The Info List - Sturmabteilung

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The _STURMABTEILUNG_ (SA; German pronunciation: ( listen )), literally Storm Detachment , functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party

It played a significant role in Adolf Hitler\'s rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Their primary purposes were providing protection for Nazi rallies and assemblies, disrupting the meetings of opposing parties, fighting against the paramilitary units of the opposing parties, especially the Red Front Fighters League (_Rotfrontkämpferbund_) of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), and intimidating Slavic and Romani citizens, unionists, and Jews – for instance, during the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses
Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses

The SA have been known in contemporary times as "Brownshirts" (_Braunhemden_) from the color of their uniform shirts, similar to Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
's blackshirts . The SA developed pseudo-military titles for its members. The SA ranks were adopted by several other Nazi Party
Nazi Party
groups, chief amongst them the _ Schutzstaffel _ (SS), which originated as a branch of the SA before being separated. Brown-coloured shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large number of them were cheaply available after World War I
World War I
, having originally been ordered during the war for colonial troops posted to Germany\'s former African colonies .

The SA became disempowered after Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
ordered the "blood purge" of 1934. This event became known as the Night of the Long Knives (_die Nacht der langen Messer_). The SA was effectively superseded by the SS, although it was not formally dissolved until after the Third Reich's final capitulation to the Allied powers in 1945.


* 1 Rise * 2 Fall * 3 Night of the Long Knives * 4 After the purge * 5 Leaders * 6 Organization * 7 Organization structure August 1934–1945 * 8 "Beefsteaks" in the SA * 9 See also * 10 References


The term _Sturmabteilung_ predates the founding of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in 1919. Originally it was applied to the specialized assault troops of Imperial Germany in World War I
World War I
who used _Hutier _ infiltration tactics . Instead of large mass assaults, the _Sturmabteilung_ were organised into small squads of a few soldiers each. The first official German Stormtrooper unit was authorized on 2 March 1915—the German high command ordered the VIII Corps to form a detachment to test experimental weapons and develop tactics that could break the deadlock on the Western Front . On 2 October 1916, _Generalquartiermeister _ Erich Ludendorff ordered all German armies in the west to form a battalion of stormtroops. They were first used during the 8th Army 's siege of Riga
, and again at the Battle of Caporetto . Wider use followed on the Western Front in the Spring Offensive in March 1918, where Allied lines were successfully pushed back tens of kilometers.

The DAP (_Deutsche Arbeiterpartei_ or German Workers\' Party ) was formed in Munich
in January 1919 and Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
joined it in September of that year. His talents for speaking, publicity and propaganda were quickly recognized, and by early 1920 he had gained authority in the party, which changed its name to the NSDAP (_Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei_ or National Socialist German Workers\' Party ) in February 1920.

The precursor to the SA had acted informally and on an _ad hoc_ basis for some time before this. Hitler, with an eye always to helping the party to grow through propaganda, convinced the leadership committee to invest in an advertisement in the _Münchener Beobachter_ (later renamed the _ Völkischer Beobachter _) for a mass meeting in the Hofbräuhaus , to be held on 16 October 1919. Some 70 people attended, and a second such meeting was advertised for 13 November in the Eberlbrau beer hall. Some 130 people attended; there were hecklers, but Hitler's military friends promptly ejected them by force, and the agitators "flew down the stairs with gashed heads." The next year, on 24 February, he announced the party's Twenty-Five Point program at a mass meeting of some 2000 people at the Hofbräuhaus. Protesters tried to shout Hitler down, but his former army companions, armed with rubber truncheons, ejected the dissenters. The basis for the SA had been formed. Hitler and Hermann Göring with SA stormtroopers at Nuremberg
in 1928.

A permanent group of party members who would serve as the ruffian _Saalschutzabteilung_ (meeting hall protection detachment) for the DAP gathered around Emil Maurice after the February 1920 incident at the Hofbräuhaus. There was little organization or structure to this group. The group was also called the _Ordnertruppen_ around this time. More than a year later, on 3 August 1921, Hitler redefined the group as the "Gymnastic and Sports Division" of the party (_Turn- und Sportabteilung_), perhaps to avoid trouble with the government. It was by now well recognized as an appropriate, even necessary, function or organ of the party. The future SA developed by organizing and formalizing the groups of ex-soldiers and beer hall brawlers who were to protect gatherings of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
from disruptions from Social Democrats (SPD) and Communists (KPD) and to disrupt meetings of the other political parties. By September 1921 the name _Sturmabteilung_ was being used informally for the group. Hitler was the official head of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
by this time.

On 4 November 1921 the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
held a large public meeting in the Munich
Hofbräuhaus, which also attracted many Reds and other enemies of the Nazis. After Hitler had spoken for some time, the meeting erupted into a melee in which a small company of SA thrashed the opposition. The Nazis called this event the _Saalschlacht_ ("meeting hall battle"), and it assumed legendary proportions in SA lore with the passage of time. Thereafter, the group was officially known as the _Sturmabteilung_.

The leadership of the SA passed from Maurice to the young Hans Ulrich Klintzsch in this period. He had been a naval officer and a member of the Ehrhardt Brigade of Kapp Putsch fame and was, at the time of his assumption of SA command, a member of the notorious Organisation Consul (OC). The Nazis under Hitler were taking advantage of the more professional management techniques of the military.

In 1922, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
created a youth section, the _ Jugendbund _, for young men between the ages of 14 and 18 years. Its successor, the Hitler Youth (_Hitlerjugend_ or HJ), remained under SA command until May 1932. Göring joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in 1922 after hearing a speech by Hitler. He was given command of the Sturmabteilung
(SA) as the Oberster SA-Führer in 1923. He was later appointed an SA-Gruppenführer (Lieutenant General) and held this rank on the SA rolls until 1945.

From April 1924 until late February 1925 the SA was reorganized into a front organization known as the _ Frontbann _ to circumvent Bavaria 's ban on the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
and its organs (instituted after the abortive Beer Hall putsch of November 1923). While Hitler was in prison, Ernst Röhm helped to create the Frontbann as a legal alternative to the then-outlawed SA. At Landsberg prison in April 1924, Röhm had also been given authority by Hitler to rebuild the SA in any way he saw fit. When in April 1925 Hitler and Ludendorff disapproved of the proposals under which Röhm was prepared to integrate the 30,000-strong Frontbann into the SA, Röhm resigned from all political movements and military brigades on 1 May 1925 and sought seclusion from public life. Members of the SA were, throughout the 1920s and into the 1930s, often involved in street fights called _Zusammenstöße_ (collisions) with members of the Communist Party (KPD). In 1929, the SA added a Motor Corps for better mobility and a faster mustering of units.

In September 1930, as a consequence of the Stennes Revolt in Berlin, Hitler assumed supreme command of the SA as its new Oberster SA-Führer. He sent a personal request to Röhm, asking him to return to serve as the SA's chief of staff. Röhm accepted this offer and began his new assignment on 5 January 1931. He brought radical new ideas to the SA, and appointed several close friends to its senior leadership. Previously, the SA formations were subordinate to the Nazi Party leadership of each Gau. Röhm established new Gruppen which had no regional Nazi Party
Nazi Party
oversight. Each Gruppe extended over several regions and was commanded by a SA Gruppenführer who answered only to Röhm or Hitler. Under their popular leader, _ Stabschef _ (Staff Chief) Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
, the SA grew in importance within the Nazi power structure, growing to thousands of members. In the early 1930s, the Nazis expanded from an extremist fringe group to the largest political party in Germany, and the SA expanded with it. By January 1932, the SA numbered approximately 400,000 men.

Many of these stormtroopers believed in the socialist promise of National Socialism and expected the Nazi regime to take more radical economic action, such as breaking up the vast landed estates of the aristocracy once they obtained national power. By the time Hitler had assumed power in 1933, SA membership may have increased to 2,000,000—20 times larger then the regular army . Once Hitler had achieved supreme power, the SA was no longer needed. An organization that could inflict more subtle terror and get total obedience was needed, and the SA (born out of street violence and beer hall brawls) was simply not capable of doing so. The younger _ Schutzstaffel _ (SS) had evolved to be more than a bodyguard unit for Hitler and showed itself better suited to carry out Hitler's policies, including those of a criminal nature.


After Hitler and the Nazis obtained national power in January 1933, the SA became increasingly eager for power itself. By the end of 1933, the SA numbered over three million men and many saw themselves as a replacement for the "antiquated" _ Reichswehr _ (German Army). Röhm's ideal was to absorb the _Reichswehr_ (then limited by law to no more than 100,000 men) into the SA, which would be a new "people's army". This deeply offended and alarmed the _Reichswehr_, and threatened Hitler's goal of co-opting the _ Reichswehr _. The SA's increasing power and ambitions also posed a threat to the other Nazi leaders. Originally an adjunct to the SA, the SS was placed under the control of Heinrich Himmler in part to restrict the power of the SA and their leaders.

Although some of these conflicts were based on personal rivalries, there were also key socio-economic conflicts between the SS and SA. SS members generally came from the middle class , while the SA had its base among the unemployed and working class . Politically speaking, the SA were more radical than the SS, with its leaders arguing the Nazi revolution had not ended when Hitler achieved power, but rather needed to implement socialism in Germany (see _ Strasserism _). Furthermore, the defiant and rebellious culture encouraged before the seizure of power had to give way to a community organization approach such as canvassing and fundraising, which the SA resented as _Kleinarbeit_ ("little work"), normally performed by women before the seizure of power. Rudolf Diels , the first Gestapo
chief, estimated in 1933 Berlin that 70 percent of new SA recruits were former Communists.

In 1933, General Werner von Blomberg , the Minister of Defense, and General Walther von Reichenau , the chief of the _Reichswehr'_s Ministerial Department, became increasingly concerned about the growing power of the SA. Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
had been given a seat on the National Defense Council and began to demand more say over military matters. On 2 October 1933, Röhm sent a letter to Reichenau that said: "I regard the _Reichswehr_ now only as a training school for the German people. The conduct of war, and therefore of mobilization as well, in the future is the task of the SA."

Blomberg and von Reichenau began to conspire with Hermann Göring and Heinrich Himmler against Röhm and the SA. Himmler asked Reinhard Heydrich to assemble a dossier on Röhm. Heydrich recognized that for the SS to gain full national power the SA had to be broken. He manufactured evidence that suggested that Röhm had been paid 12 million marks by French agents to overthrow Hitler.

Hitler liked Röhm and initially refused to believe the dossier provided by Heydrich. Röhm had been one of his first supporters and, without his ability to obtain army funds in the early days of the movement, it is unlikely that the Nazis would have ever become established. The SA under Röhm's leadership had also played a vital role in destroying the opposition during the elections of 1932 and 1933.


The architects of the purge: Hitler, Göring , Goebbels , and Hess . Only Himmler and Heydrich are absent. See also: Night of the Long Knives

Hitler had his own reasons for wanting Röhm removed. Powerful supporters of Hitler had been complaining about Röhm for some time. The generals were fearful of Röhm's desire to have the SA, a force of over three million men, absorb the much smaller German Army into its ranks under his leadership. Furthermore, reports of a huge cache of weapons in the hands of SA members gave the army commanders even more concern. Industrialists, who had provided the funds for the Nazi victory, were unhappy with Röhm's socialistic views on the economy and his claims that the real revolution had still to take place. Matters came to a head in June 1934 when President von Hindenburg informed Hitler that if a move to curb the SA was not forthcoming, then he would dissolve Hitler's Government and declare martial law .

Hitler was also concerned that Röhm and the SA had the power to remove him as leader. Göring and Himmler played on this fear by constantly feeding him with new information on Röhm's proposed coup. A masterstroke was to claim that Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
, whom Hitler hated, was part of the planned conspiracy against him. With this news Hitler ordered all the SA leaders to attend a meeting in the Hanselbauer Hotel in Bad Wiessee .

On 30 June 1934, Hitler, accompanied by SS units, arrived at Bad Wiessee , where he personally placed Röhm and other high-ranking SA leaders under arrest. Over the next 48 hours, 200 other senior SA officers were arrested on the way to Wiessee. Many were shot as soon as they were captured, but Hitler decided to pardon Röhm because of his past services to the movement. On 1 July, after much pressure from Hermann Göring and Heinrich Himmler, Hitler agreed that Röhm should die. Hitler insisted that Röhm should first be allowed to commit suicide. However, when Röhm refused, he was killed by two SS officers, Theodor Eicke and Michael Lippert . The names of eighty-five victims are known; however, estimates place the total number killed at between 150 and 200 persons. While some Germans were shocked by the killing, many others saw Hitler as the one who restored "order" to the country. Goebbels's propaganda highlighted the "Röhm-Putsch" in the days that followed. The homosexuality of Röhm and other SA leaders was made public to add "shock value" even though the sexuality of Röhm and other named SA leaders had actually been known by Hitler and other Nazi leaders for years.


After the Night of the Long Knives , the SA continued to exist under the leadership of Viktor Lutze , but the group was largely placated and significantly downsized. Within a year's time the SA membership was reduced over 40% in size. However, attacks against the Jews escalated in the late 1930s and the SA was a main perpetrator of the actions.

In November 1938, after the murder of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan (a Polish Jew), the SA were used for "demonstrations" against the act. In violent riots, members of the SA shattered the glass storefronts of about 7,500 Jewish stores and businesses, hence the name _ Kristallnacht
_ (Crystal Night) given to the events. Jewish homes were ransacked throughout Germany. This pogrom damaged, and in many cases destroyed, about 200 synagogues (constituting nearly all Germany had), many Jewish cemeteries, more than 7,000 Jewish shops, and 29 department stores. Some Jews were beaten to death and more than 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and taken to concentration camps .

Thereafter, the SA became overshadowed by the SS, and by 1939 had little remaining significance in the Nazi Party. In January 1939, the role of the SA was officially established as a training school for the armed forces with the establishment of the SA _Wehrmannschaften_ (SA Military Units). With the start of World War II
World War II
in September 1939, the SA lost most of its remaining members to military service in the _ Wehrmacht
_ (armed forces). Later, an attempt was made to form an SA combat division on similar lines to the Waffen-SS , the result being the creation of the _Feldherrnhalle_ SA-Panzergrenadier Division.

In 1943, Viktor Lutze was killed in an automobile accident and leadership of the SA was assumed by Wilhelm Schepmann . Schepmann did his best to run the SA for the remainder of the war, attempting to restore the group as a predominant force within the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
and to mend years of distrust and bad feelings between the SA and SS.

The SA officially ceased to exist in May 1945 when Nazi Germany collapsed. The SA was banned by the Allied Control Council
Allied Control Council
shortly after Germany's capitulation. In 1946, the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg
formally judged the SA not to be a criminal organization .

In the modern age, several Neo-Nazi groups claim they are continued extensions of the SA, with terms such as "stormtrooper" and "brown shirt" common in Neo-Nazi vocabulary, though these groups are often loosely organized with separate agendas.


Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
, SA Chief of Staff, was shot on Hitler's orders, after refusing to commit suicide, in the Night of the Long Knives purge in 1934

The leader of the SA was known as the _ Oberster SA-Führer _, translated as Supreme SA-Leader. The following men held this position:

* Emil Maurice (1920–1921) * Hans Ulrich Klintzsche (1921–1923) * Hermann Göring (1923) * _None_ (1923–1925) * Franz Pfeffer von Salomon (1926–1930) * Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler

In September 1930, to quell the Stennes Revolt and to try to ensure the personal loyalty of the SA to himself, Hitler assumed command of the entire organization and remained _Oberster SA-Führer_ for the remainder of the group's existence to 1945. The day-to-day running of the SA was conducted by the _Stabschef-SA_ (SA Chief of Staff); a position Hitler designated for Ernst Röhm. After Hitler's assumption of the supreme command of the SA, it was the _Stabschef-SA_ who was generally accepted as the Commander of the SA, acting in Hitler's name. The following personnel held the position of _Stabschef-SA_:

* Otto Wagener (1929–1931) * Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
(1931–1934) * Viktor Lutze (1934–1943) * Wilhelm Schepmann (1943–1945)


SA organization

The SA was organized into several large regional _Gruppen_ ("Groups"). Each _Gruppe_ had subordinate _Brigaden_ ("Brigades"). Subordinate to the _Brigaden_ were the smaller regiment -sized _Standarten_. _SA-Standarten_ operated in every major German city and were split into even smaller units, known as _Sturmbanne_ and _Stürme_.

The command nexus for the entire SA was the _Oberste SA-Führung_, located in Stuttgart
. The SA supreme command had many sub-offices to handle supply, finance, and recruiting. Unlike the SS, however, the SA did not have a medical corps nor did it establish itself outside of Germany, in occupied territories, once World War II
World War II
had begun.

The SA also had several military training units. The largest was the _SA-Marine_, which served as an auxiliary to the _ Kriegsmarine _ (German Navy) and performed search and rescue operations as well as harbor defense. The SA also had an "army" wing, similar to the Waffen-SS , known as _Feldherrnhalle_ . This formation expanded from regimental size in 1940 to a fully-fledged armored corps (_Panzerkorps Feldherrnhalle_) in 1945.


* Oberste SA-Führung (Supreme SA-Command border:solid #aaa 1px">

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Similar para-military organisations

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* Blackshirts
– Albania * Blueshirts – Canada * Blueshirts – Ireland * Greenshirts – Ireland * Goldshirts – Mexico * Greyshirts – ethnically Dutch South Africans * Hirden – paramilitary wing of the NS , the Norwegian National Socialist party 1940-45. * Greenshirts – Romania * Blackshirts
– United Kingdom * Silvershirts – United States * Black Brigades * Blue Shirts Society – Republic of China and Taiwan ( Kuomintang ) * Italian Social Republic Blackshirts
* Squadrismo * Integralismo * Black Shorts – parody of the blackshirts in the writings of P. G. Wodehouse * Freikorps * National Socialist Motor Corps * Panzer Corps Feldherrnhalle * Weimar paramilitary groups * Yokusan Sonendan * Portuguese Legion (Estado Novo) – Portugal



* ^ _Toland_ p. 220 * ^ Drury, Ian (2003). _German Stormtrooper 1914–1918_. Osprey Publishing . * ^ Before the end of 1919, Hitler had already been appointed head of propaganda for the party, with party founder Anton Drexler
Anton Drexler
's backing. _Toland_ p. 94. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 87. * ^ _Toland_ pp. 94–98 * ^ _See_ _Manchester_ p. 342. * ^ William L. Shirer, _The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich_ (1960) p. 42; _Toland_ p. 112 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _Campbell_ pp. 19–20 * ^ At a special party congress held 29 July 1921, Hitler was appointed chairman. He announced that the party would stay headquartered in Munich
and that those who did not like his leadership should just leave; he would not entertain debate on such matters. The vote was 543 for Hitler, and 1 against him. _Toland_ p. 111. * ^ The OC's most infamous action was probably the brazen daylight assassination of foreign minister Walther Rathenau , in early 1922. Klintzsch was also a member of the somewhat more reputable Viking League _(Bund Wiking)_. * ^ McNab 2013 , p. 14. * ^ McNab 2011 , p. 142. * ^ Bullock 1958 , p. 80. * ^ "SA". _Encyclopedia Britannica_. Retrieved 2017-07-28. * ^ Baranowski 2010 , pp. 196–197. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 309–314. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 304–306. * ^ McNab 2009 , pp. 17, 19–21. * ^ Claudia Koonz , _The Nazi Conscience_, p. 87 * ^ Timothy S. Brown. _Weimar Radicals: Nazis and Communists between Authenticity and Performance_. p. 136. * ^ Alford, Kenneth (2002). _Nazi Millionaires: The Allied Search for Hidden SS Gold_. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-9711709-6-4 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kershaw 2008 , p. 306. * ^ Wheeler-Bennett 2005 , pp. 319–320. * ^ "Hotel Hanslbauer in Bad Wiessee: Scene of the Arrest of Ernst Röhm and his Followers (June 30, 1934) – Image". _ghi-dc.org_. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 309–312. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kershaw 2008 , p. 313. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kershaw 2008 , p. 315. * ^ GermanNotes, http://www.germannotes.com/hist_ww2_kristallnacht.shtml, retrieved 11/26/2007 * ^ The deportation of Regensburg
Jews to Dachau concentration camp ( Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Photo Archives 57659) * ^ McNab 2013 , pp. 20, 21. * ^ McNab 2009 , p. 22. * ^ McNab 2013 , p. 21. * ^ "The Sturmabteilung
or SA". _History Learning Site_. Retrieved 22 September 2013. * ^ The NSDAP and its organs and instruments (including the Völkischer Beobachter and the SA) were banned in Bavaria
(and other parts of Germany) following Hitler's abortive attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic in the Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923. The Bavarian ban was lifted in February 1925 after Hitler pledged to adhere to legal and constitutional means in his quest for political power. _See_ _ Verbotzeit _. * ^ _A_ _B_ Yerger 1997 , p. 11. * ^ Yerger 1997 , pp. 11, 12. * ^ The SA-Brigade was also designated as "SA-Untergruppe" (SA-Subgroup) bezeichnet. (David Littlejohn: The SA 1921–45, p. 7) * ^ _A_ _B_ Heiden, Konrad (1938) _Hitler: A Biography_, London: Constable & Co. Ltd. p.390 * ^ Brown, Timothy S. Brown (2009) _Weimar Radicals: Nazis and Communists Between Authenticity and Performance_, New York: Berghahn Books. p.136 * ^ Merkl, Peter H. (1975) _Political Violence Under the Swastika: 581 Early Nazis,_ Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p.484 * ^ Bendersky, Joseph W. Bendersky (2007) _A Concise History of Nazi Germany_ Lanham, Maryland: Rowman New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-67408-9 . * Bullock, Alan (1958). _Hitler: A Study in Tyranny_. New York: Harper. * Kershaw, Ian (2008). _Hitler: A Biography_. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6 . * Littlejohn, David (1990). _The Sturmabteilung: Hitler's Stormtroopers 1921 – 1945_. Osprey Publishing, London. * Manchester, William (2003). _The Arms of Krupp, 1587–1968: The Rise and Fall of the Industrial Dynasty That Armed Germany at War_. Back Bay, ISBN 0-316-52940-0 . * McNab, Chris (2009). _The SS: 1923–1945_. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 1-906626-49-9 . * McNab, Chris (2011). _Hitler's Masterplan: The Essential Facts and Figures for Hitler's Third Reich_. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1907446962 . * McNab, Chris (2013). _Hitler's Elite: The SS 1939–45_. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78200-088-4 . * Toland, John (1976). _Adolf Hitler_. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company. ISBN 0-385-03724-4 . * Wheeler-Bennett, John (2005) . _The Nemesis of Power_. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-1812-3 . * Yerger, Mark C. (1997). _Allgemeine-SS: The Commands, Units, and Leaders of the General SS_. Schiffer Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7643-0145-4 .


* Bessel, Richard (1984). _Political Violence and The Rise of Nazism: The Storm Troopers in Eastern Germany, 1925–1934_. Yale University Press , ISBN 0-300-03171-8 . * Campbell, Bruce (1998). _The SA Generals and The Rise of Nazism_. University Press of Kentucky , ISBN 0-8131-2047-0 . * Evans, Richard J. (2003). _ The Coming of the Third Reich _. Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8 . * Evans, Richard J. (2005). _The Third Reich in Power_. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3 . * Fischer, Conan (1983). _Stormtroopers: A Social, Economic, and Ideological Analysis, 1929–35_. Allen color:white;">

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Gregor Strasser
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Albert Speer
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Rudolf Höss
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Dietrich Eckart
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Giovanni Gentile
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Fumimaro Konoe
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Adolf Hitler
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Hideki Tojo
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Ioannis Metaxas
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Benito Mussolini
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Carl Schmitt
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Das Schwarze Korps
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Nazi plunder
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* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 138308139 * LCCN : n83001585 * ISNI : 0000 0001 1512 8347 * GND : 63215-6 * SUDOC : 027619249 * BNF : cb11962069j (data)

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