STUTTGART (/ˈʃtʊtɡɑːrt/ SHTUUT-gart ; German: ( listen );
Swabian : Schduagert, pronounced ; names in other languages ) is the
capital and largest city of the German state of
Stuttgart is located on the
Neckar river in a fertile valley locally
known as the "
Cauldron " an hour from the
Swabian Jura and
Black Forest , and its urban area has a population of 609,219,
making it the sixth largest city in Germany. 2.7 million people live
in the city's administrative region and another 5.3 million people in
its metropolitan area , making it the fourth largest metropolitan
The city and metropolitan area are consistently ranked among the top
20 European metropolitan areas by GDP ; Mercer listed
21st on its 2015 list of cities by quality of living , innovation
agency 2thinknow ranked the city 24th globally out of 442 cities
Globalization and World Cities Research Network
Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked the
city as a Beta-status world city in their 2014 survey.
Since the 6th millennium BC, the
Stuttgart area has been an important
agricultural area and has been host to a number of cultures seeking to
utilize the rich soil of the
Neckar valley . The Roman Empire
conquered the area in 83 AD and built a massive castrum near Bad
Cannstatt , making it the most important regional center for several
centuries. Stuttgart's roots were truly laid in the 10th century with
its founding by Liudolf ,
Duke of Swabia , as a stud farm for his
warhorses. Overshadowed by nearby
Cannstatt , the town grew steadily
and was granted a charter in 1320. The fortunes of
with those of the
House of Württemberg , and they made it the capital
of their county , duchy , and kingdom from the 15th century to 1918.
Stuttgart prospered despite setbacks in the Thirty Years\' War and
devastating air raids by the Allies on the city and its automobile
production. However, by 1952, the city had bounced back and it became
the major economic, industrial, tourism and publishing center it is
Stuttgart is also a transport junction, and possesses the
sixth-largest airport in Germany, where companies such as
Daimler AG ,
Dinkelacker , and others are
Stuttgart is unusual in the scheme of German cities . It is spread
across a variety of hills (some of them covered in vineyards ),
valleys (especially around the
Neckar river and the
Stuttgart basin )
and parks . This is often a source of surprise to visitors who
associate the city with its reputation as the "cradle of the
automobile ". The city's tourism slogan is "
Stuttgart offers more".
Under current plans to improve transport links to the international
infrastructure (as part of the
Stuttgart 21 project), the city
unveiled a new logo and slogan in March 2008 describing itself as "Das
neue Herz Europas" ("The new Heart of Europe"). For business, it
describes itself as "Where business meets the future". In July 2010,
Stuttgart unveiled a new city logo, designed to entice more business
people to stay in the city and enjoy breaks in the area.
Stuttgart is a city with a high number of immigrants. According to
Dorling Kindersley 's Eyewitness Travel Guide to
Germany , "In the
city of Stuttgart, every third inhabitant is a foreigner." 40% of
Stuttgart's residents, and 64% of the population below the age of
five, are of immigrant background.
* 1 Name
* 2 History
* 2.1 Antiquity
* 2.2 Middle Ages
* 2.3 Early Modern Era
Kingdom of Württemberg and
* 2.6 Nazi
* 2.7.1 US Military in
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 4 Landmarks and culture
* 4.1 The inner city
* 4.2 Architecture in other districts
* 4.3 Parks, lakes, cemeteries and other places of interest
* 4.4 Culture and events
* 4.5 Museums
* 4.6 Churches
* 4.7 Libraries
* 5 Demographics
* 5.1 Immigrants
* 5.2 Religion
* 5.3 Unemployment
* 5.4 Crime rates
* 6 Politics
* 6.1 City government past and present
* 6.2 Municipalities
* 6.3 Recent election results
* 7 Economy
* 7.1 The cradle of the automobile
* 7.2 Science and research and development
* 7.3 Financial services
* 7.4 A history of wine and beer
* 8 Education and research
* 8.1 Tertiary education
* 8.2 Primary and secondary education
* 8.3 International School
* 9 Media and publishing
* 10 Transport
* 10.1 Local transport
* 10.2 Rail links
* 10.3 Rail: The
Stuttgart 21 project
* 10.4 Air transport
* 10.5 Road transport
* 10.6 Waterways
* 11 Sport
* 11.1 Football
* 11.2 Other sports
* 11.3 Sporting events
* 12 International relations
Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities
* 12.2 Friendships
* 13 Notable residents
* 14 In Popular Culture
* 14.1 Gaming
* 14.2 Novels
* 14.3 TV and Cinema
* 15 Gallery
* 16 Notes
* 16.1 Footnotes
* 16.2 Citations
* 17 References
* 17.1 Further reading
* 18 External links
Stuttgart, often nicknamed the "Schwabenmetropole" (English: Swabian
metropolis) in reference to its location in the center of
the local dialect spoken by the native
Swabians , has its
entymological roots in the
Old High German
Old High German word Stuotgarten, or "stud
farm ", because the city was founded in 950 AD by
Duke Liudolf of
Swabia to breed warhorses.
History of Stuttgart See also:
Timeline of Stuttgart
Roman Empire 83–475
Roman Empire 911–1806
Kingdom of Württemberg 1805–1918
German Empire 1871–1918
Weimar Republic 1918–1933
Germany 1990–present Stuttgart's first
Coat of Arms
Coat of Arms (1286)
1634 Drawing of
Matthäus Merian Drawing
of Stuttgart, 1794 . Map of Stuttgart, 1888 Map of
Stuttgart area, 1888 View of
Stuttgart from Alexanderstraße,
1895 . The Rotebühlkaserne is visible to the left, and the Old Castle
and Stiftskirche to the right. The historic Stuttgart
Marktplatz looking west, 1881 .
Stuttgart Rathaus on the
Marktplatz , 1907 . The building was destroyed by Allied bombing
World War Two . What was left of the building was used to build
the current City Hall. Villa Berg , the summer residence of the
royalty of Wurttemberg built from 1845 –1853 , in a colorized
photograph from 1910 . A colorized photo from 1911 of the
Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft factory in
Untertürkheim . Today, this
building is the seat of
Daimler AG . Front and back sides of a
Notgeld from 1921 featuring the state capital, Stuttgart.
Demonstration at the
Marktplatz on German Hiking Day
(German : Deutschen Wandertag), 1938 . Map of the destruction
Stuttgart after the air raids. A war-damaged Neues Schloss
at Schlossplatz prior to restoration, 1956 . Stuttgart's
Hauptbahnhof from the Königstraße, 1965 .
Originally, the most important location in the
Neckar river valley as
the hilly rim of the
Stuttgart basin at what is today
Bad Cannstatt .
Thus, the first settlement of
Stuttgart was a massive Roman Castra
Castrum ) built c. 90 AD to protect the Villas and
vineyards blanketing the landscape and the road from Mogontiacum
Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg). As with many military
installations, a settlement sprang up nearby and remained there even
Limes moved further east. When they did, the town was left
in the capable hands of a local brickworks that produced sophisticated
architectural ceramics and pottery. When the Romans were driven back
Danube rivers in the 3rd century by the
the settlement temporarily vanished from history until the 7th century
Germany in the Middle Ages
In 700 ,
Gotfrid mentions a "Chan Stada" in a document regarding
property. Archaeological evidence shows that later Merovingian era
Frankish farmers continued to till the same land the Romans did.
Cannstatt is mentioned in the Abbey of St. Gall 's archives as
"Canstat ad Neccarum" (German : Cannstatt-on-Neckar) in 708 . The
etymology of the name "Cannstatt" is not clear, but as the site is
mentioned as condistat in the
Annals of Metz (9th century ), it is
mostly derived from the Latin word condita ("foundation"), suggesting
that the name of the Roman settlement might have had the prefix
"Condi-." Alternatively, Sommer (1992) suggested that the Roman site
corresponds to the Civitas Aurelia G attested to in an inscription
Öhringen . There have also been attempts at a derivation
from a Gaulish *kondâti- "confluence".
In 950 AD ,
Duke Liudolf of
Swabia , son of the current Holy Roman
Emperor Otto I , decided to establish a stud farm for his cavalry
Hungarian invasions of Europe on a widened area of the
Nesenbach river valley 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of the old Roman
castrum. The land and title of
Duke of Swabia remained in Liudolf's
hands until his rebellion was quashed by his father four years later.
In 1089, Bruno of Calw built the precursor building to the Old Castle
Stuttgart's viticulture, first documented in the Holy
Roman Empire in
the year 1108 AD, kept people in the area of that stud farm for some
time, but the area was still largely overshadowed by nearby Cannstatt
because of its role as a local crossroad for many major European trade
routes. Nevertheless, the existence of a settlement here (despite the
terrain being more suited for that original stud farm) during the High
Middle Ages is provided by a gift registry from
Hirsau Abbey dated to
around 1160 that mentions a "Hugo de Stuokarten." A settlement at
this locale was again mentioned in 1229, but this time by Pope Gregory
IX . In 1219 AD,
Stuttgart (then Stuotgarten) became a possession of
Herman V , Margrave of
Baden . In addition to
Besigheim , Hermann would also found the
Stuttgart we know today
in c. 1220. In 1251, the city passed to the Ulrich I von Württemberg
as part of Mechthild von
Baden 's dowry . His son, Eberhard I "the
Illustrious," would be the first to begin the many major expansions
Stuttgart under the House of Württemberg.
Eberhard desired to expand the realm his father had built through
military action with the aid of the anti-king Henry Raspe IV ,
Landgrave of Thuringia , but was thwarted by the action of Emperor
Rudolph I . Further resistance by Eberhard I against the Emperor's
created Vogts and Bailiwicks as well as the newly appointed
Swabia Rudolf II,
Austria eventually led to armed conflict and
initial successes upon Emperor Rudolph I's death in 1291 against the
Emperor's men. After initially defeating his regional rivals, Henry
VII , newly elected as Emperor, decided to take action against
Eberhard I in 1311 during his war with the
Free imperial city
Free imperial city of
Esslingen by ordering his Vogt, Konrad IV von Weinberg, to declare war
on Eberhard I. Eberhard I, defeated on the battlefield, lost Stuttgart
and his castle (razed in 1311) to Esslingen and the city was thus
managed by the city state from 1312 to 1315. Total destruction of the
County was prevented by Henry VII's death in 24 August 1313 and the
elections of Louis IV as King of the Germans and Frederick III as
anti-king. Eberhard seized the opportunity granted to him by the
political chaos, and recaptured his hometown and birthplace in 1316,
and made much territorial gain. With peace restored at last, Eberhard
began repairs and expansion to
Stuttgart beginning with the
Wirtemberg Castle , ancestral home to the House of
Württemberg, in 1317 and then began expansion of the city's defenses.
The early 1320s were an important one for Stuttgart: Eberhard I moved
the seat of the County to the city to a new and expanded castle , the
collegiate church in Beutelsbach , where previous members of the
Württemberg dynasty had been buried prior to its destruction in 1311,
moved to its current location in
Stuttgart in 1320, and the town's
Stiftkirche was expanded into an abbey, and the control of the
Martinskirche by the Bishopric of Constance was broken by Papal order
in 1321. A year after the city became the principal seat of the
Württemberg in 1320, the city was granted status as a city
and given civic rights. At the end of the 14th Century , new suburbs
sprang up around Leonhard Church and near the city's fortifications as
well. Towards the end of the 15th Century , Count Ulrich V began
construction of a new suburb on the northeastern edge of the city
around the Dominican monastery Hospitalkirche . In the 1457, the first
Landtag of the
Estates of Württemberg was established in Stuttgart
and a similar institution was established in
Leonberg . After the
temporary partitions of the
County of Württemberg by the Treaties of
Nürtingen , Münsingen , and Esslingen ,
Stuttgart was once again
declared the capital of the County in 1483.
EARLY MODERN ERA
Stuttgart finally officially became the de facto residence
of the Count himself as opposed to the location of his home, the Old
Castle. Eberhard I , then Count Eberhard V, became the first
Württemberg in 1495 , and made
Stuttgart the seat of the Duchy of
Württemberg in addition to the County thereof. All this would be lost
to the Württembergs during the reign of his son, Ulrich . Though
Ulrich initially made territorial gains as a result of his decision to
fight alongside the Emperor Maximilian I , he was no friend of the
Swabian League nor of his own subjects, who launched the
Poor Conrad rebellion of 1514. Despite this and his rivalry with the
Swabian League, his undoing would actually come in the form of his
unhappy marriage to
Sabina of Bavaria . In 1515, Ulrich killed an
imperial knight and lover of Sabina's by the name of Hans von Hutten,
obliging her to flee to the court of her brother, William IV ,
Bavaria , who successfully had Ulrich placed under
Imperial ban twice.
When the Emperor died in 1519, Ulrich struck, seizing the Free
Imperial City of
Reutlingen , prompting the League to intervene. That
same year, Ulrich was soundly defeated and he was and driven into
Switzerland following the League's conquest of
Württemberg was then sold by the League to Emperor
Charles V , who then granted it to his brother, Ferdinand I , thus
beginning the 12 year ownership of the county by the
Habsburgs . When
the peasants Ulrich had crushed before rose once again in the German
Peasants\' War ,
Stuttgart was occupied by the peasant armies for a
few days in the Spring of 1525. Ulrich, with the help of Philip I ,
Landgrave of Hesse , seized the chance to restore himself to power
(albeit as an Austrian vassal) in the turmoil of the Reformation and
War with the Turks and invited
Erhard Schnepf to bring the Reformation
to Stuttgart. He accepted, was named Court Preacher in Stuttgart, and
worked in concert with
Ambrosius Blarer until his dismissal following
his resistance to the
Augsburg Interim by the
Duke in 1548. Duke
Ulrich himself died two years later, and was succeeded by his son,
Christoph . He had grown up in a
Württemberg in turmoil, and wished
to rebuild its image. To this end, he once again began a construction
boom all over the Duchy under the direction of Court Architect Aberlin
Tretsch ; knowing full well that the time of the Reisekönigtum was
over, Christoph and Tretsch rebuilt and remodeled the Old Castle into
Renaissance palace, and from 1542–44 , what is today the
Schillerplatz was built as a town square.
Duke Christoph also
responded to the increasing made for drinking water by embarking upon
a massive hydraulic engineering project in the form of a 2,810 feet
(860 m) tunnel to Pffaf Lake , the
Glems , and the
1566–75 . In 1575, Georg Beer was also appointed Court Architect,
and he built the Lusthaus . But it was architect Heinrich Schickhardt
who would carry Tretsch's torch further; Schickhardt constructed the
Stammheim Castle in the suburb of Stammheim , rebuilt the Fruchtkasten
in the today's Schillerplatz, and expanded the Prinzebau.
Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War devastated the city, and it would slowly
decline for a period of time from then on. After the catastrophic
defeat of the Protestant
Heilbronn League by the
Nörlingen in 1634,
Duke Eberhard III and his court fled in exile to
Strasbourg , abandoning the Duchy to looting by pro-Habsburg forces.
Habsburgs once again had full reign of the city for another four
years, and in that time
Stuttgart had to carry the burden of billeting
the pro-Habsburg armies in Swabia. Ferdinand III , King of the Romans
, entered the city in 1634 and, two years later in 1636, once again
attempted to re-Catholicize Württemberg. The next year, the Bubonic
plague struck and devastated the population. The
Duke returned in
1638 to a realm somewhat partitioned to Catholic factions in the
region, and entirely ravaged by the war. In the Duchy itself, battle,
famine , plague and war reduced the Duchy's population of 350,000 in
1618 to 120,000 in 1648 – about 57% of the population of
Württemberg. Recovery would be slow for the next several decades,
but began nonetheless with the city's first bookstore in 1650 and high
school in 1686. This progress was almost entirely undone when French
soldiers under Ezéchiel du Mas appeared outside the city's walls in
1688 during the Nine Years\' War , but the city was saved from
another sack due to the diplomatic ability of Magdalena Sibylla ,
Württemberg as regent for her son, Eberhard Ludwig .
For the first time in centuries,
Duke Eberhard Ludwig moved the seat
of the Duchy out of the declining city of
founded in 1704, in 1718 while the namesake
Baroque palace , known as
the "Versailles of Swabia," was still under construction. When
Eberhard Ludwig died, his nephew Charles Alexander , ascended to the
throne. Charles Alexander himself died in 1737, meaning his son
Charles Eugene became the premature
Duke (and later King) at the age
of nine. When he came of age and returned from his tutoring at the
Frederick the Great ,
King of Prussia , Charles desired to
move the capital back to Stuttgart. He commissioned the construction
of the New Castle in 1746,
Castle Solitude in 1763, Castle Hohenheim
in 1785, and the Karlsschule in 1770. The rule of Charles Eugene
also saw the tutoring and origins of
Friedrich Schiller in Stuttgart,
who studied medicine and completed
The Robbers here. Stuttgart, at
the end of the 18th Century , remained a very provincial town of
20,000 residents, narrow alleys, and agriculture and livestock.
Despite being the capital and seat of the Duchy, the general staff of
Army of Württemberg was not present in the city. In 1794, Duke
Charles dissolved the Karlsschule to prevent the spreading of
Stuttgart was proclaimed capital once more when
an electorate in 1803, and was yet again named as capital when the
Kingdom of Württemberg was formed in 1805 by the Peace of Pressburg .
KINGDOM OF WüRTTEMBERG AND GERMAN EMPIRE
King Frederick I 's
Württemberg was given high status in the
Confederation of the
Rhine among the College of Kings, and the lands
of nearby secondary German states. Within Stuttgart, the royal
residence was expanded under Frederick although many of Stuttgart's
most important buildings, including Wilhelm
Palace , Katharina
Hospital, the State Gallery , the Villa Berg and the Königsbau were
built under the reign of King Wilhelm I . In 1818. King Wilhelm I and
Queen Catherine in an attempt to assuage the suffering caused by the
Year Without Summer and following famine, introduced the first
Cannstatter Volksfest to celebrate the year's bountiful harvest.
Hohenheim University was founded in 1818, and two years later the
Württemberg Mausoleum as completed on the hill where Wirtemberg
Castle once stood.
From the outset of the 19th Century , Stuttgart's development was
once again impeded by its location (population of the city at the time
was around 50,000), but the city began to experience the beginning of
economic revival with the opening of the Main Station in 1846. Prior
to then, the signs of rebirth in
Stuttgart were evidenced by the
construction of such buildings of
Rosenstein Castle in 1822–1830,
Wilhelmspalais 1834–1840, and the foundations of the
Staatsgalerie in 1843,
University of Stuttgart in 1829, the
University of Music and Performing Arts later, in 1857.
a role to play during the revolution of 1848/1849 as well. When
internal divisions of the
Frankfurt Parliament began the demise of
that congress, the majority of the
Frankfurt Congress voted to move to
Stuttgart to flee the reach of the Prussian and Austrian armies in
Mainz . Even though the Congress may have had contacts
with revolutionaries in
Württemberg , the Congress, not
popular with the content citizens of Stuttgart, were driven out by
the King's army.
Stuttgart's literary tradition also bore yet more fruits, being the
home of such writers of national importance as
Wilhelm Hauff , Ludwig
Gustav Schwab , and
Eduard Mörike . From 1841 to 1846, the
Jubiläumssäule was erected on the Schlossplatz before the New Palace
according to the plans of Johann Michael Knapp to celebrate the rule
of King Wilhelm I. A decade later, the Königsbau was constructed by
Knapp and court architect
Christian Friedrich von Leins as a concert
hall. Another milestone in Stuttgart's history was the running of the
first rail line from
Untertürkheim on 22 October 1845.
The advent of
Germany heralded a major growth of
population for Stuttgart: In 1834,
Stuttgart counted 35,200
inhabitants, rose to 50,000 in 1852, 69,084 inhabitants in 1864, and
finally 91,000 residents in 1871. By 1874,
Stuttgart once again
exceeded the 100,000 inhabitant mark. This number doubled, due to the
incorporation of local towns, to approximately 185,000 in 1901 and
then 200,000 in 1904. In 1871,
Württemberg joined the German Empire
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck , Prime Minister of Prussia , during the
Germany , as an autonomous kingdom.
Stuttgart is purported to be the location of the automobile's
Karl Benz and then industrialized by
Gottlieb Daimler and
Wilhelm Maybach in a small workshop in
Bad Cannstatt that would become
Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft in 1887 . As a result, it is considered
to be the starting point of the worldwide automotive industry and is
sometimes referred to as the 'cradle of the automobile', and today
Porsche both have their headquarters in Stuttgart,
as well as automotive parts giants Bosch and Mahle . The year prior ,
Robert Bosch opened his first "Workshop for Precision Mechanics and
Electrical Engineering" in Stuttgart. In 1907, the International
Socialist Congress was held in
Stuttgart was attended by about 60,000
people. In 1912 ,
VfB Stuttgart was founded. Two years later, the
current iteration of the
Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof was completed
according to plan by
Paul Bonatz from 1914 to 1927 .
World War I
World War I , the city was accosted by air raids. In 1915, 29
bombs struck the city and the nearby Rotebühlkaserne , killing four
soldiers and injuring another 43, and likewise killing four civilians.
The next major air raid on
Stuttgart occurred 15 September 1918, when
structural damage caused house collapses that killed eleven people.
At the end of the First World War, November revolutionaries stormed
the Wilhelmpalais on 30 November 1918 to force King Wilhelm II to
abdicate, but failed halfway. Under pressure from the revolutionaries,
Wilhelm II refused the crown, but also refused to abdicate the throne.
When he did eventually abdicate, the Free State of
established as a part of the
Weimar Republic , and
declared its capital. On 26 April 1919, a new constitution was
devised, and the final draft was approved and ratified on 25 September
1919 by the Constituent Assembly. In 1920,
became the seat of the German National Government when the
administration fled from
Berlin from the
Kapp Putsch . Also in 1920,
Erwin Rommel became the company commander of the 13th Infantry
Regiment based in
Stuttgart and would remain as such for the next nine
Due to the Nazi Party 's practice of
Gleichschaltung , Stuttgart's
political importance as state capital became totally nonexistent,
though it remained the cultural and economic center of the central
Neckar region. Stuttgart, one of the cities bestowed an honorary title
by the Nazi regime, was given the moniker "City of the Abroad Germans
" in 1936. The first prototypes of the
Volkswagen Beetle were
manufactured in Stuttgart, according to designs by Ferdinand
by a design team including
Erwin Komenda and
Karl Rabe .
The Hotel Silber (English: Silver), previously occupied by other
forms of political police , was occupied by the
Gestapo in 1933 to
detain and torture political dissidents. The hotel was used for the
transit of Nazi prisoners of conscience including celebrities like
Eugen Bolz ,
Kurt Schumacher , and
Lilo Herrmann to their inevitable
deaths in concentration camps . The nearby court at Archive street
(German : Archivstraße) 12A was also used as a central location for
executions in Southwest Germany, as the headstone located in its
atrium dedicated to the 419 lives lost there recalls. Participants of
Kristallnacht burned the Old Synagogue to the ground along with
the relics contained within and also destroyed its
Jewish cemetery .
The next year the Nazi regime began the arrests and deportation of
Stuttgart's Jewish inhabitants, beginning with the entire male Jewish
population of Stuttgart, to the police-run prison camp at
directly to Dachau . Other Jews from around
Württemberg were brought
Stuttgart and housed in the ghetto on the former Trade Fair grounds
in Killesberg . As the Memorial at
Stuttgart North records, between
1941 (the first train arrived 1 December 1941, and took around 1,000
Riga ) and 1945, more than 2,000 Jews from all over
Württemberg were deported to Theresienstadt ,
Auschwitz , and the
Riga and Izbica . Of them, only 180 held in Internment
Stuttgart, like many of Germany's major cities, was savaged
throughout the war by Allied air raids . For the first four years of
the war, successful air raids on the city were rare because of the
capable defense of the city by
Wehrmacht ground forces, the Luftwaffe
, and artificial fog . Despite opinions among some Royal Air Force
members that day-time air raids on the city were suicidal,
substantial damage to the city's industrial capacity still occurred,
such as the 25 August bombing of the
Daimler AG plant in 1940 that
killed five people. With the war increasingly turning against the
Third Reich, more and more troops were pulled from the defense of the
city in 1943 to fight on the Eastern Front . In 1944, the city center
was entirely in ruins due to British and American bombers that could
now more easily attack the city. The heaviest raid took place on 12
September 1944, when the Royal Air Force, dropping over 184,000 bombs
– including 75 blockbusters – leveled Stuttgart's city center,
killing 957 people in the resulting firestorm . In totality,
Stuttgart was subjected to 53 bombing raids, resulting in the
destruction of 57.7% of all buildings in the city, the deaths of
4,477 denizens, the disappearance of 85 citizens, and the injury of
8,908 more people. The Allies lost 300 aircraft and seven to ten
enlisted men. To commemorate the city citizens who died during the
war, the rubble was assembled and used to create the
The Allied ground advance into
Stuttgart in April
1945. Although the attack on the city was to be conducted by the US
Seventh Army\'s 100th Infantry Division , French leader Charles de
Gaulle found this to be unacceptable, as he felt the capture of the
Free French forces would increase French influence in
post-war decisions. Independently, he directed General de Lattre to
order the French 5th Armored Division , 2nd Moroccan Infantry Division
3rd Algerian Infantry Division
3rd Algerian Infantry Division to begin their drive to Stuttgart
on 18 April 1945. Two days later, the French forces coordinated with
the US Seventh Army and VI Corps heavy artillery, who began a barrage
the city. The French 5th Armored Division then captured
21 April 1945, encountering little resistance. The city fared poorly
under their direction; French troops forcefully quartered their troops
in what housing remained in the city, rapes were frequent (there were
at least 1389 recorded incidents of rape of civilians by French
soldiers), and the city's surviving populace were poorly rationed.
The circumstances of what later became known as "The
provoked political repercussions that reached even the
White House .
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman was unable to get De Gaulle to withdraw
Stuttgart until after the final boundaries of the zones of
occupation were established. The French army remained in the city
until they finally relented to American demands on 8 July 1945 and
Stuttgart then became capital of
Württemberg-Baden , one of
the three areas of Allied occupation in Baden-Württemberg, from 1945
The military government of the American occupation zone established a
Displaced persons camp for displaced persons , mostly forced labourers
from Central and Eastern European industrial firms in the area. There
was, however, a camp located in
Stuttgart-West that, until its closure
and transportation of internees to
Heidenheim an der Brenz in 1949,
housed almost exclusively 1400 Jewish survivors of the
An early concept of the
Marshall Plan aimed at supporting
reconstruction and economic/political recovery across Europe was
presented during a speech 6 September 1946 given by US Secretary of
James F. Byrnes at the
Stuttgart Opera House . His speech led
to the unification of the British and American occupation zones,
resulting in the 'bi-zone' (later the 'tri-zone' when the French
reluctantly agreed to cede their occupied territory to the new state).
In 1948 , the city applied to become the capital of the soon to-be
Federal Republic of
Germany , and was a serious contender against
Kassel , and
Bonn . All these cities were examined by the
Parlamentarischer Rat , but ultimately
Bonn won the bid when the
Republic was founded on 23 May 1949. The city's bid for capital
failed primarily because of the financial burdens its high rents would
place on the government.
The immediate aftermath of the War would be marked by the
controversial efforts of
Arnulf Klett , the first Oberbürgermesiter
of Stuttgart, to restore the city. Klett favored the idea of a
Automotive city with functional divisions for residential,
commercial and industrial areas according to the
Athens Charter .
Klett demolished both ruins and entire streets of largely undamaged
buildings without rebuilding them to their original visage, a move
that earned him much scorn from his contemporaries. In the 150th year
since his death (1955 ), the last remnant of the alma mater of
Friederich Schiller , the Karlsschule, was removed in favor of an
expansion to the
Bundesstraße 14 . Klett also dramatically expanded
the public transportation of
Stuttgart with the
and, in 1961 , initiated a city partnership with the French city of
Strasbourg as part of an attempt to mend Franco-German relations . It
would be finalized in 1962 and is still active today. Klett's
Stuttgart saw two major media events: the same year the partnership
Strasbourg was finalized, then French president Charles de Gaulle
visited the city and
Palace in the ending moments of his
state visit to Germany, and
Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
visited the city 24 May 1965 .
On 25 April 1952 , the other two parts of the former
German states of
Württemberg , South
Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern
merged and formed the modern German state of
Baden-Württemberg , with
Stuttgart as its capital. Since the 1950s,
Stuttgart has been the
third largest city in southern
The city's population, halved by the Second World War, began sudden
growth with the mass influx of German refugees expelled from their
homes and communities by the Soviets from the late 1940s until 1950 to
Economic migrants , called "
Gastarbeiter ," from
Italy , and
Turkey but primarily from
Yugoslavia , came flocking
Stuttgart because of the economic wonder called the
Wirtschaftswunder " unfolding in West
Germany . These factors saw
the city reach its (then) peak population of 640,000 in 1962.
In the late 1970s , the municipal district of Stammheim was center
stage to one of the most controversial periods of German post-war
Stammheim Prison , built from 1959 to 1963 , came to be the
place of incarceration for
Ulrike Meinhof ,
Andreas Baader , Gudrun
Ensslin , and
Jan-Carl Raspe , members of a communist terrorist
organization known as the
Red Army Faction , during their trial at the
Stuttgart in 1975 . Several attempts were made by
the organization to free the terrorists during the "
German Autumn " of
1977 that culminated in such events as the kidnap and murder of
Hanns-Martin Schleyer and the hijacking of
Lufthansa Flight 181 . When
it became clear, after many attempts to free the inmates including the
smuggling of three weapons into the prison by their lawyer, that the
terrorists could not escape and that they would receive Life
sentencing , the terrorists killed themselves in April 1977 in an
event remembered locally as the "Todesnacht von Stammheim," "Night of
Death at Stammheim."
The trauma of the early 1970s was quickly left behind, starting in
Germany with the
1974 FIFA World Cup and the opening of the
Stuttgart S-Bahn on 1 October 1978 with a scheduled three routes. from
17 to 19 June 1983, ten European heads of state and representatives
European Union met in
Stuttgart for a summit and there made
the Solemn Declaration on
European Union . Three years later in 1986
, the European Athletics Championships of that year were held in the
Mercedes-Benz Arena .
Mikhail Gorbachev , while on a trip to West
Germany to offer a spot for a West German astronaut in a Soviet space
Stuttgart 14 June 1989 and was the honored guest of
a sumptuous reception held at the
Since the monumental happenings of the 1980s,
Stuttgart has continued
being an important center of not just Europe, but also the world. In
1993 , the World Horticultural Exposition , for which two new bridges
were built, and World Athletics Championships of that year took place
Stuttgart in the Killesburg park and
respectively, bringing millions of new visitors to the city. At the
1993 WCA, British athlete
Sally Gunnell and the
United States Relay
team both set world records . In 2003 ,
Stuttgart applied for the 2012
Summer Olympics but failed in their bid when the German Committee for
the Olympics decided on
Leipzig to host the Olympics in Germany. Three
years later, in 2006 ,
Stuttgart once again hosted the FIFA World Cup
as it had in 1974.
Stuttgart still experienced some growing pains even long after its
recovery from the Second World War. In 2010, the inner city become the
focal point of the protests against the controversial
Stuttgart 21f .
During the sexual assaults perpetrated by gangs of migrant men across
Germany in 2016, at least 72 complaints were filed to city police of
which 17 were sexual assault reports. One assailant, a 20 year old
asylum seeker from
Iraq , was detained for the sexual assaults of two
girls as part of a group of other participants in the attacks.
US Military In Stuttgart
Since shortly after the end of World War II, there has been a US
military presence in Stuttgart. At the height of the
Cold War over
45,000 Americans were stationed across over 40 installations in and
around the city. Today about 10,000 Americans are stationed on 4
installations representing all branches of service within the
Department of Defense , unlike the mostly Army presence of the
Occupation and Cold War.
In March 1946 the
US Army established a unit of the US Constabulary
and a Headquarters at Kurmärker Kaserne (later renamed Patch Barracks
) in Stuttgart. These units of soldiers retrained in patrol and
policing provided the law and order in the American zone of occupied
Germany until the civilian German police forces could be
re-established. In 1948 the Headquarters for all Constabulary forces
was moved to Stuttgart. In 2008 a memorial to the
US Constabulary was
installed and dedicated at Patch Barracks. The US Constabulary
headquarters was disbanded in 1950 and most of the force was merged
into the newly organized 7th Army . As the
Cold War developed US Army
VII Corps was re-formed in July 1950 and assigned to Hellenen Kaserne
Kelley Barracks in 1951) where the headquarters was to remain
throughout the Cold War.
In 1990 VII Corps was deployed directly from
Germany to Saudi Arabia
Desert Shield and
Desert Storm to include many of the
VII Corps troops stationed in and around Stuttgart. After returning
from the Middle East, the bulk of VII Corps units were reassigned to
United States or deactivated. The VII Corps Headquarters returned
Germany for a short period to close out operations and was
deactivated later in the United States. The withdrawal of VII Corps
caused a large reduction in the US military presence in the city and
region and led to the closure of the majority of US installations in
Stuttgart which resulted in the layoff of many local
civilians who had been career employees of the US Army.
Patch Barracks in
Stuttgart has been home to the US EUCOM
. In 2007 AFRICOM was established as a cell within EUCOM and in 2008
established as the US
Unified Combatant Command
Unified Combatant Command responsible for most
of Africa headquartered at Kelley Barracks. Due to these 2 major
Stuttgart has been identified as one of the few
"enduring communities" where the
United States forces will continue to
operate in Germany. The remaining U.S. bases around
US Army Garrison
Stuttgart and include Patch Barracks,
Robinson Barracks ,
Panzer Kaserne and Kelley Barracks. From the end
World War II
World War II until the early 1990s these installations excepting
Patch were almost exclusively Army, but have become increasingly
"Purple"—as in joint service—since the end of the
Cold War as they
are host to
Department of Defense Unified Commands and
Main article: Geography of
Stuttgart Panorama of Stuttgart
looking southeast. From the
Neckar valley on the left the city rises
to the city center, backed by high woods to the south (television
Stuttgart South and
Stuttgart West are to the right.
Stuttgart lies in a fertile bowl-shaped valley about 900 feet (270 m)
above sea level , an hour from the
Black Forest and
on the banks of the
Neckar river at 48°47′0″N 9°11′0″E /
48.78333°N 9.18333°E / 48.78333; 9.18333 115 miles (185 km)
to the west and north of
Munich . The city is often described as
being "zwischen Wald und Reben", or "between forest and vines" because
of its viticulture and proximity to the nearby forests. Local
residents refer to the basin as the Stuttgarter Kessel, or "Stuttgart
cauldron ," during the summer months because of its hot and humid
climate that is frequently warmer than the surrounding countryside of
Stuttgart covers an area of 207.35 km2 (80 sq mi) and sits at
elevation ranging from 207 m (679 ft) above sea level by the Neckar
river to 549 m (1,801 ft) on
Bernhartshöhe hill – something rather
unique in large German cities. The most prominent elevated locales in
Stuttgart are the
Birkenkopf (511 m (1,677 ft)) on the edge of the
Stuttgart basin , the
Württemberg (411 m (1,348 ft)) rising above the
Neckar valley, and the
Grüner Heiner (395 m (1,296 ft)) at the
northeast end of the city.
Stuttgart Region with Centers
Stuttgart is one of 14 Regional centers in
Baden-Württemberg and is
naturally the primary center of the
Stuttgart Region , making it the
administrative center for a region of 3,700 square kilometres (1,400
sq mi) containing a total of 2.76 million people as of December 2014.
In addition to this,
Stuttgart serves as a Mittelzentrum for Esslingen
Filderstadt , and
Ditzingen , and
Korntal-Münchingen in Ludwigsburg
Stuttgart is also chief of the three centers Stuttgart
Metropolitan Region , an area of 15,000 square kilometres (5,800 sq
mi) containing 5.3 million persons.
MITTELZENTRUM / MIDDLE-STAGE CENTERS OF THE STUTTGART REGION
Sindelfingen , Esslingen am
Neckar , Geislingen ,
Kirchheim unter Teck ,
Schorndorf , Vaihingen ,
City center, winter
Stuttgart experiences an
Oceanic climate (Cfb), just like the
British Isles and Northern
France , but it is very extreme at times.
As a result of the urban warming caused by the dense development of
the city, inside its "Cauldron" average temperatures in the summer
months regularly beat 20 °C (68 °F) from June to August and come
very near in September. In the winter temperatures are quite mild,
with daily means never sinking below 0 °C (32 °F) even in the
coldest months (January and February). In spite of the heat, there is
no dry season and the city receives frequent but moderate
precipitation year-round. Annually, the city receives 869 mm (34.2 in)
of rain (German average national annual rainfall is 700 mm (28 in)).
Stuttgart enjoys 1,807 hours of sunshine per year and an
average annual temperature of 9 °C (48 °F).
Typically during summer months, the nearby hills, Swabian Alb
Black Forest ,
Schurwald , and Swabian-Franconian
Forest act as a shield from harsh weather but the city can be subject
to thunderstorms, whereas in the winter periods snow may last for
several days. Winters last from December to March. The coldest month
is January with an average temperature of 0 °C (32 °F). Snow cover
tends to last no longer than a few days although it has been known to
last several weeks at a time as recently as 2010. The summers are warm
with an average temperature of 20 °C (68 °F) in the hottest months
of July and August. Summers last from May until September. Though it
is a rare occurrence in Stuttgart, the city sometimes receives
damaging hailstorms , such as in July 2013. In order to fight this
phenomenon, weather stations known as "Hagelflieger" are stationed
near the city and are largely funded by
Daimler AG , who maintain
several parking lots and factories in the municipal area.
CLIMATE DATA FOR STUTTGART, ELEVATION: 246.8 M OR 810 FT
(1981–2010) EXTREMES (1958–2004)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE
Source #1: Data derived from
Deutscher Wetterdienst , note:
sunshine hours are from 1990–2012
Source #2: KNMI
LANDMARKS AND CULTURE
Main article: Culture of
THE INNER CITY
The Stiftskirche, seen from the west (Stiftstraße)
At the center of
Stuttgart lies its main square, Schlossplatz . As
well as being the largest square in Stuttgart, it stands at the
crossover point between the city's shopping area, Schlossgarten park
which runs down to the river
Neckar , Stuttgart's two central castles
and major museums and residential areas to the south west.
Königstraße, Stuttgart's most important shopping street which runs
along the northwestern edge of Schlossplatz, claims to be the longest
pedestrianized street in Germany.
Although the city center was heavily damaged during World War II,
many historic buildings have been reconstructed and the city boasts
some fine pieces of modern post-war architecture. Buildings and
squares of note in the inner city include: The Alte Kanzlei on
* The Stiftskirche (Collegiate Church), dates back to the 12th
century, but was changed to the Late Gothic style in the 15th century
and has been a Protestant church since 1534. Exterior: Romanesque
/Gothic ; interior: Romanesque/Gothic/Modern. Reconstructed with
simplified interior after World War II.
* Altes Schloss (the Old Castle ), mostly dating from the late 15th
century, some parts date back to 1320.
* Alte Kanzlei (the Old Chancellery) on Schillerplatz square which
backs onto the 1598 Mercury Pillar
Neues Schloss (the New Castle ), completed in 1807. Baroque
Classicism ); reconstructed with modern interior, currently houses
government offices. The cellars with a collection of stone fragments
from the Roman times are open to visitors
* Wilhelmpalais (the King
Wilhelm Palais ), 1840
* Königsbau (the King's Building), 1850. Classicism; reconstructed;
has been housing the "Königsbau Passagen" shopping centre since 2006.
* The Großes Haus of
Stuttgart National Theatre , 1909–1912
* Markthalle Market Hall, 1910. (
Art Nouveau )
* The Hauptbahnhof (Main Railway Station) was designed in 1920; its
stark, functional lines are typical of the artistic trend 'Neue
New Objectivity )
Württembergische Landesbibliothek state library, rebuilt in
* Friedrichsbau Varieté (Friedrich Building), rebuilt in 1994 on
the site of the former art nouveau building
ARCHITECTURE IN OTHER DISTRICTS
Wilhelma Zoo and Botanical Garden, around 1900
A number of significant castles stand in Stuttgart's suburbs and
beyond as reminders of the city's royal past. These include:
Castle Solitude , 1700–1800. Baroque/
Palace , 1704–1758. Baroque, with its enormous
Castle Hohenheim , 1771–1793
Other landmarks in and around
Stuttgart include (see also museums
* Castle Rosenstein (1822–1830) Classical
Württemberg Mausoleum (1824) which holds the remains of Catherine
Russia and King
William I of Württemberg
Wilhelma Zoo and Botanical Gardens (1853)
* The Observation Tower of Burgholzhof an 1891 brick observation
tower constructed by the
Cannstatt municipal architect Friedrich
Keppler on behalf of the Verschönerungsverein
Cannstatt e. V.
("Society for the Beautification of Cannstatt"), in the style of a
Weissenhof Estate (1927), (International Style )
* The TV Tower (1950), the world's first concrete TV tower
Stuttgart Airport Terminal Building, 2000. In neighboring
PARKS, LAKES, CEMETERIES AND OTHER PLACES OF INTEREST
The Johanneskirche on the Feuersee, designed by Christian
Friedrich von Leins
Killesbergpark with fountains and
vineyards in the background
At the center of
Stuttgart lies a series of gardens which are popular
with families and cyclists. Because of its shape on a map, the locals
refer to it as the Green U. The Green U starts with the old
Schlossgarten, castle gardens first mentioned in records in 1350. The
modern park stretches down to the river
Neckar and is divided into the
upper garden (bordering the Old Castle , the Main Station , the State
Theater and the State Parliament building), and the middle and lower
gardens – a total of 61 hectares. The park also houses Stuttgart
At the far end of Schlossgarten lies the second Green U park, the
Rosensteinpark which borders Stuttgart's
Wilhelma zoo and
botanical gardens. Planted by King
William I of Württemberg , it
contains many old trees and open areas and counts as the largest
English-style garden in southern Germany. In the grounds of the park
stands the former Rosenstein castle, now the Rosenstein museum.
Beyond bridges over an adjacent main road lies the final Green U
Killesbergpark or 'Höhenpark' which is a former quarry that was
converted for the Third Reich garden show of 1939 (and was used as a
collection point for Jews awaiting transportation to concentration
camps ). The park has been used to stage many gardening shows since
the 1950s, including the
Bundesgartenschau and 1993 International
Gardening Show, and runs miniature trains all around the park in the
summer months for children and adults. The viewing tower
(Killesbergturm) offers unique views across to the north east of
On the northern edge of the
Rosensteinpark is the famous '
Germany's only combined zoological and botanical garden. The whole
compound, with its ornate pavilions, greenhouses, walls and gardens
was built around 1850 as a summer palace in moorish style for King
Wilhelm I of
Württemberg . It currently houses around 8000 animals
and some 5000 plant species and contains the biggest magnolia grove in
Other parks in
Stuttgart include the historic Botanischer Garten der
Hohenheim and Landesarboretum
Castle Hohenheim (which date back to 1776 and are still used to
catalog and research plant species), Uhlandshöhe hill (between the
Bad Cannstatt and Frauenkopf, and home to Stuttgart
observatory), the Weißenburgpark (a five-hectare park in the Bopser
Stuttgart South which dates back to 1834 and is now home to a
'tea house' and the 'marble room' and offers a relaxing view across
the city center), the
Schuttberg (at 511 metres (1,677
ft) the highest point in central Stuttgart, where many ruins were laid
to commemorate the Second World War), and the Eichenhain park in
Sillenbuch (declared a nature reserve in 1958 and home to 200 oak
trees, many 300–400 years old). View from the Birkenkopf
There are a number of natural and artificial lakes and ponds in
Stuttgart. The largest is the
Max-Eyth-See , which was created in 1935
by reclaiming a former quarry and is now an official nature reserve.
It is surrounded by an expansive open area overlooked by vineyards on
the banks of the river
Neckar near . There are expansive areas of
woodland to the west and south west of
Stuttgart which are popular
with walkers, families, cyclists and ramblers. The most frequented
lakes form a 3 km (1.9 mi) trio made up of the Bärensee, Neuer See
and Pfaffensee. The lakes are also used for local water supplies.
In the Feuersee area in the west of
Stuttgart lies one of two
'Feuersee's (literally fire lakes), striking for its views of the
Johanneskirche (St. Johns) church across the lake, surrounded by
nearby houses and offices. The other Feuersee can be found in
* The Hoppenlaufriedhof in Central Stuttgart, the oldest remaining
cemetery which dates back to 1626, an infirmary graveyard last used in
* The Waldfriedhof, the 1913 forest cemetery that is connected to
Südheimer Platz by funicular railway
* The Pragfriedhof, with its
Art Nouveau crematorium . Established
in 1873 it was extended to include Jewish graves in 1874 and also now
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church of
* The Uff-Kirchhof cemetery in
Bad Cannstatt which stands at the
crossroads of two ancient
Roman roads and Cannstatter Hauptfriedhof,
the largest graveyard in
Stuttgart which has been used as a Muslim
burial ground since 1985.
The city boasts the largest mineral water deposits in Europe after
Budapest , with over 250 springs within the urban area.
CULTURE AND EVENTS
The State Opera House The Protestant Stiftskirche
(originally built in 1170, pictured around 1900) with the memorial on
Schillerplatz square in foreground
Stuttgart is known for its rich cultural heritage, in particular its
State Theatre (Staatstheater) and State Gallery (Staatsgalerie) . The
Staatstheater is home to the State opera and three smaller theatres
and it regularly stages opera, ballet and theatre productions as well
as concerts. The Staatstheater was named Germany/Austria/Switzerland
"Theatre of the year" in 2006; the
Stuttgart Opera has won the 'Opera
of the year' award six times.
Stuttgart Ballet is connected to names
John Cranko and Marcia Haydée.
Stuttgart is also home to one of Germany's most prestigious symphony
orchestras , the
Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra , with famous
English conductor Sir
Roger Norrington , who developed a distinct
sound of that orchestra, known as the
Stuttgart Sound. They mostly
perform in the Liederhalle concert hall.
The city offers two Broadway-style musical theaters, the Apollo and
the Palladium Theater (each approx. 1800 seats).
the nearby town of
Ludwigsburg is also used throughout the year as a
venue for concerts and cultural events.
As a result of Stuttgart's long history of viticulture (Even today
there are vineyards less than 500 m (1,640 ft) from the Main Station
), there are more than 400 flights of stairs (known in the local
dialect as the "Stäffele") around the city, equivalent to
approximately 20 km (12 mi) of steps. Later, in the early 19th
Century, the city continued to grow and many vineyards were replaced
by houses and streets and the Stäffele were used as foot paths to
connect the newly built neighborhoods. Some of the stairs were
elaborately decorated with fountains and plantings.
The Schleyerhalle sports arena is regularly used to stage rock and
pop concerts with major international stars on European tour.
Stuttgart's Swabian cuisine, beer and wine have been produced in the
area since the 17th century and are now famous throughout
beyond. For example,
Gaisburger Marsch is a stew that was invented in
Stuttgart's Gaisburg area of
Stuttgart East. The Cannstatter
Volksfest in the district of 'Bad Cannstatt'
In October 2009 the
Stuttgart Ministry of Agriculture announced that
European Union was to officially recognise the pasta dish
Maultaschen as a "regional specialty", thus marking its significance
to the cultural heritage of
Stuttgart hosted the International Garden Show in the suburb
of Killesberg . In 2006 it was also one of the host cities of the
Football World Cup . In 2007,
Stuttgart hosted the 2007 World Artistic
Gymnastics Championships . In 2008 it was host to the World Individual
Debating and Public Speaking Championships .
Regular events that take place in Stuttgart:
* The world-famous annual \'Volksfest\' , originally a traditional
agricultural fair which now also hosts beer tents and a French village
and is second in size only to the
Oktoberfest in Munich. There is also
a Spring festival on the same grounds in April of each year.
* With more than 3.6 million visitors in 2007 and more than 200
stands, Stuttgart's Christmas Market , running from late November to
23 December, is the largest and one of the oldest traditional
Christmas markets in Europe. It is especially renowned for its
abundant decorations and takes place in the four weeks leading up to
* The Fish Market (Hamburger Fischmarkt, late July) with fresh fish,
other food and beer from
* The Summer Festival (
Stuttgart Sommerfest, usually in early
August) with shows, music, children's entertainment and local cuisine
Schlossplatz, Stuttgart and adjacent parks
* The Lantern Festival (Lichterfest, early July) in Killesberg park
with its famous firework display and fairground attractions
* The Wine Village (Weindorf, late August/early September) –
vintages are sold at this event held at Schlossplatz and Upper Palace
Entrance to the Old State Gallery The
jewels on display in the State Museum of
Württemberg (Old Castle )
Stuttgart is home to five of the eleven state museums in
Baden-Württemberg . The foremost of these is the Old State Gallery
(opened in 1843, extended in 1984) which holds art dating from the
14th to 19th century including works by Rubens ,
Rembrandt , Monet ,
Renoir , Cézanne and Beuys . Next door to the Old State Gallery is
the New State Gallery (1980) with its controversial modern
architecture. Among others, this gallery houses works from Max
Beckmann , Dalí , Matisse , Miró , Picasso , Klee , Chagall and
The Old Castle is also home to the State Museum of
was founded in 1862 by
William I of Württemberg . The museum traces
the rich history of
Württemberg with many artifacts from the its
dukes, counts and kings, as well as earlier remnants dating back to
the stone age . On the Karlsplatz side of the Old Castle is a museum
dedicated to the memory of
Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg , former
Stuttgart who attempted to assassinate
Adolf Hitler on 20
July 1944 . The
Other leading museums in
* The History Museum (Haus der Geschichte, 1987), examining local
history, finds, the conflict between modern society and its cultural
State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart (SMNS) in Park
Rosenstein housed in Castle Rosenstein (with an emphasis on biology
and natural history) and Löwentor Museum (paleontology and geology,
home of the
Steinheim Skull and many unique fossils from the triassic
, jurassic and tertiary periods)
Mercedes-Benz Museum (1936, moved in 2006), now the most
visited museum in
Stuttgart (440,000 visits per year). The museum
traces the 125-year history of the automobile from the legendary
silver arrow to the
Mercedes-Benz brand of today
Stuttgart Art Museum (Kunstmuseum Stuttgart, 2005), the number two
Stuttgart in terms of visitors with a strong leaning towards
modern art (the foremost exhibition of
Otto Dix works. The museum
stands on the corner of
Schlossplatz, Stuttgart in a huge glass cube,
in strong contrast to the surrounding traditional architecture.
Porsche Museum (1976, reopened in 2008 on new premises).
Hegel House (Hegelhaus), birthplace of the philosopher Georg
Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which documents his life works
Linden Museum , established in 1911, a leading international
Stuttgart Tram Museum (Straßenbahnwelt Stuttgart) in Bad
Cannstatt, a display of historical vehicles dating back to 1868
Theodor Heuss House (Theodor-Heuss -Haus, 2002) in Killesbergpark
, a tribute to the life and times of the former German president
* The North Station Memorial (Gedenkstätte am Nordbahnhof
Stuttgart) in memory of the 2000 or so Jewish holocaust victims
deported by the Nazis from the now disused North Station
Stuttgart is the seat of a Protestant bishop (Protestant State Church
in Württemberg) and one of the two co-seats of the bishop of the
Roman Catholic Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart . The Stuttgart-based
Pentecostal Gospel Forum is the largest place of worship (megachurch )
in Germany. It is also home to a large English speaking church, The
International Baptist Church of Stuttgart.
City Library State Library of Wurttemberg Central
The State Library of Wurttemberg is the Badische Landesbibliothek
Karlsruhe regional library for Baden-Württemberg. The WLB is
specifically responsible for the administrative regions of Stuttgart
and Tübingen. Especially devoted to the National Library of
acquiring, cataloging, archiving and provision of literature about
Württemberg, called Württembergica. Together with the BLB it also
has the legal deposit for
Baden-Württemberg (since 1964, previously
only Wuerttemberg), making it an archive library.
Stuttgart University Library (UBS) is a central institution of
University of Stuttgart . It forms the center of the library
system of the University, ensuring the supply of research, teaching
and studies with literature and other information resources. It stands
next to the members of the University and citizens of the city are
available. Together with other research libraries and documentation
centers in the
Stuttgart area – such as the University of Hohenheim
Library – it forms the UBS Library Information System of the
Stuttgart Region (BISS).
The Central State Archive
Stuttgart is the archive in charge of the
Ministries of the State of Baden-Württemberg. Since 1965, it is
located right next to the WLB and belongs since 2005 as a department
of the Landesarchiv
Baden-Württemberg in. It includes the stocks of
the county and the duchy
Württemberg until 1806, the Württemberg
central authorities of the 19th and 20th century and the early 19th
century as a result of media coverage of fallen
and imperial cities in South Württemberg.
Stuttgart is the archive in charge of the provincial
capital Stuttgart. The archived material is in principle open to the
public and can be consulted in the reading room in Bellingweg 21 in
The Landeskirchliche Archives preserve the stocks of the Württemberg
church leaders and of other ecclesial bodies and institutions: the
ducal and royal
Württemberg consistory, the Evangelical Supreme
Ecclesiastical Council, deanery and parish archives, educational
institutions, the works and associations as well as estates and
collections. It also has the microfilms of all church books
(especially baptism, marriage, and family Death's Register) in the
area of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in
The "Archive instigator" is dedicated to the dead of the city. Since
2005, the instigators are working on a memoir about "The dead town".
So far, about 5,000 names of victims of the regime of National
Socialism have been acquired.
There are two large tours that are available to visitors to
Stuttgart. The first is the Hop-on Hop-off bus tour (also called the
CityTour Stuttgart), lasting from 10 AM to 4 PM that takes visitors
around the city. The other is the Neckar-Käpt'n, only available from
May to October, which cruises on the
Neckar river from its dock at
Bad Cannstatt .
The population of
Stuttgart declined steadily between 1960 (637,539)
and 2000 (586,978). Then low levels of unemployment and attractive
secondary education opportunities led to renewed population growth,
fuelled especially by young adults from the former East
Germany . For
the first time in decades, in 2006 there were also more births in the
city than deaths. In April 2008 there were 590,720 inhabitants in the
LARGEST GROUPS OF FORE
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
This section needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2017)
More than half of the population today is not of Swabian background,
as many non-Swabian Germans have moved here due to the employment
situation, which is far better than in most areas of Germany. Since
the 1960s, many foreigners have also immigrated to
Stuttgart to work
here (as part of the "
Gastarbeiter " program); another wave of
immigrants came as refugees from the Wars in
Yugoslavia in the 1990s.
Thus, 40% of the city's population is of foreign background. In 2000,
22.8% of the population did not hold German citizenship , in 2006 this
had reduced to 21.7%. The largest groups of foreign nationals were
Greeks (14,341), Italians (13,978),
Serbs (11,547) followed by immigrants from Romania, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Portugal, Poland, France, and Austria. 39% of foreign
nationals come from the
European Union (mostly Italy, Greece, and
The religious landscape in
Stuttgart changed in 1534 as a direct
result of the Reformation . Since this time
Württemberg has been
predominantly Protestant . However, since 1975 the number of
Stuttgart has dropped from around 300,000 to 200,000.
In 2014, 26.2% of inhabitants were Protestant and 24.0% were Roman
Catholic. 49.8% of the population fell into other categories: Muslims,
Jews and those who either followed no religion or one not accounted
for in official statistics.
Unemployment in the
Stuttgart Region is above the average of
Baden-Württemberg , but very low compared to other metropolitan areas
in Germany. In November 2008, before the annual winter rise,
unemployment in the
Stuttgart Region stood at 3.8%, 0.1% lower than
the rate for
Baden-Württemberg , in February 2009 it was 4.7%.
Unemployment in the actual city of
Stuttgart during the same periods
stood at 5.2% and 6.0% (8 Nov and 9 Feb respectively). By comparison:
unemployment for the whole of
Germany stood at 7.1% (8 Nov) and 8.5%
Stuttgart ranks as one of the safest cities in Germany. In 2003, 8535
crimes were committed in
Stuttgart for every 100,000 inhabitants
(versus the average for all German cities of 12,751). Figures for
2006 indicate that
Stuttgart ranked second behind
Munich . 60% of
Stuttgart crimes were solved in 2003, ranking second behind Nuremberg
Stuttgart Town Hall (Rathaus)
Stuttgart's current Bürgermeister (mayor) is
Fritz Kuhn of the
centre-left Alliance \'90/The Greens party (German Green party).
CITY GOVERNMENT PAST AND PRESENT
Stuttgart was run as a (or within) the
Duchy of Württemberg
Duchy of Württemberg ,
it was governed by a type of protectorate called a
Vogt appointed by
Duke . After 1811 this role was fulfilled by a City Director or
'Stadtdirektor'. After 1819 the community elected its own community
mayor or 'Schultheiß'. Since 1930 the title of Oberbürgermeister
(the nearest equivalent of which would be an executive form of Lord
Mayor in English) has applied to
Stuttgart and all other Württemberg
towns of more than 20,000 inhabitants.
At the end of the Second World War, French administrators appointed
the independent politician
Arnulf Klett as
Burgomaster , a role he
fulfilled without interruption until his death in 1974. Since this
Stuttgart has mainly been governed by the CDU . One former mayor
Manfred Rommel (son of perhaps the most famous German field
marshal of World War II,
Erwin Rommel ).
As the capital of
Stuttgart is an important
political centre in
Germany and the seat of the State Parliament, or
Landtag as well as all
Baden-Württemberg state departments.
In June 2009, for the first time the Greens gained the most seats in
a German city with more than 500,000 inhabitants, effectively changing
the balance of power in the city council. For the first time since
1972 the CDU no longer held the most seats, toppling its absolute
majority shared with the Independent Party and the FDP . According to
the German newspaper
Die Welt , the main reason for the Greens'
victory was disgruntlement with the controversial
Stuttgart 21 rail
The city of
Stuttgart is administratively divided into 23 city
districts – five "Inner" districts and 18 "Outer" districts. Each
district has a Council headed by a District Director. From there, the
districts are broken down into Quarters . Since the changes in city
statutes 1 July 2007 and 1 January 2009, the total number of quarters
rose to 152.
THE 23 MUNICIPALITIES AND THEIR DISTRICTS
Bad Cannstatt (18),
Hedelfingen (4), Möhringen (9), Mühlhausen (5),
Untertürkheim (8), Vaihingen (12), Wangen (1),
Click me! Municipalities and
RECENT ELECTION RESULTS
2001 Federal German parliament
2004 City Council
2009 (seats) Federal German parliament
Stuttgart area is known for its high-tech industry. Some of its
most prominent companies include
Daimler AG ,
Porsche , Bosch ,
IBM , Sika – all of whom have their
world or European headquarters here.
Stuttgart is home to Germany's ninth biggest exhibition center,
Stuttgart Trade Fair which lies on the city outskirts next to
Stuttgart Airport . Hundreds of SMEs are still based in Stuttgart
Mittelstand ), many still in family ownership with
strong ties to the automotive, electronics, engineering and high-tech
Stuttgart has the highest general standard of prosperity of any city
in Germany. Its nominal GDP per capita is €57,100 and GDP
purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is €55,400. Total GDP of
Stuttgart is €33.9 billion, of which service sector contributes
around 65.3%, industry 34.5%, and agriculture 0.2%.
THE CRADLE OF THE AUTOMOBILE
The automobile and motorcycle were purported to have been invented in
Karl Benz and subsequently industrialized in 1887 by
Gottlieb Daimler and
Wilhelm Maybach at the Daimler Motoren
Gesellschaft ). As a result, it is considered to be the starting point
of the worldwide automotive industry and is sometimes referred to as
the 'cradle of the automobile'. Today,
have their headquarters in Stuttgart, as well as automotive parts
giants Bosch and Mahle . A number of auto-enthusiast magazines are
published in Stuttgart.
SCIENCE AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
The region currently has Germany's highest density of scientific,
academic and research organisations. No other region in Germany
registers so many patents and designs as Stuttgart. Almost 45% of
Baden-Württemberg scientists involved in R&D are based directly in
the Swabian capital. More than 11% of all German R"> The
'Königsbau' on Schlossplatz , former home to the
Stuttgart Stock Exchange is the second largest in
Frankfurt ). Many leading companies in the financial services sector
are headquartered in
Stuttgart with around 100 credit institutes in
total (e.g. LBBW Bank , Wüstenrot "> Kriegsberg vineyard in the
A HISTORY OF WINE AND BEER
Stuttgart is the only city in
Germany where wine grapes are grown
within the urban area, mainly in the districts of Rotenberg, Uhlbach
Wine-growing in the area dates back to 1108 when, according to State
Blaubeuren Abbey was given vineyards in
Stuttgart as a gift
from 'Monk Ulrich'. In the 17th century the city was the third largest
German wine-growing community in the Holy
Roman Empire . Wine remained
Stuttgart's leading source of income well into the 19th century.
Stuttgart is still one of Germany's largest wine-growing cities with
more than 400 hectares of vine area, thanks in main to its location at
the center of Germany's fourth largest wine region, the Württemberg
wine growing area which covers 11,522 hectares (28,470 acres) and is
one of only 13 official areas captured under German
Wine law . The
continuing importance of wine to the local economy is marked every
year at the annual wine festival ('Weindorf').
Stuttgart also has several famous breweries such as Stuttgarter
Dinkelacker , and
Schwaben Bräu .
EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
The new building of the State University of Music and Performing
Arts, designed by James Stirling
Stuttgart and its region have been home to some significant figures
of German thought and literature, the most important ones being Georg
Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ,
Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Hölderlin
The city, in its engineering tradition as the cradle of the
automobile, has also always been a fruitful place of research and
Stuttgart has Germany's second-highest number of
institutions (six) of applied research of the Fraunhofer Society
The city is not considered a traditional university city, but
nevertheless has a variety of institutions of higher education. The
most significant of them are:
University of Stuttgart , it is the fourth biggest university in
Freiburg . Founded
in 1829, it was a Technische Hochschule ("Technical University") until
1967, when it was renamed to "university". Its campus for social
sciences and architecture is located in the city centre, near the main
train station , while the natural science campus is in the
southwestern city district of Vaihingen. Historically, it has been
especially renowned for its faculty of architecture (Stuttgarter
Schule). Today, its main focus is on engineering and other technical
University of Hohenheim , founded in 1818 as an academy for
agricultural science and forestry . While these subjects are still
taught there today, its other focus today is on business
administration. It is located in
Hohenheim quarter of the southern
city district of Plieningen.
State University of Music and Performing Arts Stuttgart , founded
in 1857, located in the city center, next to the
Neue Staatsgalerie .
State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart , one of the biggest art
colleges in Germany, founded in 1761, located in the Killesberg
quarter of the northern city district Stuttgart-Nord.
Stuttgart Media University (
Hochschule der Medien Stuttgart),
founded in 2001 as a university of applied sciences, a merger of the
former College of Printing and Publishing and the College of
Librarianship, located in Vaihingen.
Stuttgart Technology University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule
für Technik Stuttgart) , founded in 1832 as a college for
craftsmanship, university of applied sciences since 1971, located in
the city center, near the University of Stuttgart's city-center
* University of Cooperative Education Baden-Württemberg, founded in
1974, with a focus on practical experience, subjects are business,
technology and social work.
Historically, an elite military academy existed in
Stuttgart in the
late 18th century (1770–1794), the
Hohe Karlsschule , at Solitude
Friedrich Schiller and the city's most famous Classicist
architect , Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret, were among its many
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION
Waldorf School (also known as
Rudolf Steiner School) was
founded here in 1919 by the director of the Waldorf Astoria tobacco
Emil Molt , and Austrian social thinker
Rudolf Steiner , a
comprehensive school following Steiner's educational principles of
anthroposophy and humanistic ideals. Today, four of these schools are
located in Stuttgart.
Stuttgart is home to the International School of
Stuttgart, one of less than 100 schools worldwide that offer all
International Baccalaureate programs- the IB Primary Years
(Early Learning to Grade 5), IB Middle Years (Grade 6 to 10), IB
Diploma (grades 11–12). The International School of
accredited by both the Council of International Schools and the New
England Association of Schools and Colleges .
MEDIA AND PUBLISHING
One of the headquarters of the public
Southwest Broadcasting) channels (several radio and one TV channel;
regional focus on the southwestern German States of Baden-Württemberg
Rhineland-Palatinate ) is located in
Stuttgart (the other ones
Mainz ). It also has a Landesmedienzentrum, a
State media center.
Furthermore, the city is a significant centre of publishing and
specialist printing, with renowned houses such as Georg von
Holtzbrinck Publishing Group , Ernst Klett Verlag (schoolbooks),
Kohlhammer Verlag, Metzler Verlag and
Motor Presse having their head
offices there. The
Reclam Verlag is located in nearby
Stuttgarter Zeitung (StZ; regional, with significant
supra-regional, national and international sections) and Stuttgarter
Nachrichten (StN; regional) are published here as well as a number of
smaller, local papers such as Cannstatter Zeitung.
As is the case wherever the US military is stationed, there is an
American Forces Network
American Forces Network (AFN) station. It transmits on FM on 102.3 MHz
Fernmeldeturm Frauenkopf and on AM on 1143 kHz from Hirschlanden
Following the suit of other German cities such as Berlin,
Hanover , on 1 March 2008 a Low Emission Zone (LEZ) came into effect
Stuttgart with the aim of improving air quality. This affects all
vehicles entering the
Stuttgart 'Environmental zone' (Umweltzone),
including vehicles from abroad.
Stuttgart S-Bahn Stuttgart
Hauptbahnhof (main railway station)
Stuttgart has a light rail system known as the
Stuttgart Stadtbahn .
In the city center and densely built-up areas, the Stadtbahn runs
underground. Stations are signposted with a 'U' symbol, which stands
for Untergrundbahn (underground rail). Until 2007,
operated regular trams.
Stuttgart also has a large bus network.
Stadtbahn lines and buses are operated by the Stuttgarter
Straßenbahnen AG (SSB). The outlying suburbs of
Stuttgart and nearby
towns are served by a suburban railway system called the Stuttgart
S-Bahn , using tracks supplied by the national
Deutsche Bahn AG
A peculiarity of
Stuttgart is the Zahnradbahn , a rack railway that
is powered by electricity and operates between Marienplatz in the
southern inner-city district of the city and the district of
Degerloch. It is the only urban rack railway in Germany. Stuttgart
also has a Standseilbahn , a funicular railway that operates in the
Heslach area and the forest cemetery (Waldfriedhof). In Killesberg
Park , on a prominent hill overlooking the city, there is the
miniature railway run by diesel (and on weekends with steam).
Stuttgart rack railway
Stuttgart is a hub in the InterCityExpress and
InterCity networks of
Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG), with through services to most other major
German cities. It also operates international services to
Zürich and Paris (five times a day, journey time 3 hours 11
Long distance trains stop at
Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof , the city's main
line terminus which is also used by regional DBAG RegionalExpress and
RegionalBahn for services to stations in the
area. The local rail networks (see above) operate underneath the
Stuttgart also has its own rail freight centre with marshalling yards
and a container terminal in the
Obertürkheim area of Hedelfingen.
RAIL: THE STUTTGART 21 PROJECT
After years of political debate and controversy, plans were approved
in October 2007 to convert the existing above-ground main train
station to an underground through station. The
Stuttgart 21 project
will include the rebuilding of surface and underground lines
connecting the station in Stuttgart's enclosed central valley with
existing railway and underground lines. Building work started in 2010
with controversial modifications to the Hauptbahnhof and should be
completed in 2020.
Stuttgart is served by
Stuttgart Airport (German: Flughafen
Stuttgart, IATA airport code STR), an international airport
approximately 13 km (8 mi) south of the city centre on land belonging
mainly to neighboring towns. It takes 30 minutes to reach the airport
from the city center using
S-Bahn lines S2 or S3.
Stuttgart airport is
Germany's only international airport with one runway. Despite protests
and local initiatives, surveys are currently underway to assess the
impact of a second runway.
Stuttgart is served by Autobahn A8 , that runs east-west from
Munich , and Autobahn A81 that runs north-south from
Singen . The Autobahn A831 is a short spur entering the
southern side of Stuttgart. Port on
Neckar River in
Besides these Autobahns,
Stuttgart is served by a large number of
expressways, many of which are built to Autobahn standards, and were
once intended to carry an A-number. Important expressways like B10,
B14, B27 and B29 connect
Stuttgart with its suburbs. Due to the hilly
surroundings, there are many road tunnels in and around Stuttgart.
There are also a number of road tunnels under intersections in the
center of Stuttgart.
Stuttgart has an inland port in
Hedelfingen on the
VfB Stuttgart 's home ground, the
Mercedes-Benz Arena in Bad
Cannstatt. In the background: the
Stuttgart Spring Festival
As in the rest of Germany, football is the most popular sport in
Stuttgart which is home to 'The Reds' and 'The Blues'. 'The Reds', VfB
Stuttgart , are the most famous and popular local club. An established
team currently playing in the German
2. Bundesliga , VfB was founded
in 1893 and has won five German titles since 1950, most recently in
1992 and 2007. VfB is based at the
Mercedes-Benz Arena in Bad
Stuttgarter Kickers , are the second most important
football team. They currently play in the Regionalliga Südwest
(fourth division) at the smaller Gazi Stadium close to the TV tower in
Other lower-division football teams are Sportfreunde
most famous for taking part in the
Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy in 1908,
considered the first World Cup – and FV Zuffenhausen.
Stuttgart is home to VfL Pfullingen/Stuttgart, a local handball team
that played in the national league from 2001 to 2006 in the
Schleyerhalle . Its three-times German champion women's volleyball
team, CJD Feuerbach , has now stopped playing for financial reasons
but there is now
Stuttgart Volleyball Club with a women's team in the
2nd southern league.
Stuttgart has two major ice hockey teams.
Stuttgart Rebels EC, plays
in the "Landesliga" (4th tier) at the Waldau ice rink in Degerloch.
The Bietigheim Bissingen Steelers play in the 2nd division of the DEL
(DEL2). The Steelers play in the new Ege Trans Arena in Bietigheim.
The strongest local water polo team is SV Cannstatt, which won the
German championship in 2006.
Stuttgart has two American Football teams: the
American football team, who play in the Western Europe Pro League, and
Stuttgart Scorpions , who play in
Stuttgarter Kickers ' Gazi
Australian Football is practiced by the
Stuttgart Emus – one of
only six active teams in Germany. It participates in the Australian
Germany when they play their home games in the
TC Weissenhof is a Stuttgart-based women's tennis team that has won
the German championship four times. Another women's team is TEC Waldau
Stuttgart (German champions in 2006).
Stuttgarter Kickers is one of the most successful field hockey
clubs in Germany, having won the German championship in 2005 and a
European title in 2006.
Stuttgart has a reputation for staging major events, including the
FIFA World Cup 1974 , the finals stages of the FIBA
EuroBasket 1985 ,
UEFA Euro 1988 , and the World Championships in Athletics 1993 .
It was also one of the twelve host cities of the FIFA World Cup 2006 .
Six matches, three of them second round matches, including the 3rd and
4th place playoff, were played at the
Gottlieb Daimler Stadium (today
Mercedes-Benz Arena ).
Stuttgart was also 2007 European Capital of
Sport , hosting events such as the UCI World Cycling Championships
Road Race and the
IAAF World Athletics Final .
Other famous sports venues are the Weissenhof tennis courts, where
the annual Mercedes Cup tennis tournament is played, the
(hosting tennis, basketball and handball ) and the Schleyerhalle
(boxing , equestrianism /show jumping , gymnastics, track cycling
Scharrena Stuttgart .
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES
Stuttgart is twinned with the following cities:
* St Helens , England,
United Kingdom (since 1948)
Cardiff , Wales, UK (since 1955)
St. Louis , MO , USA (since 1960)
Grand Est ,
France (since 1962)
India (since 1968)
Menzel Bourguiba in
Tunisia (since 1971)
Egypt (since 1979)
Łódź Voivodeship ,
Poland (since 1988)
Brno in the
Czech Republic (since 1989)
* Samara ,
Samara Oblast ,
Russia (since 1992)
Stuttgart also has SPECIAL FRIENDSHIPS with the following cities:
* Ōgaki in
Gifu Prefecture ,
Japan (since 1988)
* Shavei Zion ,
Nanjing , People's Republic of
The city district of Bad Cannstatt, which has the second largest
mineral water sources in Europe, has a partnership with:
Újbuda , the 11th district of
Budapest , Hungary, which has
the largest mineral water sources in Europe.
List of people from Stuttgart
IN POPULAR CULTURE
* In the 2003 video game Command & Conquer: Generals Zero Hour , GLA
forces attacked the US base in
Stuttgart in their final mission. In
the first Chinese mission, the player must reclaim the city from the
* The Medic in Valve 's 2007 first person shooter game Team Fortress
2 is a native of Stuttgart, but was raised in Rottenburg am
* In the 2008 episodic adventure game Sam margin-right:auto;
overflow:hidden; width:auto; max-width:1278px;">
night, looking northwest
Stuttgart from Weinsteige Road
Stuttgart Market Hall
The 216-metre (709-foot)
Fernsehturm Stuttgart at night
Neues Schloss at night
The Hegel Museum, birthplace of Hegel
Stuttgart Annual Christmas Market
Old downtown area of
Romantic view on the downtown area seen from upper Lenzhalde
The Haus der Wirtschaft (House of Commerce)
The grave chapel atop the
The mild climate and hilly landscape are perfect for viticulture , as
the Romans discovered. Pictured are vineyards near
Stuttgart from atop the
View from the
Neckar river flowing through
Vineyards on the
Neckar river in the Mühlhausen area of Stuttgart
during the Autumn of 2006
* ^ Sixth in
Berlin , and
* ^ 10th in Europe and third in
Munich and Berlin.
* ^ The history of Stuttgart's
Coat of Arms
Coat of Arms is long. The
Württemberg of 1591 shows a horse rampant facing
sinister on a field argent.
Siebmachers Wappenbuch of 1605 (p. 225 )
has the modern coat of arms, with the horse facing dexter, on a field
or. The modern design of this coat of arms dates to 1938 (and was also
adopted as part of the
Porsche logo in 1952).
* ^ This type of sovereign royal duke was known in
Germany as a
* ^ Of those, 67.8% of the residential buildings and 75% of the
Industrial structures were destroyed.
* ^ "When French troops occupied
Stuttgart – which was meant to
form part of the American Zone as the capital of
Württemberg – the
Americans ordered them to leave. De Gaulle refused, saying he would
stay put until the zones were finalized ... The American solution was
to offer them some bits of
Württemberg while keeping the
lion's share for themselves ... French soldiers' behaviour in
Stuttgart, where some 3,000 women and 8 men were raped, was thought to
have added to American fury at their overstepping their lines."
* ^ Meinhof had by this point already committed suicide via hanging
in her cell, 9 May 1976.
* ^ The nature of Stuttgart's hilly landscape often makes changes
in the city's height. By the Neckar, the elevation is about 207 m (679
ft), whereas the typical height atop the
Bernhartshöhe is about 549 m
(1,801 ft) – something rather unique in large German cities.
* ^ Stuttgart, Verband Region. "
Portal der Region Stuttgart:
Metropolregion Stuttgart". region-stuttgart.org.
* ^ Stuttgart, Verband Region. "
Portal der Region Stuttgart:
Einwohner und Fläche". region-stuttgart.org.
* ^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und
Postleitzahl am 30.09.2016".
Statistisches Bundesamt (in German).
* ^ "Stuttgart".
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary . Oxford University
Press. March 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
* ^ "Statistisches Amt der Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart: Erneuter,
wenn auch abgeschwächter Einwohnerzuwachs 2016 in Stuttgart" (PDF).
* ^ "The State and its people". State of Baden-Württemberg.
* ^ "Basisinformationen zur Region Stuttgart".
Stuttgart GmbH (in German). Retrieved 28
* ^ "Stuttgart". Initiativkreis Europäische Metropolregionen (in
German). Retrieved 23 March 2009.
* ^ A B "Mercer\'s 2015 Quality of Living City Rankings". Mercer .
* ^ A B "2thinknow Innovation Cities Global 256 Index – worldwide
innovation city rankings 2015 ". Innovation-cities.com. 30 July
2009. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
* ^ "The World According to GaWC 2012". Globalization and World
Cities Research Network. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
* ^ "Stuttgart". world-cities.eu.
European Union .
* ^ "Historie".
Porsche . Retrieved 23
February 2016. ,
* ^ "Aout Bosch".
* ^ "About Mercedes-Benz".
* ^ "Contact".
Daimler AG .
* ^ "Tradition – Familienbrauerei Dinkelacker".
* ^ "Introduction to Stuttgart".
The New York Times
The New York Times . 20 November
2006. Retrieved 25 March 2009.
* ^ "Stuttgart, Germany".
Lonely Planet .
* ^ A B C Amondson, Birge. "
Stuttgart Travel Guide". About Travel.
About.com. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
* ^ "Top Ten facts on Stuttgart, Slide 8". Global Blue.
* ^ "About
Stuttgart – Study in Stuttgart". studyinstuttgart.com.
Study in Stuttgart.
* ^ "Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg". City of
Stuttgart. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
* ^ "Neues Logo für Stuttgart". Kessel.tv. 27 July 2009. Retrieved
27 July 2010.
* ^ Dorling 2001 , p. 15.
* ^ "
Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland – Neue Daten zur
Migration in Deutschland verfügbar". Destatis.de. 20 October 2008.
Retrieved 8 April 2011.
* ^ A B C D E "The Middle Ages". Die Geschichte von
German). 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2009.
* ^ A B C "Stuttgart\'s History".
* ^ A B C D E F G "Stuttgart".
Encyclopædia Britannica . 2009.
* ^ A B C D E F "Stuttgarter Stadtgeschichte – kurz gefasst".
City of Stuttgart.
* ^ Brandl, Ulrich; Federhofer, Emmi (2010). Ton + Technik.
Römische Ziegel. Stuttgart: Theiss. ISBN 978-3-8062-2403-0 .
* ^ Gühring 2004 , p. 52.
* ^ A B "The Early history of Stuttgart". Archived from the
original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
* ^ A B C D "Chronicle Stuttgart". pangloss.de. Pangloss.
* ^ Kirn 2007 .
* ^ C. Sebastian Sommer, "Die städtischen Siedlungen im
rechtsrheinischen Obergermanien" in: Die römische Stadt im 2.
Jahrhundert n. Chr. Der Funktionswandel des öffentlichen Raumes,
(Xantener Berichte 2, 1992, 119 ff.
* ^ Albrecht Greule, "Keltische Ortsnamen in Baden-Württemberg.
Wir können alles – außer Latein" in: Imperium Romanum. Roms
Provinzen an Neckar, Rhein und Donau, 2005, 80–84.
* ^ A B "The History of Stuttgart". World Travel Guide.
* ^ Pantel, Mike. "History of Baden-Württemberg".
* ^ Dorling 2001 , p. 294.
* ^ A B C D E Historical Archive, written in German.
* ^ A B "Altes Schloss". Landesmuseum Wurttemberg.
* ^ A B C D "Ulrich,
Duke of Württemberg". Encyclopædia
Britannica . 2009.
* ^ A B "Peasant Rebellions". Retrieved 20 July 2014.
* ^ A B Tax Rebellions. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
* ^ Bietenholz & Deutscher 2003 , p. 464.
* ^ "
Herzog Ulrich von Württemberg". Geschichtsverein-koengen.de.
26 August 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
* ^ One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a
publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
Encyclopædia Britannica . 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press. pp. 567–568. This work in turn cites:
* L. F. Heyd, Ulrich,
* B. Kugler, Ulrich,
Württemberg (Stuttgart, 1865)
* H. Ulmann, Fünf Jahre württembergischer Geschichte 1515–1519
Johannes Janssen , Geschichte des deutschen Volks seit dem Ausgang
des Mittelalters (Freiburg, 1890) Eng. trans. by A. M. Christie and M.
A. Mitchell (London, 1900 seq.)
* C. F. von Stälin, Wirtembergische Geschichte. Bd. iv. (Stuttgart,
* J. Wille, Philipp der Grossmüthige von Hessen und die Restitution
Ulrichs von Wirtemberg (Tübingen, 1882)
* ^ "Schnepf, Erhard". cyclopedia.lcms.org. Christian Cyclopedia.
* ^ Fuchs 2004 , p. 50.
* ^ "Werksansicht". Digital.wlb-stuttgart.de. Retrieved 24 November
* ^ "Prinzebau Stuttgart". Region Stuttgart.
* ^ A B C "History of Stuttgart: Early Modern Era". Die Geschichte
Stuttgart (in German). 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2009.
* ^ Dieterle , p. 33.
* ^ Dieterle , p. 34.
* ^ Wilson 2009 , p. 789.
* ^ A B C Dieterle , p. 37.
* ^ "Das Leben der Magdalena Sibylla von Hessen Darmstadt:
Grafentochter wird Herzogin". echo-online.de. Echo.
* ^ "Magdalena Sibylla, landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt, 1652".
* ^ A B Dorling 2001 , p. 292.
* ^ "
Neues Schloss Stuttgart". Region Stuttgart. Stuttgart
* ^ "Solitude Palace". Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten
* ^ "Schloss Hohenheim". City of Stuttgart.
* ^ "Akademie". das Gebäude. Archived from the original on
* ^ Dieterle , p. 47.
* ^ "LE TRAITÉ DE PAIX DE PRESBOURG, 26 DÉCEMBRE 1805".
* ^ "Germany, the German Confederation". Friesian.com. Retrieved 28
* ^ "Confederation of the Rhine".
Encyclopædia Britannica . 2009.
* ^ "DNB, Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek". Portal.d-nb.de
(in German). Retrieved 24 November 2016.
* ^ "Die Geschichte des Cannstatter Volksfestes". Cannstatter
* ^ "History: University of Hohenheim". uni-hohenheim.de.
University of Hohenheim.
* ^ "Population archives of Baden-Württemberg, German PDF" (PDF).
Statistik.baden-wuerttemberg.de. 25 January 2011. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
* ^ "About us". uni-stuttgart.de. University of Stuttgart.
* ^ "Geschichte der Hochschule". hmdk-stuttgart.de. Musikhochschule
* ^ Kitchen 2000 , p. 187.
* ^ A B C Kitchen 2000 , p. 188.
* ^ A B "History of Stuttgart: Modern Era". Die Geschichte von
Stuttgart (in German). 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2009.
* ^ "Jubiläumssäule". City of Stuttgart.
* ^ "Königsbau".
* ^ A B C Historische Einwohnerzahlen der Stuttgarter Stadtbezirke
und Stadtteile 1834 bis 1900 (in German)
* ^ A B
Stuttgart – Where Business Meets the Future. CD issued by
Stuttgart Town Hall, Department for Economic Development, 2005.
* ^ "Lenin: The International Socialist Congress in Stuttgart
* ^ "Hauptbahnhof Stuttgart". City of Stuttgart.
* ^ Dunkel 2014 , pp. 132–135.
* ^ "Germans Request Armistice". 1918: A Fateful Ending. The
* ^ Paul Sauer: "Württembergs letzter König. Das Leben Wilhelms
* ^ Haffner 2004 , p. 225–226.
* ^ Butler , p. 99.
* ^ Stadt Stuttgart: Karl Strölin (1890–1963)
* ^ "Von Zeit zu Zeit" (in German).
Stuttgart Zeitung newspaper,
online historical archive. May 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
* ^ Roland Müller: Die Stuttgarter Kriegsfilmchronik – Ein
besonderer Bestand im Stadtarchiv Archived 27 September 2007 at the
Wayback Machine . (Uppsats)
* ^ Barber, Chris (2003). Birth of the Beetle: the development of
Volkswagen by Ferdinand Porsche. Haynes Publishing. ISBN
* ^ Gilmore, Bob. "The KdF Brochure", in VW Trends, 4/85, p. 45
* ^ "Staatspolizeileitstelle im Hotel Silber".
geschichtsort-hotel-silber.de. Hotel Silber.
* ^ Federal 1995 , p. 87.
* ^ "
Stuttgart – Baden-Württemberg\'s Jewish Center".
germany.travel. Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy.
* ^ "Jewish Life – and Loss – in Stuttgart".
* ^ Bauz & Breugemann 2013 , p. 277.
* ^ A B "Memorial Deportation Jews Stuttgart". tracesofwar.com.
Traces of War.
* ^ "Wuerttemberg". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. American-Israeli
* ^ Federal 1995 , p. 88.
* ^ A B C D E F G H "History of Stuttgart: World War 2". Die
Stuttgart (in German). 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2009.
* ^ Stanton, Shelby,
World War II
World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic
Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division,
1939–1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books
* ^ Faltin, Thomas. "Die offizielle Statistik zählt 1389
Vergewaltigungen". Stuttgarter-Zeitung (in German).
Stuttgarter-Zeitung. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
* ^ Bruhns, Annette. "Der Krieg gegen die Frauen". Der Spiegel (in
German). Spiegel-Verlag. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 3 November 2003.
* ^ MacDonogh 2009 .
* ^ Willis, F. Roy, France,
Germany and the New Europe, 1945–1967
(1968), Stanford University Press
* ^ "Displaced persons camps". Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine.
* ^ "Speech by J.F. Byrnes,
United States Secretary of State
Restatement of Policy on
Germany Stuttgart". usa.usembassy.de.
* ^ A B Ennen, Edith; Höroldt, Dietrich (1967). "Kleine Geschichte
der Stadt Bonn". Stollfuß Verlag: 278–279.
* ^ "Strasbourg, twin city". en.strasbourg.eu (in German). City of
Strasbourg. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013.
* ^ "
Stuttgart und Ludwigsburg: Abschied mit Rede an die deutsche
Jugend". degaulle.lpb-bw.de (in German). Landeszantrale für
politische Bildung Baden-Württemberg.
* ^ Theophil, Roland. "Die Queen besucht Stuttgart".
vonzeitzuzeit.de. Stuttgarter-Zeitung. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
* ^ "Our State". Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
* ^ "Ausländer in
Stuttgart 1955 bis 2005" (PDF). Statistik und
* ^ Kellerhof, Sven Felix. "Anwälte, die Sprengstoff zu
Terroristen trugen". Die Welt. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
* ^ Knobbe, Martin (27 April 2007). "Der Ankläger und sein
Informant". Stern. Retrieved 27 April 2007.
* ^ "The European Council , Stuttgart, 17-19 June 1983" (PDF).
aei.pitt.edu. Pittsburgh University. Retrieved 14 April 2004.
* ^ Moser, Patrick (14 June 1989). "Gorbachev invites West German
on Soviet space mission". UPI.
* ^ Sauer , p. 140.
* ^ "Internationale Gartenbauausstellung 1993". structurae.net.
* ^ A B "Hatten die Taten System?" .
Frankfurter Allgemeine .
Retrieved 24 January 2016. (in German)
* ^ Reserve, Army. "
Stuttgart military community: A look back to
1967 EUCOM, Stronger Together". Eucom.mil. Archived from the
original on 4 April 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
* ^ "The U.S. Constabulary in Post-War
History.army.mil. 1 July 1946. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
* ^ "Command Group". Usarmygermany.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
* ^ John Vandiver. "Monument unveiled for U.S. Constabulary –
News". Stripes. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
* ^ "History U.S. Army in Europe". Eur.army.mil. Retrieved 12
* ^ "U.S. Africa Command Stands Up
United States Africa Command".
Africom.mil. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved
12 March 2013.
* ^ "DOD announces plans to adjust posture of land forces in
Europe". Eur.army.mil. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
* ^ John Pike. "Stuttgart, Germany". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved
12 March 2013.
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 September
2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
* ^ EB (1911) .
* ^ EB (1878) .
* ^ "Population and Area". region-stuttgart.org.
* ^ "Network of European Metropolitan Areas in Germany: Stuttgart".
* ^ "Climate: Baden-Wurttemberg". Climate-Data.org.
* ^ "Average yearly precipitation - Germany". mecometer.com. MECO
* ^ "
Stuttgart Climate, Temperatures, and Weather Averages".
* ^ "Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg". 1 December 2008.
Retrieved 20 September 2009.
* ^ Woppowa, Stefan; Odenhausen, Michael. "Storm Front Andreas –
A 15-Minute Hailstorm With Catastrophic Consequences". genre.com.
GenRe. Retrieved May 2014. Check date values in: access-date= (help
* ^ "Mit Silberjodid in die Gewitterwolken".
Stuttgarter-Nachrichten. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
* ^ "Wetter und Klima -
Deutscher Wetterdienst - Startseite".
Dwd.de (in German). Retrieved 24 November 2016.
* ^ "
Stuttgart extreme values". KNMI . Retrieved 2 February 2017.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J Bekker 2005 , p. 445.
* ^ McLachlan, p. 245
* ^ A B "Typical Stuttgart". Official website of Stuttgart.
Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 29 March
* ^ "State Opera Stuttgart". Official website of Stuttgart.
Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
* ^ A B "Stuttgarter Stäffele". stuttgart.de. City of Stuttgart.
* ^ Famous German foods, see also
German cuisine Archived 17 May
2008 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ shortnews.de Archived 17 May 2016 at the Portuguese Web
Archive, German article accessed 05-01-10.
* ^ "Stuttgarter Weihnachtsmarkt". in.Stuttgart
Veranstaltungsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG (in German). Retrieved 10
* ^ A B C Christiani 2015 , p. 311.
* ^ McLachlan, p. 254
* ^ A B Peters, p. 430
* ^ Official museum visitor statistics
* ^ "Linden-Museum
Stuttgart – Museum history". Lindenmuseum.de.
Retrieved 9 March 2017.
* ^ "BGG Stuttgart". bgg-stuttgart.de.
* ^ "The International Baptist Church of Stuttgart".
* ^ Christiani 2015 , p. 310.
* ^ Statistiches Amt, Stuttgart, July 2007. PDF source:
* ^ "
Stuttgart in Zahlen". Official website of Stuttgart. 30 April
2008. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
* ^ "Stuttgarter Einwohnerdaten" (PDF). Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart.
Retrieved 9 July 2015.
* ^ Schlaich, Heckel ">(PDF). Retrieved 8 April 2011.
* ^ "City of
Hamburg website" (in German). Fhh.hamburg.de. 4 April
2011. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
* ^ "
Stuttgart 21 pulls down CDU and SPD".
Die Welt (in German). 7
June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
* ^ "Discover the city". stuttgart.de/en. City of Stuttgart.
* ^ "Wahlergebnisse in Stuttgart" (in German). stuttgart.de.
Retrieved 21 December 2012.
* ^ McLachlan, p. 243
* ^ Chen, Aric (7 January 2007). "Stuttgart, Germany; Motor Stadt
(Psst! This Isn\'t Michigan)".
The New York Times
The New York Times . Retrieved 18 March
* ^ Schoolyard, Inc. (26 July 1997). "International School of
Stuttgart". International-school-stuttgart.de. Archived from the
original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
* ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13
December 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
* ^ Schoolyard, Inc. (26 July 1997). "International School of
Stuttgart our vision, mission & philosophy".
International-school-stuttgart.de. Archived from the original on 19
December 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
Stuttgart city council FAQs (German) Umweltzone und
Feinstaub-Plakette: Fragen und Antworten
* ^ PDF showing the areas of
Stuttgart in the Low Emission Zone
* ^ "Mit dem ICE/TGV nach Paris" (in German). Deutsche Bahn.
Retrieved 9 March 2017.
* ^ Stuttgarter Nachrichten German newspaper report on planned 2nd
* ^ "Lipton Trophy". Rsssf.com. 20 November 2004. Retrieved 8 April
* ^ "
European Capital of Sport 2007". Aces-europa.eu. Retrieved 8
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K "
Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart, Abteilung Außenbeziehungen (in German).
Retrieved 27 July 2013.
* ^ "Home page of
Cardiff Council – Cardiff\'s twin cities".
Cardiff Council. 15 June 2010. Archived from the original on 9 June
2011. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
* ^ "
St. Louis Sister Cities".
St. Louis Center for International
Relations. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved
20 March 2011.
* ^ "Strasbourg, Twin City". Strasbourg.eu & Communauté Urbaine.
Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
* ^ "Miasta partnerskie – Urząd Miasta Łodzi ". City of Łódź
(in Polish). Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 21
* ^ "
Brno – Partnerská města (2006–2009)" (in Czech).
brno.cz. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
* ^ A B C D "Stuttgarter
Partnerschaften/Besonders freundschaftliche Beziehungen". ©
Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart, Abteilung Außenbeziehungen (Official
website of Stuttgart) (in German).
* ^ Mann, Nadav (25 July 2008). "The Yishuv history: Shavei
Tzion\'s 70th anniversary". Ynet (in Hebrew). Retrieved 25 July 2008.
* ^ Tan, Paul. "
Malaysia to get locally assembled S-class next
year". Paultan.org. Retrieved 9 October 2010.
* ^ "
Újbuda története" . Rafia.hu (in Hungarian). Archived from
the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
* ^ "
Command & Conquer 3 Tiberium Wars – Walkthrough".
IGN . 14
* ^ "
Team Fortress 2 – Medic". teamfortress.com. VALVe
* ^ "Medic – Official TF2 Wiki – Official Team Fortress Wiki".
* ^ "Sam & Max Episode 203: Night of the Raving Dead FAQ and
Walkthrough". gamefaqs.com. GameFaqs.
* ^ "Eichenwalde - Overwatch Wiki". Overwatch Wiki.
* ^ "Reinhardt – Overwatch Wiki". gamepedia.com.
* ^ "The Book Thief: Book Summary".
CliffsNotes . Retrieved 3
* ^ Bhatia, Kabir (4 May 2012). "\'The Avengers\' drawing giggles
WKSU 89.7 (Kent,
* Bauz, Ingrid; Breuggemann, Roland (2013). Die Geheime
Württemberg und Hohenzollern. Stuttgart, BW :
Schmetterling-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-89657-138-0 .
* Baynes, T.S.; Smith, W.R., eds. (1887), "Stuttgart", Encyclopædia
Britannica , 22 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
* Bekker, Henk (2005). Adventure Guide Germany. Hunter Publishing.
ISBN 978-1-58843-503-3 . Retrieved 10 February 2016.
* Bietenholz, Peter G.; Deutscher, Thomas Brian (2003).
Contemporaries of Erasumus: A Biographical Register of the Renaissance
and Reformation. 1–3, A–Z.
Canada : University of
Toronto Press . ISBN 978-0-8020-8577-1 .
* Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Stuttgart", Encyclopædia Britannica
, 25 (11th ed.),
Cambridge University Press
* Dieterle, Elizabeth; Muller, Werner; Schorr, Dieter; Schbert,
Dieter; Schukra, Harald (1983).
Stuttgart Portrat Einer Stadt. Munich
, BV : Kunstverlag Josef Bühn. ASIN B00232CMRW .
Dorling Kindersley (6 August 2001). Eyewitness Travel Guide to
Germany. Eyewitness Travel Guide.
New York City
New York City , NY : Dorling
Kindersley Publishing. ISBN 0-7894-6646-5 .
* Dunkel, Franziska (2014). uftalarm. In: Fastnacht der Hölle. Der
Erste Weltkrieg und die Sinne. Stuttgart, BW: Haus der Geschichte
* Gedenkstätten für die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus. Eine
North Rhine-Westphalia : Federal Agency for
Civic Education . 1995. ISBN 3-89331-208-0 .
* Fuchs, Karlheinz (October 2004). Baukunst im deutschen Sudwesten.
Leinfelden-Echterdingen , BW: DRW-Verlag. ISBN 3-87181-491-1 .
* Gühring, Albrecht; Matthias, Beer; Binder, Petra; Ehmer, Hermann;
Friederich, Susanne; Heinz, Reinhard; Juréwitz, Peter; Kull, Ulrich;
Meyle, Wolfgang; Müller, Roland; Raberg, Frank; Rees, Werner (2004).
Zuffenhausen. Village – Town – City District.
Baden-Württemberg: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care
Partnership and of Young and Old People. ISBN 3-00-013395-X .
* Haffner, Sebastian (1 March 2004). Die deutsche Revolution 1918/19
Rowohlt Verlag . ISBN
* Kirn, Daniel (2007).
Stuttgart – Eine kleine Stadtgeschichte.
Gloucestershire : Sutton . ISBN 978-3-86680-137-0 .
* Kitchen, Martin (4 September 2000). Illustrated History of
Cambridge Illustrated Histories.
Cambridge University Press .
ISBN 978-0-521-45341-7 .
* MacDonogh, Giles (24 February 2009). After the Reich: The Brutal
History of the Allied Occupation. New York City: Basic Books. ISBN
* McLachlan, Gordon (2004). The Rough Guide to Germany.
Rough Guides . ISBN 978-1-84353-293-4 .
* Peters, Kurt; Schulte-Peevers, Andrea; Johnstone, Sarah;
O'Carroll, Etain; Oliver, Jeanne; Parkinson, Tom; Williams, Nicola
Lonely Planet . ISBN
* Schulte-Peevers, Andrea; Christiani, Kerry; Di Duca, Marc; Le
Nevez, Catherine (15 March 2016). "
Stuttgart and the Black Forest".
Germany. Melbourne, Australia: Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74321-023-9 .
* Schlaich, Klaus; Heckel, Martin; Heun, Werner (1997). Gesammelte
Aufsätze: Kirche und Staat von der Reformation bis zum Grundgesetz
(in German). Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3-16-146727-1 .
* Wilson, Peter (2009). The Thirty Years War: Europe's Tragedy.
Belknap Press . ISBN 978-0-674-03634-5 .
See also: Bibliography of the history of
Stuttgart Published in the
* "Stuttgart", Southern
Austria (2nd ed.), Coblenz: Karl
OCLC 4090237 , retrieved 10 February 2016
* W. Pembroke Fetridge (1881), "Stuttgart", Harper's Hand-book for
Travellers in Europe and the East, New York: Harper & Brothers,
retrieved 10 February 2016
Published in the 20th century
* "Stuttgart", Guide through Germany, Austria-Hungary, Switzerland,
Italy, France, Belgium, Holland, the United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal,
&c (9th ed.), Berlin: J.H. Herz, 1908,
OCLC 36795367 , retrieved 10
* Hagel, Jürgen: Mensch und Natur im Stuttgarter Raum.
Tübingen 2001, ISBN 3-87407-385-8 .
* Hagel, Jürgen: Das Paradies des Neckars Bad Cannstatt. In:
Wolfgang Niess, Sönke Lorenz (Hrsg.): Kult-Bäder und Bäderkultur in
Filderstadt 2004, ISBN
* Kreh, Ulrike: Naturdenkmale Stuttgart. Naturschätze vor der
Haustüre. Hrsg. v. Amt für Umweltschutz der Landeshauptstadt
Stuttgart. verlag regionalkultur Ubstadt-Weiher, 2005, ISBN
Hermann Lenz : Stuttgart. Portrait einer Stadt. Insel Verlag,
Frankfurt am Main/
Leipzig 2003, ISBN 3-458-17158-4 .
* Ostertag, Roland (Hrsg.): Das Bosch-Areal. Verlag Karl Krämer,
Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-7828-1613-7 .
* Ostertag, Roland (Hrsg.): Stuttgart… wohin? Band 2, mit
Beiträgen von Max Bächer, Helmut Böhme, Otto Borst, Hermann Hesse,
Timo John, Wolfgang Kil , Arno Lederer, Roland Ostertag, Frei Otto,
Hannelore Schlaffer, Walter Siebel, Klaus Töpfer. Karl Krämer
Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-7828-4042-9 .
* Schaefer, Albert T.:
Stuttgart Panorama. Mit Texten von Manfred
Rommel. edition braus,
Heidelberg 2006, ISBN 3-89904-224-7 (Fotoband).
* Schäfer, Hartmut: Befunde aus der "Archäologischen Wüste:" Die
Stiftskirche und das Alte Schloss in Stuttgart. Denkmalpflege in
Baden-Württemberg 31, 2002, S. 249–258.
* Zelzer, Maria (Hrsg.):
Stuttgart unterm Hakenkreuz. Chronik
Stuttgart 1983, ISBN 3-608-91931-7 .
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
article STUTTGART .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to STUTTGART .
Stuttgart travel guide from Wikivoyage
* Geographic data related to
* Stuttgart\'s Official Website
* Stuttgart\'s Official Tourist Board
* Tourist Attractions in Stuttgart
Stuttgart International Airport
* International School of Stuttgart
* Stuttgart\'s Public Transportation System