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The Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق‎, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and separates Gibraltar
Gibraltar
and Peninsular Spain
Spain
in Europe
Europe
from Morocco
Morocco
and Ceuta
Ceuta
(Spain) in Africa. The name comes from the Rock of Gibraltar, which in turn originates from the Arabic
Arabic
Jebel Tariq (meaning "Tariq's mountain"[1]) named after Tariq ibn Ziyad. It is also known as the Straits of Gibraltar, the Gut of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(although this is mostly archaic),[2] the STROG ( Strait
Strait
Of Gibraltar) in naval use,[3] and Bab Al Maghrib (Arabic: باب المغرب‎), "Gate of the West". In the Middle Ages, Muslims called it Al-Zuqaq, "The Passage", the Romans called it Fretum Gatitanum ( Strait
Strait
of Cadiz),[4] and in the ancient world it was known as the "Pillars of Hercules" (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἡράκλειοι στῆλαι).[5] Europe
Europe
and Africa
Africa
are separated by 7.7 nautical miles (14.3 km; 8.9 mi) of ocean at the strait's narrowest point. The Strait's depth ranges between 300 and 900 metres (160 and 490 fathoms; 980 and 2,950 ft)[6] which possibly interacted with the lower mean sea level of the last major glaciation 20,000 years ago[7] when the level of the sea is believed to have been lower by 110–120 m (60–66 fathoms; 360–390 ft).[8] Ferries
Ferries
cross between the two continents every day in as little as 35 minutes. The Spanish side of the Strait
Strait
is protected under El Estrecho Natural Park.

Contents

1 Location

1.1 Extent

2 Geology 3 Important Bird Area 4 History 5 Communications

5.1 Tunnel
Tunnel
across the strait

6 Special
Special
flow and wave patterns

6.1 Inflow and outflow 6.2 Internal waves

7 Territorial waters 8 Power generation 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Location[edit]

Europe
Europe
(left) and Africa
Africa
(right)

On the northern side of the Strait
Strait
are Spain
Spain
and Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(a British overseas territory in the Iberian Peninsula), while on the southern side are Morocco
Morocco
and Ceuta
Ceuta
(a Spanish exclave in Morocco). Its boundaries were known in antiquity as the Pillars of Hercules. There are several islets, such as the disputed Isla Perejil, that are claimed by both Morocco
Morocco
and Spain.[9] Due to its location, the Strait
Strait
is commonly used for illegal immigration from Africa
Africa
to Europe.[10] Extent[edit] The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
defines the limits of the Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
as follows:[11]

On the West. A line joining Cape Trafalgar
Cape Trafalgar
to Cape Spartel.

On the East. A line joining Europa Point
Europa Point
to P. Almina.

Geology[edit]

A view across the Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
taken from the hills above Tarifa, Spain

The seabed of the Strait
Strait
is composed of synorogenic Betic-Rif clayey flysch covered by Pliocene
Pliocene
and/or Quaternary calcareous sediments, sourced from thriving cold water coral communities.[12] Exposed bedrock surfaces, coarse sediments and local sand dunes attest to the strong bottom current conditions at the present time. Around 5.9 million years ago,[13] the connection between the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
along the Betic and Rifan Corridor was progressively restricted until its total closure, effectively causing the salinity of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
to rise periodically within the gypsum and salt deposition range, during what is known as the Messinian salinity crisis. In this water chemistry environment, dissolved mineral concentrations, temperature and stilled water currents combined and occurred regularly to precipitate many mineral salts in layers on the seabed. The resultant accumulation of various huge salt and mineral deposits about the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
basin are directly linked to this era. It is believed that this process took a short time, by geological standards, lasting between 500,000 and 600,000 years. It is estimated that, were the straits closed even at today's higher sea level, most water in the Mediterranean basin
Mediterranean basin
would evaporate within only a thousand years, as it is believed to have done then,[13] and such an event would lay down mineral deposits like the salt deposits now found under the sea floor all over the Mediterranean. After a lengthy period of restricted intermittent or no water exchange between the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and Mediterranean
Mediterranean
basin, approximately 5.33 million years ago,[14] the Atlantic- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
connection was completely reestablished through the Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
by the Zanclean flood, and has remained open ever since.[15] The erosion produced by the incoming waters seems to be the main cause for the present depth of the strait (900 m at the narrows, 280 m at the Camarinal Sill). The strait is expected to close again as the African Plate moves northward relative to the Eurasian Plate,[citation needed] but on geological rather than human timescales. Important Bird Area[edit] The Strait
Strait
has been identified as an Important Bird Area
Important Bird Area
by BirdLife International because hundreds of thousands of seabirds use it every year to pass between the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the Atlantic, including large numbers of Cory's and Balearic shearwaters, Audouin's, yellow-legged and lesser black-backed gulls, razorbills and Atlantic puffins.[16] History[edit]

Historic map of the Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
by Piri Reis

For full articles on the history of the north Gibraltar
Gibraltar
shore, see History of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
or History of Spain. For the full article on the history of the south Gibraltar
Gibraltar
shore, see History of Morocco.

Evidence of the first human habitation of the area by Neanderthals dates back to 125,000 years ago. It is believed that the Rock of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
may have been one of the last outposts of Neanderthal habitation in the world, with evidence of their presence there dating to as recently as 24,000 years ago.[17] Archaeological evidence of Homo sapiens habitation of the area dates back c. 40,000 years. The relatively short distance between the two shores has served as a quick crossing point for various groups and civilizations throughout history, including Carthaginians campaigning against Rome, Romans travelling between the provinces of Hispania and Mauritania, Vandals raiding south from Germania through Western Rome and into North Africa in the 5th century, Moors and Berbers in the 8th–11th centuries, and Spain
Spain
and Portugal in the 16th century. Beginning in 1492, the straits began to play a certain cultural role in acting as a barrier against cross-strait conquest and the flow of culture and language that would naturally follow such a conquest. In that year, the last Muslim government north of the straits was overthrown by a Spanish force. Since that time, the straits have come to foster the development of two very distinct and varied cultures on either side of the straits after sharing much the same culture and greater degrees of tolerance for over 300+ years from the 8th century to the early 13th century.[citation needed] On the northern side, Christian-European culture has remained dominant since the expulsion of the last Muslim kingdom in 1492, along with the Romance Spanish language, while on the southern side, Muslim-Arabic/ Mediterranean
Mediterranean
has been dominant since the spread of Islam into North Africa
North Africa
in the 700s, along with the Arabic
Arabic
language. For the last 500 years, religious and cultural intolerance, more than the small travel barrier that the straits present, has come to act as a powerful enforcing agent of the cultural separation that exists between these two groups.[citation needed] The small British enclave of the city of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
presents a third cultural group found in the straits. This enclave was first established in 1704 and has since been used by Britain to act as a surety for control of the sea lanes into and out of the Mediterranean. Following the Spanish coup of July 1936
Spanish coup of July 1936
the Spanish Republican Navy tried to blockade the Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
to hamper the transport of Army of Africa
Africa
troops from Spanish Morocco
Morocco
to Peninsular Spain. On 5 August 1936 the so-called Convoy de la victoria
Convoy de la victoria
was able to bring at least 2,500 men across the strait, breaking the republican blockade.[18] Communications[edit]

3-d rendering, looking eastwards towards the Mediterranean.

The Strait
Strait
is an important shipping route from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
to the Atlantic. There are ferries that operate between Spain
Spain
and Morocco across the strait, as well as between Spain
Spain
and Ceuta
Ceuta
and Gibraltar
Gibraltar
to Tangier. Tunnel
Tunnel
across the strait[edit] Main article: Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
crossing In December 2003, Spain
Spain
and Morocco
Morocco
agreed to explore the construction of an undersea rail tunnel to connect their rail systems across the Strait. The gauge of the rail would be 1,435 mm (4 ft 8.5 in) to match the proposed construction and conversion of significant parts of the existing broad gauge system to standard gauge.[19] While the project remains in a planning phase, Spanish and Moroccan officials have met to discuss it as recently as 2012,[20] and proposals predict it could be completed by 2025. Special
Special
flow and wave patterns[edit] The Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
links the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
directly to the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea. This direct linkage creates certain unique flow and wave patterns. These unique patterns are created due to the interaction of various regional and global evaporative forces, tidal forces, and wind forces. Inflow and outflow[edit]

Internal waves (marked with arrows) caused by the Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar. ( Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in upper right.)

Through the strait, water generally flows more or less continually in both an eastward and a westward direction. A smaller amount of deeper saltier and therefore denser waters continually work their way westwards (the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
outflow), while a larger amount of surface waters with lower salinity and density continually work their way eastwards (the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
inflow). These general flow tendencies may be occasionally interrupted for brief periods to accommodate temporary tidal flow requirements, depending on various lunar and solar alignments. Still, on the whole and over time, the balance of the water flow is eastwards, due to an evaporation rate within the Mediterranean basin
Mediterranean basin
higher than the combined inflow of all the rivers that empty into it.[citation needed] The shallow Camarinal Sill of the Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar, which forms the shallowest point within the strait, acts to limit mixing between the cold, less saline Atlantic
Atlantic
water and the warm Mediterranean
Mediterranean
waters. The Camarinal Sill is located at the far western end of the strait. The Mediterranean
Mediterranean
waters are so much saltier than the Atlantic
Atlantic
waters that they sink below the constantly incoming water and form a highly saline (thermohaline, both warm and salty) layer of bottom water. This layer of bottom-water constantly works its way out into the Atlantic as the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
outflow. On the Atlantic
Atlantic
side of the strait, a density boundary separates the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
outflow waters from the rest at about 100 m (330 ft) depth. These waters flow out and down the continental slope, losing salinity, until they begin to mix and equilibrate more rapidly, much further out at a depth of about 1,000 m (3,300 ft). The Mediterranean
Mediterranean
outflow water layer can be traced for thousands of kilometres west of the strait, before completely losing its identity.

Simplifed and stylized diagram of currents at the Camarinal Sill

During the Second World War, German U-boats
U-boats
used the currents to pass into the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
without detection, by maintaining silence with engines off.[21] From September 1941 to May 1944 Germany managed to send 62 U-boats
U-boats
into the Mediterranean. All these boats had to navigate the British-controlled Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
where nine U-boats were sunk while attempting passage and 10 more had to break off their run due to damage. No U-boats
U-boats
ever made it back into the Atlantic
Atlantic
and all were either sunk in battle or scuttled by their own crews.[22] Internal waves[edit] Internal waves (waves at the density boundary layer) are often produced by the strait. Like traffic merging on a highway, the water flow is constricted in both directions because it must pass over the Camarinal Sill. When large tidal flows enter the Strait
Strait
and the high tide relaxes, internal waves are generated at the Camarinal Sill and proceed eastwards. Even though the waves may occur down to great depths, occasionally the waves are almost imperceptible at the surface, at other times they can be seen clearly in satellite imagery. These internal waves continue to flow eastward and to refract around coastal features. They can sometimes be traced for as much as 100 km (62 mi), and sometimes create interference patterns with refracted waves.[23] Territorial waters[edit] The Strait
Strait
lies mostly within the territorial waters of Spain
Spain
and Morocco, except for at the far eastern end. The United Kingdom (through Gibraltar) claims 3 nautical miles around Gibraltar
Gibraltar
putting part of the Strait
Strait
inside British territorial waters, and the smaller-than-maximal claim also means that part of the Strait therefore lies in international waters according to the British claim. However, the ownership of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
and its territorial waters is disputed by Spain, meanwhile Morocco
Morocco
dispute the far extern end (of Ceuta). Power generation[edit] Some studies have proposed the possibility of erecting tidal power generating stations within the strait, to be powered from the predictable current at the strait. In the 1920s and 1930s, the Atlantropa
Atlantropa
project proposed damming the strait to generate large amounts of electricity and lower the sea level of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
by several hundreds of meters to create large new lands for settlement.[24] This proposal would however have devastating effects on the local climate and ecology and would dramatically change the strength of the West African Monsoon. See also[edit]

Atlantropa List of straits Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Basin Rock of Gibraltar Vendavel, Westerly wind

References[edit]

^ "Gibraltar". 1911encyclopedia.org. 2008-12-08. Archived from the original on 2013-05-27. Retrieved 2013-05-28.  ^ Google Books Ngram Viewer results " Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar/Gut of Gibraltar" ^ See, for instance, Nato Medals: Medal for Active Endeavor, awarded for activity in the international water of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and STROG. ^ Pamphlet of the Museum of the Castle of Guzman el Bueno, [El Ayuntamiento de Tarifa] accessed 16 November 2016.  ^ Strabo Geographia 3.5.5. ^ See Robinson, Allan Richard and Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli, Ocean Processes in Climate Dynamics: Global and Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Examples. Springer, 1994, p. 307, ISBN 0-7923-2624-5. ^ Würm glaciation[better source needed] ^ Cosquer cave[better source needed] ^ Tremlett, Giles, "Moroccans seize Parsley Island and leave a bitter taste in Spanish mouths", in The Guardian, July 13, 2002. ^ "Migration Information Source – The Merits and Limitations of Spain's High-Tech Border Control". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 2011-07-15.  ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010.  ^ De Mol, B., et al. 2012. Ch. 45: Cold-Water Coral Distribution in an Erosional Environment: The Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Gateway, in: Harris, P.T., Baker, E.K. (Eds.), Seafloor geomorphology as benthic habitat: GeoHAB Atlas of seafloor geomorphic features and benthic habitats. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 636–643 ^ a b Messinian salinity crisis#Evidence ^ At the Miocene/ Pliocene
Pliocene
boundary, c. 5.33 million years before the present ^ Cloud, P., Oasis in space. Earth history from the beginning, New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc., p. 440. ISBN 0-393-01952-7 ^ BirdLife International (2012). Important Bird Areas factsheet: Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 2012-02-20. ^ "Last of the Neanderthals". National Geographic. October 2008. Retrieved 2009-12-29.  ^ Antony Beevor
Antony Beevor
(2006) [1982]. The Battle for Spain. Orion. ISBN 978-0-7538-2165-7.  ^ "Europe- Africa
Africa
rail tunnel agreed". BBC News. ^ " Tunnel
Tunnel
to Connect Morocco
Morocco
with Europe". bluedoorhotel.com. February 17, 2012.  ^ Paterson, Lawrence. U-Boats in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
1941–1944. Chatham Publishing, 2007, pp. 19 and 182. ISBN 9781861762900 ^ "U-boat war in the Mediterranean". uboat.net. Retrieved 2011-07-15.  ^ Wesson, J. C.; Gregg, M. C. (1994). "Mixing at Camarinal Sill in the Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar". Journal of Geophysical Research. 99 (C5): 9847–9878. Bibcode:1994JGR....99.9847W. doi:10.1029/94JC00256.  ^ "Atlantropa: A plan to dam the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea". Xefer blog. March 16, 2005. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar.

Climate Control Requires a Dam at the Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
— American Geophysical Union, 1997. Accessed 26 February 2006. Gone 12 February 2010. Dam design at http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/eosrjohnsonf3.gif Building the dam and letting the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
completely evaporate would raise Sea Level 15 meters over 1,000 years. Evaporating the first 100 meters or so would raise Sea Level 1 meter in about 100 years. Project for a Europe- Africa
Africa
permanent link through the Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
— United Nations Economic and Social Council, 2001. Accessed 26 February 2006. Estudios Geográficos del Estrecho de Gibraltar
Gibraltar
— La Universidad de Tetuán and La Universidad de Sevilla. Accessed 26 February 2006. (in Spanish) "Solitons, Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar". NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved 2006-05-24.  "Internal Waves, Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar". NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved 2006-05-24. 

v t e

Gibraltar
Gibraltar
topics

History

Neanderthals of Gibraltar Timeline (sieges) Pillars of Hercules First Siege of Gibraltar Battle of Gibraltar Capture of Gibraltar George Rooke Treaty of Utrecht Thirteenth Siege of Gibraltar Great Siege George Augustus Eliott Gibraltar
Gibraltar
real (currency) World War II Nationality Genoese in Gibraltar Maltese in Gibraltar Explosion of the RFA Bedenham Operation Flavius
Operation Flavius
(Death on the Rock) Aurora incident New Flame incident Fedra incident

Geography

General

Climate Geology

Azores– Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Transform Fault Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Arc

Environment

Birds Mammals

Barbary macaques

Reptiles and amphibians Candytuft (Iberis gibraltarica) Botanic Gardens Ornithological & Natural History Society (GONHS) Wildlife Park

Places

Natural

Bay of Gibraltar Catalan Bay Eastern Beach Gorham's Cave Rock of Gibraltar St. Michael's Cave Sandy Bay Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar Vanguard Cave Windmill Hill

Built

Bristol Hotel City Hall The Convent Garrison Library King George V Hospital Moorish Castle The Rock Hotel St. Bernard's Hospital

Politics

General

Constitution Order

1969 2006

Law

Court system LGBT rights

Passport Political development in modern Gibraltar

People

Chief Minister Governor Mayor

Politics

Black Swan Project
Black Swan Project
controversy Disputed status

isthmus

Elections

2007 2011 2015

Parliament

Speaker

Political parties Sovereignty
Sovereignty
referendums

1967 2002

EU Referendum

European Union (Referendum) Act 2016 (Gibraltar)

Military

British Forces Gibraltar Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Defence Police Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Squadron Napier of Magdala Battery RAF Gibraltar Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Police Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Regiment

Economy

General

Banks Gibraltar
Gibraltar
pound

coins

Stock Exchange Taxation Tourism

Communications

.gi (Internet domain) Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Broadcasting Corporation Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Chronicle Gibtelecom Panorama Regulatory Authority Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Post Office

Postage stamps and history Postal Orders Study Circle

Telephone numbers

Transport

Airport Cable car Gibraltar– Spain
Spain
border Shipping in Gibraltar Vehicle registration plates

Culture

General

Cuisine Education

Bayside Comprehensive School Westside School University of Gibraltar

Miss Gibraltar Music

Llévame Donde Nací

National Day Public holidays Scouting and Guiding in Gibraltar

Demographics

Gibraltarians

list in the UK

Gibraltarian status Languages

English Llanito

Religion

Christianity

Anglicanism

Diocese in Europe Bishop diocesan Bishop suffragan Cathedral of the Holy Trinity

St. Andrew's Church (Church of Scotland) Methodism Roman Catholicism

Diocese Bishop Cathedral of St. Mary the Crowned Our Lady of Europe Shrine of Our Lady of Europe

Trafalgar Cemetery

Other faiths

Hinduism Islam

Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque

Judaism

Great Synagogue

Sport

By sport

Basketball Cricket

national team

Cycling Football

Football Association national team

Petanque Rugby union

national team Campo Gibraltar
Gibraltar
RUFC

Commonwealth Games Island Games Records in athletics Victoria Stadium

Symbols

Anthem Coat of arms Official flag

other flags

Category Commons Portal WikiProject

v t e

African seas

Oceans and seas

Alboran Sea Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean Indian Ocean Levantine Sea Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea Red Sea Southern Ocean

Gulfs and bays

Abu Qir Bay Acheïl Dakhlet Al Hoceima Bay Algiers Bay Algoa Bay Ambas Bay Ana Chaves Bay Angra de Cintra Antongil Bay Antsiranana Bay Arab's Gulf Baía Almeida Baía da Condúcia Baía da Corimba Baía de Mocambo Baía de Mossuril Baía de Namibe Baia de Porto Amboim Baía de Santa Marta Baía de Sucujaque Baía de Tombua Baía do Ambriz Baía do Bengo Baía do Dande Baía do Govuro Baía do Lúrio Baía do Nzeto Baía do Suto Baia dos Tigres Baie de Gorée Baie de Sangareya Baie de Yof Bandombaai Bay of Anfile Bay of Arguin Bay of Aseb Bay of Arzew Bight of Benin Bay of Beylul Bay of Edd Bay of Hawakil Bay of Langarano Bay of Saint-Augustin Bay of Tangier Benguela Bay Bera’esoli Betty’s Bay Bight of Biafra Bocock’s Bay Bombetoka Bay Bootbaai Bosluisbaai Cape Cross Bay Cape Negro Bay Chake-Chake Bay Chameis Bay Chwaka Bay Conception Bay Cuio Bay Dakhlet Nouadhibou Dalwakteah Bay Deurloopbaai Doringbaai Dungonab Bay Durissa Bay Elands Bay Enseada das Pombas Enseada de São Braz Enseada do Catumbo Enseada do Chalungo Enseada do Quicombo Enseada do Quitungo Enseada dos Três Irmãos Equimina Bay False Bay Farta Bay Fernao Veloso Bay Foul Bay Frederik se Baai Grosse Bucht Gulf of Aden Gulf of 'Agig Gulf of Gabès Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Hammamet Gulf of Sirte Gulf of Suez Gulf of Tadjoura Gulf of Tunis Gulf of Zula Hafun Bay South Hann Bay Harrison Cove Henties Bay Hirghīgo Bahir Selat’ē Horingbaai Hottentotsbaai Hurdiyo Hydra Bay Inhambane Bay Jammer Bucht John Owen Bay Kalawy Bay Kiwaiyu Bay Lambert Bay Lamu Bay Langbaai Loango Bay Lobito Bay Luanda Bay Lüderitz Bay McDougall Bay Manza Bay Maputo Bay Markusbaai Memba Bay Menai Bay Meob Bay Mietjie Frans se Baai Moraha Bahir Selat’ē Mossel Bay Möwebaai Noopbaai Oran Gulf Pemba Bay Pipas Bay Platbaai Plaatjieskraalbaai Plettenbergbaai Pointe-Noire Bay Port Alexander, Angola Prinzen Bucht Río de Oro Bay Rock Bay Roode Bay Rooiwalbaai Saint Francis Bay Saint Francis Bay (Eastern Cape) St Helena Bay Saint Sebastian Bay Saldanha Bay Sandwich Harbour Sierra Bay Skoonbergbaai Skurfbaai Slangbaai Sodwana Bay Sofala Bay Somnaasbaai Spencer Bay Struisbaai Spoegrivierbaai Swartstraat Table Bay Thysbaai Tietiesbaai Ungama Bay Walker Bay Walvis Bay (bay) Yawri Bay

Straits

Bab-el-Mandeb Bab Iskender Canal de Bolama Canal de Bolola Canal de Caió Canal de São Vicente Canal do Meio Mafia Channel Massawa Channel Mozambique Channel‎ Pemba Channel Shubuk Channel Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar Strait
Strait
of Sicily Straits of Tiran Zanzibar Channel

Historical seas

Aethiopian Sea Erythrae

.