Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing
stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment.
Every culture has its own stories or narratives, which are shared as a
means of entertainment, education, cultural preservation or instilling
moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include
plot, characters and narrative point of view.
The term "storytelling" can refer in a narrow sense specifically to
oral storytelling and also in a looser sense to techniques used in
other media to unfold or disclose the narrative of a story.
1 Historical perspective
2 Contemporary storytelling
3 Oral traditions
3.1 Märchen and Sagen
Storytelling and learning
Storytelling in indigenous cultures
4.1.1 Types of storytelling in indigenous peoples
4.1.2 Passing on of Values in indigenous cultures
Storytelling as a political praxis
7 Therapeutic storytelling
Storytelling as art form
9 Emancipation of the story
10 In business
10.1 Within the workplace
10.2 In marketing
11 See also
13 Further reading
A very fine par dated 1938 A.D. The epic of
Pabuji is an oral epic in
Rajasthani language that tells of the deeds of the folk hero-deity
Pabuji, who lived in the 14th century.
Storytelling predates writing. The earliest forms of storytelling were
usually oral combined with gestures and expressions. In addition to
being part of religious rituals, some archaeologists believe rock art
may have served as a form of storytelling for many ancient
Australian aboriginal people painted symbols from
stories on cave walls as a means of helping the storyteller remember
the story. The story was then told using a combination of oral
narrative, music, rock art and dance, which bring understanding and
meaning of human existence through remembrance and enactment of
stories. People have used the carved trunks of living trees and
ephemeral media (such as sand and leaves) to record stories in
pictures or with writing. Complex forms of tattooing may also
represent stories, with information about genealogy, affiliation and
With the advent of writing and the use of stable, portable media,
stories were recorded, transcribed and shared over wide regions of the
world. Stories have been carved, scratched, painted, printed or inked
onto wood or bamboo, ivory and other bones, pottery, clay tablets,
stone, palm-leaf books, skins (parchment), bark cloth, paper, silk,
canvas and other textiles, recorded on film and stored electronically
in digital form. Oral stories continue to be created,
improvisationally by impromptu storytellers, as well as committed to
memory and passed from generation to generation, despite the
increasing popularity of written and televised media in much of the
Modern storytelling has a broad purview. In addition to its
traditional forms (fairytales, folktales, mythology, legends, fables
etc.), it has extended itself to representing history, personal
narrative, political commentary and evolving cultural norms.
Contemporary storytelling is also widely used to address educational
objectives. New forms of media are creating new ways for people to
record, express and consume stories. Tools for asynchronous group
communication can provide an environment for individuals to reframe or
recast individual stories into group stories. Games and other
digital platforms, such as those used in interactive fiction or
interactive storytelling, may be used to position the user as a
character within a bigger world. Documentaries, including interactive
web documentaries, employ storytelling narrative techniques to
communicate information about their topic. Self-revelatory stories,
created for their cathartic and therapeutic effect, are growing in
their use and application, as in Psychodrama,
Drama Therapy and
See also: Oral storytelling
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An African storyteller in Parc des Buttes Chaumont, Paris, France.
Oral traditions of storytelling are found in several civilisations,
they predate the printed and online press.
Storytelling was used to
explain natural phenomena, bards told stories of creation and
developed a pantheon of gods and myths. Oral stories passed from one
generation to the next and storytellers were regarded as healers,
leader, spiritual guides, teachers, cultural secrets keepers and
Oral storytelling came in various forms including songs,
poetry, chants and dance.
Albert Bates Lord examined oral narratives from field transcripts of
Yugoslav oral bards collected by
Milman Parry in the 1930s, and the
texts of epics such as the
Odyssey and Beowulf. Lord found that a
large part of the stories consisted of text which was improvised
during the telling process.
Lord identified two types of story vocabulary. The first he called
"formulas": "rosy-fingered dawn", "the wine-dark sea" and other
specific set phrases had long been known of in
Homer and other oral
epics. Lord, however, discovered that across many story traditions,
fully 90% of an oral epic is assembled from lines which are repeated
verbatim or which use one-for-one word substitutions. In other words,
oral stories are built out of set phrases which have been stockpiled
from a lifetime of hearing and telling stories.
The other type of story vocabulary is theme, a set sequence of story
actions that structure a tale. Just as the teller of tales proceeds
line-by-line using formulas, so he proceeds from event-to-event using
themes. One near-universal theme is repetition, as evidenced in
Western folklore with the "rule of three": Three brothers set out,
three attempts are made, three riddles are asked. A theme can be as
simple as a specific set sequence describing the arming of a hero,
starting with shirt and trousers and ending with headdress and
weapons. A theme can be large enough to be a plot component. For
example: a hero proposes a journey to a dangerous place / he disguises
himself / his disguise fools everybody / except for a common person of
little account (a crone, a tavern maid or a woodcutter) / who
immediately recognizes him / the commoner becomes the hero's ally,
showing unexpected resources of skill or initiative. A theme does not
belong to a specific story, but may be found with minor variation in
many different stories. Themes may be no more than handy prefabricated
parts for constructing a tale, or they may represent universal
truths – ritual-based, religious truths, as
James Frazer saw in
The Golden Bough, or archetypal, psychological truths, as Joseph
Campbell describes in The
Hero With a Thousand Faces.
The story was described by Reynolds Price, when he wrote:
A need to tell and hear stories is essential to the species Homo
sapiens – second in necessity apparently after nourishment and
before love and shelter. Millions survive without love or home, almost
none in silence; the opposite of silence leads quickly to narrative,
and the sound of story is the dominant sound of our lives, from the
small accounts of our day's events to the vast incommunicable
constructs of psychopaths.
Märchen and Sagen
Illustration from Silesian Folk Tales (The Book of Rubezahl)
Folklorists sometimes divide oral tales into two main groups: Märchen
and Sagen. These are German terms for which there are no exact
English equivalents, however we have approximations:
Märchen, loosely translated as "fairy tale(s)" (lit. little stories),
take place in a kind of separate "once-upon-a-time" world of
nowhere-in-particular, at an indeterminate time in the past. They are
clearly not intended to be understood as true. The stories are full of
clearly defined incidents, and peopled by rather flat characters with
little or no interior life. When the supernatural occurs, it is
presented matter-of-factly, without surprise. Indeed, there is very
little effect, generally; bloodcurdling events may take place, but
with little call for emotional response from the listener.[citation
Sagen, best translated as "legends", are supposed to have actually
happened, very often at a particular time and place, and they draw
much of their power from this fact. When the supernatural intrudes (as
it often does), it does so in an emotionally fraught manner. Ghost and
lovers' leap stories belong in this category, as do many UFO stories
and stories of supernatural beings and events.
Another important examination of orality in human life is Walter J.
Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (1982). Ong
studies the distinguishing characteristics of oral traditions, how
oral and written cultures interact and condition one another, and how
they ultimately influence human epistemology.
Storytelling and learning
Orunamamu storyteller, griot with cane
Storytelling is a means for sharing and interpreting experiences.
Peter L. Berger
Peter L. Berger says human life is narratively rooted, humans
construct their lives and shape their world into homes in terms of
these groundings and memories. Stories are universal in that they can
bridge cultural, linguistic and age-related divides.
be adaptive for all ages, leaving out the notion of age
Storytelling can be used as a method to teach ethics,
values and cultural norms and differences. Learning is most
effective when it takes place in social environments that provide
authentic social cues about how knowledge is to be applied.
Stories function as a tool to pass on knowledge in a social context.
So, every story has 3 parts. First, The setup (The Hero's world before
the adventure starts). Second, The Confrontation (The hero's world
turned upside down). Third, The Resolution (
Hero conquer's villain,
but it's not enough for
Hero to survive. The
Hero or World must be
transformed). Any story can be framed in such format.
Human knowledge is based on stories and the human brain consists of
cognitive machinery necessary to understand, remember and tell
stories. Humans are storytelling organisms that both individually
and socially, lead storied lives. Stories mirror human thought as
humans think in narrative structures and most often remember facts in
story form. Facts can be understood as smaller versions of a larger
story, thus storytelling can supplement analytical thinking. Because
storytelling requires auditory and visual senses from listeners, one
can learn to organize their mental representation of a story,
recognize structure of language and express his or her thoughts.
Stories tend to be based on experiential learning, but learning from
an experience is not automatic. Often a person needs to attempt to
tell the story of that experience before realizing its value. In this
case, it is not only the listener who learns, but the teller who also
becomes aware of his or her own unique experiences and background.
This process of storytelling is empowering as the teller effectively
conveys ideas and, with practice, is able to demonstrate the potential
of human accomplishment.
Storytelling taps into existing knowledge and
creates bridges both culturally and motivationally toward a solution.
Stories are effective educational tools because listeners become
engaged and therefore remember.
Storytelling can be seen as a
foundation for learning and teaching. While the storylistener is
engaged, they are able to imagine new perspectives, inviting a
transformative and empathetic experience. This involves allowing
the individual to actively engage in the story as well as observe,
listen and participate with minimal guidance. Listening to a
storyteller can create lasting personal connections, promote
innovative problem solving and foster a shared understanding regarding
future ambitions. The listener can then activate knowledge and
imagine new possibilities. Together a storyteller and listener can
seek best practices and invent new solutions. Because stories often
have multiple layers of meanings, listeners have to listen closely to
identify the underlying knowledge in the story.
Storytelling is used
as a tool to teach children the importance of respect through the
practice of listening. As well as connecting children with their
environment, through the theme of the stories, and give them more
autonomy by using repetitive statements, which improve their learning
to learn competence. It is also used to teach children to have
respect for all life, value inter-connectedness and always work to
overcome adversity. To teach this a Kinesthetic learningstyle would be
used, involving the listeners through music, dream interpretation, or
Storytelling in indigenous cultures
The Historian – An Indian artist is painting in sign language, on
buckskin, the story of a battle with american soldiers.
For indigenous cultures of the Americas, storytelling is used as an
oral form of language associated with practices and values essential
to developing one's identity. This is because everyone in the
community can add their own touch and perspective to the narrative
collaboratively – both individual and culturally shared perspectives
have a place in the co-creation of the story.
Oral storytelling in
indigenous communities differs from other forms of stories because
they are told not only for entertainment, but for teaching values.
For example, the Sto:lo community in Canada focuses on reinforcing
children's identity by telling stories about the land to explain their
Storytelling is a way to teach younger members of
indigenous communities about their culture and their identities. In
Donna Eder's study,
Navajos were interviewed about storytelling
practices that they have had in the past and what changes they want to
see in the future. They notice that storytelling makes an impact on
the lives of the children of the Navajos. According to some of the
Navajos that were interviewed, storytelling is one of many main
practices that teaches children the important principles to live a
good life. In indigenous communities, stories are a way to pass
knowledge on from generation to generation.
For some indigenous people, experience has no separation between the
physical world and the spiritual world. Thus, some indigenous people
communicate to their children through ritual, storytelling, or
dialogue. Community values, learned through storytelling, help to
guide future generations and aid in identity formation.
In the Quechua community of Highland Peru, there is no separation
between adults and children. This allows for children to learn
storytelling through their own interpretations of the given story.
Therefore, children in the Quechua community are encouraged to listen
to the story that is being told in order to learn about their identity
and culture. Sometimes, children are expected to sit quietly and
listen actively. This enables them to engage in activities as
This teaching practice of storytelling allowed children to formulate
ideas based on their own experiences and perspectives. In Navajo
communities, for children and adults, storytelling is one of the many
effective ways to educate both the young and old about their cultures,
identities and history.
Storytelling help the
Navajos know who they
are, where they come from and where they belong.
Storytelling in indigenous cultures is sometimes passed on by oral
means in a quiet and relaxing environment, which usually coincides
with family or tribal community gatherings and official events such as
family occasions, rituals, or ceremonial practices. During the
telling of the story, children may act as participants by asking
questions, acting out the story, or telling smaller parts of the
story. Furthermore, stories are not often told in the same manner
twice, resulting in many variations of a single myth. This is because
narrators may choose to insert new elements into old stories dependent
upon the relationship between the storyteller and the audience, making
the story correspond to each unique situation.
Indigenous cultures also use instructional ribbing— a playful form
of correcting children's undesirable behavior— in their stories. For
Ojibwe (or Chippewa) tribe uses the tale of an owl
snatching away misbehaving children. The caregiver will often say,
"The owl will come and stick you in his ears if you don't stop
crying!" Thus, this form of teasing serves as a tool to correct
inappropriate behavior and promote cooperation.
Types of storytelling in indigenous peoples
There are various types of stories among many indigenous communities.
Communication in Indigenous American communities is rich with stories,
myths, philosophies and narratives that serve as a means to exchange
information. These stories may be used for coming of age themes,
core values, morality, literacy and history. Very often, the stories
are used to instruct and teach children about cultural values and
lessons. The meaning within the stories is not always explicit,
and children are expected to make their own meaning of the stories. In
the Lakota Tribe of North America, for example, young girls are often
told the story of the White Buffalo Calf Woman, who is a spiritual
figure that protects young girls from the whims of men. In the Odawa
Tribe, young boys are often told the story of a young man who never
took care of his body, and as a result, his feet fail to run when he
tries to escape predators. This story serves as an indirect means of
encouraging the young boys to take care of their bodies.
Narratives can be shared to express the values or morals among family,
relatives, or people who are considered part of the close-knit
community. Many stories in indigenous American communities all have a
"surface" story, that entails knowing certain information and clues to
unlocking the metaphors in the story. The underlying message of the
story being told, can be understood and interpreted with clues that
hint to a certain interpretation. In order to make meaning from
these stories, elders in the Sto:Lo community for example, emphasize
the importance in learning how to listen, since it requires the senses
to bring one's heart and mind together. For instance, a way in
which children learn about the metaphors significant for the society
they live in, is by listening to their elders and participating in
rituals where they respect one another.
Some people also make a case for different narrative forms being
classified as storytelling in the contemporary world. For example,
digital storytelling, online and dice-and-paper-based role-playing
games. In traditional role-playing games, storytelling is done by the
person who controls the environment and the non playing fictional
characters, and moves the story elements along for the players as they
interact with the storyteller. The game is advanced by mainly verbal
interactions, with dice roll determining random events in the
fictional universe, where the players interact with each other and the
storyteller. This type of game has many genres, such as sci-fi and
fantasy, as well as alternate-reality worlds based on the current
reality, but with different setting and beings such as werewolves,
aliens, daemons, or hidden societies. These oral-based role-playing
games were very popular in the 1990s among circles of youth in many
countries before computer and console-based online MMORPG's took their
place. Despite the prevalence of computer-based MMORPGs, the
dice-and-paper RPG still has a dedicated following.
Passing on of Values in indigenous cultures
Stories in indigenous cultures encompass a variety of values. These
values include an emphasis on individual responsibility, concern for
the environment and communal welfare.
Stories are based on values passed down by older generations to shape
the foundation of the community.
Storytelling is used as a bridge
for knowledge and understanding allowing the values of "self" and
"community" to connect and be learned as a whole.
Storytelling in the
Navajo community for example allows for community values to be learned
at different times and places for different learners. Stories are told
from the perspective of other people, animals, or the natural elements
of the earth. In this way, children learn to value their place in
the world as a person in relation to others. Typically, stories are
used as an informal learning tool in Indigenous American communities,
and can act as an alternative method for reprimanding children's bad
behavior. In this way, stories are non-confrontational, which allows
the child to discover for themselves what they did wrong and what they
can do to adjust the behavior.
Parents in the
Arizona Tewa community, for example, teach morals to
their children through traditional narratives. Lessons focus on
several topics including historical or "sacred" stories or more
domestic disputes. Through storytelling, the Tewa community emphasizes
the traditional wisdom of the ancestors and the importance of
collective as well as individual identities. Indigenous communities
teach children valuable skills and morals through the actions of good
or mischievous stock characters while also allowing room for children
to make meaning for themselves. By not being given every element of
the story, children rely on their own experiences and not formal
teaching from adults to fill in the gaps.
When children listen to stories, they periodically vocalize their
ongoing attention and accept the extended turn of the storyteller. The
emphasis on attentiveness to surrounding events and the importance of
oral tradition in indigenous communities teaches children the skill of
keen attention. For example, Children of the
Tohono O'odham American
Indian community who engaged in more cultural practices were able to
recall the events in a verbally presented story better than those who
did not engage in cultural practices. Body movements and gestures
help to communicate values and keep stories alive for future
generations. Elders, parents and grandparents are typically
involved in teaching the children the cultural ways, along with
history, community values and teachings of the land.
Children in indigenous communities can also learn from the underlying
message of a story. For example, in a nahuatl community near Mexico
City, stories about ahuaques or hostile water dwelling spirits that
guard over the bodies of water, contain morals about respecting the
environment. If the protagonist of a story, who has accidentally
broken something that belongs to the ahuaque, does not replace it or
give back in some way to the ahuaque, the protagonist dies. In
this way, storytelling serves as a way to teach what the community
values, such as valuing the environment.
Storytelling also serves to deliver a particular message during
spiritual and ceremonial functions. In the ceremonial use of
storytelling, the unity building theme of the message becomes more
important than the time, place and characters of the message. Once the
message is delivered, the story is finished. As cycles of the tale are
told and retold, story units can recombine, showing various outcomes
for a person's actions.
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Storytelling has been assessed for critical literacy skills and the
learning of theatre-related terms by the nationally recognized
storytelling and creative drama organization, Neighborhood Bridges, in
Minneapolis. Another storyteller researcher in the UK proposes
that the social space created preceding oral storytelling in schools
may trigger sharing (Parfitt, 2014).
Storytelling has also been studied as a way to investigate and archive
cultural knowledge and values within indigenous American communities.
Iseke's study (2013) on the role of storytelling in the Metis
community, showed promise in furthering research about the Metis and
their shared communal atmosphere during storytelling events. Iseke
focused on the idea of witnessing a storyteller as a vital way to
share and partake in the Metis community, as members of the community
would stop everything else they were doing in order to listen or
"witness" the storyteller and allow the story to become a "ceremonial
landscape," or shared reference, for everyone present. This was a
powerful tool for the community to engage and teach new learner shared
references for the values and ideologies of the Metis. Through
storytelling, the Metis cemented the shared reference of personal or
popular stories and folklore, which members of the community can use
to share ideologies. In the future, Iseke noted that Metis elders
wished for the stories being told to be used for further research into
their culture, as stories were a traditional way to pass down vital
knowledge to younger generations.
For the stories we read, the "neuro-semantic encoding of narratives
happens at levels higher than individual semantic units and that this
encoding is systematic across both individuals and languages." This
encoding seems to appear most prominently in the default mode
Storytelling as a political praxis
Some approaches treat narratives as politically motivated stories,
stories empowering certain groups and stories giving people agency.
Instead of just searching for the main point of the narrative, the
political function is demanded through asking, "Whose interest does a
personal narrative serve"? This approach mainly looks at the
power, authority, knowledge, ideology and identity; "whether it
legitimates and dominates or resists and empowers". All personal
narratives are seen as ideological because they evolve from a
structure of power relations and simultaneously produce, maintain and
reproduce that power structure".
Hannah Arendt argues that storytelling transforms
private meaning to public meaning. Regardless of the gender of the
narrator and what story they are sharing, the performance of the
narrative and the audience listening to it is where the power lies.
Therapeutic storytelling is the act of telling one's story in an
attempt to better understand oneself or one's situation. Oftentimes,
these stories affect the audience in a therapeutic sense as well,
helping them to view situations similar to their own through a
different lens. Noted author and folklore scholar, Elaine Lawless
states, "…this process provides new avenues for understanding and
identity formation. Language is utilised to bear witness to their
lives". Sometimes a narrator will simply skip over certain details
without realising, only to include it in their stories during a later
telling. In this way, that telling and retelling of the narrative
serves to "reattach portions of the narrative". These gaps may
occur due to a repression of the trauma or even just a want to keep
the most gruesome details private. Regardless, these silences are not
as empty as they appear, and it is only this act of storytelling that
can enable the teller to fill them back in.
Psychodrama uses re-enactment of a personal, traumatic event in the
life of a psychodrama group participant as a therapeutic methodology,
first developed by psychiatrist, J.L. Moreno, M.D. This therapeutic
use of storytelling was incorporated into Drama Therapy, known in the
field as "Self Revalatory Theater." in 1975] Jonathan Fox and Jo Salas
developed a therapeutic, improvisational storytelling form they called
Storytelling as art form
The art of narrative is, by definition, an aesthetic enterprise, and
there are a number of artistic elements that typically interact in
well-developed stories. Such elements include the essential idea of
narrative structure with identifiable beginnings, middles, and
endings, or exposition-development-climax-resolution-denouement,
normally constructed into coherent plot lines; a strong focus on
temporality, which includes retention of the past, attention to
present action and protention/future anticipation; a substantial focus
on characters and characterization which is "arguably the most
important single component of the novel"; a given heterogloss of
different voices dialogically at play – "the sound of the human
voice, or many voices, speaking in a variety of accents, rhythms and
registers"; possesses a narrator or narrator-like voice, which by
definition "addresses" and "interacts with" reading audiences (see
Reader Response theory); communicates with a Wayne Booth-esque
rhetorical thrust, a dialectic process of interpretation, which is at
times beneath the surface, conditioning a plotted narrative, and at
other times much more visible, "arguing" for and against various
positions; relies substantially on now-standard aesthetic figuration,
particularly including the use of metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche and
irony (see Hayden White,
Metahistory for expansion of this idea); is
often enmeshed in intertextuality, with copious connections,
references, allusions, similarities, parallels, etc. to other
literatures; and commonly demonstrates an effort toward bildungsroman,
a description of identity development with an effort to evince
becoming in character and community.
Storytelling festivals feature the work of several storytellers.
Elements of the oral storytelling art form include visualization (the
seeing of images in the mind's eye), and vocal and bodily gestures. In
many ways, the art of storytelling draws upon other art forms such as
acting, oral interpretation and performance studies.
Several storytelling organizations started in the U.S. during the
1970s. One such organization was the National Association for the
Perpetuation and Preservation of
Storytelling (NAPPS), now the
Storytelling Network (NSN) and the International Storytelling
Center (ISC). NSN is a professional organization that helps to
organize resources for tellers and festival planners. The ISC runs the
National Storytelling Festival in Jonesborough, TN. Australia
followed their American counterparts with the establishment of
storytelling guilds in the late 1970s. Australian
storytelling today has individuals and groups across the country who
meet to share their stories. The UK's
Society for Storytelling was
founded in 1993, bringing together tellers and listeners, and each
year since 2000 has run a National
Storytelling Week the first week of
Currently, there are dozens of storytelling festivals and hundreds of
professional storytellers around the world, and an
international celebration of the art occurs on World
Emancipation of the story
In oral traditions, stories are kept alive by being told again and
again. The material of any given story naturally undergoes several
changes and adaptations during this process. When and where oral
tradition was pushed back in favor of print media, the literary idea
of the author as originator of a story's authoritative version changed
people's perception of stories themselves. In centuries following,
stories tended to be seen as the work of individuals rather than a
collective effort. Only recently when a significant number of
influential authors began questioning their own roles, the value of
stories as such – independent of authorship – was again
recognized. Literary critics such as
Roland Barthes even proclaimed
the Death of the Author.
Within the workplace
Storytelling practice example (Summer School Berlin School of
Economics 2013, European Business and Economics (EBEP)
For many multi-media communication complex institutions, communicating
by using storytelling techniques can be a more compelling and
effective route of delivering information than that of using only dry
facts. Uses include:
Using narrative to manage conflicts
For managers storytelling is an important way of resolving conflicts,
addressing issues and facing challenges.
Managers may use narrative
discourse to deal with conflicts when direct action is inadvisable or
Using narrative to interpret the past and shape the future
In a group discussion a process of collective narration can help to
influence others and unify the group by linking the past to the
future. In such discussions, managers transform problems, requests and
issues into stories. Jameson calls this collective
group construction storybuilding.
Using narrative in the reasoning process
Storytelling plays an important role in reasoning processes and in
convincing others. In meetings, the managers preferred stories to
abstract arguments or statistical measures. When situations are
complex, narrative allows the managers to involve more context.
Storytelling is increasingly used in advertising today in order to
build customer loyalty. According to Giles Lury, this
marketing trend echoes the deeply rooted need of all humans to be
entertained. Stories are illustrative, easily memorable and allow
any firm to create stronger emotional bonds with the customers.
A Nielsen study shows consumers want a more personal connection in the
way they gather information. Our brains are far more engaged by
storytelling than by cold, hard facts. When reading straight data,
only the language parts of our brains work to decode the meaning. But
when we read a story, not only do the language parts of our brains
light up, but any other part of the brain that we would use if we were
actually experiencing what we're reading about becomes activated as
well. This means it's far easier for us to remember stories than hard
Developments include the use of trans-media techniques, originating in
the film industry which "Build a world in which your story can
evolve". Examples include Coca-Cola's "Happiness Factory".
Children's literature portal
One person show
Burra katha—oral storytelling technique in the Katha tradition
Dastangoi – Indian traditional oral storytelling art form
Shuochang—oral storytelling technique in Chinese tradition
Pingshu—Chinese storytelling using only spoken words
Suzhou Pingtan –
Suzhou regional variety of the shuochang
Tanci—Chinese narrative songs
Maggid—storytelling/preaching technique in Hebrew tradition
Panchatantra—oral storytelling technique in India tradition
Djemaa el Fna
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Library resources about
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Storytelling.
Beyer, Jürgen (1997). "Prolegomena to a history of story-telling
around the Baltic Sea, c. 1550–1800". Electronic Journal of
Folklore. 4: 43–60. doi:10.7592/fejf1997.04.balti.
Bruner, Jerome S. Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 1986. ISBN 0-674-00365-9
Bruner, Jerome S. Making Stories: Law, Literature, Life. New York:
Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2002. ISBN 0-374-20024-6
Gargiulo, Terrence L. The Strategic Use of Stories in Organizational
Communication and Learning. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe. 2005.
Greiner-Burkert, Barbara The magical art of telling fairy tales: A
practical guide to enchantment. Munich, Germany: tausendschlau Verlag.
2012. ISBN 978-3-943328-64-6
Leitch, Thomas M. What Stories Are:
Narrative Theory and
Interpretation. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State
University Press. 1986. ISBN 0-271-00431-2
Lodge, David. The Art of Fiction, New York: Viking, 1992.
McKee, Robert. Story: Substance, Structure, Style, and the Principles
of Screenwriting. New York: ReganBooks. 1997. ISBN 0-06-039168-5
The Neuroscience: Why Your Brain Loves Good
Storytelling , Humanise
The Brand Article
Deus ex machina
In medias res
Figure of speech
Suspension of disbelief
Types of fiction with multiple endings
List of writing genres
Stream of consciousness
Stream of unconsciousness
Storytelling at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Storytelling Can Do W