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The Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
(Arabic: مضيق تيران‎ Maḍīq Tīrān) are the narrow sea passages between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separate the Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
from the Red Sea
Red Sea
proper. The distance between the two peninsulas is about 13 km (7 nautical miles). The Strait of Tiran is named after Tiran Island
Tiran Island
located at its entrance 5 or 6 km (3 or 4 mi) from the Sinai, on which the Multinational Force and Observers
Multinational Force and Observers
has an observation post to monitor the compliance of Egypt
Egypt
in maintaining freedom of navigation of the straits as provided under the Israel- Egypt
Egypt
Peace Treaty.[original research?] Sanafir Island
Sanafir Island
lies to the east of Tiran, southeast of the shallow strait between Tiran and Saudi Arabia.

Contents

1 Background 2 Closure in 1967 3 Bridge project 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Background International documents inconsistently refer to both the "Straits of Tiran" and the "Strait of Tiran". There are several passages formed by the islands between Egypt
Egypt
and Saudi Arabia. The westernmost strait, between Egypt
Egypt
and the island of Tiran, overlooked by the Egyptian city Sharm el-Sheikh
Sharm el-Sheikh
is the "Strait of Tiran", 5 or 6 km (3 or 4 mi) wide. It has two passages deep enough to be navigable by large ships. The Enterprise passage, 290 metres (950 ft) deep, is adjacent to the Egyptian side, while the 73-metre (240 ft) deep Grafton passage, surrounded by shallows, is to the east, nearer to the island of Tiran. To the east of Tiran, between it and Saudi Arabia, the other strait has reefs and shallows with a single channel 16 metres (52 ft) deep.[1] Closure in 1967 Main article: Origins of the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
§ The Straits of Tiran closure Access to Jordan's only seaport of Aqaba
Aqaba
and to Israel's only Red Sea seaport of Eilat
Eilat
is through the Gulf of Aqaba, which gives the Straits of Tiran strategic importance.[2][3] In 1967, ninety percent of Israeli oil passed through the Straits of Tiran, making it a target of Egyptian blockade during the Arab League boycott of Israel.[4] In May 1967, Israeli Prime Minister Levi Eshkol
Levi Eshkol
repeated declarations that Israel
Israel
had made in 1957, saying that closure of the Straits of Tiran would be an act of war.[5][6] Egypt
Egypt
then blockaded the straits on May 22, 1967, and oil tankers that were due to pass through the straits were required to submit documents ensuring their cargo was not destined for an Israeli port.[7][8] At that time, Israel
Israel
viewed the Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
as a vital interest as it is where Israel
Israel
received vital imports, mainly oil from Iran, and a blockade threatened Israel's ability to develop the Negev.[9] In May 1967, Major General Indar Jit Rikhye
Indar Jit Rikhye
was the commander of the United Nations Emergency Force
United Nations Emergency Force
(UNEF) in the Sinai peninsula
Sinai peninsula
when Egypt
Egypt
deployed its own troops in that territory and demanded that Rikhye withdraw all of his troops. Rikhye did withdraw, including from the port at Sharm el Sheikh
Sharm el Sheikh
adjacent to the straits. The subsequent closure of the Tiran Straits by Egypt
Egypt
was closely linked to the preceding UNEF withdrawal, because having the peacekeepers (rather than the Egyptian military) at Sharm el Sheik was important for keeping that waterway open.[10] Later in life, General Rikhye sought to downplay the importance that Israel
Israel
attached to keeping that waterway open, saying that Israel's accusation in 1967 of a blockade was "questionable" given that an Israeli-flagged ship had not passed through the straits in two years, and that "The U.A.R. [Egyptian] navy had searched a couple of ships after the establishment of the blockade and thereafter relaxed its implementation".[11] Egypt
Egypt
had initially requested UNEF withdrawal from locations other than Sharm el-Sheik,[12] but UN Secretary-General U Thant
U Thant
demanded an all-or-nothing withdrawal.[13] The U.S. President at the time, Lyndon Johnson, had this to say about closure of these straits being a cause of the Six-Day War:[14][15]

If a single act of folly was more responsible for this explosion than any other, it was the arbitrary and dangerous announced decision that the Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
would be closed. The right of innocent, maritime passage must be preserved for all nations.

Bridge project A project to build a 15-kilometre (9.3 mi) bridge across the straits, linking Egypt
Egypt
and Saudi Arabia, is under consideration by the Egyptian government (see Saudi– Egypt
Egypt
Causeway).[16] See also

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
portal

Sanafir Island Tiran Island

References

^ Carl F. Salans (December 1968). " Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
and Strait of Tiran: Troubled Waters". Proceedings. United States Naval Institute. 94 (56).  ^ Robert Priewasser, Tiran Island
Tiran Island
and Straits of Tiran. Unexplained Sovereignty over an Island in the Context of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Saarbrücken: Akademikerverlag, 2013) ^ Oren, Michael B. (2002). Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515174-7.  ^ Shlaim, Avi; Louis, William Roger (13 February 2012). The 1967 Arab-Israeli War: Origins and Consequences. Cambridge University Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-107-00236-4. 90% of Israeli oil was imported through the Straits of Tiran  ^ Neff, David. Warriors for Jerusalem: the six days that changed the Middle East, p. 88 (Simon & Schuster, 1984): "In separate messages to the leading maritime powers, Eshkol warned: ' Israel
Israel
would stop short of nothing to cancel the blockade. It is essential that President Nasser should not have any illusions.'" ^ "Statement to the General Assembly by Foreign Minister Meir, 1 March 1957" ( Israel
Israel
Ministry of Foreign Affairs): "Interference, by armed force, with ships of Israeli flag exercising free and innocent passage in the Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
and through the Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
will be regarded by Israel
Israel
as an attack entitling it to exercise its inherent right of self-defence under Article 51 of the Charter and to take all such measures as are necessary to ensure the free and innocent passage of its ships in the Gulf and in the Straits." ^ Shlaim & Louis (2012), p. 27 ^ "Daily brief to the U.S president on 27 May 1967" (PDF). 27 May 1967. diverted as was a sister ship yesterday  ^ Bregman, Ahron (2013). Israel's Wars: A History since 1947. Taylor & Franci. p. 7. ISBN 1135687870.  ^ Avi Shlaim; William Roger Louis (13 February 2012). The 1967 Arab-Israeli War: Origins and Consequences. Cambridge University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-107-00236-4. the occupation [by Egypt] of Sharm-al-Sheikh would force the closure of the Tiran Straits  ^ Rikhye, Indar Jit (1980). The Sinai Blunder: Withdrawal of the United Nations Emergency Force
United Nations Emergency Force
Leading to the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
of June 1967. London: Rutledge. ISBN 0-7146-3136-1.  ^ Quigley, John (December 2012). "The Six-Day War
Six-Day War
and Israeli Self-Defense", Kindle Location 485. Cambridge University Press. Kindle Edition. ^ Segev, 2007, op. cit., p. 274. ^ Ben Gad, Yitschak. "Politics, Lies, and Videotape: 3,000 Questions and Answers on the Mideast Crisis", p. 182 (SP Books, 1991). ^ "LBJ Pledges U.S. to Peace Effort", Eugene Register-Guard (Jun 19, 1967). See also Johnson, Lyndon. "Address at the State Department's Foreign Policy Conference for Educators" (June 19, 1967). ^ Najla Moussa (2 March 2006). "Bridge connecting Egypt, Saudi Arabia considered". Daily News Egypt. Retrieved 11 April 2016. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Straits of Tiran.

Descriptions, pictures and videos of some Straits of Tiran
Straits of Tiran
dive spots One of the wrecks in the Straits of Tiran "The Strait of Tiran and the Sovereignty of the Sea" by Anthony S. Reyner Photo Gallery: Bridging the Red Sea, Speigel Online

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Resorts in Red Sea
Red Sea
Riviera

On the Sinai Peninsula

Taba Nuweiba Dahab Sharm El Sheikh Ras Sedr Ras Muhammad National Park Straits of Tiran

Sinai's nearby islands

Tiran Island Sanafir Island Pharaoh's Island

On the Western Red Sea
Red Sea
shore

Ain Sokhna Gamsha Bay El Gouna Ras Gharib Hurghada Sahl Hasheesh
Sahl Hasheesh
Bay Serrenia Makadi Bay Soma Bay Shoni Bay Safaga Quseir Port Ghalib Marsa Alam Hamata Berenice Troglodytica Hala'ib Alshalateen Ras Banas Foul Bay Abu Shar Abu Tig Gabal Elba Wadi Gimal Gubal Strait Tarabin

Red Sea
Red Sea
islands

Shadwan Island St.John's Island Mukawwa Island Rocky Island Green Island Abu Minqar Island

v t e

African seas

Oceans and seas

Alboran Sea Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Levantine Sea Mediterranean Sea Red Sea Southern Ocean

Gulfs and bays

Abu Qir Bay Acheïl Dakhlet Al Hoceima Bay Algiers Bay Algoa Bay Ambas Bay Ana Chaves Bay Angra de Cintra Antongil Bay Antsiranana Bay Arab's Gulf Baía Almeida Baía da Condúcia Baía da Corimba Baía de Mocambo Baía de Mossuril Baía de Namibe Baia de Porto Amboim Baía de Santa Marta Baía de Sucujaque Baía de Tombua Baía do Ambriz Baía do Bengo Baía do Dande Baía do Govuro Baía do Lúrio Baía do Nzeto Baía do Suto Baia dos Tigres Baie de Gorée Baie de Sangareya Baie de Yof Bandombaai Bay of Anfile Bay of Arguin Bay of Aseb Bay of Arzew Bight of Benin Bay of Beylul Bay of Edd Bay of Hawakil Bay of Langarano Bay of Saint-Augustin Bay of Tangier Benguela Bay Bera’esoli Betty’s Bay Bight of Biafra Bocock’s Bay Bombetoka Bay Bootbaai Bosluisbaai Cape Cross Bay Cape Negro Bay Chake-Chake Bay Chameis Bay Chwaka Bay Conception Bay Cuio Bay Dakhlet Nouadhibou Dalwakteah Bay Deurloopbaai Doringbaai Dungonab Bay Durissa Bay Elands Bay Enseada das Pombas Enseada de São Braz Enseada do Catumbo Enseada do Chalungo Enseada do Quicombo Enseada do Quitungo Enseada dos Três Irmãos Equimina Bay False Bay Farta Bay Fernao Veloso Bay Foul Bay Frederik se Baai Grosse Bucht Gulf of Aden Gulf of 'Agig Gulf of Gabès Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Hammamet Gulf of Sirte Gulf of Suez Gulf of Tadjoura Gulf of Tunis Gulf of Zula Hafun Bay South Hann Bay Harrison Cove Henties Bay Hirghīgo Bahir Selat’ē Horingbaai Hottentotsbaai Hurdiyo Hydra Bay Inhambane Bay Jammer Bucht John Owen Bay Kalawy Bay Kiwaiyu Bay Lambert Bay Lamu Bay Langbaai Loango Bay Lobito Bay Luanda Bay Lüderitz Bay McDougall Bay Manza Bay Maputo Bay Markusbaai Memba Bay Menai Bay Meob Bay Mietjie Frans se Baai Moraha Bahir Selat’ē Mossel Bay Möwebaai Noopbaai Oran Gulf Pemba Bay Pipas Bay Platbaai Plaatjieskraalbaai Plettenbergbaai Pointe-Noire Bay Port Alexander, Angola Prinzen Bucht Río de Oro Bay Rock Bay Roode Bay Rooiwalbaai Saint Francis Bay Saint Francis Bay (Eastern Cape) St Helena Bay Saint Sebastian Bay Saldanha Bay Sandwich Harbour Sierra Bay Skoonbergbaai Skurfbaai Slangbaai Sodwana Bay Sofala Bay Somnaasbaai Spencer Bay Struisbaai Spoegrivierbaai Swartstraat Table Bay Thysbaai Tietiesbaai Ungama Bay Walker Bay Walvis Bay (bay) Yawri Bay

Straits

Bab-el-Mandeb Bab Iskender Canal de Bolama Canal de Bolola Canal de Caió Canal de São Vicente Canal do Meio Mafia Channel Massawa Channel Mozambique Channel‎ Pemba Channel Shubuk Channel Strait of Gibraltar Strait of Sicily Straits of Tiran Zanzibar Channel

Historical seas

Aethiopian Sea Erythraean Sea Sea of Zanj

Coordinates: 28°00′14″N 34°27′55″E / 28.00389°N 34.46528°E /

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