Eugene also saw the tutoring and origins of
Friedrich Schiller in
Stuttgart, who studied medicine and completed
The Robbers here.
Stuttgart, at the end of the 18th Century, remained a very provincial
town of 20,000 residents, narrow alleys, and agriculture and
livestock. Despite being the capital and seat of the Duchy, the
general staff of the
Army of Württemberg
Army of Württemberg was not present in the
city. In 1794,
Duke Charles dissolved the Karlsschule to prevent
the spreading of revolutionary ideas.
Stuttgart was proclaimed capital once more when
Württemberg became an
electorate in 1803, and was yet again named as capital when the
Kingdom of Württemberg
Kingdom of Württemberg was formed in 1805 by the Peace of
Kingdom of Württemberg
Kingdom of Württemberg and German Empire
King Frederick I's
Württemberg was given high status in the
Confederation of the
Rhine among the College of Kings, and the lands
of nearby secondary German states. Within Stuttgart, the royal
residence was expanded under Frederick although many of Stuttgart's
most important buildings, including Wilhelm Palace, Katharina
Hospital, the State Gallery, the Villa Berg and the Königsbau were
built under the reign of King Wilhelm I. In 1818. King Wilhelm I
and Queen Catherine in an attempt to assuage the suffering caused by
the Year Without Summer and following famine, introduced the first
Cannstatter Volksfest to celebrate the year's bountiful
Hohenheim University was founded in 1818, and two
years later the
Württemberg Mausoleum as completed on the hill where
Wirtemberg Castle once stood.
From the outset of the 19th Century, Stuttgart's development was once
again impeded by its location (population of the city at the time was
around 50,000), but the city began to experience the beginning of
economic revival with the opening of the Main Station in 1846. Prior
to then, the signs of rebirth in
Stuttgart were evidenced by the
construction of such buildings of
Rosenstein Castle in 1822–1830,
Wilhelmspalais 1834–1840, and the foundations of the
Staatsgalerie in 1843,
University of Stuttgart
University of Stuttgart in 1829, the
University of Music and Performing Arts later, in 1857. Stuttgart
had a role to play during the revolution of 1848/1849 as well. When
internal divisions of the
Frankfurt Parliament began the demise of
that congress, the majority of the
Frankfurt Congress voted to move to
Stuttgart to flee the reach of the Prussian and Austrian armies in
Frankfurt and Mainz. Even though the Congress may have had
contacts with revolutionaries in
Baden and Württemberg, the
Congress, not popular with the content citizens of Stuttgart, were
driven out by the King's army.
Stuttgart's literary tradition also bore yet more fruits, being the
home of such writers of national importance as Wilhelm Hauff, Ludwig
Uhland, Gustav Schwab, and Eduard Mörike. From 1841 to 1846, the
Jubiläumssäule was erected on the Schlossplatz before the New Palace
according to the plans of Johann Michael Knapp to celebrate the rule
of King Wilhelm I. A decade later, the Königsbau was constructed
by Knapp and court architect
Christian Friedrich von Leins
Christian Friedrich von Leins as a
concert hall. Another milestone in Stuttgart's history was the
running of the first rail line from
Untertürkheim on 22
October 1845. The advent of
Germany heralded a
major growth of population for Stuttgart: In 1834,
35,200 inhabitants, rose to 50,000 in 1852, 69,084 inhabitants in
1864, and finally 91,000 residents in 1871. By 1874, Stuttgart
once again exceeded the 100,000 inhabitant mark. This number doubled,
due to the incorporation of local towns, to approximately 185,000 in
1901 and then 200,000 in 1904. In 1871,
Württemberg joined the German
Empire created by Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister of Prussia, during
the Unification of Germany, as an autonomous kingdom.
Stuttgart is purported to be the location of the automobile's
Karl Benz and then industrialized by
Gottlieb Daimler and
Wilhelm Maybach in a small workshop in
Bad Cannstatt that would become
Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft in 1887. As a result, it is
considered to be the starting point of the worldwide automotive
industry and is sometimes referred to as the 'cradle of the
automobile', and today
Porsche both have their
headquarters in Stuttgart, as well as automotive parts giants Bosch
and Mahle. The year prior,
Robert Bosch opened his first "Workshop for
Precision Mechanics and Electrical Engineering" in Stuttgart. In 1907,
the International Socialist Congress was held in
attended by about 60,000 people. In 1912,
VfB Stuttgart was
founded. Two years later, the current iteration of the Stuttgart
Hauptbahnhof was completed according to plan by
Paul Bonatz from 1914
During World War I, the city was a target of air raids. In 1915, 29
bombs struck the city and the nearby Rotebühlkaserne, killing four
soldiers and injuring another 43, and likewise killing four civilians.
The next major air raid on
Stuttgart occurred 15 September 1918, when
structural damage caused house collapses that killed eleven
At the end of the First World War, November revolutionaries
stormed the Wilhelmpalais on 30 November 1918 to force King Wilhelm II
to abdicate, but failed halfway. Under pressure from the
revolutionaries, Wilhelm II refused the crown, but also refused to
abdicate the throne. When he did eventually abdicate, the Free
Württemberg was established as a part of the Weimar
Stuttgart was declared its capital. On 26 April 1919, a
new constitution was devised, and the final draft was approved and
ratified on 25 September 1919 by the Constituent Assembly. In 1920,
Stuttgart temporarily became the seat of the German National
Government when the administration fled from
Berlin from the Kapp
Putsch. Also in 1920,
Erwin Rommel became the company commander of
the 13th Infantry Regiment based in
Stuttgart and would remain as such
for the next nine years.
Due to the Nazi Party's practice of Gleichschaltung, Stuttgart's
political importance as state capital became totally nonexistent,
though it remained the cultural and economic center of the central
Neckar region. Stuttgart, one of the cities bestowed an honorary title
by the Nazi regime, was given the moniker "City of the Abroad Germans"
in 1936. The first prototypes of the
were manufactured in Stuttgart, according to designs by Ferdinand
Porsche, by a design team including
Erwin Komenda and Karl
The Hotel Silber (English: Silver), previously occupied by other forms
of political police, was occupied by the
Gestapo in 1933 to detain and
torture political dissidents. The hotel was used for the transit
of Nazi prisoners of conscience including celebrities like Eugen Bolz,
Kurt Schumacher, and
Lilo Herrmann to their inevitable deaths in
concentration camps. The nearby court at Archive Street (German:
Archivstraße) 12A was also used as a central location for executions
in Southwest Germany, as the headstone located in its atrium dedicated
to the 419 lives lost there recalls. Participants of the
Kristallnacht burned the Old Synagogue to the ground along with
the relics contained within and also destroyed its Jewish
cemetery. The next year the Nazi regime began the arrests and
deportation of Stuttgart's Jewish inhabitants, beginning with the
entire male Jewish population of Stuttgart, to the police-run prison
Welzheim or directly to Dachau. Other Jews from around
Württemberg were brought to
Stuttgart and housed in the ghetto on the
former Trade Fair grounds in Killesberg. As the Memorial at Stuttgart
North records, between 1941 (the first train arrived 1 December
1941, and took around 1,000 men to Riga) and 1945, more than 2,000
Jews from all over Württemberg were deported to Theresienstadt,
Auschwitz, and the ghettos at
Riga and Izbica. Of them, only 180 held
Internment survived the Shoah.
Stuttgart, like many of Germany's major cities, was savaged throughout
the war by Allied air raids. For the first four years of the war,
successful air raids on the city were rare because of the capable
defense of the city by
Wehrmacht ground forces, the Luftwaffe, and
artificial fog. Despite opinions among some Royal Air Force
members that day-time air raids on the city were suicidal,
substantial damage to the city's industrial capacity still occurred,
such as the 25 August bombing of the
Daimler AG plant in 1940 that
killed five people. With the war increasingly turning against the
Third Reich, more and more troops were pulled from the defense of the
city in 1943 to fight on the Eastern Front. In 1944, the city
center was entirely in ruins due to British and American bombers that
could now more easily attack the city. The heaviest raid took place on
12 September 1944, when the Royal Air Force, dropping over 184,000
bombs – including 75 blockbusters – leveled Stuttgart's city
center, killing 957 people in the resulting firestorm. In
Stuttgart was subjected to 53 bombing raids, resulting in
the destruction of 57.7% of all buildings in the city,[e] the deaths
of 4,477 denizens, the disappearance of 85 citizens, and the injury of
8,908 more people. The Allies lost 300 aircraft and seven to ten
enlisted men. To commemorate the city citizens who died during
the war, the rubble was assembled and used to create the Birkenkopf.
The Allied ground advance into
Stuttgart in April
1945. Although the attack on the city was to be conducted by the US
Seventh Army's 100th Infantry Division, French leader Charles de
Gaulle found this to be unacceptable, as he felt the capture of the
Free French forces
Free French forces would increase French influence in
post-war decisions. Independently, he directed General de Lattre to
order the French 5th Armored Division, 2nd Moroccan Infantry Division
3rd Algerian Infantry Division
3rd Algerian Infantry Division to begin their drive to Stuttgart
on 18 April 1945. Two days later, the French forces coordinated with
the US Seventh Army and VI Corps heavy artillery, who began a barrage
the city. The French 5th Armored Division then captured
21 April 1945, encountering little resistance. The city fared
poorly under their direction; French troops forcefully quartered their
troops in what housing remained in the city, rapes were frequent
(there were at least 1389 recorded incidents of rape of civilians by
French soldiers), and the city's surviving populace were
poorly rationed.[f] The circumstances of what later became known as
Stuttgart Crisis" provoked political repercussions that reached
even the White House. President
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman was unable to get De
Gaulle to withdraw troops from
Stuttgart until after the final
boundaries of the zones of occupation were established. The
French army remained in the city until they finally relented to
American demands on 8 July 1945 and withdrew.
Stuttgart then became
capital of Württemberg-Baden, one of the three areas of Allied
occupation in Baden-Württemberg, from 1945 until 1952.
The military government of the American occupation zone established a
Displaced persons camp
Displaced persons camp for displaced persons, mostly forced labourers
from Central and Eastern European industrial firms in the area.
There was, however, a camp located in
Stuttgart-West that, until its
closure and transportation of internees to
Heidenheim an der Brenz
Heidenheim an der Brenz in
1949, housed almost exclusively 1400 Jewish survivors of the Shoah.
An early concept of the
Marshall Plan aimed at supporting
reconstruction and economic/political recovery across Europe was
presented during a speech 6 September 1946 given by US Secretary of
James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes at the
Stuttgart Opera House. His speech
led to the unification of the British and American occupation zones,
resulting in the 'bi-zone' (later the 'tri-zone' when the French
reluctantly agreed to cede their occupied territory to the new state).
In 1948, the city applied to become the capital of the soon to-be
Federal Republic of Germany, and was a serious contender against
Frankfurt, Kassel, and Bonn. All these cities were examined by the
Parlamentarischer Rat, but ultimately
Bonn won the bid when the
Republic was founded on 23 May 1949. The city's bid for capital
failed primarily because of the financial burdens its high rents would
place on the government.
The immediate aftermath of the War would be marked by the
controversial efforts of Arnulf Klett, the first Oberbürgermesiter of
Stuttgart, to restore the city. Klett favored the idea of a modernist
Automotive city with functional divisions for residential, commercial
and industrial areas according to the
Athens Charter. Klett demolished
both ruins and entire streets of largely undamaged buildings without
rebuilding them to their original visage, a move that earned him much
scorn from his contemporaries. In the 150th year since his death
(1955), the last remnant of the alma mater of Friederich Schiller, the
Karlsschule, was removed in favor of an expansion to the Bundesstraße
14. Klett also dramatically expanded the public transportation of
Stuttgart with the
Stuttgart Stadtbahn and, in 1961, initiated a city
partnership with the French city of
Strasbourg as part of an attempt
to mend Franco-German relations. It would be finalized in 1962 and is
still active today. Klett's
Stuttgart saw two major media events:
the same year the partnership with
Strasbourg was finalized, then
Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle visited the city and Ludwigsburg
Palace in the ending moments of his state visit to Germany, and
Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II of the
United Kingdom visited the city 24 May
On 25 April 1952, the other two parts of the former
German states of
Baden and Württemberg, South
Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern
merged and formed the modern German state of Baden-Württemberg, with
Stuttgart as its capital. Since the 1950s,
Stuttgart has been the
third largest city in southern
Frankfurt and Munich.
The city's population, halved by the Second World War, began sudden
growth with the mass influx of German refugees expelled from their
homes and communities by the Soviets from the late 1940s until 1950 to
the city. Economic migrants, called "Gastarbeiter," from Italy, and
Turkey but primarily from Yugoslavia, came flocking
Stuttgart because of the economic wonder called the
"Wirtschaftswunder" unfolding in West Germany. These factors saw
the city reach its (then) peak population of 640,000 in 1962.
In the late 1970s, the municipal district of Stammheim was center
stage to one of the most controversial periods of German post-war
history. Stammheim Prison, built from 1959 to 1963, came to be the
place of incarceration for Ulrike Meinhof, Andreas Baader, Gudrun
Ensslin, and Jan-Carl Raspe, members of a communist terrorist
organization known as the Red Army Faction, during their trial at the
Stuttgart in 1975. Several attempts were made by the
organization to free the terrorists during the "German Autumn" of 1977
that culminated in such events as the kidnap and murder of
Hanns-Martin Schleyer and the hijacking of Lufthansa Flight 181. When
it became clear, after many attempts to free the inmates including the
smuggling of three weapons into the prison by their lawyer,
that the terrorists could not escape and that they would receive Life
sentencing, the terrorists killed themselves[g] in April 1977 in an
event remembered locally as the "Todesnacht von Stammheim," "Night of
Death at Stammheim."
The trauma of the early 1970s was quickly left behind, starting in
Germany with the
1974 FIFA World Cup
1974 FIFA World Cup and the opening of the
Stuttgart S-Bahn on 1 October 1978 with a scheduled three routes. from
17 to 19 June 1983, ten European heads of state and representatives
European Union met in
Stuttgart for a summit and there made
the Solemn Declaration on European Union. Three years later in
1986, the European Athletics Championships of that year were held in
Mercedes-Benz Arena. Mikhail Gorbachev, while on a trip to West
Germany to offer a spot for a West German astronaut in a Soviet space
Stuttgart 14 June 1989 and was the honored guest
of a sumptuous reception held at the Stuttgart.
Since the monumental happenings of the 1980s,
Stuttgart has continued
being an important center of not just Europe, but also the world. In
1993, the World Horticultural Exposition, for which two new bridges
were built, and World Athletics Championships of that year took
Stuttgart in the Killesburg park and
respectively, bringing millions of new visitors to the city. At the
1993 WCA, British athlete
Sally Gunnell and the
United States Relay
team both set world records. In 2003,
Stuttgart applied for the 2012
Summer Olympics but failed in their bid when the German Committee for
the Olympics decided on
Leipzig to host the Olympics in Germany. Three
years later, in 2006,
Stuttgart once again hosted the FIFA World Cup
as it had in 1974.
Stuttgart still experienced some growing pains even long after its
recovery from the Second World War. In 2010, the inner city become the
focal point of the protests against the controversial
During the sexual assaults perpetrated by gangs of migrant men across
Germany in 2016, at least 72 complaints were filed to city police of
which 17 were sexual assault reports. One assailant, a 20 year
old asylum seeker from Iraq, was detained for the sexual assaults of
two girls as part of a group of other participants in the
US Military in Stuttgart
Since shortly after the end of World War II, there has been a US
military presence in Stuttgart. At the height of the
Cold War over
45,000 Americans were stationed across over 40 installations in and
around the city. Today about 10,000 Americans are stationed on 4
installations representing all branches of service within the
Department of Defense, unlike the mostly Army presence of the
Occupation and Cold War.
In March 1946 the
US Army established a unit of the US Constabulary
and a Headquarters at Kurmärker Kaserne (later renamed Patch
Barracks) in Stuttgart. These units of soldiers retrained in patrol
and policing provided the law and order in the American zone of
Germany until the civilian German police forces could be
re-established. In 1948 the Headquarters for all Constabulary
forces was moved to Stuttgart. In 2008 a memorial to the US
Constabulary was installed and dedicated at Patch Barracks. The
US Constabulary headquarters was disbanded in 1950 and most of the
force was merged into the newly organized 7th Army. As the Cold War
US Army VII Corps was re-formed in July 1950 and assigned to
Hellenen Kaserne (renamed
Kelley Barracks in 1951) where the
headquarters was to remain throughout the Cold War.
In 1990 VII Corps was deployed directly from
Germany to Saudi Arabia
Desert Shield and
Desert Storm to include many of the
VII Corps troops stationed in and around Stuttgart. After returning
from the Middle East, the bulk of VII Corps units were reassigned to
United States or deactivated. The VII Corps Headquarters returned
Germany for a short period to close out operations and was
deactivated later in the United States. The withdrawal of VII Corps
caused a large reduction in the US military presence in the city and
region and led to the closure of the majority of US installations in
Stuttgart which resulted in the layoff of many local
civilians who had been career employees of the US Army.
Patch Barracks in
Stuttgart has been home to the US EUCOM.
In 2007 AFRICOM was established as a cell within EUCOM and in 2008
established as the US
Unified Combatant Command
Unified Combatant Command responsible for most
of Africa headquartered at Kelley Barracks. Due to these 2 major
Stuttgart has been identified as one of the few
"enduring communities" where the
United States forces will continue to
operate in Germany. The remaining U.S. bases around
US Army Garrison
Stuttgart and include Patch Barracks,
Panzer Kaserne and Kelley Barracks. From the
World War II
World War II until the early 1990s these installations
excepting Patch were almost exclusively Army, but have become
increasingly "Purple"—as in joint service—since the end of the
Cold War as they are host to
United States Department of Defense
Unified Commands and supporting activities.
Main article: Geography of Stuttgart
Stuttgart looking southeast. From the
Neckar valley on the
left the city rises to the city center, backed by high woods to the
south (television tower).
Stuttgart South and
Stuttgart West are to
Stuttgart lies in a fertile bowl-shaped valley about 900 feet
(270 m) above sea level,[h] an hour from the Black Forest
and Swabian Jura on the banks of the
Neckar river at
48°47′0″N 9°11′0″E / 48.78333°N 9.18333°E /
48.78333; 9.18333 115 miles (185 km) to the west and north of
Munich. The city is often described as being "zwischen Wald und
Reben", or "between forest and vines" because of its viticulture and
proximity to the nearby forests. Local residents refer to the basin as
the Stuttgarter Kessel, or "
Stuttgart cauldron," during the summer
months because of its hot and humid climate that is frequently warmer
than the surrounding countryside of Württemberg.
Stuttgart covers an area of 207.35 km2 (80 sq mi) and
sits at elevation ranging from 207 m (679 ft) above sea
level by the
Neckar river to 549 m (1,801 ft) on
Bernhartshöhe hill – something rather unique in large German
cities. The most prominent elevated locales in
Stuttgart are the
Birkenkopf (511 m (1,677 ft)) on the edge of the Stuttgart
Württemberg (411 m (1,348 ft)) rising above the
Neckar valley, and the
Grüner Heiner (395 m (1,296 ft)) at
the northeast end of the city.
Stuttgart Region with Centers
Stuttgart is one of 14 Regional centers in
Baden-Württemberg and is
naturally the primary center of the
Stuttgart Region, making it the
administrative center for a region of 3,700 square kilometres
(1,400 sq mi) containing a total of 2.76 million people as
of December 2014. In addition to this,
Stuttgart serves as a
Mittelzentrum for Esslingen District cities Leinfelden-Echterdingen
and Filderstadt, and Ditzingen, and
Gerlingen and Korntal-Münchingen
Stuttgart is also chief of the three centers
Stuttgart Metropolitan Region, an area of 15,000 square kilometres
(5,800 sq mi) containing 5.3 million persons.
Mittelzentrum / Middle-Stage centers of the
Bietigheim-Bissingen / Besigheim,
Böblingen / Sindelfingen,
Esslingen am Neckar, Geislingen,
Göppingen / Herrenberg, Kirchheim
unter Teck, Leonberg,
Ludwigsburg / Kornwestheim, Nürtingen,
Waiblingen / Fellbach
City center, winter
Stuttgart experiences an
Oceanic climate (Cfb), just like the
British Isles and Northern France, but it is very extreme at times. As
a result of the urban heat island caused by the dense development of
the city, inside its "Cauldron" average temperatures in the summer
months regularly beat 20 °C (68 °F) from June to August
and come very near in September. In the winter temperatures are quite
mild, with daily means never sinking below 0 °C (32 °F)
even in the coldest months (January and February). In spite of the
heat, there is no dry season and the city receives frequent but
moderate precipitation year-round. Annually, the city receives
869 mm (34.2 in) of rain (German average national annual
rainfall is 700 mm (28 in)). On average, Stuttgart
enjoys 1,807 hours of sunshine per year and an average annual
temperature of 9 °C (48 °F).
Typically during summer months, the nearby hills, Swabian Alb
mountains, and Black Forest, Schurwald, and Swabian-Franconian Forest
act as a shield from harsh weather but the city can be subject to
thunderstorms, whereas in the winter periods snow may last for several
days. Winters last from December to March. The coldest month is
January with an average temperature of 0 °C (32 °F). Snow
cover tends to last no longer than a few days although it has been
known to last several weeks at a time as recently as 2010. The summers
are warm with an average temperature of 20 °C (68 °F) in
the hottest months of July and August. Summers last from May until
September. Though it is a rare occurrence in Stuttgart, the city
sometimes receives damaging hailstorms, such as in July 2013. In
order to fight this phenomenon, weather stations known as
"Hagelflieger" are stationed near the city and are largely funded by
Daimler AG, who maintain several parking lots and factories in the
Climate data for Stuttgart, elevation: 246.8 m or 810 ft
(1981–2010) extremes (1958–2004)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
Source #1: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst, note: sunshine
hours are from 1990–2012 
Source #2: KNMI
Landmarks and culture
Main article: Culture of Stuttgart
The inner city
The Stiftskirche, seen from the west (Stiftstraße)
At the center of
Stuttgart lies its main square, Schlossplatz. As well
as being the largest square in Stuttgart, it stands at the crossover
point between the city's shopping area, Schlossgarten park which runs
down to the river Neckar, Stuttgart's two central castles and major
museums and residential areas to the south west. Königstraße,
Stuttgart's most important shopping street which runs along the
northwestern edge of Schlossplatz, claims to be the longest
pedestrianized street in Germany.
Although the city center was heavily damaged during World War II,
many historic buildings have been reconstructed and the city boasts
some fine pieces of modern post-war architecture. Buildings and
squares of note in the inner city include:
The Alte Kanzlei on Schillerplatz square
The Stiftskirche (Collegiate Church), dates back to the 12th century,
but was changed to the Late Gothic style in the 15th century and has
been a Protestant church since 1534. Exterior: Romanesque/Gothic;
interior: Romanesque/Gothic/Modern. Reconstructed with simplified
interior after World War II.
Altes Schloss (the Old Castle), mostly dating from the late 15th
century, some parts date back to 1320.
Alte Kanzlei (the Old Chancellery) on Schillerplatz square which backs
onto the 1598 Mercury Pillar
Neues Schloss (the New Castle), completed in 1807.
Baroque/Classicism); reconstructed with modern interior, currently
houses government offices. The cellars with a collection of stone
fragments from the Roman times are open to visitors
Wilhelmpalais (the King Wilhelm Palais), 1840
Königsbau (the King's Building), 1850. Classicism; reconstructed; has
been housing the "Königsbau Passagen" shopping centre since 2006.
The Großes Haus of
Stuttgart National Theatre, 1909–1912
Markthalle Market Hall, 1910. (Art Nouveau)
The Hauptbahnhof (Main Railway Station) was designed in 1920; its
stark, functional lines are typical of the artistic trend 'Neue
Sachlichkeit' (New Objectivity)
Württembergische Landesbibliothek state library, rebuilt in 1970.
Friedrichsbau Varieté (Friedrich Building), rebuilt in 1994 on the
site of the former art nouveau building
Architecture in other districts
Wilhelma Zoo and Botanical Garden, around 1900
A number of significant castles stand in Stuttgart's suburbs and
beyond as reminders of the city's royal past. These include:
Castle Solitude, 1700–1800. Baroque/Rococo)
Ludwigsburg Palace, 1704–1758. Baroque, with its enormous baroque
Castle Hohenheim, 1771–1793
Other landmarks in and around
Stuttgart include (see also museums
Castle Rosenstein (1822–1830) Classical
Württemberg Mausoleum (1824) which holds the remains of Catherine
Russia and King William I of Württemberg
Wilhelma Zoo and Botanical Gardens (1853)
The Observation Tower of Burgholzhof an 1891 brick observation tower
constructed by the
Cannstatt municipal architect Friedrich Keppler on
behalf of the Verschönerungsverein
Cannstatt e. V. ("Society for the
Beautification of Cannstatt"), in the style of a Roman tower.
Weissenhof Estate (1927), (International Style)
The TV Tower (1950), the world's first concrete TV tower
Stuttgart Airport Terminal Building, 2000. In neighboring
Parks, lakes, cemeteries and other places of interest
The Johanneskirche on the Feuersee, designed by Christian Friedrich
Killesbergpark with fountains and vineyards in the background
At the center of
Stuttgart lies a series of gardens which are popular
with families and cyclists. Because of its shape on a map, the locals
refer to it as the Green U. The Green U starts with the old
Schlossgarten, castle gardens first mentioned in records in 1350. The
modern park stretches down to the river
Neckar and is divided into the
upper garden (bordering the Old Castle, the Main Station, the State
Theater and the State Parliament building), and the middle and lower
gardens – a total of 61 hectares. The park also houses Stuttgart
At the far end of Schlossgarten lies the second Green U park, the
Rosensteinpark which borders Stuttgart's
Wilhelma zoo and
botanical gardens. Planted by King William I of Württemberg, it
contains many old trees and open areas and counts as the largest
English-style garden in southern Germany. In the grounds of the park
stands the former Rosenstein castle, now the Rosenstein museum.
Beyond bridges over an adjacent main road lies the final Green U park,
Killesbergpark or 'Höhenpark' which is a former quarry that was
converted for the Third Reich garden show of 1939 (and was used as a
collection point for Jews awaiting transportation to concentration
camps). The park has been used to stage many gardening shows since the
1950s, including the
Bundesgartenschau and 1993 International
Gardening Show, and runs miniature trains all around the park in the
summer months for children and adults. The viewing tower
(Killesbergturm) offers unique views across to the north east of
On the northern edge of the
Rosensteinpark is the famous 'Wilhelma',
Germany's only combined zoological and botanical garden. The whole
compound, with its ornate pavilions, greenhouses, walls and gardens
was built around 1850 as a summer palace in moorish style for King
Wilhelm I of Württemberg. It currently houses around 8000 animals and
some 5000 plant species and contains the biggest magnolia grove in
Other parks in
Stuttgart include the historic Botanischer Garten der
Hohenheim and Landesarboretum
Castle Hohenheim (which date back to 1776 and are still used to
catalog and research plant species), Uhlandshöhe hill (between the
Bad Cannstatt and Frauenkopf, and home to Stuttgart
observatory), the Weißenburgpark (a five-hectare park in the Bopser
Stuttgart South which dates back to 1834 and is now home to a
'tea house' and the 'marble room' and offers a relaxing view across
the city center), the
Schuttberg (at 511 metres
(1,677 ft) the highest point in central Stuttgart, where many
ruins were laid to commemorate the Second World War), and the
Eichenhain park in
Sillenbuch (declared a nature reserve in 1958 and
home to 200 oak trees, many 300–400 years old).
View from the
Birkenkopf (partly a Schuttberg)
There are a number of natural and artificial lakes and ponds in
Stuttgart. The largest is the Max-Eyth-See, which was created in 1935
by reclaiming a former quarry and is now an official nature reserve.
It is surrounded by an expansive open area overlooked by vineyards on
the banks of the river
Neckar near [Mühlhausen]. There are expansive
areas of woodland to the west and south west of
Stuttgart which are
popular with walkers, families, cyclists and ramblers. The most
frequented lakes form a 3 km (1.9 mi) trio made up of the
Bärensee, Neuer See and Pfaffensee. The lakes are also used for local
In the Feuersee area in the west of
Stuttgart lies one of two
'Feuersee's (literally fire lakes), striking for its views of the
Johanneskirche (St. Johns) church across the lake, surrounded by
nearby houses and offices. The other Feuersee can be found in
The Hoppenlaufriedhof in Central Stuttgart, the oldest remaining
cemetery which dates back to 1626, an infirmary graveyard last used in
The Waldfriedhof, the 1913 forest cemetery that is connected to
Südheimer Platz by funicular railway
The Pragfriedhof, with its
Art Nouveau crematorium. Established in
1873 it was extended to include Jewish graves in 1874 and also now
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church of Alexander Nevsky
The Uff-Kirchhof cemetery in
Bad Cannstatt which stands at the
crossroads of two ancient
Roman roads and Cannstatter Hauptfriedhof,
the largest graveyard in
Stuttgart which has been used as a Muslim
burial ground since 1985.
The city boasts the largest mineral water deposits in Europe after
Budapest, with over 250 springs within the urban area.
Culture and events
The State Opera House
The Protestant Stiftskirche (originally built in 1170, pictured around
1900) with the memorial on Schillerplatz square in foreground
Stuttgart is known for its rich cultural heritage, in particular its
State Theatre (Staatstheater) and State Gallery (Staatsgalerie). The
Staatstheater is home to the State opera and three smaller theatres
and it regularly stages opera, ballet and theatre productions as well
as concerts. The Staatstheater was named Germany/Austria/Switzerland
"Theatre of the year" in 2006; the
Stuttgart Opera has won the 'Opera
of the year' award six times.
Stuttgart Ballet is connected to
John Cranko and Marcia Haydée.
Stuttgart is also home to one of Germany's most prestigious symphony
Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra, with famous
English conductor Sir Roger Norrington, who developed a distinct sound
of that orchestra, known as the
Stuttgart Sound. They mostly perform
in the Liederhalle concert hall.
The city offers two Broadway-style musical theaters, the Apollo and
the Palladium Theater (each approx. 1800 seats).
the nearby town of
Ludwigsburg is also used throughout the year as a
venue for concerts and cultural events.
As a result of Stuttgart's long history of viticulture (Even today
there are vineyards less than 500 m (1,640 ft) from the Main
Station), there are more than 400 flights of stairs (known in the
local dialect as the "Stäffele") around the city, equivalent to
approximately 20 km (12 mi) of steps. Later, in the
early 19th Century, the city continued to grow and many vineyards were
replaced by houses and streets and the Stäffele were used as foot
paths to connect the newly built neighborhoods. Some of the stairs
were elaborately decorated with fountains and plantings.
The Schleyerhalle sports arena is regularly used to stage rock and pop
concerts with major international stars on European tour.
Stuttgart's Swabian cuisine, beer and wine have been produced in the
area since the 17th century and are now famous throughout
beyond. For example,
Gaisburger Marsch is a stew that was
invented in Stuttgart's Gaisburg area of
Cannstatter Volksfest in the district of 'Bad Cannstatt'
In October 2009 the
Stuttgart Ministry of Agriculture announced that
European Union was to officially recognise the pasta dish
Maultaschen as a "regional specialty", thus marking its significance
to the cultural heritage of Baden-Württemberg.
Stuttgart hosted the International Garden Show in the suburb
of Killesberg. In 2006 it was also one of the host cities of the
Football World Cup. In 2007,
Stuttgart hosted the 2007 World Artistic
Gymnastics Championships. In 2008 it was host to the World Individual
Debating and Public Speaking Championships.
Regular events that take place in Stuttgart:
The world-famous annual 'Volksfest', originally a traditional
agricultural fair which now also hosts beer tents and a French village
and is second in size only to the
Oktoberfest in Munich. There is also
a Spring festival on the same grounds in April of each year.
With more than 3.6 million visitors in 2007 and more than 200
stands, Stuttgart's Christmas Market, running from late November to 23
December, is the largest and one of the oldest traditional
Christmas markets in Europe. It is especially renowned for its
abundant decorations and takes place in the four weeks leading up to
The Fish Market (Hamburger Fischmarkt, late July) with fresh fish,
other food and beer from Hamburg.
The Summer Festival (
Stuttgart Sommerfest, usually in early August)
with shows, music, children's entertainment and local cuisine in
Schlossplatz, Stuttgart and adjacent parks
The Lantern Festival (Lichterfest, early July) in Killesberg park with
its famous firework display and fairground attractions
The Wine Village (Weindorf, late August/early September) – vintages
are sold at this event held at Schlossplatz and Upper Palace
Entrance to the Old State Gallery
Württemberg crown jewels on display in the State Museum of
Württemberg (Old Castle)
Stuttgart is home to five of the eleven state museums in
Baden-Württemberg. The foremost of these is the Old State Gallery
(opened in 1843, extended in 1984) which holds art dating from the
14th to 19th century including works by Rubens, Rembrandt, Monet,
Renoir, Cézanne and Beuys. Next door to the Old State Gallery is the
New State Gallery (1980) with its controversial modern architecture.
Among others, this gallery houses works from Max Beckmann, Dalí,
Matisse, Miró, Picasso, Klee, Chagall and Kandinsky.
The Old Castle is also home to the State Museum of
was founded in 1862 by William I of Württemberg. The museum traces
the rich history of
Württemberg with many artifacts from the its
dukes, counts and kings, as well as earlier remnants dating back to
the stone age. On the Karlsplatz side of the Old Castle is a museum
dedicated to the memory of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, former
Stuttgart who attempted to assassinate
Adolf Hitler on 20
Other leading museums in
The History Museum (Haus der Geschichte, 1987), examining local
history, finds, the conflict between modern society and its cultural
State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart
State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart (SMNS) in Park Rosenstein
housed in Castle Rosenstein (with an emphasis on biology and natural
history) and Löwentor Museum (paleontology and geology, home of the
Steinheim Skull and many unique fossils from the triassic, jurassic
and tertiary periods)
Mercedes-Benz Museum (1936, moved in 2006), now the most visited
Stuttgart (440,000 visits per year). The museum traces
the 125-year history of the automobile from the legendary silver arrow
Mercedes-Benz brand of today
Stuttgart Art Museum (Kunstmuseum Stuttgart, 2005), the number two
Stuttgart in terms of visitors with a strong leaning towards
modern art (the foremost exhibition of
Otto Dix works. The museum
stands on the corner of
Schlossplatz, Stuttgart in a huge glass cube,
in strong contrast to the surrounding traditional architecture.
Porsche Museum (1976, reopened in 2008 on new premises).
Hegel House (Hegelhaus), birthplace of the philosopher Georg Wilhelm
Friedrich Hegel which documents his life works
The Linden Museum, established in 1911, a leading international
Stuttgart Tram Museum (Straßenbahnwelt Stuttgart) in Bad Cannstatt, a
display of historical vehicles dating back to 1868
Theodor Heuss House (Theodor-Heuss-Haus, 2002) in Killesbergpark, a
tribute to the life and times of the former German president
The North Station Memorial (Gedenkstätte am Nordbahnhof Stuttgart) in
memory of the 2000 or so Jewish holocaust victims deported by the
Nazis from the now disused North Station
Stuttgart is the seat of a Protestant bishop (Protestant State Church
in Württemberg) and one of the two co-seats of the bishop of the
Roman Catholic Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart. The Stuttgart-based
Pentecostal Gospel Forum is the largest place of worship (megachurch)
in Germany. It is also home to a large English speaking church,
The International Baptist Church of Stuttgart.
State Library of Wurttemberg
Central State Archive
Württembergische Landesbibliothek (WLB) is one of two state
libraries for Baden-Württemberg. The WLB is specifically responsible
for the administrative regions of
Stuttgart and Tübingen. Especially
devoted to the National Library of acquiring, cataloging, archiving
and provision of literature about Württemberg, called
Württembergica. Together with the
Badische Landesbibliothek (BLB) in
Karlsruhe it also has the legal deposit for Baden-Württemberg, making
it an archive library.
Stuttgart University Library (UBS) is a central institution of the
University of Stuttgart
University of Stuttgart . It forms the center of the library system of
the University, ensuring the supply of research, teaching and studies
with literature and other information resources. It stands next to the
members of the University and citizens of the city are available.
Together with other research libraries and documentation centers in
Stuttgart area – such as the
University of Hohenheim
University of Hohenheim Library –
it forms the UBS Library Information System of the
The Central State Archive
Stuttgart is the archive in charge of the
Ministries of the State of Baden-Württemberg. Since 1965, it is
located right next to the WLB and belongs since 2005 as a department
of the Landesarchiv
Baden-Württemberg in. It includes the stocks of
the county and the duchy
Württemberg until 1806, the Württemberg
central authorities of the 19th and 20th century and the early 19th
century as a result of media coverage of fallen
and imperial cities in South Württemberg.
Stuttgart is the archive in charge of the provincial
capital Stuttgart. The archived material is in principle open to the
public and can be consulted in the reading room in Bellingweg 21 in
The Landeskirchliche Archives preserve the stocks of the Württemberg
church leaders and of other ecclesial bodies and institutions: the
ducal and royal
Württemberg consistory, the Evangelical Supreme
Ecclesiastical Council, deanery and parish archives, educational
institutions, the works and associations as well as estates and
collections. It also has the microfilms of all church books
(especially baptism, marriage, and family Death's Register) in the
area of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg.
The "Archive instigator" is dedicated to the dead of the city. Since
2005, the instigators are working on a memoir about "The dead town".
So far, about 5,000 names of victims of the regime of National
Socialism have been acquired.
There are two large tours that are available to visitors to Stuttgart.
The first is the Hop-on Hop-off bus tour (also called the CityTour
Stuttgart), lasting from 10 AM to 4 PM that takes visitors around the
city. The other is the Neckar-Käpt'n, only available from May to
October, which cruises on the
Neckar river from its dock at Wilhelma
in Bad Cannstatt.
The population of
Stuttgart declined steadily between 1960 (637,539)
and 2000 (586,978). Then low levels of unemployment and attractive
secondary education opportunities led to renewed population growth,
fuelled especially by young adults from the former East Germany.
For the first time in decades, in 2006 there were also more births in
the city than deaths. In April 2008 there were 590,720 inhabitants in
Largest groups of foreign residents
Bosnia and Herzegovina
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2017)
More than half of the population today is not of Swabian background,
as many non-Swabian Germans have moved here due to the employment
situation, which is far better than in most areas of Germany. Since
the 1960s, many foreigners have also immigrated to
Stuttgart to work
here (as part of the "Gastarbeiter" program); another wave of
immigrants came as refugees from the Wars in
Yugoslavia in the 1990s.
Thus, 40% of the city's population is of foreign background. In 2000,
22.8% of the population did not hold German citizenship, in 2006 this
had reduced to 21.7%. The largest groups of foreign nationals were
Greeks (14,341), Italians (13,978),
Serbs (11,547) followed by immigrants from Romania, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Portugal, Poland, France, and Austria. 39% of foreign
nationals come from the
European Union (mostly Italy, Greece, and
The religious landscape in
Stuttgart changed in 1534 as a direct
result of the Reformation. Since this time
Württemberg has been
predominantly Protestant. However, since 1975 the number of
Stuttgart has dropped from around 300,000 to 200,000.
In 2014, 26.2% of inhabitants were Protestant and 24.0% were Roman
Catholic. 49.8% of the population fell into other categories: Muslims,
Jews and those who either followed no religion or one not accounted
for in official statistics.
Unemployment in the
Stuttgart Region is above the average of
Baden-Württemberg, but very low compared to other metropolitan areas
in Germany. In November 2008, before the annual winter rise,
unemployment in the
Stuttgart Region stood at 3.8%, 0.1% lower than
the rate for Baden-Württemberg, in February 2009 it was 4.7%.
Unemployment in the actual city of
Stuttgart during the same periods
stood at 5.2% and 6.0% (8 Nov and 9 Feb respectively). By comparison:
unemployment for the whole of
Germany stood at 7.1% (8 Nov) and 8.5%
Stuttgart ranks as one of the safest cities in Germany. In 2003, 8535
crimes were committed in
Stuttgart for every 100,000 inhabitants
(versus the average for all German cities of 12,751). Figures for
2006 indicate that
Stuttgart ranked second behind Munich. 60% of
Stuttgart crimes were solved in 2003, ranking second behind Nuremberg.
Stuttgart Town Hall (Rathaus)
Stuttgart's current Bürgermeister (mayor) is
Fritz Kuhn of the
Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens party (German Green party).
City government past and present
Stuttgart was run as a (or within) the Duchy of Württemberg, it
was governed by a type of protectorate called a
Vogt appointed by the
Duke. After 1811 this role was fulfilled by a City Director or
'Stadtdirektor'. After 1819 the community elected its own community
mayor or 'Schultheiß'. Since 1930 the title of Oberbürgermeister
(the nearest equivalent of which would be an executive form of Lord
Mayor in English) has applied to
Stuttgart and all other Württemberg
towns of more than 20,000 inhabitants.
At the end of the Second World War, French administrators appointed
the independent politician
Arnulf Klett as Burgomaster, a role he
fulfilled without interruption until his death in 1974. Since this
Stuttgart has mainly been governed by the CDU. One former mayor
Manfred Rommel (son of perhaps the most famous German field
marshal of World War II, Erwin Rommel).
As the capital of Baden-Württemberg,
Stuttgart is an important
political centre in
Germany and the seat of the State Parliament, or
Landtag as well as all
Baden-Württemberg state departments.
In June 2009, for the first time the Greens gained the most seats in a
German city with more than 500,000 inhabitants, effectively changing
the balance of power in the city council. For the first time since
1972 the CDU no longer held the most seats, toppling its absolute
majority shared with the Independent Party and the FDP. According to
the German newspaper Die Welt, the main reason for the Greens' victory
was disgruntlement with the controversial
Stuttgart 21 rail
The city of
Stuttgart is administratively divided into 23 city
districts – five "Inner" districts and 18 "Outer" districts.
Each district has a Council headed by a District Director. From there,
the districts are broken down into Quarters. Since the changes in city
statutes 1 July 2007 and 1 January 2009, the total number of quarters
rose to 152.
The 23 Municipalities and their Districts
Bad Cannstatt (18),
Degerloch (5), Feuerbach
Hedelfingen (4), Möhringen (9), Mühlhausen (5),
Sillenbuch (3), Stammheim (2),
Untertürkheim (8), Vaihingen (12), Wangen (1),
Click me! Municipalities and Districts of Stuttgart
Recent election results
Federal German parliament
Federal German parliament
Stuttgart area is known for its high-tech industry. Some of its
most prominent companies include Daimler AG, Porsche, Bosch, Celesio,
Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Sika – all of whom have their world or
European headquarters here.
Stuttgart is home to Germany's ninth biggest exhibition center,
Stuttgart Trade Fair
Stuttgart Trade Fair which lies on the city outskirts next to
Stuttgart Airport. Hundreds of SMEs are still based in Stuttgart
(often termed Mittelstand), many still in family ownership with strong
ties to the automotive, electronics, engineering and high-tech
Stuttgart has the highest general standard of prosperity of any city
in Germany. Its nominal GDP per capita is €57,100 and GDP
purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is €55,400. Total GDP of
Stuttgart is €33.9 billion, of which service sector contributes
around 65.3%, industry 34.5%, and agriculture 0.2%.
The cradle of the automobile
The automobile and motorcycle were purported to have been invented in
Karl Benz and subsequently industrialized in 1887 by
Gottlieb Daimler and
Wilhelm Maybach at the Daimler Motoren
Gesellschaft). As a result, it is considered to be the starting point
of the worldwide automotive industry and is sometimes referred to as
the 'cradle of the automobile'. Today,
Mercedes-Benz and Porsche
both have their headquarters in Stuttgart, as well as automotive parts
giants Bosch and Mahle. A number of auto-enthusiast magazines are
published in Stuttgart.
Science and research and development
The region currently has Germany's highest density of scientific,
academic and research organisations. No other region in Germany
registers so many patents and designs as Stuttgart. Almost 45% of
Baden-Württemberg scientists involved in R&D are based directly
in the Swabian capital. More than 11% of all German R&D costs are
invested in the
Stuttgart Region (approximately 4.3 billion euros
per year). In addition to several universities and colleges (e.g.
University of Stuttgart, University of Hohenheim,
of Management and Technology and several
Stuttgart Universities of
Applied Sciences), the area is home to six Fraunhofer institutes, four
institutes of collaborative industrial research at local universities,
two Max-Planck institutes and a major establishment of the German
Aerospace Centre (DLR).
The 'Königsbau' on Schlossplatz, former home to the
Stuttgart Stock Exchange is the second largest in
Frankfurt). Many leading companies in the financial services sector
are headquartered in
Stuttgart with around 100 credit institutes in
total (e.g. LBBW Bank, Wüstenrot & Württembergische, Allianz
Kriegsberg vineyard in the city center
A history of wine and beer
Stuttgart is the only city in
Germany where wine grapes are grown
within the urban area, mainly in the districts of Rotenberg, Uhlbach
Wine-growing in the area dates back to 1108 when, according to State
Blaubeuren Abbey was given vineyards in
Stuttgart as a gift
from 'Monk Ulrich'. In the 17th century the city was the third largest
German wine-growing community in the Holy Roman Empire. Wine remained
Stuttgart's leading source of income well into the 19th century.
Stuttgart is still one of Germany's largest wine-growing cities with
more than 400 hectares of vine area, thanks in main to its location at
the center of Germany's fourth largest wine region, the Württemberg
wine growing area which covers 11,522 hectares (28,470 acres) and is
one of only 13 official areas captured under German Wine law. The
continuing importance of wine to the local economy is marked every
year at the annual wine festival ('Weindorf').
Stuttgart also has several famous breweries such as Stuttgarter
Hofbräu, Dinkelacker, and Schwaben Bräu.
Education and research
The new building of the State University of Music and Performing Arts,
designed by James Stirling
Stuttgart and its region have been home to some significant figures of
German thought and literature, the most important ones being Georg
Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Hölderlin.
The city, in its engineering tradition as the cradle of the
automobile, has also always been a fruitful place of research and
Stuttgart has Germany's second-highest number of
institutions (six) of applied research of the Fraunhofer Society
The city is not considered a traditional university city, but
nevertheless has a variety of institutions of higher education. The
most significant of them are:
University of Stuttgart, it is the fourth biggest university in
Baden-Württemberg after Heidelberg,
Tübingen and Freiburg. Founded
in 1829, it was a Technische Hochschule ("Technical University") until
1967, when it was renamed to "university". Its campus for social
sciences and architecture is located in the city centre, near the main
train station, while the natural science campus is in the southwestern
city district of Vaihingen. Historically, it has been especially
renowned for its faculty of architecture (Stuttgarter Schule). Today,
its main focus is on engineering and other technical subjects.
University of Hohenheim, founded in 1818 as an academy for
agricultural science and forestry. While these subjects are still
taught there today, its other focus today is on business
administration. It is located in
Hohenheim quarter of the southern
city district of Plieningen.
State University of Music and Performing Arts Stuttgart, founded in
1857, located in the city center, next to the Neue Staatsgalerie.
State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart, one of the biggest art
colleges in Germany, founded in 1761, located in the Killesberg
quarter of the northern city district Stuttgart-Nord.
Stuttgart Media University (
Hochschule der Medien Stuttgart), founded
in 2001 as a university of applied sciences, a merger of the former
College of Printing and Publishing and the College of Librarianship,
located in Vaihingen.
Stuttgart Technology University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule für
Technik Stuttgart), founded in 1832 as a college for craftsmanship,
university of applied sciences since 1971, located in the city center,
near the University of Stuttgart's city-center campus.
University of Cooperative Education Baden-Württemberg, founded in
1974, with a focus on practical experience, subjects are business,
technology and social work.
Historically, an elite military academy existed in
Stuttgart in the
late 18th century (1770–1794), the Hohe Karlsschule, at Solitude
Friedrich Schiller and the city's most famous Classicist
architect, Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret, were among its many
Primary and secondary education
Waldorf School (also known as
Rudolf Steiner School) was
founded here in 1919 by the director of the Waldorf Astoria tobacco
factory, Emil Molt, and Austrian social thinker Rudolf Steiner, a
comprehensive school following Steiner's educational principles of
anthroposophy and humanistic ideals. Today, four of these schools are
located in Stuttgart.
Stuttgart is home to the International School of
Stuttgart, one of less than 100 schools worldwide that offer all
International Baccalaureate programs- the IB Primary Years
(Early Learning to Grade 5), IB Middle Years (Grade 6 to 10), IB
Diploma (grades 11–12). The International School of Stuttgart
is accredited by both the Council of International Schools and the New
England Association of Schools and Colleges.
Media and publishing
One of the headquarters of the public
Südwestrundfunk (SWR; Southwest
Broadcasting) channels (several radio and one TV channel; regional
focus on the southwestern German States of
Rhineland-Palatinate) is located in
Stuttgart (the other ones being
Baden and Mainz). It also has a Landesmedienzentrum, a State
Furthermore, the city is a significant centre of publishing and
specialist printing, with renowned houses such as Georg von
Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, Ernst Klett Verlag (schoolbooks),
Kohlhammer Verlag, Metzler Verlag and
Motor Presse having their head
offices there. The
Reclam Verlag is located in nearby Ditzingen.
Stuttgarter Zeitung (StZ; regional, with significant
supra-regional, national and international sections) and Stuttgarter
Nachrichten (StN; regional) are published here as well as a number of
smaller, local papers such as Cannstatter Zeitung.
As is the case wherever the US military is stationed, there is an
American Forces Network
American Forces Network (AFN) station. It transmits on FM on
102.3 MHz from
Fernmeldeturm Frauenkopf and on AM on
1143 kHz from Hirschlanden transmitter.
Following the suit of other German cities such as Berlin,
Hanover, on 1 March 2008 a Low Emission Zone (LEZ) came into effect in
Stuttgart with the aim of improving air quality. This affects all
vehicles entering the
Stuttgart 'Environmental zone' (Umweltzone),
including vehicles from abroad.
Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof (main railway station)
Stuttgart has a light rail system known as the
Stuttgart Stadtbahn. In
the city center and densely built-up areas, the Stadtbahn runs
underground. Stations are signposted with a 'U' symbol, which stands
for Untergrundbahn (underground rail). Until 2007,
operated regular trams.
Stuttgart also has a large bus network.
Stadtbahn lines and buses are operated by the Stuttgarter
Straßenbahnen AG (SSB). The outlying suburbs of
Stuttgart and nearby
towns are served by a suburban railway system called the Stuttgart
S-Bahn, using tracks supplied by the national
Deutsche Bahn AG (DB).
A peculiarity of
Stuttgart is the Zahnradbahn, a rack railway that is
powered by electricity and operates between Marienplatz in the
southern inner-city district of the city and the district of
Degerloch. It is the only urban rack railway in Germany. Stuttgart
also has a Standseilbahn, a funicular railway that operates in the
Heslach area and the forest cemetery (Waldfriedhof). In Killesberg
Park, on a prominent hill overlooking the city, there is the miniature
railway run by diesel (and on weekends with steam).
Stuttgart rack railway
Stuttgart is a hub in the
Intercity-Express and Intercity networks of
Deutsche Bahn AG (DB), with through services to most other major
German cities. It also operates international services to Strasbourg,
Zürich and Paris (five times a day, journey time 3 hours 11
Long distance trains stop at
Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof, the city's main
line terminus which is also used by Interregio-Express,
Regionalbahn trains for services to stations in
Stuttgart metropolitan area. The local rail networks (see above)
operate underneath the terminus.
Stuttgart also has its own rail freight centre with marshalling yards
and a container terminal in the
Obertürkheim area of
Stuttgart 21 project
After years of political debate and controversy, plans were approved
in October 2007 to convert the existing above-ground main train
station to an underground through station. The
Stuttgart 21 project
will include the rebuilding of surface and underground lines
connecting the station in Stuttgart's enclosed central valley with
existing railway and underground lines. Building work started in 2010
with controversial modifications to the Hauptbahnhof and should be
completed in 2020.
Stuttgart is served by
Stuttgart Airport (German: Flughafen Stuttgart,
IATA airport code STR), an international airport approximately
13 km (8 mi) south of the city centre on land belonging
mainly to neighboring towns. It takes 30 minutes to reach the airport
from the city center using
S-Bahn lines S2 or S3.
Stuttgart airport is
Germany's only international airport with one runway. Despite protests
and local initiatives, surveys are currently underway to assess the
impact of a second runway.
Stuttgart is served by Autobahn A8, that runs east-west from Karlsruhe
to Munich, and Autobahn A81 that runs north-south from
Singen. The Autobahn A831 is a short spur entering the southern side
Neckar River in Stuttgart
Besides these Autobahns,
Stuttgart is served by a large number of
expressways, many of which are built to Autobahn standards, and were
once intended to carry an A-number. Important expressways like B10,
B14, B27 and B29 connect
Stuttgart with its suburbs. Due to the hilly
surroundings, there are many road tunnels in and around Stuttgart.
There are also a number of road tunnels under intersections in the
center of Stuttgart.
Stuttgart has an inland port in
Hedelfingen on the Neckar.
VfB Stuttgart's home ground, the
Mercedes-Benz Arena in Bad Cannstatt.
In the background: the
Stuttgart Spring Festival
As in the rest of Germany, football is the most popular sport in
Stuttgart which is home to 'The Reds' and 'The Blues'. 'The Reds', VfB
Stuttgart, are the most famous and popular local club. An established
team currently playing in the German Bundesliga, VfB was founded in
1893 and has won five German titles since 1950, most recently in 1992
and 2007. VfB is based at the
Mercedes-Benz Arena in Bad Cannstatt.
'The Blues', Stuttgarter Kickers, are the second most important
football team. They currently play in the Regionalliga Südwest
(fourth division) at the smaller Gazi Stadium close to the TV tower in
Other lower-division football teams are Sportfreunde
most famous for taking part in the
Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy in 1908,
considered the first World Cup – and FV Zuffenhausen.
Stuttgart is home to VfL Pfullingen/Stuttgart, a local handball team
that played in the national league from 2001 to 2006 in the
Schleyerhalle. Its three-times German champion women's volleyball
team, CJD Feuerbach, has now stopped playing for financial reasons but
there is now
Stuttgart Volleyball Club with a women's team in the 2nd
Stuttgart has two major ice hockey teams.
Stuttgart Rebels EC, plays
in the "Landesliga" (4th tier) at the Waldau ice rink in Degerloch.
The Bietigheim Bissingen Steelers play in the 2nd division of the DEL
(DEL2). The Steelers play in the new Ege Trans Arena in Bietigheim.
The strongest local water polo team is SV Cannstatt, which won the
German championship in 2006.
Stuttgart has two American Football teams: the
American football team, who play in the Western Europe Pro League, and
Stuttgart Scorpions, who play in Stuttgarter Kickers' Gazi
Australian Football is practiced by the
Stuttgart Emus – one of only
six active teams in Germany. It participates in the Australian
Germany when they play their home games in the
TC Weissenhof is a Stuttgart-based women's tennis team that has won
the German championship four times. Another women's team is TEC Waldau
Stuttgart (German champions in 2006).
Stuttgarter Kickers is one of the most successful field hockey
clubs in Germany, having won the German championship in 2005 and a
European title in 2006.
Stuttgart has a reputation for staging major events, including the
FIFA World Cup 1974, the finals stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1985,
the UEFA Euro 1988, and the World Championships in Athletics 1993. It
was also one of the twelve host cities of the FIFA World Cup 2006. Six
matches, three of them second round matches, including the 3rd and 4th
place playoff, were played at the
Gottlieb Daimler Stadium (today
Stuttgart was also 2007 European Capital of
Sport, hosting events such as the UCI World Cycling Championships
Road Race and the IAAF World Athletics Final.
Other famous sports venues are the Weissenhof tennis courts, where the
annual Mercedes Cup tennis tournament is played, the
(hosting tennis, basketball and handball) and the Schleyerhalle
(boxing, equestrianism/show jumping, gymnastics, track cycling etc.),
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Twin towns and sister cities
Stuttgart is twinned with the following cities:
St Helens, England,
United Kingdom (since 1948)
Cardiff, Wales, UK (since 1955)
St. Louis, MO, USA (since 1960)
Strasbourg, Bas-Rhin, Grand Est,
France (since 1962)
India (since 1968)
Menzel Bourguiba in
Tunisia (since 1971)
Egypt (since 1979)
Poland (since 1988)
Brno in the
Czech Republic (since 1989)
Samara, Samara Oblast,
Russia (since 1992)
Stuttgart also has special friendships with the following cities:
Ōgaki in Gifu Prefecture,
Japan (since 1988)
Shavei Zion, Israel
Nanjing, People's Republic of China
The city district of Bad Cannstatt, which has the second largest
mineral water sources in Europe, has a partnership with:
Újbuda, the 11th district of Budapest, Hungary, which has the
largest mineral water sources in Europe.
Main article: List of people from Stuttgart
In popular culture
In the 2003 video game Command & Conquer: Generals Zero Hour, GLA
forces attacked the US base in
Stuttgart in their final mission. In
the first Chinese mission, the player must reclaim the city from the
The Medic in Valve's 2007 first person shooter game
Team Fortress 2
Team Fortress 2 is
a native of Stuttgart, but was raised in Rottenburg am
In the 2008 episodic adventure game Sam & Max Beyond Time and
Space, the title characters travel through time to
Stuttgart to kill a
Reinhardt, one of the tank classes in Blizzard's 2016 team based
shooter Overwatch, originates from Stuttgart. Furthermore, the game
also features the map Eichenwalde, which is a fictional castle town
near the city.
In the 2005 novel The Book Thief, protagonist Max Vandenburg resides
Stuttgart until his flight later in the book.
TV and Cinema
In the 2012 film The Avengers, the villain Loki is tracked to a gala
in Stuttgart, where he intends to steal a large quantity of iridium
for his schemes. These scenes were actually filmed in Cleveland, Ohio,
and a number of
Stuttgart residents noted the errors in the film's
depiction of the city.
Stuttgart at night, looking northwest
Stuttgart from Weinsteige Road
Stuttgart Market Hall
The 216-metre (709-foot)
Fernsehturm Stuttgart at night
Neues Schloss at night
The Hegel Museum, birthplace of Hegel
Stuttgart Annual Christmas Market
Old downtown area of Stuttgart
Romantic view on the downtown area seen from upper Lenzhalde
The Haus der Wirtschaft (House of Commerce)
The grave chapel atop the Württemberg
The mild climate and hilly landscape are perfect for viticulture, as
the Romans discovered. Pictured are vineyards near Obertürkheim
Stuttgart from atop the Birkenkopf
View from the Killesbergpark
Neckar river flowing through
Hedelfingen and Obertürkheim
Vineyards on the
Neckar river in the Mühlhausen area of Stuttgart
during the Autumn of 2006
^ Sixth in
Germany behind Munich, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Berlin, and
^ 10th in Europe and third in
Munich and Berlin.
^ The history of Stuttgart's
Coat of Arms
Coat of Arms is long. The Chorographia
Württemberg of 1591 shows a horse rampant facing sinister on a field
Siebmachers Wappenbuch of 1605 (p. 225) has the modern coat of
arms, with the horse facing dexter, on a field or. The modern design
of this coat of arms dates to 1938 (and was also adopted as part of
Porsche logo in 1952).
^ This type of sovereign royal duke was known in
Germany as a Herzog
^ Of those, 67.8% of the residential buildings and 75% of the
Industrial structures were destroyed.
^ "When French troops occupied
Stuttgart – which was meant to form
part of the American Zone as the capital of
Württemberg – the
Americans ordered them to leave. De Gaulle refused, saying he would
stay put until the zones were finalized ... The American solution
was to offer them some bits of
Württemberg while keeping
the lion's share for themselves ... French soldiers' behaviour in
Stuttgart, where some 3,000 women and 8 men were raped, was thought to
have added to American fury at their overstepping their lines."
^ Meinhof had by this point already committed suicide via hanging in
her cell, 9 May 1976.
^ The nature of Stuttgart's hilly landscape often makes changes in the
city's height. By the Neckar, the elevation is about 207 m
(679 ft), whereas the typical height atop the
about 549 m (1,801 ft) – something rather unique in large
^ Stuttgart, Verband Region. "
Portal der Region Stuttgart:
Metropolregion Stuttgart". region-stuttgart.org.
^ Stuttgart, Verband Region. "
Portal der Region Stuttgart: Einwohner
und Fläche". region-stuttgart.org.
^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und
Postleitzahl am 30.09.2016".
Statistisches Bundesamt (in German).
^ "Stuttgart". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
March 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
^ "Statistisches Amt der Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart: Erneuter, wenn
auch abgeschwächter Einwohnerzuwachs 2016 in Stuttgart" (PDF).
^ "The State and its people". State of Baden-Württemberg.
^ "Basisinformationen zur Region Stuttgart". Wirtschaftsförderung
Stuttgart GmbH (in German). Retrieved 28 March 2009.
^ "Stuttgart". Initiativkreis Europäische Metropolregionen (in
German). Retrieved 23 March 2009.
^ a b "Mercer's 2015 Quality of Living City Rankings". Mercer.
^ a b "2thinknow Innovation Cities Global 256 Index – worldwide
innovation city rankings 2015 ". Innovation-cities.com. 30 July
2009. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
^ "The World According to GaWC 2012". Globalization and World Cities
Research Network. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
^ "Stuttgart". world-cities.eu. European Union.
Porsche Engineering. Porsche. Retrieved 23 February
^ "Aout Bosch".
^ "About Mercedes-Benz". Mercedes-Benz.
^ "Contact". Daimler AG.
^ "Tradition – Familienbrauerei Dinkelacker". Dinkelacker.
^ "Introduction to Stuttgart". The New York Times. 20 November 2006.
Retrieved 25 March 2009. [unreliable source?]
^ "Stuttgart, Germany". Lonely Planet.
^ a b c Amondson, Birge. "
Stuttgart Travel Guide". About Travel.
About.com. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
^ "Top Ten facts on Stuttgart, Slide 8". Global Blue.
Stuttgart – Study in Stuttgart". studyinstuttgart.com.
Study in Stuttgart.
^ "Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg". City of Stuttgart.
Retrieved 1 April 2011.
^ "Neues Logo für Stuttgart". Kessel.tv. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 27
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