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The STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA (officially named JUAN DE FUCA STRAIT in Canada
Canada
) is a large body of water about 95 miles (153 km) long that is the Salish Sea 's outlet to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. The international boundary between Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
runs down the center of the Strait.

It was named in 1787 by the maritime fur trader Charles William Barkley , captain of the Imperial Eagle , for Juan de Fuca
Juan de Fuca
, the Greek navigator who sailed in a Spanish expedition in 1592 to seek the fabled Strait of Anián . Barkley was the first non-indigenous person to find the strait, unless Juan de Fuca's story was true. The strait was explored in detail between 1789 and 1791 by Manuel Quimper , José María Narváez , Juan Carrasco , Gonzalo López de Haro , and Francisco de Eliza .

CONTENTS

* 1 Definition * 2 Climate * 3 Ferries * 4 Boundary dispute * 5 Salish Sea * 6 Counties and regional districts * 7 Fauna * 8 Other * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

DEFINITION

The USGS defines the Strait of Juan de Fuca
Juan de Fuca
as a channel . It extends east from the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
between Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
, British Columbia , and the Olympic Peninsula , Washington , to Haro Strait
Haro Strait
, San Juan Channel, Rosario Strait , and Puget Sound
Puget Sound
. The Pacific Ocean boundary is formed by a line between Cape Flattery and Tatoosh Island , Washington, and Carmanah Point (Vancouver Island), British Columbia. Its northern boundary follows the shoreline of Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
from Carmanah Point to Gonzales Point, then follows a continuous line east to Seabird Point (Discovery Island ), British Columbia, Cattle Point ( San Juan Island ), Washington, Iceberg Point ( Lopez Island ), Point Colville (Lopez Island), and then to Rosario Head ( Fidalgo Island ). The eastern boundary runs south from Rosario Head across Deception Pass to Whidbey Island
Whidbey Island
, then along the western coast of Whidbey Island to Point Partridge , then across Admiralty Inlet to Point Wilson ( Quimper Peninsula ). The northern coast of the Olympic Peninsula forms the southern boundary of the strait. In the eastern entrance to the Strait, the Race Rocks Archipelago is located in the high current zone halfway between Port Angeles, Washington, and Victoria, BC.

CLIMATE

Sunset over the strait

Like the rest of the Salish Sea and surrounding regions, the climate of the Strait is disputed, with the Köppen system classifying it as Mediterranean , but most regional climatologists preferring oceanic . While the climate is mostly oceanic in nature, the dry summers result in the Mediterranean classification in the Köppen system. Rainfall ranges from over 100 inches (250 cm) (temperate rainforest ) conditions at the west end to as little as 16 inches (41 cm) at the east end, near Sequim .

Because it is exposed to the generally westerly winds and waves of the Pacific, seas and weather in Juan de Fuca
Juan de Fuca
Strait are, on average, rougher than in the more protected waters inland, thereby resulting in a number of small-craft advisories .

FERRIES

An international vehicle ferry crosses the Strait from Port Angeles, Washington to Victoria, British Columbia
British Columbia
several times each day, as do passenger ferries of the Washington State Ferry system, a seasonal private ferry connecting Port Angeles with Victoria, and a private high-speed ferry between Victoria and Seattle .

BOUNDARY DISPUTE

The Olympic Mountains of Washington as seen from the entrance to Esquimalt Harbour , 1900, photo: John Wallace Jones

This strait remains the subject of a maritime boundary dispute between Canada
Canada
and the United States. The dispute is only over the seaward boundary extending 200 miles (320 km) west from the mouth of the strait. The maritime boundary within the strait is not in dispute. Both governments have proposed a boundary based on the principle of equidistance , but with different basepoint selections, resulting in small differences in the line. Resolution of the issue should be simple, but has been hindered because it might influence other unresolved maritime boundary issues between Canada
Canada
and the United States. In addition, the government of British Columbia
British Columbia
has rejected both equidistant proposals, instead arguing that the Juan de Fuca submarine canyon is the appropriate "geomorphic and physiogeographic boundary". The proposed equidistant boundary currently marks the northern boundary of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary . British Columbia's position is based on the principle of natural prolongation which developed in international law . It poses a dilemma for the federal government of Canada. If Canada
Canada
holds that the principle of natural prolongation applies to the Juan de Fuca
Juan de Fuca
Canyon on its Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
coast, the assertion could undermine Canada's argument in the Gulf of Maine boundary dispute . In this Atlantic Ocean context, Canada
Canada
favours an outcome based on the principle of equidistance.

SALISH SEA

Main article: Salish Sea

In March 2008, the Chemainus First Nation proposed renaming the strait the " Salish Sea ", an idea that reportedly met with approval by British Columbia's Aboriginal Relations Minister Mike de Jong , who pledged to put it before the B.C. cabinet for discussion. Making Salish Sea official required a formal application to the Geographical Names Board of Canada
Canada
. A parallel American movement promoting the name had a different definition, combining of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound
Puget Sound
as well as the Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
and related waters under the more general name Salish Sea. This latter definition was made official in 2009 by geographic boards of Canada
Canada
and the United States.

In October 2009, the Washington State Board of Geographic Names approved the Salish Sea toponym , not to replace the names of the Strait of Georgia, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca, but instead as a collective term for all three. The British Columbia Geographical Names Office passed a resolution only recommending that the name be adopted by the Geographical Names Board of Canada
Canada
, should its US counterpart approve the name-change. The United States
United States
Board on Geographic Names approved the name on November 12, 2009.

COUNTIES AND REGIONAL DISTRICTS

Counties along the Strait of Juan de Fuca:

* Clallam County, Washington * Jefferson County, Washington * Island County, Washington * Skagit County, Washington * San Juan County, Washington

Regional districts along the Strait of Juan de Fuca:

* Capital Regional District, British Columbia
British Columbia
* Cowichan Valley Regional District

FAUNA

See also: List of Fishes of the Salish Sea

Certain groups of seabirds called common murre migrate north by swimming. Some Pacific Coast murres paddle north to the sheltered bays of the Strait of Juan de Fuca
Juan de Fuca
to feed on herring and other small fish.

OTHER

Some scenes from the film The Hunt for Red October were filmed in the Strait of Juan de Fuca
Juan de Fuca
in 1989.

SEE ALSO

* Strait of Juan de Fuca
Juan de Fuca
laser incident * Graveyard of the Pacific * List of areas disputed by the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
* Oregon boundary dispute * Race Rocks Marine Protected Area * Pig War ( San Juan Islands Dispute) * Marilyn Bell

REFERENCES

* ^ " Juan de Fuca
Juan de Fuca
Strait". BC Geographical Names . * ^ A B U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Strait of Juan de Fuca * ^ While U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Strait of Juan de Fuca
Juan de Fuca
says John Meares named the strait in 1788, most sources say it was Barkley in 1787, for example: "Juan de Fuca Strait". BC Geographical Names . ; Existence of the Strait of Juan de Fuca
Juan de Fuca
confirmed by Captain Charles Barkley, Washington Secretary of State; Hayes, Derek (1999). Historical Atlas of the Pacific Northwest: Maps of exploration and Discovery. Sasquatch Books. p. 16. ISBN 1-57061-215-3 . online at Google Books; and Pethick, Derek (1980). The Nootka Connection: Europe and the Northwest Coast 1790–1795. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. p. 24. ISBN 0-88894-279-6 . It is well established that Meares tried to take credit for much of Barkley's work. * ^ "SEQUIM 2 E, WASHINGTON". * ^ Charney, Jonathan I.; David A. Colson; Robert W. Smith (2005). International maritime boundaries. Martinus Nijhoff. p. 3403. ISBN 978-90-04-14461-3 . * ^ The Alaska Boundary Dispute: History and International Law Archived 2008-12-18 at the Wayback Machine ., by Tony Fogarassy, page 3; citing Office of the Premier, Province of British Columbia, Submission of the Province of British Columbia
British Columbia
on West Coast Maritime Boundaries Between Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
(1977). A map of the Juan de Fuca
Juan de Fuca
Canyon is available at Map of Known Deep Corals in and around the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, NOAA Ocean Explorer * ^ McRae, Donald Malcolm; Gordon Ross Munro (1989). Canadian Oceans Policy: National Strategies and the New Law of the Sea. UBC Press. pp. 151–152. ISBN 978-0-7748-0346-5 . * ^ Johnston, Douglas M.; Mark J. Valencia (1991). Pacific Ocean Boundary Problems: Status and Solutions. Martinus Nijhoff. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-7923-0862-1 . * ^ " Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
could be renamed Salish Sea". Canadian Press. CBC.ca. 2008-03-09. Retrieved 2008-03-10. * ^ A B "STATE BOARD ON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES APPROVES ‘SALISH SEA’". 2009-10-30. * ^ Washington state adopts “Salish Sea” name for body of water including Strait of Georgia, Carlito Pablo, Georgia Straight, October 30, 2009 * ^ Berger, Knute (October 20, 2009). "Smooth Sailing for the Salish Sea?". Crosscut . Retrieved August 13, 2011. * ^ Berger, Knute (November 12, 2009). "U.S. approves Salish Sea name". Crosscut . Retrieved August 13, 2011.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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