STORYTELLING is the social and cultural activity of sharing stories , often with improvisation , theatrics , or embellishment. Stories or narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment , education, cultural preservation and instilling moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot , characters and narrative point of view .
The term 'storytelling' is used in a narrow sense to refer specifically to oral storytelling and also in a looser sense to refer to techniques used in other media to unfold or disclose the narrative of a story.
* 1 Historical perspective * 2 Contemporary storytelling
* 3 Oral traditions
* 3.1 Märchen and Sagen
* 4.1.1 Types of storytelling in indigenous peoples * 4.1.2 Passing on of Values in indigenous cultures
* 9 Emancipation of the story
* 10 In business
* 10.1 Within the workplace * 10.2 In marketing
* 11 See also
* 11.1 Methods * 11.2 Structure * 11.3 Miscellaneous
* 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links
A very fine par dated 1938 A.D. The epic of
Pabuji is an oral
epic in the
With the advent of writing and the use of stable, portable media , stories were recorded, transcribed and shared over wide regions of the world. Stories have been carved, scratched, painted, printed or inked onto wood or bamboo, ivory and other bones, pottery , clay tablets, stone, palm-leaf books , skins (parchment), bark cloth , paper , silk, canvas and other textiles, recorded on film and stored electronically in digital form. Oral stories continue to be created, improvisationally by impromptu storytellers, as well as committed to memory and passed from generation to generation, despite the increasing popularity of written and televised media in much of the world.
Modern storytelling has a broad purview. In addition to its traditional forms (fairytales , folktales , mythology , legends , fables etc.), it has extended itself to representing history, personal narrative, political commentary and evolving cultural norms. Contemporary storytelling is also widely used to address educational objectives. New forms of media are creating new ways for people to record, express and consume stories. Tools for asynchronous group communication can provide an environment for individuals to reframe or recast individual stories into group stories. Games and other digital platforms, such as those used in interactive fiction or interactive storytelling , may be used to position the user as a character within a bigger world. Documentaries , including interactive web documentaries , employ storytelling narrative techniques to communicate information about their topic. Self-revelatory stories, created for their cathartic and therapeutic effect, are growing in their use and application, as in Psychodrama , Drama Therapy and Playback Theatre .
See also: Oral storytelling
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Oral traditions of storytelling are found in several civilisations,
they predate the printed and online press.
Albert Bates Lord examined oral narratives from field transcripts of
Yugoslav oral bards collected by
Milman Parry in the 1930s, and the
texts of epics such as the
Lord identified two types of story vocabulary. The first he called
"formulas": "rosy-fingered dawn ", "the wine-dark sea " and other
specific set phrases had long been known of in
The other type of story vocabulary is theme, a set sequence of story
actions that structure a tale. Just as the teller of tales proceeds
line-by-line using formulas, so he proceeds from event-to-event using
themes. One near-universal theme is repetition, as evidenced in
Western folklore with the "rule of three ": Three brothers set out,
three attempts are made, three riddles are asked. A theme can be as
simple as a specific set sequence describing the arming of a hero ,
starting with shirt and trousers and ending with headdress and
weapons. A theme can be large enough to be a plot component. For
example: a hero proposes a journey to a dangerous place / he disguises
himself / his disguise fools everybody / except for a common person of
little account (a crone , a tavern maid or a woodcutter) / who
immediately recognizes him / the commoner becomes the hero's ally,
showing unexpected resources of skill or initiative. A theme does not
belong to a specific story, but may be found with minor variation in
many different stories. Themes may be no more than handy prefabricated
parts for constructing a tale, or they may represent universal truths
– ritual-based, religious truths, as
The story was described by Reynolds Price , when he wrote:
A need to tell and hear stories is essential to the species Homo sapiens – second in necessity apparently after nourishment and before love and shelter. Millions survive without love or home, almost none in silence; the opposite of silence leads quickly to narrative, and the sound of story is the dominant sound of our lives, from the small accounts of our day's events to the vast incommunicable constructs of psychopaths.
MäRCHEN AND SAGEN
Illustration from Silesian Folk Tales (The Book of Rubezahl )
Folklorists sometimes divide oral tales into two main groups: Märchen and Sagen. These are German terms for which there are no exact English equivalents, however we have approximations:
Märchen, loosely translated as "fairy tale(s) " (lit. little stories), take place in a kind of separate "once-upon-a-time" world of nowhere-in-particular, at an indeterminate time in the past. They are clearly not intended to be understood as true. The stories are full of clearly defined incidents, and peopled by rather flat characters with little or no interior life. When the supernatural occurs, it is presented matter-of-factly, without surprise. Indeed, there is very little effect, generally; bloodcurdling events may take place, but with little call for emotional response from the listener.
Sagen, best translated as "legends ", are supposed to have actually happened, very often at a particular time and place, and they draw much of their power from this fact. When the supernatural intrudes (as it often does), it does so in an emotionally fraught manner. Ghost and lovers\' leap stories belong in this category, as do many UFO stories and stories of supernatural beings and events.
Another important examination of orality in human life is Walter J. Ong 's Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (1982). Ong studies the distinguishing characteristics of oral traditions, how oral and written cultures interact and condition one another, and how they ultimately influence human epistemology.
STORYTELLING AND LEARNING
Human knowledge is based on stories and the human brain consists of cognitive machinery necessary to understand, remember and tell stories. Humans are storytelling organisms that both individually and socially, lead storied lives. Stories mirror human thought as humans think in narrative structures and most often remember facts in story form. Facts can be understood as smaller versions of a larger story, thus storytelling can supplement analytical thinking. Because storytelling requires auditory and visual senses from listeners, one can learn to organize their mental representation of a story, recognize structure of language and express his or her thoughts.
Stories tend to be based on experiential learning, but learning from
an experience is not automatic. Often a person needs to attempt to
tell the story of that experience before realizing its value. In this
case, it is not only the listener who learns, but the teller who also
becomes aware of his or her own unique experiences and background.
This process of storytelling is empowering as the teller effectively
conveys ideas and, with practice, is able to demonstrate the potential
of human accomplishment.
Stories are effective educational tools because listeners become
engaged and therefore remember.
STORYTELLING IN INDIGENOUS CULTURES
The Historian" - The Indian Artist is painting in sign language, on buckskin , the story of a battle with American Soldiers.
For indigenous cultures of the Americas, storytelling is used as an oral form of language associated with practices and values essential to developing one's identity. This is because everyone in the community can add their own touch and perspective to the narrative collaboratively - both individual and culturally shared perspectives have a place in the co-creation of the story. Oral storytelling in indigenous communities differs from other forms of stories because they are told not only for entertainment, but for teaching values. For example, the Sto:lo community in Canada focuses on reinforcing children's identity by telling stories about the land to explain their roles.
For some indigenous people, experience has no separation between the physical world and the spiritual world. Thus, some indigenous people communicate to their children through ritual, storytelling, or dialogue. Community values, learned through storytelling, help to guide future generations and aid in identity formation.
In the Quechua community of Highland Peru, there is no separation between adults and children. This allows for children to learn storytelling through their own interpretations of the given story. Therefore, children in the Quechua community are encouraged to listen to the story that is being told in order to learn about their identity and culture. Sometimes, children are expected to sit quietly and listen actively. This enables them to engage in activities as independent learners.
This teaching practice of storytelling allowed children to formulate
ideas based on their own experiences and perspectives. In Navajo
communities, for children and adults, storytelling is one of the many
effective ways to educate both the young and old about their cultures,
identities and history.
Indigenous cultures also use instructional ribbing — a playful form
of correcting children's undesirable behavior— in their stories. For
There are various types of stories among many indigenous communities. Communication in Indigenous American communities is rich with stories, myths, philosophies and narratives that serve as a means to exchange information. These stories may be used for coming of age themes, core values, morality, literacy and history. Very often, the stories are used to instruct and teach children about cultural values and lessons . The meaning within the stories is not always explicit, and children are expected to make their own meaning of the stories. In the Lakota Tribe of North America, for example, young girls are often told the story of the White Buffalo Calf Woman , who is a spiritual figure that protects young girls from the whims of men. In the Odawa Tribe , young boys are often told the story of a young man who never took care of his body, and as a result, his feet fail to run when he tries to escape predators. This story serves as an indirect means of encouraging the young boys to take care of their bodies.
Narratives can be shared to express the values or morals among family, relatives, or people who are considered part of the close-knit community. Many stories in indigenous American communities all have a "surface" story, that entails knowing certain information and clues to unlocking the metaphors in the story. The underlying message of the story being told, can be understood and interpreted with clues that hint to a certain interpretation. In order to make meaning from these stories, elders in the Sto:Lo community for example, emphasize the importance in learning how to listen, since it requires the senses to bring one's heart and mind together. For instance, a way in which children learn about the metaphors significant for the society they live in, is by listening to their elders and participating in rituals where they respect one another.
Some people also make a case for different narrative forms being classified as storytelling in the contemporary world. For example, digital storytelling, online and dice-and-paper-based role-playing games. In traditional role-playing games , storytelling is done by the person who controls the environment and the non playing fictional characters, and moves the story elements along for the players as they interact with the storyteller. The game is advanced by mainly verbal interactions, with dice roll determining random events in the fictional universe, where the players interact with each other and the storyteller. This type of game has many genres, such as sci-fi and fantasy, as well as alternate-reality worlds based on the current reality, but with different setting and beings such as werewolves, aliens, daemons, or hidden societies. These oral-based role-playing games were very popular in the 1990s among circles of youth in many countries before computer and console-based online MMORPG's took their place. Despite the prevalence of computer-based MMORPGs, the dice-and-paper RPG still has a dedicated following.
Passing On Of Values In Indigenous Cultures
Stories in indigenous cultures encompass a variety of values . These values include an emphasis on individual responsibility, concern for the environment and communal welfare.
Stories are based on values passed down by older generations to shape
the foundation of the community.
Parents in the Arizona Tewa community, for example, teach morals to their children through traditional narratives. Lessons focus on several topics including historical or "sacred" stories or more domestic disputes. Through storytelling, the Tewa community emphasizes the traditional wisdom of the ancestors and the importance of collective as well as individual identities. Indigenous communities teach children valuable skills and morals through the actions of good or mischievous stock characters while also allowing room for children to make meaning for themselves. By not being given every element of the story, children rely on their own experiences and not formal teaching from adults to fill in the gaps.
When children listen to stories, they periodically vocalize their ongoing attention and accept the extended turn of the storyteller. The emphasis on attentiveness to surrounding events and the importance of oral tradition in indigenous communities teaches children the skill of keen attention. For example, Children of the Tohono O\'odham American Indian community who engaged in more cultural practices were able to recall the events in a verbally presented story better than those who did not engage in cultural practices. Body movements and gestures help to communicate values and keep stories alive for future generations. Elders, parents and grandparents are typically involved in teaching the children the cultural ways, along with history, community values and teachings of the land.
Children in indigenous communities can also learn from the underlying message of a story. For example, in a nahuatl community near Mexico City , stories about ahuaques or hostile water dwelling spirits that guard over the bodies of water, contain morals about respecting the environment. If the protagonist of a story, who has accidentally broken something that belongs to the ahuaque, does not replace it or give back in some way to the ahuaque, the protagonist dies. In this way, storytelling serves as a way to teach what the community values, such as valuing the environment.
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STORYTELLING AS A POLITICAL PRAXIS
Some approaches treat narratives as politically motivated stories, stories empowering certain groups and stories giving people agency. Instead of just searching for the main point of the narrative, the political function is demanded through asking, "Whose interest does a personal narrative serve"? This approach mainly looks at the power, authority, knowledge, ideology and identity; "whether it legitimates and dominates or resists and empowers". All personal narratives are seen as ideological because they evolve from a structure of power relations and simultaneously produce, maintain and reproduce that power structure".
Political theorist, Hannah Arendt argues that storytelling transforms private meaning to public meaning. Regardless of the gender of the narrator and what story they are sharing, the performance of the narrative and the audience listening to it is where the power lies.
Therapeutic storytelling is the act of telling one's story in an attempt to better understand oneself or one's situation. Oftentimes, these stories affect the audience in a therapeutic sense as well, helping them to view situations similar to their own through a different lens. Noted author and folklore scholar, Elaine Lawless states, "…this process provides new avenues for understanding and identity formation. Language is utilised to bear witness to their lives". Sometimes a narrator will simply skip over certain details without realising, only to include it in their stories during a later telling. In this way, that telling and retelling of the narrative serves to "reattach portions of the narrative". These gaps may occur due to a repression of the trauma or even just a want to keep the most gruesome details private. Regardless, these silences are not as empty as they appear, and it is only this act of storytelling that can enable the teller to fill them back in.
Psychodrama uses re-enactment of a personal, traumatic event in the
life of a psychodrama group participant as a therapeutic methodology,
first developed by psychiatrist,
STORYTELLING AS ART FORM
The art of narrative is, by definition, an aesthetic enterprise, and there are a number of artistic elements that typically interact in well-developed stories. Such elements include the essential idea of narrative structure with identifiable beginnings, middles, and endings, or exposition-development-climax-resolution-denouement, normally constructed into coherent plot lines; a strong focus on temporality, which includes retention of the past, attention to present action and protention/future anticipation; a substantial focus on characters and characterization which is "arguably the most important single component of the novel"; a given heterogloss of different voices dialogically at play – "the sound of the human voice, or many voices, speaking in a variety of accents, rhythms and registers"; possesses a narrator or narrator-like voice, which by definition "addresses" and "interacts with" reading audiences (see Reader Response theory); communicates with a Wayne Booth -esque rhetorical thrust, a dialectic process of interpretation, which is at times beneath the surface, conditioning a plotted narrative, and at other times much more visible, "arguing" for and against various positions; relies substantially on now-standard aesthetic figuration, particularly including the use of metaphor , metonymy, synecdoche and irony (see Hayden White , Metahistory for expansion of this idea); is often enmeshed in intertextuality, with copious connections, references, allusions, similarities, parallels, etc. to other literatures; and commonly demonstrates an effort toward bildungsroman , a description of identity development with an effort to evince becoming in character and community.
Several storytelling organizations started in the U.S. during the
1970s. One such organization was the National Association for the
Perpetuation and Preservation of
Currently, there are dozens of storytelling festivals and hundreds of professional storytellers around the world, and an international celebration of the art occurs on World Storytelling Day .
EMANCIPATION OF THE STORY
In oral traditions, stories are kept alive by being told again and
again. The material of any given story naturally undergoes several
changes and adaptations during this process. When and where oral
tradition was pushed back in favor of print media , the literary idea
of the author as originator of a story's authoritative version changed
people's perception of stories themselves. In centuries following,
stories tended to be seen as the work of individuals rather than a
collective effort. Only recently when a significant number of
influential authors began questioning their own roles, the value of
stories as such – independent of authorship – was again
recognized. Literary critics such as
WITHIN THE WORKPLACE
For many multi-media communication complex institutions, communicating by using storytelling techniques can be a more compelling and effective route of delivering information than that of using only dry facts. Uses include:
USING NARRATIVE TO MANAGE CONFLICTS
For managers storytelling is an important way of resolving conflicts, addressing issues and facing challenges. Managers may use narrative discourse to deal with conflicts when direct action is inadvisable or impossible.
USING NARRATIVE TO INTERPRET THE PAST AND SHAPE THE FUTURE
In a group discussion a process of collective narration can help to influence others and unify the group by linking the past to the future. In such discussions, managers transform problems, requests and issues into stories. Jameson calls this collective group construction storybuilding.
USING NARRATIVE IN THE REASONING PROCESS
A Nielsen study shows consumers want a more personal connection in the way they gather information. Our brains are far more engaged by storytelling than by cold, hard facts. When reading straight data, only the language parts of our brains work to decode the meaning. But when we read a story, not only do the language parts of our brains light up, but any other part of the brain that we would use if we were actually experiencing what we're reading about becomes activated as well. This means it's far easier for us to remember stories than hard facts.
Developments include the use of trans-media techniques, originating
in the film industry which "Build a world in which your story can
evolve". Examples include
* Children\'s literature portal
* Shuochang —oral storytelling technique in Chinese tradition
* Maggid —storytelling/preaching technique in Hebrew tradition * Oral history * Oral literature * Panchatantra —oral storytelling technique in India tradition * Seanchaí * Villuppattu * Transmedia storytelling
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* ^ Kaeppler, Adrienne. "Hawaiian tattoo: a conjunction of
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* ^ Birch, Carol and Melissa Heckler (Eds.) 1996. Who Says?: Essays
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* Beyer, Jürgen (1997). "Prolegomena to a history of story-telling
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* Bruner, Jerome S. Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. Cambridge,
Harvard University Press
Library resources about STORYTELLING