HOME
The Info List - Striped Hyena


--- Advertisement ---



The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of hyena native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Indian subcontinent. It is listed by the IUCN
IUCN
as near-threatened, as the global population is estimated to be under 10,000 mature individuals which continues to experience deliberate and incidental persecution along with a decrease in its prey base such that it may come close to meeting a continuing decline of 10% over the next three generations.[1] It is the smallest of the true hyenas and retains many primitive viverrid characteristics lost in larger species,[4] having a smaller and less specialised skull.[5][6] Though primarily a scavenger, large specimens have been known to kill their own prey,[7] and attacks on humans have occurred on rare instances.[8] The striped hyena is a monogamous animal, with both males and females assisting one another in raising their cubs.[9] A nocturnal animal, the striped hyena typically only emerges in complete darkness, and is quick to return to its lair before sunrise.[10] Although it has a habit of feigning death when attacked, it has been known to stand its ground against larger predators in disputes over food.[11] The striped hyena features prominently in Middle Eastern and Asian folklore. In some areas, its body parts are considered magical, and are used as charms or talismans.[12] It is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, where it is referred to as tzebua or zevoa, though the species is absent in some Bible translations into English.[13] Ancient Greeks knew it as γλάνος (glanos) and ύαινα (iena-hyena) and were familiar with it from the Aegean coast of Asia Minor.[14]

Contents

1 Evolution 2 Physical description

2.1 Build 2.2 Fur 2.3 Geographic variation

3 Behaviour

3.1 Social and territorial behaviours 3.2 Reproduction and development 3.3 Burrowing behaviours 3.4 Diet 3.5 Relationships with other predators

4 Range and population 5 Relationships with humans

5.1 In folklore and mythology 5.2 Livestock
Livestock
and crop predation 5.3 Attacks on humans and grave desecration 5.4 Hunting 5.5 Striped hyenas as food 5.6 Striped hyenas in folk magic 5.7 Tameability

6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Evolution[edit] The species may have evolved from H. namaquensis of Pliocene
Pliocene
Africa. Striped hyena
Striped hyena
fossils are common in Africa, with records going back as far as the Middle Pleistocene and even to the Villafranchian. As fossil striped hyenas are absent from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
region, it is likely that the species is a relatively late invader to Eurasia, having likely spread outside Africa
Africa
only after the extinction of spotted hyenas in Asia at the end of the last glacial period. The striped hyena occurred for some time in Europe
Europe
during the Pleistocene, having been particularly widespread in France
France
and Germany. It also occurred in Montmaurin, Hollabrunn
Hollabrunn
in Austria, the Furninha Cave in Portugal
Portugal
and the Genista Caves in Gibraltar. The European form was similar in appearance to modern populations, but was larger, being comparable in size to the brown hyena.[4] Physical description[edit] Build[edit]

Skull, as drawn by V. N. Lyakhov.

Dentition, as illustrated in Knight's Sketches in Natural History

Skeleton.

The striped hyena has a fairly massive, but short torso set on long legs. The hind legs are significantly shorter than the forelimbs, thus causing the back to slope downwards. The legs are relatively thin and weak, with the forelegs being bent at the carpal region. The neck is thick, long and largely immobile, while the head is heavy and massive with a shortened facial region. The eyes are small, while the sharply pointed ears are very large, broad and set high on the head. Like all hyenas, the striped hyena has bulky pads on its paws, as well as blunt but powerful claws. The tail is short and the terminal hairs do not descend below the achilles tendon.[15] The striped hyena lacks the enlarged clitoris and false scrotal sack noted in the female genitalia of the spotted hyena.[16] The female has 3 pairs of nipples.[17] Adult weight can range from 22 to 55 kg (49 to 121 lb), averaging at about 35 kg (77 lb). Body length can range from 85 to 130 cm (33 to 51 in), not counting a tail of 25 to 40 cm (9.8 to 15.7 in), and shoulder height is between 60–80 cm (24–31 in).[18][19][20][21] The male has a large pouch of naked skin located at the anal opening. Large anal glands open into it from above the anus. Several sebaceous glands are present between the openings of the anal glands and above them.[22] The anus can be everted up to a length of 5 cm, and is everted during social interaction and mating. When attacked, the striped hyena everts its rectum and sprays a pungent smelling liquid from its anal glands.[23] Its eyesight is acute, though its senses of smell and hearing are weak.[24] The skull is entirely typical of the genus, having a very high sagittal crest, a shortened facial region and an inflated frontal bone.[25] The skull of the striped hyena differs from that of the brown[6] and spotted hyena by its smaller size and slightly less massive build. It is nonetheless still powerfully structured and well adapted to anchoring exceptionally strong jaw muscles[5] which give it enough bite-force to splinter a camel's thigh bone.[24] Although the dentition is overall smaller than that of the spotted hyena, the upper molar of the striped hyena is far larger.[5] The dental formula is:

Dentition

3.1.4.0-1

3.1.3.1

Fur[edit] The winter coat is unusually long and uniform for an animal its size, with a luxuriant mane of tough, long hairs along the back from the occiput to the base of the tail. The coat is generally coarse and bristly, though this varies according to season. In winter, the coat is fairly dense, soft, and has well-developed underfur. The guard hairs are 50–75 mm long on the flanks, 150–225 mm long on the mane and 150 mm on the tail. In summer, the coat is much shorter and coarser, and lacks underfur, though the mane remains large.[15] In winter, the coat is usually of a dirty-brownish grey or dirty grey colour. The hairs of the mane are light grey or white at the base, and black or dark brown at the tips. The muzzle is dark, greyish brown, brownish-grey or black, while the top of the head and cheeks are more lightly coloured. The ears are almost black. A large black spot is present on the front of the neck, and is separated from the chin by a light zone. A dark field ascends from the flanks ascending to the rear of the cheeks. The inner and outer surface of the forelegs are covered with small dark spots and transverse stripes. The flanks have four indistinct dark vertical stripes and rows of diffused spots. The outer surface of the thighs has 3–4 distinct vertical or oblique dark bands which merge into transverse stripes in the lower portion of the legs. The tip of the tail is black with white underfur.[15] Geographic variation[edit] It was proposed that there are five subspecies of the striped hyenas in Africa
Africa
and Asia:

Indian striped hyena H. h. hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758) – (Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, India, Iran, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and Uzbekistan) – Extinct
Extinct
in Bangladesh,[26] Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and China Barbary striped hyena H. h. barbara (de Blainville, 1844) – (Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Libya, Nigeria, Niger
Niger
and Tunisia) Sudanese striped hyena H. h. dubbah (Meyer, 1793) – (Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania
Tanzania
and Uganda) Arabian striped hyena H. h. sultana (Pocock, 1934) – (Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and Yemen) Syrian striped hyena H. h. syriaca (Matschie, 1900) – (Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Syria
Syria
and Turkey)

As of 2005[update],[3] no subspecies are recognised. The striped hyena is nonetheless a geographically varied animal. Hyenas in the Arabian peninsula have an accentuated blackish dorsal mane, with mid-dorsal hairs reaching 20 cm in length. The base colour of Arabian hyenas is grey to whitish grey, with dusky grey muzzles and buff yellow below the eyes. Hyenas in Israel
Israel
have a dorsal crest which is mixed grey and black in colour, rather than being predominantly black.[18] The largest striped hyenas come from the Middle East, Asia Minor, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, while those of East Africa
East Africa
and the Arabian peninsula are smaller.[7][27] Behaviour[edit]

A pair of striped hyenas fighting at the Colchester Zoo

Social and territorial behaviours[edit] The striped hyena is a primarily nocturnal animal, which typically only leaves its den at the onset of total darkness, returning before sunrise.[10] Striped hyenas typically live in groups of 1–2 animals, though groups of up to seven animals are known in Libya. They are generally not territorial animals, with home ranges of different groups often overlapping each other. Home ranges in the Serengheti have been recorded to be 44 km2 (17 sq mi)-72 km2 (28 sq mi), while one in the Negev
Negev
was calculated at 61 km2 (24 sq mi). When marking their territory, striped hyenas use the paste of their anal pouch (hyena butter) to scent mark grass, stalks, stones, tree trunks and other objects. In aggressive encounters, the black patch near the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae is erected. When fighting, striped hyenas will bite at the throat and legs, but avoid the mane, which serves as a signalling device. When greeting each other, they lick the mid-back region, sniff each other's noses, extrude their anal pouch or paw each other's throats.[28] The species is not as vocal as the spotted hyena, its vocalisations being limited to a chattering laugh and howling.[24]

Illustration from Frank Finn's Wild Beasts of the World (1909)

Reproduction and development[edit] The striped hyena is monogamous, with the male helping the female to establish a den, raise young and feed her when cubs are born. The mating season varies according to location; in Transcaucasia, hyenas breed in January–February, while those in southeast Turkmenia breed in October–November. In captivity, breeding is non-seasonal. Mating can occur at any time of the day, during which the male grips the skin of the female's neck.[9] The gestation period lasts 90–91 days. Striped hyena
Striped hyena
cubs are born with adult markings, closed eyes and small ears. This is in marked contrast to newborn spotted hyena cubs which are born almost fully developed, though with black, unmarked coats.[29] Their eyes open after 7–8 days, and the cubs leave their dens after one month. Cubs are weaned at the age of 2 months, and are then fed by both parents. Despite the males' assistance, female hyenas are very protective of their cubs, and will chase their mates away from the cubs if they approach too closely. By autumn, the cubs are half the size of their parents. In the wild, striped hyenas can live for 12 years, while in captivity they have been known to reach 23.[9] Burrowing behaviours[edit] The striped hyena may dig its own dens, but it also establishes its lairs in caves, rock fissures, erosion channels and burrows formerly occupied by porcupines, wolves, warthogs and aardvarks. Hyena
Hyena
dens can be identified by the presence of bones at their entrances. The striped hyena hides in caves, niches, pits, dense thickets, reeds and plume grass during the day to shelter from predators, heat or winter cold. The size and elaboration of striped hyena dens varies according to location ; dens in the Karakum have entrances 0.67–0.72 m wide and are extended over a distance of 4.15–5 m, with no lateral extensions or special chambers. In contrast, hyena dens in Israel
Israel
are much more elaborate and large, exceeding 27 m in length.[28][30] Diet[edit]

Stuffed striped hyena defending a sheep carcass from hooded crows, as shown in The Museum of Zoology, St. Petersburg

The striped hyena is primarily a scavenger which feeds mainly on ungulate carcasses in different stages of decomposition, fresh bones, cartilages, ligaments and bone marrow. It crushes long bones into fine particles and swallows them, though sometimes entire bones are eaten whole.[31] The striped hyena is not a fussy eater, though it has an aversion to vulture flesh.[32] It will occasionally attack and kill any animal it can overcome.[11] It hunts prey by running it down, grabbing its flanks or groin and inflicting mortal wounds by tearing out the viscera.[33] In Turkmenistan, the species is recorded to feed on wild boar, kulan, porcupines and tortoises. A seasonal abundance of oil willow fruits is an important food source in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan, while in the Caucasus, it is grasshoppers.[31] In Israel, the striped hyena feeds on garbage, carrion and fruits. In eastern Jordan, its main sources of food are feral horse and water buffalo carcasses and village refuse. It has been suggested that only the large hyenas of the Middle East, Asia minor, central Asia and the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
attack large prey, with no evidence of their smaller Arabian and east African cousins doing so.[7] Because of its scavenging diet, the striped hyena requires more water to survive than most other carnivores.[31] When eating, the striped hyena gorges itself until satisfied, though hyenas with cubs will transport food to their dens.[32] Because of the high content of calcium in its diet, the faeces of the striped hyena becomes white very rapidly, and can be visible from long distances.[30] Relationships with other predators[edit]

Illustration of striped hyena (top) and spotted hyena (bottom)

The striped hyena competes with the gray wolf in the Middle East
Middle East
and central Asia. In the latter area, a great portion of the hyena's diet stems from wolf-killed carcasses. The striped hyena is dominant over the wolf on a one-to-one basis, though wolves in packs can displace single hyenas from carcasses.[28] Both species have been known to share dens on occasion.[34] On rare occasions, Striped Hyenas are also known to travel with and live amongst wolf packs, with each doing the other no harm. Both predators may benefit from this unusual alliance, as the hyenas have better senses of smell and greater strength, and the wolves may be better at tracking large prey.[35] Red foxes may compete with striped hyenas on large carcasses. Red foxes may give way to hyenas on unopened carcasses, as the latter's stronger jaws can easily tear open flesh which is too tough for foxes. Foxes may harass hyenas, using their smaller size and greater speed to avoid the hyena's attacks. Sometimes, foxes seem to deliberately torment hyenas even when there is no food at stake. Some foxes may mistime their attacks, and are killed.[36] The species frequently scavenges from the kills of felids such as tigers, leopards, cheetahs and caracals. A caracal can drive a subadult hyena from a carcass. The hyena usually wins in one-to-one disputes over carcasses with leopards, cheetahs and tiger cubs, but is dominated by adult tigers.[11][28] In addition, the hyena is sympatric with the Asiatic lion
Asiatic lion
in Gir Forest National Park,[37] and the sloth bear in Balaram Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary, in the Indian State of Gujarat.[38] Range and population[edit]

A wild individual at Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar

The striped hyena's historical range encompasses Africa
Africa
north of and including the Sahel
Sahel
zone, eastern Africa
Africa
south into Tanzania, the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and the Middle East
Middle East
up to the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
shores, Turkey, Iraq, the Caucasus
Caucasus
(Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia), Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(excluding the higher areas of Hindukush) and the Indian Subcontinent. Today the species' distribution is patchy in most ranges, thus indicating that it occurs in many isolated populations, particularly in most of west Africa, most of the Sahara, parts of the Middle East, the Caucasus
Caucasus
and central Asia. It does however have a continuous distribution over large areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. Its modern distribution in Pakistan, Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is unknown with some sizable large number in India
India
in open areas of Deccan Peninsula.[39] During the recent Afghanistan
Afghanistan
conflict, periodic sightings were reported in Kandahar
Kandahar
Province although not definitive.

Country Population Status Threats/Protection

Afghanistan Unknown[40] Data deficient[41] Striped hyenas are caught, either for hyena-baiting or for medicinal purposes[41]

Algeria 50–100[40] Threatened[41] Although protected by décret no. 83-509, striped hyenas are declining in Algeria
Algeria
due to poaching, forest fires and the disturbing of den sites[41]

Burkina Faso 100-1,000[40] Data deficient[41] Burkina Faso's striped hyena population is low but stable, with hunting only being permitted outside national parks and in retaliation to livestock losses[41]

Cameroon 100-1,000[40] Data deficient[41] Cameroon's striped hyenas are afforded no protection or special attention[41]

Caucasus
Caucasus
(Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia) 150–200[40] Threatened[41] Declining in all three countries due to hunting for fur and in retaliation to attacks on humans.Other factors include habitat loss, a reduction in large herbivore populations and changes in livestock management[41]

Chad Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]

Egypt 1,000–2,000[40] Data deficient[41] Striped hyenas are offered no protection, and are hunted and poisoned as pests. There is also a reduced availability of animal carcasses for them to feed on[41]

Ethiopia, Djibouti, Eritrea Unknown[40] Lower risk in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and data deficient in Eritrea, with no records in Djibouti[41] Ethiopian hyenas are specially protected under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife Conservation Amendment Regulations (1974), though they may be hunted under special permit for EtBirr 40 (equivalent to US$20) for science, education or zoology[41]

India 1,000–3,000[40] Data deficient[41] Although India's hyenas are protected, this is given only within conservation areas, and the population is in decline due to poaching, competition with leopards over shelter and diminishing food stocks[41]

Iran Unknown[40] Data deficient[41] Striped hyenas are protected by law[41]

Iraq 100-1,000[40] Threatened[41] Iraqi hyena populations are decreasing, though wildlife laws regulate their hunting[41]

Israel 100–170[40] Threatened[41] Although hyenas have largely recovered from the strychnine poisoning campaigns of 1918–1948, and are protected by law, the current nature reserves housing them may be too small to ensure viable populations. Road accidents are their most serious threat[41]

Jordan Unknown[40] Threatened[41] Hyenas are actively hunted, as they are considered threats to human life[41]

Kenya 1,000–2,000[40] Lower risk[41] Striped hyenas are likely to decrease in Kenya
Kenya
because of accelerated habitat destruction and poaching[41]

Kuwait 0[40] Probably extinct[41]

Lebanon Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]

Libya Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]

Mali Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]

Mauritiana Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]

Morocco 50–500[40] Threatened[41] Though protected by law, the hyena population is in drastic decline, with the remaining individuals now having withdrawn to the southern mountains[41]

Nepal 10–50[40] Data deficient[41] Although a small population of hyenas is confirmed, it is not considered a priority for protection by the government[41]

Niger 100–500[40] Threatened[41] Declining due to officially sanctioned hunting and persecution campaigns, as well as habitat loss and overgrazing[41]

Nigeria Unknown[40] Threatened[41]

Oman 100-1,000[40] Threatened[41] Although not protected, striped hyenas are not officially persecuted, and are considered useful scavengers[41]

Pakistan Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]

Saudi Arabia 100-1,000[40] Threatened[41] Though not officially persecuted, Arabian hyenas are not offered protection, and are severely poached[41]

Senegal 50–100[40] Threatened[41]

Somalia Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]

Sudan Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]

Syria Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]

Tajikistan Unknown[40] Threatened[41]

Tanzania Unknown[40] Data deficient[41] Striped hyenas can be hunted, though they are not usually a target species. Road accidents are the most frequently recorded cause of mortality[41]

Tunisia Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]

Turkey Small isolated populations[42] Threatened[43][44][45]

Turkmenistan 100–500[40] Threatened[41] Declining from hunting, though listed in the Red Data Book of Turkmenia[41]

United Arab Emirates 0[40] Probably extinct[41]

Uzbekistan 25–100[40] Threatened[41] Striped hyena
Striped hyena
populations have declined over decades from active hunting and habitat loss, though they are listed in the Red Data Book of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and are protected[41]

Western Sahara Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]

Yemen Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]

Relationships with humans[edit] In folklore and mythology[edit]

Striped hyena
Striped hyena
pugmark/track in wet clay. Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

A striped hyena, as depicted on the Nile mosaic of Palestrina

Striped hyenas are frequently referenced in Middle Eastern literature and folklore, typically as symbols of treachery and stupidity.[46] In the Near and Middle East, striped hyenas are generally regarded as physical incarnations of jinns.[12] Zakariya al-Qazwini
Zakariya al-Qazwini
(1204–1283) wrote in Arabic
Arabic
of a tribe of people called " Hyena
Hyena
People". In his book Marvels of Creatures and the Strange Things Existing (عجائب المخلوقات وغرائب الموجودات), he wrote that should one of this tribe be in a group of 1000 people, a hyena could pick him out and eat him.[46] A Persian medical treatise written in 1376 tells how to cure cannibalistic people known as kaftar who are said to be "half-man, half-hyena".[12] Al-Doumairy in his writings in Hawayan Al-Koubra (1406) wrote that striped hyenas were vampiric creatures that attacked people at night and sucked the blood from their necks. He also wrote that hyenas only attacked brave people. Arab folklore tells of how hyenas can mesmerise victims with their eyes or sometimes with their pheromones.[46] Until the end of the 19th century, the Greeks
Greeks
believed that the bodies of werewolves, if not destroyed, would haunt battlefields as vampiric hyenas which drank the blood of dying soldiers.[47] The image of striped hyenas in Afghanistan, India
India
and Palestine is more varied. Though feared, striped hyenas were also symbolic for love and fertility, leading to numerous varieties of love medicine derived from hyena body parts. Among the Baloch people
Baloch people
and in North India, witches or magicians are said to ride striped hyenas at night.[12] The Arabic
Arabic
word for striped hyenas is alluded in a valley in Israel known as Shaqq al-Diba (meaning "cleft of the hyenas") and Wadi Abu Diba (meaning "valley of the hyenas"). Both places have been interpreted by some scholars as being the Biblical Valley of Zeboim mentioned in 1 Samuel 13:18. The Hebrew word for hyena is tzebua or zevoa, which literally means "howling creature". Though the King James Version of the Bible interprets this word (which appears in the Book of Jeremiah 12:9) as referring to a "speckled bird", Henry Baker Tristram argued that it was most likely a hyena being mentioned.[13] In Gnosticism, the Archon
Archon
Astaphaios is depicted with a hyena face.[48]

Striped Hyena
Hyena
feasting on Poultry
Poultry
Waste in Dahod district, Gujarat, India

Livestock
Livestock
and crop predation[edit] The striped hyena is sometimes implicated in the killing of livestock, particularly goats, sheep, dogs and poultry. Larger stock is sometimes reportedly taken, though it is possible that these are cases of scavenging mistaken for actual predation. Although most attacks occur at low densities, a substantial number reputedly occur in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iraq, and possibly Morocco. In Turkmenistan, they kill dogs, while they kill dogs, sheep and other small animals in the Caucasus. Striped hyenas were recorded to kill horses and donkeys in 1950s Iraq. Dogs, sheep and goats are occasionally at risk in Africa. Sheep
Sheep
and goats are also preyed upon in North Africa, Israel, Iran, Pakistan, and India, donkeys in North Africa, Israel, Iran, Pakistan, and India, horses in Iran
Iran
and dogs in India.[49] Striped hyenas also cause damage on occasion to melon fields and to date palms in date plantations in Israel
Israel
and Egypt, and to water and honey melon plantations in Turkmenistan.[49] Attacks on humans and grave desecration[edit]

Engraving of a striped hyena attacking a man in The Naturalist's Cabinet (1806)

In ordinary circumstances, striped hyenas are extremely timid around humans, though they may show bold behaviours toward people at night.[10] On rare occasions, striped hyenas have preyed on humans. In the 1880s, a hyena was reported to have attacked humans, especially sleeping children, over a three-year period in the Erivan Governorate, with 25 children and 3 adults being wounded in one year. The attacks provoked local authorities into announcing a reward of 100 rubles for every hyena killed. Further attacks were reported later in some parts of Transcaucasia, particularly in 1908. Instances are known in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
of striped hyenas killing children sleeping in courtyards during the 1930s and 1940s. In 1942, a guard sleeping in his hut was mauled by a hyena in Golyndzhakh. Cases of children being taken by hyenas by night are known in southeast Turkmenia's Bathyz Nature Reserve. A further attack on a child was reported around Serakhs
Serakhs
in 1948.[8] Several attacks have occurred in India; in 1962, nine children were thought to have been taken by hyenas in the town of Bhagalpur
Bhagalpur
in the Bihar
Bihar
State in a six-week period[13] and 19 children up to the age of four were killed by hyenas in Karnataka, Bihar
Bihar
in 1974.[50] A census on wild animal attacks during a five-year period in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
showed that hyenas had only attacked three people, the lowest figure when compared to deaths caused by wolves, gaur, boar, elephants, tigers, leopards and sloth bears.[51] Though attacks on live humans are rare, striped hyenas will scavenge on human corpses. In Turkey, stones are placed on graves to stop hyenas digging the bodies out. In World War I, the Turks imposed conscription (safar barlek) on mount Lebanon; people escaping from the conscription fled north, where many died and were subsequently eaten by hyenas.[46] Hunting[edit]

Hyena
Hyena
(1739) by Jean-Baptiste Oudry

A striped hyena being speared in British India, as illustrated in the Illustrated London News

Striped hyenas were hunted by Ancient Egyptian peasants for duty and amusement along with other animals that were a threat to crops and livestock.[52] Algerian hunters historically considered the killing of striped hyenas as beneath their dignity, due to the animal's reputation for cowardice.[53] A similar attitude was held by British sportsmen in British India.[11] Although striped hyenas are capable of quickly killing a dog with a single bite,[34] they usually feign death when escape from hunting dogs is impossible, and will remain in this state for long periods, even when badly bitten.[24] On some rare occasions, hyenas were ridden down and speared by men on horseback. Although hyenas were generally not fast enough to outrun horses, they had the habit of doubling and turning frequently during chases, thus ensuring long pursuits. Generally though, hyenas were hunted more as pests than sporting quarries; their scavenging damages skulls, skins and other articles from hunter's camps, which made them unpopular among sportsmen.[54] In the Soviet Union, hyena hunting was not specially organised. Most hyenas were caught incidentally in traps meant for other animals.[55] Some hunters in southern Punjab, Kandahar and Quetta, catch striped hyenas to use them in hyena-baiting. The hyenas are pitted against specially trained dogs, and are restrained with ropes in order to pull them away from the dogs if necessary.[12] In Kandahar, hunters locally called payloch (naked foot) hunt striped hyenas by entering their dens naked with a noose in hand. When the hyena is cornered at the end of its lair, the hunter murmurs the magic formula "turn into dust, turn into stone," which causes the animal to enter a hypnotic state of total submission, by which point the hunter can slip a noose over its forelegs and, finally, drag it out of the cave.[12] A similar method was once practised by Mesopotamian Arab hunters, who would enter hyena dens and "flatter" the animal, which they believed could understand Arabic. The hunter would murmur "You are very nice and pretty and quite like a lion; indeed, you are a lion". The hyena would then allow the hunter to place a noose around its neck and pose no resistance on being dragged out of its lair.[53] The fur is coarse and sparse pelage, with the few skins sold by hunters often being marketed as poor quality dog or wolf fur. Hyena skins were however once used in preparing chamois leather. The selling price of hyena pelts in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
ranged from 45 kopeks to 1 ruble, 80 kopeks.[55] Striped hyenas as food[edit]

An Ancient Egyptian mural showing a striped hyena being forcefed

A mural depicted on Mereruka's tomb in Sakkara
Sakkara
indicates that Old Kingdom Egyptians forcefed hyenas in order to fatten them up for food, though certain scholars have argued that the depicted animals were really aardwolves. Striped hyenas are still eaten by Egyptian peasants, Arabian Bedouins, Palestinian laborers, Sinai
Sinai
Bedouins, Tuaregs,[52] and in Somalia.[56] The Bedouins of Arabia, hyena meat is generally considered more as a medicine than as food.[12] Striped hyenas in folk magic[edit] The Ancient Greeks
Greeks
and Romans believed the blood, excrement, rectum, genitalia, eyes, tongue, hair, skin, and fat, as well as the ash of different parts of the striped hyena's body, were effective means to ward off evil and to ensure love and fertility. The Greeks
Greeks
and Romans believed that the genitalia of a hyena "would hold a couple peaceably together" and that a hyena anus worn as an amulet on the upper arm would make its male possessor irresistible to women. In West and South Asia, hyena body parts apparently play an important role in love magic and in the making of amulets. In Iranian folklore, it is mentioned that a stone found in the hyenas body can serve as a charm of protection for whoever wears it on his upper arm. In the Pakistani province of Sindh, the local Muslims place the tooth of a striped hyena over churns in order not to lose the milk's baraka. In Iran, a dried striped hyena pelt is considered a potent charm which forces all to succumb to the possessors attraction. In Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan striped hyena hair is used either in love magic or as a charm in sickness. Hyena
Hyena
blood has been held in high regard in northern India as potent medicine, and the eating of the tongue helps fight tumors. In the Khyber area, burned striped hyena fat is applied to a man's genitals or sometimes taken orally to ensure virility, while in India the fat serves as a cure for rheumatism. In Afghanistan, some mullahs wear the vulva (kus) of a female striped hyena wrapped in silk under their armpits for a week. If a man peers through the vulva at the woman of his desire, he will invariably get hold of her. This has led to the proverbial expression in Dari of kus-e kaftar bay, as well as in Pashto of kus-e kaftar which literally mean "it happens as smoothly as if you would look through the vulva of a female striped hyena". In the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan, the Pakhtun
Pakhtun
keep the vulva in vermilion powder, itself having aphrodesic connotations. The rectum of a freshly killed striped hyena is likewise used by homosexuals and bisexuals to attract young men. This has led to the expression "to possess the anus of a [striped] hyena" which denotes somebody who is attractive and has many lovers. A striped hyena's penis kept in a small box filled with vermilion powder can be used for the same reasons.[12] Tameability[edit] The striped hyena is easily tamed and can be fully trained, particularly when young. Although the Ancient Egyptians did not consider striped hyenas sacred, they supposedly tamed them for use in hunting. When raised with a firm hand, they may eventually become affectionate and as amenable as well trained dogs,[52][57] though they emit a strong odour which no amount of bathing will cover.[58] Although they kill dogs in the wild, striped hyenas raised in captivity can form bonds with them.[24] References[edit]

^ a b AbiSaid, M. & Dloniak, S.M.D. (2015). Hyaena hyaena. The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened
Threatened
Species doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T10274A45195080.en ^ Linnæus, Carl (1758). Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I (in Latin) (10th ed.). Holmiæ (Stockholm): Laurentius Salvius. p. 40. Retrieved 23 November 2012.  ^ a b Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). "Hyaena hyaena". Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b Kurtén 1968, pp. 66–68 ^ a b c Rosevear 1974, p. 348 ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 1992, p. 16 ^ a b c Mills & Hofer 1998, p. 22 ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 1992, p. 46 ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 1992, pp. 40–42 ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 1992, pp. 36–37 ^ a b c d Pocock 1941, p. 72 ^ a b c d e f g h Frembgen, Jürgen W. The Magicality of the Hyena: Beliefs and Practices in West and South Asia, Asian Folklore Studies, Volume 57, 1998: 331–344 ^ a b c Bright, Michael (2006). Beasts of the Field: The Revealing Natural History of Animals in the Bible. pp. 127–129. ISBN 1-86105-831-4.  ^ Αριστοτέλης 4th century BCE: Των περί τα ζώα ιστοριών. ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 1992, pp. 11–14 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992, p. 8 ^ Pocock 1941, p. 67 ^ a b Mills & Hofer 1998, p. 21 ^ Mammals: Striped Hyena. San DIego Zoo ^ Boitani, Luigi, Simon & Schuster's Guide to Mammals. Simon & Schuster/Touchstone Books (1984), ISBN 978-0-671-42805-1 ^ Awad, Simon (February 2008). Myths and Facts about Hyenas. thisweekinpalestine.com #118 ^ Pocock 1941, pp. 62–63 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992, p. 38 ^ a b c d e Pocock 1941, p. 73 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992, p. 14 ^ "21 new wildlife mammal species found in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Dhaka Tribune". archive.dhakatribune.com. Retrieved 2017-09-21.  ^ Osborn & Helmy 1980, p. 427 ^ a b c d Mills & Hofer 1998, pp. 24–25 ^ Rosevear 1974, p. 350 ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 1992, pp. 33–36 ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 1992, pp. 31–33 ^ a b Rosevear 1974, p. 349 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992, p. 39 ^ a b Daniel Johnson (1827) Sketches of Indian Field Sports: With Observations on the Animals; Also an Account of Some of the Customs of the Inhabitants; with a Description of the Art of Catching Serpents, as Practised by the Conjoors and Their Method of Curing Themselves when Bitten: with Remarks on Hydrophobia and Rabid Animals p. 45-46, R. Jennings, 1827 ^ Hogenboom, Melissa (2016-03-26). "Earth – The hyena that made its home in a wolf pack". BBC. Retrieved 2017-01-03.  ^ Macdonald, David (1987) Running with the Fox, p.77-79, Guild Publishing, London, ISBN 0-8160-1886-3 ^ Singh, H. S.; Gibson, L. (2011). "A conservation success story in the otherwise dire megafauna extinction crisis: The Asiatic lion ( Panthera
Panthera
leo persica) of Gir forest" (PDF). Biological Conservation. 144 (5): 1753–1757. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.02.009.  ^ "Balaram Ambaji Wild Life Sanctuary". Forests & Environment Department. Archived from the original on 20 January 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2016.  ^ Mills & Hofer 1998, p. 44 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Mills & Hofer 1998, p. 67 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg Mills & Hofer 1998, pp. 68–71 ^ Striped hyena
Striped hyena
in Turkey. Iberianature.com. Retrieved on 2013-03-21. ^ Ö. Emre Can, Yıldıray Lise Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(Hyaena hyaena) trapped in Hatay, Turkey. WWF Turkey ^ Kasparek, Max; Kasparek, Aygün; Gözcelioğlu, Bülent; Çolak, Ercüment; Yiğit, Nuri (2004). "On the status and distribution of the Striped Hyaena, Hyaena hyaena, in Turkey" (PDF). Zoology in the Middle East. 33: 93. doi:10.1080/09397140.2004.10638068.  ^ Özgün Emre Can (October 2004) Status, Conservation and Management of Large Carnivores in Turkey, WWF-Turkey, p. 11. ^ a b c d Mounir R. Abi-Said (2006) Reviled as a grave robber: The ecology and conservation of striped hyaenas in the human dominated landscapes of Lebanon
Lebanon
Ph.D. thesis, University of Kent (Biodiversity management) ^ Woodward, Ian (1979). The Werewolf
Werewolf
Delusion. p. 256. ISBN 0-448-23170-0.  ^ The Apocryphon of John. Gnosis.org. Retrieved on 2013-03-21. ^ a b Mills & Hofer 1998, pp. 23–24 ^ Mills & Hofer 1998, p. 25 ^ Linnel, J.D.C.; et al. (January 2002). The Fear of Wolves: A Review of Wolf Attacks on Humans (PDF). Norsk Institutt for Naturforskning. ISBN 82-426-1292-7. Archived from the original on February 11, 2005. Retrieved 2008-06-26. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ a b c Osborn & Helmy 1980, p. 431 ^ a b Kingsley, John Sterling (1884) The Standard Natural History, Vol. V: Mammals, Boston: S. E. Cassino and Co. ^ Lydekker, Richard (1907), The game animals of India, Burma, Malaya, and Tibet, p. 354, London, R. Ward, limited ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 1992, p. 45 ^ Islamists authorise hyena meat in Southern Somalia. SomalialandPress (12 August 2012) ^ Rosevear 1974, pp. 351–352 ^ Smith, A. Mervyn (1904), Sport and adventure in the Indian jungle, p. 292, London : Hurst and Blackett

Bibliography[edit]

Heptner, V. G.; Sludskii, A. A. (1992). "Mammals of the Soviet Union: Carnivora
Carnivora
(hyaenas and cats), Volume 2". Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation.  Kurtén, Björn (1968). " Pleistocene
Pleistocene
mammals of Europe". Weidenfeld and Nicolson.  Mills, Gus; Hofer, Heribert (1998). "Hyaenas: status survey and conservation action plan" (PDF). IUCN/SSC Hyena
Hyena
Specialist Group. ISBN 2-8317-0442-1.  Osborn, Dale. J.; Helmy, Ibrahim (1980). "The contemporary land mammals of Egypt
Egypt
(including Sinai)". Field Museum of Natural History.  Pocock, R. I. (1941). "Fauna of British India: Mammals Volume 2". Taylor and Francis.  Rosevear, Donovan Reginald (1974). "The carnivores of West Africa". London : Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). ISBN 0-565-00723-8. 

External links[edit]

Anderson, Steven C. (2004), Hyaena hyaena entry on Encyclopaedia Iranica Rieger, Ingo (1981) Hyaena hyaena, Mammalian Species, No. 150, pp.1–5, 3 figs. American Society of Mammalogists

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Hyaena hyaena

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hyaena hyaena.

Striped Hyena
Hyena
Pictures

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean
Mediterranean
monk seal (M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q188657 ADW: Hyaena_hyaena ARKive: hyaena-hyaena EoL: 311570 Fossilworks: 232134 GBIF: 5218777 iNaturalist: 41888 ITIS: 621908 IUCN: 10274 MSW: 14000687 NCBI: 959

.