HOME
The Info List - Stonehenge


--- Advertisement ---



Stonehenge
Stonehenge
is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, 2 miles (3 km) west of Amesbury. It consists of a ring of standing stones, with each standing stone around 13 feet (4.0 m) high, 7 feet (2.1 m) wide and weighing around 25 tons. The stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age
Bronze Age
monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds.[1] Archaeologists
Archaeologists
believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. Radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dating
suggests that the first bluestones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC,[2] although they may have been at the site as early as 3000 BC.[3][4][5] One of the most famous landmarks in the UK, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
is regarded as a British cultural icon.[6] It has been a legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument
Monument
since 1882 when legislation to protect historic monuments was first successfully introduced in Britain. The site and its surroundings were added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1986. Stonehenge
Stonehenge
is owned by the Crown and managed by English Heritage; the surrounding land is owned by the National Trust.[7][8] Stonehenge
Stonehenge
could have been a burial ground from its earliest beginnings.[9] Deposits containing human bone date from as early as 3000 BC, when the ditch and bank were first dug, and continued for at least another five hundred years.[10]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Early history

2.1 Before the monument (8000 BC forward) 2.2 Stonehenge
Stonehenge
1 (ca. 3100 BC) 2.3 Stonehenge
Stonehenge
2 (ca. 3000 BC) 2.4 Stonehenge
Stonehenge
3 I (ca. 2600 BC) 2.5 Stonehenge
Stonehenge
3 II (2600 BC to 2400 BC) 2.6 Stonehenge
Stonehenge
3 III (2400 BC to 2280 BC) 2.7 Stonehenge
Stonehenge
3 IV (2280 BC to 1930 BC) 2.8 Stonehenge
Stonehenge
3 V (1930 BC to 1600 BC) 2.9 After the monument (1600 BC on)

3 Function and construction 4 Modern history

4.1 Folklore

4.1.1 "Heel Stone", "Friar’s Heel", or "Sun-Stone" 4.1.2 Arthurian legend

4.2 Sixteenth century to present

4.2.1 Neopaganism 4.2.2 Setting and access 4.2.3 Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Roundtable Access

4.3 Archaeological research and restoration

4.3.1 1600–1900 4.3.2 1900–2000 4.3.3 2000s

5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 Videography 10 External links

Etymology The Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
cites Ælfric's tenth-century glossary, in which henge-cliff is given the meaning "precipice", or stone, thus the stanenges or Stanheng "not far from Salisbury" recorded by eleventh-century writers are "supported stones". William Stukeley
William Stukeley
in 1740 notes, "Pendulous rocks are now called henges in Yorkshire...I doubt not, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
in Saxon signifies the hanging stones."[11] Christopher Chippindale's Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Complete gives the derivation of the name Stonehenge
Stonehenge
as coming from the Old English words stān meaning "stone", and either hencg meaning "hinge" (because the stone lintels hinge on the upright stones) or hen(c)en meaning "hang" or "gallows" or "instrument of torture" (though elsewhere in his book, Chippindale cites the "suspended stones" etymology). Like Stonehenge's trilithons, medieval gallows consisted of two uprights with a lintel joining them, rather than the inverted L-shape more familiar today. The "henge" portion has given its name to a class of monuments known as henges.[11] Archaeologists
Archaeologists
define henges as earthworks consisting of a circular banked enclosure with an internal ditch.[12] As often happens in archaeological terminology, this is a holdover from antiquarian use. Because its bank is inside its ditch, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
is not truly a henge site. Despite being contemporary with true Neolithic
Neolithic
henges and stone circles, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
is in many ways atypical—for example, at more than 7.3 metres (24 ft) tall, its extant trilithons' lintels, held in place with mortise and tenon joints, make it unique.[13][14] Early history

Plan of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
in 2004. After Cleal et al. and Pitts. Italicised numbers in the text refer to the labels on this plan. Trilithon lintels omitted for clarity. Holes that no longer, or never, contained stones are shown as open circles. Stones visible today are shown coloured

Mike Parker Pearson, leader of the Stonehenge Riverside Project based at Durrington Walls, noted that Stonehenge
Stonehenge
appears to have been associated with burial from the earliest period of its existence:

Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was a place of burial from its beginning to its zenith in the mid third millennium B.C. The cremation burial dating to Stonehenge's sarsen stones phase is likely just one of many from this later period of the monument's use and demonstrates that it was still very much a domain of the dead.[10]

Stonehenge
Stonehenge
evolved in several construction phases spanning at least 1500 years. There is evidence of large-scale construction on and around the monument that perhaps extends the landscape's time frame to 6500 years. Dating and understanding the various phases of activity is complicated by disturbance of the natural chalk by periglacial effects and animal burrowing, poor quality early excavation records, and a lack of accurate, scientifically verified dates. The modern phasing most generally agreed to by archaeologists is detailed below. Features mentioned in the text are numbered and shown on the plan, right. Before the monument (8000 BC forward) Archaeologists
Archaeologists
have found four, or possibly five, large Mesolithic postholes (one may have been a natural tree throw), which date to around 8000 BC, beneath the nearby modern tourist car-park. These held pine posts around 0.75 metres (2 ft 6 in) in diameter, which were erected and eventually rotted in situ. Three of the posts (and possibly four) were in an east-west alignment which may have had ritual significance.[15] Another Mesolithic
Mesolithic
astronomical site in Britain is the Warren Field site in Aberdeenshire, which is considered the world's oldest Lunar calendar, corrected yearly by observing the midwinter solstice.[16] Similar but later sites have been found in Scandinavia.[17] A settlement that may have been contemporaneous with the posts has been found at Blick Mead, a reliable year-round spring 1 mile (1.6 km) from Stonehenge.[18][19] Salisbury Plain
Salisbury Plain
was then still wooded, but 4,000 years later, during the earlier Neolithic, people built a causewayed enclosure at Robin Hood's Ball and long barrow tombs in the surrounding landscape. In approximately 3500 BC, a Stonehenge Cursus
Stonehenge Cursus
was built 700 metres (2,300 ft) north of the site as the first farmers began to clear the trees and develop the area. A number of other adjacent stone and wooden structures and burial mounds, previously overlooked, may date as far back as 4000 BC.[20] Charcoal from the ‘Blick Mead’ camp 2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi) from Stonehenge
Stonehenge
(near the Vespasian's Camp site) has been dated to 4000 BC.[21] The University of Buckingham's Humanities Research Institute believes that the community who built Stonehenge
Stonehenge
lived here over a period of several millennia, making it potentially "one of the pivotal places in the history of the Stonehenge
Stonehenge
landscape."[22] Stonehenge
Stonehenge
1 (ca. 3100 BC)

Stonehenge
Stonehenge
1. After Cleal et al.

The first monument consisted of a circular bank and ditch enclosure made of Late Cretaceous ( Santonian
Santonian
Age) Seaford Chalk, measuring about 110 metres (360 ft) in diameter, with a large entrance to the north east and a smaller one to the south. It stood in open grassland on a slightly sloping spot.[23] The builders placed the bones of deer and oxen in the bottom of the ditch, as well as some worked flint tools. The bones were considerably older than the antler picks used to dig the ditch, and the people who buried them had looked after them for some time prior to burial. The ditch was continuous but had been dug in sections, like the ditches of the earlier causewayed enclosures in the area. The chalk dug from the ditch was piled up to form the bank. This first stage is dated to around 3100 BC, after which the ditch began to silt up naturally. Within the outer edge of the enclosed area is a circle of 56 pits, each about a metre (3 ft 3 in) in diameter, known as the Aubrey holes
Aubrey holes
after John Aubrey, the seventeenth-century antiquarian who was thought to have first identified them. The pits may have contained standing timbers creating a timber circle, although there is no excavated evidence of them. A recent excavation has suggested that the Aubrey Holes may have originally been used to erect a bluestone circle.[24] If this were the case, it would advance the earliest known stone structure at the monument by some 500 years. A small outer bank beyond the ditch could also date to this period. In 2013 a team of archaeologists, led by Mike Parker Pearson, excavated more than 50,000 cremated bones of 63 individuals buried at Stonehenge.[3][4] These remains had originally been buried individually in the Aubrey holes, exhumed during a previous excavation conducted by William Hawley
William Hawley
in 1920, been considered unimportant by him, and subsequently re-interred together in one hole, Aubrey Hole 7, in 1935.[25] Physical and chemical analysis of the remains has shown that the cremated were almost equally men and women, and included some children.[3][4] As there was evidence of the underlying chalk beneath the graves being crushed by substantial weight, the team concluded that the first bluestones brought from Wales were probably used as grave markers.[3][4] Radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dating
of the remains has put the date of the site 500 years earlier than previously estimated, to around 3000 BC.[3][4] Stonehenge
Stonehenge
2 (ca. 3000 BC) Evidence of the second phase is no longer visible. The number of postholes dating to the early 3rd millennium BC suggest that some form of timber structure was built within the enclosure during this period. Further standing timbers were placed at the northeast entrance, and a parallel alignment of posts ran inwards from the southern entrance. The postholes are smaller than the Aubrey Holes, being only around 0.4 metres (16 in) in diameter, and are much less regularly spaced. The bank was purposely reduced in height and the ditch continued to silt up. At least twenty-five of the Aubrey Holes are known to have contained later, intrusive, cremation burials dating to the two centuries after the monument's inception. It seems that whatever the holes' initial function, it changed to become a funerary one during Phase 2. Thirty further cremations were placed in the enclosure's ditch and at other points within the monument, mostly in the eastern half. Stonehenge
Stonehenge
is therefore interpreted as functioning as an enclosed cremation cemetery at this time, the earliest known cremation cemetery in the British Isles. Fragments of unburnt human bone have also been found in the ditch-fill. Dating evidence is provided by the late Neolithic
Neolithic
grooved ware pottery that has been found in connection with the features from this phase. Stonehenge
Stonehenge
3 I (ca. 2600 BC)

Graffiti
Graffiti
on the sarsen stones include ancient carvings of a dagger and an axe

Archaeological excavation has indicated that around 2600 BC, the builders abandoned timber in favour of stone and dug two concentric arrays of holes (the Q and R Holes) in the centre of the site. These stone sockets are only partly known (hence on present evidence are sometimes described as forming 'crescents'); however, they could be the remains of a double ring. Again, there is little firm dating evidence for this phase. The holes held up to 80 standing stones (shown blue on the plan), only 43 of which can be traced today. It is generally accepted that the bluestones (some of which are made of dolerite, an igneous rock), were transported by the builders from the Preseli Hills, 150 miles (240 km) away in modern-day Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire
in Wales. Another theory is that they were brought much nearer to the site as glacial erratics by the Irish Sea Glacier[26] although there is no evidence of glacial deposition within southern central England.[27] The long distance human transport theory was bolstered in 2011 by the discovery of a megalithic bluestone quarry at Craig Rhos-y-felin, near Crymych
Crymych
in Pembrokeshire, which is the most likely place for some of the stones to have been obtained.[27] Other standing stones may well have been small sarsens (sandstone), used later as lintels. The stones, which weighed about two tons, could have been moved by lifting and carrying them on rows of poles and rectangular frameworks of poles, as recorded in China, Japan and India. It is not known whether the stones were taken directly from their quarries to Salisbury Plain or were the result of the removal of a venerated stone circle from Preseli to Salisbury Plain
Salisbury Plain
to "merge two sacred centres into one, to unify two politically separate regions, or to legitimise the ancestral identity of migrants moving from one region to another".[27] Each monolith measures around 2 metres (6.6 ft) in height, between 1 and 1.5 m (3.3 and 4.9 ft) wide and around 0.8 metres (2.6 ft) thick. What was to become known as the Altar Stone is almost certainly derived from the Senni Beds, perhaps from 50 miles (80 kilometres) east of Mynydd Preseli in the Brecon Beacons.[27] The north-eastern entrance was widened at this time, with the result that it precisely matched the direction of the midsummer sunrise and midwinter sunset of the period. This phase of the monument was abandoned unfinished, however; the small standing stones were apparently removed and the Q and R holes purposefully backfilled. Even so, the monument appears to have eclipsed the site at Avebury
Avebury
in importance towards the end of this phase. The Heelstone, a Tertiary sandstone, may also have been erected outside the north-eastern entrance during this period. It cannot be accurately dated and may have been installed at any time during phase 3. At first it was accompanied by a second stone, which is no longer visible. Two, or possibly three, large portal stones were set up just inside the north-eastern entrance, of which only one, the fallen Slaughter Stone, 4.9 metres (16 ft) long, now remains. Other features, loosely dated to phase 3, include the four Station Stones, two of which stood atop mounds. The mounds are known as "barrows" although they do not contain burials. Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Avenue, a parallel pair of ditches and banks leading 2 miles (3 km) to the River Avon, was also added. Two ditches similar to Heelstone
Heelstone
Ditch circling the Heelstone
Heelstone
(which was by then reduced to a single monolith) were later dug around the Station Stones. Stonehenge
Stonehenge
3 II (2600 BC to 2400 BC)

Plan of the central stone structure today; after Johnson 2008

During the next major phase of activity, 30 enormous Oligocene-Miocene sarsen stones (shown grey on the plan) were brought to the site. They may have come from a quarry around 25 miles (40 km) north of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
on the Marlborough Downs, or they may have been collected from a "litter" of sarsens on the chalk downs, closer to hand. The stones were dressed and fashioned with mortise and tenon joints before 30 were erected as a 33 metres (108 ft) diameter circle of standing stones, with a ring of 30 lintel stones resting on top. The lintels were fitted to one another using another woodworking method, the tongue and groove joint. Each standing stone was around 4.1 metres (13 ft) high, 2.1 metres (6 ft 11 in) wide and weighed around 25 tons. Each had clearly been worked with the final visual effect in mind; the orthostats widen slightly towards the top in order that their perspective remains constant when viewed from the ground, while the lintel stones curve slightly to continue the circular appearance of the earlier monument. The inward-facing surfaces of the stones are smoother and more finely worked than the outer surfaces. The average thickness of the stones is 1.1 metres (3 ft 7 in) and the average distance between them is 1 metre (3 ft 3 in). A total of 75 stones would have been needed to complete the circle (60 stones) and the trilithon horseshoe (15 stones). It was thought the ring might have been left incomplete, but an exceptionally dry summer in 2013 revealed patches of parched grass which may correspond to the location of removed sarsens.[28] The lintel stones are each around 3.2 metres (10 ft) long, 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) wide and 0.8 metres (2 ft 7 in) thick. The tops of the lintels are 4.9 metres (16 ft) above the ground. Within this circle stood five trilithons of dressed sarsen stone arranged in a horseshoe shape 13.7 metres (45 ft) across, with its open end facing north east. These huge stones, ten uprights and five lintels, weigh up to 50 tons each. They were linked using complex jointing. They are arranged symmetrically. The smallest pair of trilithons were around 6 metres (20 ft) tall, the next pair a little higher, and the largest, single trilithon in the south west corner would have been 7.3 metres (24 ft) tall. Only one upright from the Great Trilithon
Trilithon
still stands, of which 6.7 metres (22 ft) is visible and a further 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in) is below ground. The images of a 'dagger' and 14 'axeheads' have been carved on one of the sarsens, known as stone 53; further carvings of axeheads have been seen on the outer faces of stones 3, 4, and 5. The carvings are difficult to date, but are morphologically similar to late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
weapons. Early 21st-century laser scanning of the carvings supports this interpretation. The pair of trilithons in the north east are smallest, measuring around 6 metres (20 ft) in height; the largest, which is in the south west of the horseshoe, is almost 7.5 metres (25 ft) tall. This ambitious phase has been radiocarbon dated to between 2600 and 2400 BC,[29] slightly earlier than the Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Archer, discovered in the outer ditch of the monument in 1978, and the two sets of burials, known as the Amesbury
Amesbury
Archer and the Boscombe Bowmen, discovered 3 miles (5 km) to the west. Analysis of animal teeth found 2 miles (3 km) away at Durrington Walls, thought by Parker Pearson to be the 'builders camp', suggests that, during some period between 2600 and 2400 BC, as many as 4,000 people gathered at the site for the mid-winter and mid-summer festivals; the evidence showed that the animals had been slaughtered around 9 months or 15 months after their spring birth. Strontium
Strontium
isotope analysis of the animal teeth showed that some had been brought from as far afield as the Scottish Highlands for the celebrations.[4][5] At about the same time, a large timber circle and a second avenue were constructed at Durrington Walls overlooking the River Avon. The timber circle was oriented towards the rising sun on the midwinter solstice, opposing the solar alignments at Stonehenge. The avenue was aligned with the setting sun on the summer solstice and led from the river to the timber circle. Evidence of huge fires on the banks of the Avon between the two avenues also suggests that both circles were linked. They were perhaps used as a procession route on the longest and shortest days of the year. Parker Pearson speculates that the wooden circle at Durrington Walls
Durrington Walls
was the centre of a 'land of the living', whilst the stone circle represented a 'land of the dead', with the Avon serving as a journey between the two.[30] Stonehenge
Stonehenge
3 III (2400 BC to 2280 BC) Later in the Bronze Age, although the exact details of activities during this period are still unclear, the bluestones appear to have been re-erected. They were placed within the outer sarsen circle and may have been trimmed in some way. Like the sarsens, a few have timber-working style cuts in them suggesting that, during this phase, they may have been linked with lintels and were part of a larger structure. Stonehenge
Stonehenge
3 IV (2280 BC to 1930 BC) This phase saw further rearrangement of the bluestones. They were arranged in a circle between the two rings of sarsens and in an oval at the centre of the inner ring. Some archaeologists argue that some of these bluestones were from a second group brought from Wales. All the stones formed well-spaced uprights without any of the linking lintels inferred in Stonehenge
Stonehenge
3 III. The Altar Stone may have been moved within the oval at this time and re-erected vertically. Although this would seem the most impressive phase of work, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
3 IV was rather shabbily built compared to its immediate predecessors, as the newly re-installed bluestones were not well-founded and began to fall over. However, only minor changes were made after this phase. Stonehenge
Stonehenge
3 V (1930 BC to 1600 BC) Soon afterwards, the north eastern section of the Phase 3 IV bluestone circle was removed, creating a horseshoe-shaped setting (the Bluestone Horseshoe) which mirrored the shape of the central sarsen Trilithons. This phase is contemporary with the Seahenge
Seahenge
site in Norfolk. After the monument (1600 BC on)

Computer rendering of the overall site

The Y and Z Holes
Y and Z Holes
are the last known construction at Stonehenge, built about 1600 BC, and the last usage of it was probably during the Iron Age. Roman coins and medieval artefacts have all been found in or around the monument but it is unknown if the monument was in continuous use throughout British prehistory
British prehistory
and beyond, or exactly how it would have been used. Notable is the massive Iron Age
Iron Age
hillfort Vespasian's Camp
Vespasian's Camp
built alongside the Avenue near the Avon. A decapitated seventh century Saxon man was excavated from Stonehenge
Stonehenge
in 1923.[31] The site was known to scholars during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and since then it has been studied and adopted by numerous groups. Function and construction Main article: Theories about Stonehenge See also: Archaeoastronomy
Archaeoastronomy
and Stonehenge Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was produced by a culture that left no written records. Many aspects of Stonehenge, such as how it was built and which purposes it was used for, remain subject to debate. A number of myths surround the stones.[32] The site, specifically the great trilithon, the encompassing horseshoe arrangement of the five central trilithons, the heel stone, and the embanked avenue, are aligned to the sunset of the winter solstice and the opposing sunrise of the summer solstice.[33][34] A natural landform at the monument's location followed this line, and may have inspired its construction.[35] The excavated remains of culled animal bones suggest that people may have gathered at the site for the winter rather than the summer.[36] Further astronomical associations, and the precise astronomical significance of the site for its people, are a matter of speculation and debate. There is little or no direct evidence revealing the construction techniques used by the Stonehenge
Stonehenge
builders. Over the years, various authors have suggested that supernatural or anachronistic methods were used, usually asserting that the stones were impossible to move otherwise due to their massive size. However, conventional techniques, using Neolithic
Neolithic
technology as basic as shear legs, have been demonstrably effective at moving and placing stones of a similar size.[citation needed] How the stones could be transported by a prehistoric people without the aid of the wheel or a pulley system is not known. The most common theory of how prehistoric people moved megaliths has them creating a track of logs on which the large stones were rolled along.[37] Another megalith transport theory involves the use of a type of sleigh running on a track greased with animal fat.[37] Such an experiment with a sleigh carrying a 40-ton slab of stone was successful near Stonehenge
Stonehenge
in 1995. A team of more than 100 workers managed to push and pull the slab along the 18-mile (29 km) journey from Marlborough Downs.[37] Proposed functions for the site include usage as an astronomical observatory or as a religious site. More recently two major new theories have been proposed. Professor Geoffrey Wainwright, president of the Society of Antiquaries of London, and Timothy Darvill, of Bournemouth University, have suggested that Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was a place of healing—the primeval equivalent of Lourdes.[38] They argue that this accounts for the high number of burials in the area and for the evidence of trauma deformity in some of the graves. However, they do concede that the site was probably multifunctional and used for ancestor worship as well.[39] Isotope analysis indicates that some of the buried individuals were from other regions. A teenage boy buried approximately 1550 BC was raised near the Mediterranean Sea; a metal worker from 2300 BC dubbed the " Amesbury
Amesbury
Archer" grew up near the alpine foothills of Germany; and the "Boscombe Bowmen" probably arrived from Wales or Brittany, France.[40] On the other hand, Mike Parker Pearson of Sheffield University
Sheffield University
has suggested that Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was part of a ritual landscape and was joined to Durrington Walls
Durrington Walls
by their corresponding avenues and the River Avon. He suggests that the area around Durrington Walls
Durrington Walls
Henge was a place of the living, whilst Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was a domain of the dead. A journey along the Avon to reach Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was part of a ritual passage from life to death, to celebrate past ancestors and the recently deceased.[30] Both explanations were first mooted in the twelfth century by Geoffrey of Monmouth, who extolled the curative properties of the stones and was also the first to advance the idea that Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was constructed as a funerary monument. Whatever religious, mystical or spiritual elements were central to Stonehenge, its design includes a celestial observatory function, which might have allowed prediction of eclipse, solstice, equinox and other celestial events important to a contemporary religion.[41] There are other hypotheses and theories. According to a team of British researchers led by Mike Parker Pearson of the University of Sheffield, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
may have been built as a symbol of "peace and unity", indicated in part by the fact that at the time of its construction, Britain's Neolithic
Neolithic
people were experiencing a period of cultural unification.[32][42] Researchers from the Royal College of Art in London have discovered that the monument’s bluestones possess "unusual acoustic properties" — when struck they respond with a "loud clanging noise". According to Paul Devereux, editor of the journal Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and Culture, this idea could explain why certain bluestones were hauled nearly 200 miles (320 km)—a major technical accomplishment at the time. In certain ancient cultures rocks that ring out, known as lithophones, were believed to contain mystic or healing powers, and Stonehenge
Stonehenge
has a history of association with rituals. The presence of these "ringing rocks" seems to support the hypothesis that Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was a "place for healing", as has been pointed out by Bournemouth University archaeologist Timothy Darvill, who consulted with the researchers. The bluestones of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
were quarried near a town in Wales called Maenclochog, which means "ringing rock", where the local bluestones were used as church bells until the 18th century.[43] Modern history Folklore

Southwest face of Heel Stone
Heel Stone
in May 2016

"Heel Stone", "Friar’s Heel", or "Sun-Stone" The Heel Stone
Heel Stone
lies northeast of the sarsen circle, beside the end portion of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Avenue.[44] It is a rough stone, 16 feet (4.9 m) above ground, leaning inwards towards the stone circle.[44] It has been known by many names in the past, including "Friar's Heel" and "Sun-stone".[45][46] At summer solstice an observer standing within the stone circle, looking northeast through the entrance, would see the Sun rise in the approximate direction of the heel stone, and the sun has often been photographed over it. A folk tale relates the origin of the Friar's Heel reference.[47][48]

The Devil
Devil
bought the stones from a woman in Ireland, wrapped them up, and brought them to Salisbury plain. One of the stones fell into the Avon, the rest were carried to the plain. The Devil
Devil
then cried out, "No-one will ever find out how these stones came here!" A friar replied, "That’s what you think!", whereupon the Devil
Devil
threw one of the stones at him and struck him on the heel. The stone stuck in the ground and is still there.[49] Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable attributes this tale to Geoffrey of Monmouth, but though book eight of Geoffrey's Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
does describe how Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was built, the two stories are entirely different.

The name is not unique; there was a monolith with the same name recorded in the nineteenth century by antiquarian Charles Warne
Charles Warne
at Long Bredy
Long Bredy
in Dorset.[50] Arthurian legend

A giant helps Merlin
Merlin
build Stonehenge. From a manuscript of the Roman de Brut by Wace
Wace
in the British Library
British Library
(Egerton 3028). Dating back to the second quarter of the 14th century, this is the oldest known depiction of Stonehenge.

In the twelfth century, Geoffrey of Monmouth included a fanciful story in his Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
("History of the Kings of Britain") that attributed the monument's construction to the wizard Merlin.[51] Geoffrey's story spread widely, appearing in more and less elaborate form in adaptations of his work such as Wace's Norman French Roman de Brut, Layamon's Middle English Brut, and the Welsh Brut y Brenhinedd. According to Geoffrey the rocks of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
were healing rocks, called the Giant's dance, which Giants had brought from Africa to Ireland for their healing properties. The fifth-century king Aurelius Ambrosius wished to erect a memorial to 3,000 nobles slain in battle against the Saxons and buried at Salisbury, and at Merlin's advice chose Stonehenge. The king sent Merlin, Uther Pendragon
Uther Pendragon
(King Arthur's father), and 15,000 knights, to remove it from Ireland, where it had been constructed on Mount Killaraus by the Giants. They slew 7,000 Irish but, as the knights tried to move the rocks with ropes and force, they failed. Then Merlin, using "gear" and skill, easily dismantled the stones and sent them over to Britain, where Stonehenge was dedicated. After it had been rebuilt near Amesbury, Geoffrey further narrates how first Ambrosius Aurelianus, then Uther Pendragon, and finally Constantine III, were buried inside the "Giants' Ring of Stonehenge". In another legend of Saxons and Britons, in 472 the invading king Hengist
Hengist
invited Brythonic warriors to a feast, but treacherously ordered his men to draw their weapons from concealment and fall upon the guests, killing 420 of them. Hengist
Hengist
erected the stone monument—Stonehenge—on the site to show his remorse for the deed.[52] Sixteenth century to present

The earliest-known realistic painting of Stonehenge, drawn on site with watercolours by Lucas de Heere
Lucas de Heere
between 1573 and 1575

Stonehenge
Stonehenge
has changed ownership several times since King Henry VIII acquired Amesbury
Amesbury
Abbey and its surrounding lands. In 1540 Henry gave the estate to the Earl of Hertford. It subsequently passed to Lord Carleton and then the Marquess of Queensberry. The Antrobus family of Cheshire bought the estate in 1824. During World War I
World War I
an aerodrome ( Royal Flying Corps
Royal Flying Corps
"No. 1 School of Aerial Navigation and Bomb Dropping")[53] was built on the downs just to the west of the circle and, in the dry valley at Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Bottom, a main road junction was built, along with several cottages and a cafe. The Antrobus family sold the site after their last heir was killed in the fighting in France. The auction by Knight Frank & Rutley estate agents in Salisbury was held on 21 September 1915 and included "Lot 15. Stonehenge
Stonehenge
with about 30 acres, 2 rods, 37 perches [12.44 ha] of adjoining downland."[54]

Farm carts near the site, ca. 1885

Cecil Chubb
Cecil Chubb
bought the site for £6,600 and gave it to the nation three years later. Although it has been speculated that he purchased it at the suggestion of—or even as a present for—his wife, in fact he bought it on a whim, as he believed a local man should be the new owner.[54]

10th Battalion, CEF
10th Battalion, CEF
marches past the site, winter 1914–15 (WW I); Background: Preservation work on stones, propped up by timbers

In the late 1920s a nationwide appeal was launched to save Stonehenge from the encroachment of the modern buildings that had begun to rise around it.[55] By 1928 the land around the monument had been purchased with the appeal donations, and given to the National Trust to preserve. The buildings were removed (although the roads were not), and the land returned to agriculture. More recently the land has been part of a grassland reversion scheme, returning the surrounding fields to native chalk grassland.[56] Neopaganism

Sunrise at Stonehenge
Stonehenge
on the summer solstice, 21 June 2005

During the twentieth century, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
began to revive as a place of religious significance, this time by adherents of Neopaganism and New Age beliefs, particularly the Neo-druids. The historian Ronald Hutton would later remark that "it was a great, and potentially uncomfortable, irony that modern Druids
Druids
had arrived at Stonehenge
Stonehenge
just as archaeologists were evicting the ancient Druids
Druids
from it."[57] The first such Neo-druidic group to make use of the megalithic monument was the Ancient Order of Druids, who performed a mass initiation ceremony there in August 1905, in which they admitted 259 new members into their organisation. This assembly was largely ridiculed in the press, who mocked the fact that the Neo-druids were dressed up in costumes consisting of white robes and fake beards.[58] Between 1972 and 1984, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was the site of the Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Free Festival. After the Battle of the Beanfield
Battle of the Beanfield
in 1985, this use of the site was stopped for several years and ritual use of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
is now heavily restricted.[59] Some Druids
Druids
have arranged an assembling of monuments styled on Stonehenge
Stonehenge
in other parts of the world as a form of Druidist worship.[60] Setting and access

Stonehenge
Stonehenge
at sunset

When Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was first opened to the public it was possible to walk among and even climb on the stones, but the stones were roped off in 1977 as a result of serious erosion.[61] Visitors are no longer permitted to touch the stones, but are able to walk around the monument from a short distance away. English Heritage
English Heritage
does, however, permit access during the summer and winter solstice, and the spring and autumn equinox. Additionally, visitors can make special bookings to access the stones throughout the year.[62] The access situation and the proximity of the two roads has drawn widespread criticism, highlighted by a 2006 National Geographic survey. In the survey of conditions at 94 leading World Heritage Sites, 400 conservation and tourism experts ranked Stonehenge
Stonehenge
75th in the list of destinations, declaring it to be "in moderate trouble".[63] As motorised traffic increased, the setting of the monument began to be affected by the proximity of the two roads on either side—the A344 to Shrewton
Shrewton
on the north side, and the A303
A303
to Winterbourne Stoke to the south. Plans to upgrade the A303
A303
and close the A344 to restore the vista from the stones have been considered since the monument became a World Heritage Site. However, the controversy surrounding expensive re-routing of the roads has led to the scheme being cancelled on multiple occasions. On 6 December 2007, it was announced that extensive plans to build Stonehenge road tunnel
Stonehenge road tunnel
under the landscape and create a permanent visitors' centre had been cancelled.[64]

The visitors centre at Stonehenge

On 13 May 2009, the government gave approval for a £25 million scheme to create a smaller visitors' centre and close the A344, although this was dependent on funding and local authority planning consent.[65] On 20 January 2010 Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Council granted planning permission for a centre 2.4 km (1.5 miles) to the west and English Heritage
English Heritage
confirmed that funds to build it would be available, supported by a £10m grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund.[66] On 23 June 2013 the A344 was closed to begin the work of removing the section of road and replacing it with grass.[67][68] The centre, designed by Denton Corker Marshall, opened to the public on 18 December 2013.[69] Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Roundtable Access

Dancing inside the stones, 1984 Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Free Festival

The earlier rituals were augmented by the Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Free Festival, loosely organised by the Politantric Circle, held between 1972 and 1984, during which time the number of midsummer visitors had risen to around 30,000.[70] However, in 1985 the site was closed to festivalgoers by English Heritage
English Heritage
and the National Trust. A consequence of the end of the festival in 1985 was the violent confrontation between the police and New Age
New Age
travellers that became known as the Battle of the Beanfield
Battle of the Beanfield
when police blockaded a convoy of travellers to prevent them from approaching Stonehenge. Beginning in 1985, the year of the Battle, no access was allowed into the stones at Stonehenge
Stonehenge
for any religious reason. This 'exclusion-zone' policy continued for almost fifteen years: until just before the arrival of the twenty-first century, visitors were not allowed to go into the stones at times of religious significance, the winter and summer solstices, and the vernal and autumnal equinoxes.[71] However, now due to the Roundtable process and the 'Court of Human Rights' rulings gained by picketing by campaigners such as Brian "Viziondanz" Felstein and King Arthur
King Arthur
Pendragon, some access had been gained four times a year. The 'Court of Human Rights' rulings recognises that members of any genuine religion have a right to worship in their own church, and Stonehenge
Stonehenge
is a place of worship to Neo-Druids, Pagans and other 'Earth based' or 'old' religions. The Roundtable meetings include members of the Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Police force, National Trust, English Heritage, Pagans, Druids, Spiritualists
Spiritualists
and others. At the Summer Solstice
Solstice
2003, which fell over a weekend, over 30,000 people attended a gathering at and in the stones. The 2004 gathering was smaller (around 21,000 people). Archaeological research and restoration

annotations

Post- World War I
World War I
aerial photograph

Seventeenth century depiction of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
from the Atlas van Loon

1600–1900 Throughout recorded history, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
and its surrounding monuments have attracted attention from antiquarians and archaeologists. John Aubrey was one of the first to examine the site with a scientific eye in 1666, and in his plan of the monument, he recorded the pits that now bear his name, the Aubrey holes. William Stukeley
William Stukeley
continued Aubrey’s work in the early eighteenth century, but took an interest in the surrounding monuments as well, identifying (somewhat incorrectly) the Cursus
Cursus
and the Avenue. He also began the excavation of many of the barrows in the area, and it was his interpretation of the landscape that associated it with the Druids.[72] Stukeley was so fascinated with Druids
Druids
that he originally named Disc Barrows as Druids' Barrows. The most accurate early plan of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was that made by Bath architect John Wood in 1740.[73] His original annotated survey has recently been computer redrawn and published.[74][page needed] Importantly Wood’s plan was made before the collapse of the southwest trilithon, which fell in 1797 and was restored in 1958. William Cunnington
William Cunnington
was the next to tackle the area in the early nineteenth century. He excavated some 24 barrows before digging in and around the stones and discovered charred wood, animal bones, pottery and urns. He also identified the hole in which the Slaughter Stone once stood. Richard Colt Hoare
Richard Colt Hoare
supported Cunnington's work and excavated some 379 barrows on Salisbury Plain
Salisbury Plain
including on some 200 in the area around the Stones, some excavated in conjunction with William Coxe. To alert future diggers to their work they were careful to leave initialled metal tokens in each barrow they opened. Cunnington's finds are displayed at the Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Museum. In 1877 Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
dabbled in archaeology at the stones, experimenting with the rate at which remains sink into the earth for his book The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms.

An early photograph of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
taken July 1877

The monument from a similar angle in 2008 showing the extent of reconstruction

A contemporary newspaper depiction of the 1920 restoration

1900–2000 William Gowland oversaw the first major restoration of the monument in 1901 which involved the straightening and concrete setting of sarsen stone number 56 which was in danger of falling. In straightening the stone he moved it about half a metre from its original position.[74] Gowland also took the opportunity to further excavate the monument in what was the most scientific dig to date, revealing more about the erection of the stones than the previous 100 years of work had done. During the 1920 restoration William Hawley, who had excavated nearby Old Sarum, excavated the base of six stones and the outer ditch. He also located a bottle of port in the Slaughter Stone socket left by Cunnington, helped to rediscover Aubrey's pits inside the bank and located the concentric circular holes outside the Sarsen
Sarsen
Circle called the Y and Z Holes.[75] Richard Atkinson, Stuart Piggott and John F. S. Stone re-excavated much of Hawley's work in the 1940s and 1950s, and discovered the carved axes and daggers on the Sarsen
Sarsen
Stones. Atkinson's work was instrumental in furthering the understanding of the three major phases of the monument's construction. In 1958 the stones were restored again, when three of the standing sarsens were re-erected and set in concrete bases. The last restoration was carried out in 1963 after stone 23 of the Sarsen Circle fell over. It was again re-erected, and the opportunity was taken to concrete three more stones. Later archaeologists, including Christopher Chippindale of the Museum of Archaeology
Archaeology
and Anthropology, University of Cambridge and Brian Edwards of the University of the West of England, campaigned to give the public more knowledge of the various restorations and in 2004 English Heritage
English Heritage
included pictures of the work in progress in its book Stonehenge: A History in Photographs.[76][77][78] In 1966 and 1967, in advance of a new car park being built at the site, the area of land immediately northwest of the stones was excavated by Faith and Lance Vatcher. They discovered the Mesolithic postholes dating from between 7000 and 8000 BC, as well as a 10-metre (33 ft) length of a palisade ditch – a V-cut ditch into which timber posts had been inserted that remained there until they rotted away. Subsequent aerial archaeology suggests that this ditch runs from the west to the north of Stonehenge, near the avenue.[75] Excavations were once again carried out in 1978 by Atkinson and John Evans during which they discovered the remains of the Stonehenge Archer in the outer ditch,[79] and in 1979 rescue archaeology was needed alongside the Heel Stone
Heel Stone
after a cable-laying ditch was mistakenly dug on the roadside, revealing a new stone hole next to the Heel Stone. In the early 1980s Julian Richards led the Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Environs Project, a detailed study of the surrounding landscape. The project was able to successfully date such features as the Lesser Cursus, Coneybury Henge
Henge
and several other smaller features. In 1993 the way that Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was presented to the public was called 'a national disgrace' by the House of Commons Public Accounts Committee. Part of English Heritage's response to this criticism was to commission research to collate and bring together all the archaeological work conducted at the monument up to this date. This two-year research project resulted in the publication in 1995 of the monograph Stonehenge
Stonehenge
in its landscape, which was the first publication presenting the complex stratigraphy and the finds recovered from the site. It presented a rephasing of the monument.[80] 2000s More recent excavations include a series of digs held between 2003 and 2008 known as the Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Riverside Project, led by Mike Parker Pearson. This project mainly investigated other monuments in the landscape and their relationship to the stones — notably Durrington Walls, where another "Avenue" leading to the River Avon was discovered. The point where the Stonehenge Avenue
Stonehenge Avenue
meets the river was also excavated, and revealed a previously unknown circular area which probably housed four further stones, most likely as a marker for the starting point of the avenue. In April 2008 Tim Darvill of the University of Bournemouth and Geoff Wainwright of the Society of Antiquaries, began another dig inside the stone circle to retrieve dateable fragments of the original bluestone pillars. They were able to date the erection of some bluestones to 2300 BC,[2] although this may not reflect the earliest erection of stones at Stonehenge. They also discovered organic material from 7000 BC, which, along with the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
postholes, adds support for the site having been in use at least 4,000 years before Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was started. In August and September 2008, as part of the Riverside Project, Julian Richards and Mike Pitts excavated Aubrey Hole 7, removing the cremated remains from several Aubrey Holes that had been excavated by Hawley in the 1920s, and re-interred in 1935.[25] A licence for the removal of human remains at Stonehenge
Stonehenge
had been granted by the Ministry of Justice in May 2008, in accordance with the Statement on burial law and archaeology issued in May 2008. One of the conditions of the licence was that the remains should be reinterred within two years and that in the intervening period they should be kept safely, privately and decently.[81][82] A new landscape investigation was conducted in April 2009. A shallow mound, rising to about 40 cm (16 inches) was identified between stones 54 (inner circle) and 10 (outer circle), clearly separated from the natural slope. It has not been dated but speculation that it represents careless backfilling following earlier excavations seems disproved by its representation in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century illustrations. Indeed, there is some evidence that, as an uncommon geological feature, it could have been deliberately incorporated into the monument at the outset.[23] A circular, shallow bank, little more than 10 cm (4 inches) high, was found between the Y and Z hole circles, with a further bank lying inside the "Z" circle. These are interpreted as the spread of spoil from the original Y and Z holes, or more speculatively as hedge banks from vegetation deliberately planted to screen the activities within.[23] In July 2010, the Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Hidden Landscape Project discovered a "henge-like" monument less than 1 km (0.62 miles) away from the main site.[83] This new hengiform monument was subsequently revealed to be located "at the site of Amesbury
Amesbury
50", a round barrow in the Cursus Barrows
Cursus Barrows
group.[84] On 26 November 2011, archaeologists from University of Birmingham announced the discovery of evidence of two huge pits positioned within the Stonehenge Cursus
Stonehenge Cursus
pathway, aligned in celestial position towards midsummer sunrise and sunset when viewed from the Heel Stone.[85][86] The new discovery is part of the Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Hidden Landscape Project which began in the summer of 2010.[87] The project uses non-invasive geophysical imaging technique to reveal and visually recreate the landscape. According to team leader Vince Gaffney, this discovery may provide a direct link between the rituals and astronomical events to activities within the Cursus
Cursus
at Stonehenge.[86] On 18 December 2011, geologists from University of Leicester and the National Museum of Wales announced the discovery of the exact source of some of the rhyolite fragments found in the Stonehenge
Stonehenge
debitage. These fragments do not seem to match any of the standing stones or bluestone stumps. The researchers have identified the source as a 70-metre (230 ft) long rock outcrop called Craig Rhos-y-Felin (51°59′30.07″N 4°44′40.85″W / 51.9916861°N 4.7446806°W / 51.9916861; -4.7446806 (Craig Rhos-y-Felin)), near Pont Saeson in north Pembrokeshire, located 220 kilometres (140 mi) from Stonehenge.[88][89] On 10 September 2014 the University of Birmingham
University of Birmingham
announced findings including evidence of adjacent stone and wooden structures and burial mounds, overlooked previously, that may date as far back as 4000 BC.[20] An area extending to 12 square kilometres (1,200 ha) was studied to a depth of three metres with ground-penetrating radar equipment. As many as seventeen new monuments, revealed nearby, may be Late Neolithic
Neolithic
monuments that resemble Stonehenge. The interpretation suggests a complex of numerous related monuments. Also included in the discovery is that the cursus track is terminated by two five-meter wide extremely deep pits,[90] whose purpose is still a mystery. In popular culture See also: Cultural depictions of Stonehenge

"Stonehenge" from mockumentary This Is Spinal Tap.[citation needed] "Stonehenge", a 2013 song by Ylvis.[citation needed]

See also

Historical context

Prehistoric
Prehistoric
Britain

Other monuments in the Stonehenge
Stonehenge
ritual landscape

Bluestonehenge Bush Barrow Normanton Down Barrows Woodhenge

About Stonehenge
Stonehenge
and replicas of Stonehenge

Archaeoastronomy
Archaeoastronomy
and Stonehenge Cultural depictions of Stonehenge Excavations at Stonehenge Manhattanhenge Stonehenge
Stonehenge
replicas and derivatives Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Free Festival Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Landscape

Fiction

Stonehenge
Stonehenge
(novel)

Similar sites

See also: Stonehenge
Stonehenge
replicas and derivatives

Almendres Cromlech Arkaim Cahokia Carhenge Goloring Goseck circle List of largest monoliths in the world Maryhill Stonehenge Medicine wheel Newgrange Ring of Brodgar Zorats Karer

Sites with similar sunrise or sunset alignments

Manhattanhenge MIThenge

Museums with collections from the World Heritage Site

Salisbury and South Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Museum Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Museum

References

^ Christopher Young, Amanda Chadburn, Isabelle Bedu (July 2008). " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
Management Plan". UNESCO: 18. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b Morgan, James (21 September 2008). "Dig pinpoints Stonehenge origins". BBC. Retrieved 22 September 2008.  ^ a b c d e Kennedy, Maev (9 March 2013). " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
may have been burial site for Stone Age
Stone Age
elite, say archaeologists". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 11 March 2013.  ^ a b c d e f Legge, James (9 March 2012). "Stonehenge: new study suggests landmark started life as a graveyard for the 'prehistoric elite'". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 March 2013.  ^ a b " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
builders travelled from far, say researchers". BBC News. 9 March 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2013.  ^ Scott, Julie; Selwyn, Tom (2010). Thinking Through Tourism. Berg. p. 191.  ^ "History of Stonehenge". English Heritage. Retrieved 7 June 2016. The monument remained in private ownership until 1918 when Cecil Chubb, a local man who had purchased Stonehenge
Stonehenge
from the Atrobus family at an auction three years previously, gave it to the nation. Thereafter, the duty to conserve the monument fell to the state, today a role performed on its behalf by English Heritage.  ^ "Ancient ceremonial landscape of great archaeological and wildlife interest". Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Landscape. National Trust. Retrieved 17 December 2007.  ^ Pitts, Mike (8 August 2008). "Stonehenge: one of our largest excavations draws to a close". British Archaeology. York, England: Council for British Archaeology
Archaeology
(102): 13. ISSN 1357-4442.  ^ a b Schmid, Randolph E. (29 May 2008). "Study: Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was a burial site for centuries". Associated Press. Retrieved 2 August 2015.  ^ a b "Stonehenge; henge2". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(2 ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 1989.  ^ See the English Heritage
English Heritage
definition Archived 16 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Anon. "Stonehenge : Wiltshire
Wiltshire
England What is it?". Megalithic Europe. The Bradshaw Foundation. Archived from the original on 30 May 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2009.  ^ Alexander, Caroline. "If the Stones Could Speak: Searching for the Meaning of Stonehenge". National Geographic Magazine. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 6 November 2009.  ^ Exon, 30-31; Southern, Patricia, The Story of Stonehenge, Ch. 2, 2012, Amberley Publishing Limited, ISBN 1445615878, 9781445615875 ^ V. Gaffney; et al. "Time and a Place: A luni-solar 'time-reckoner' from 8th millennium BC Scotland". Internet Archaeology. Retrieved 16 July 2013.  ^ Exon, 30 ^ "The New Discoveries at Blick Mead: the Key to the Stonehenge Landscape". www.buckingham.ac.uk. University of Buckingham. Retrieved 15 January 2017.  ^ Professor David Jacques FSA (21 September 2016). "'The Cradle of Stonehenge'? Blick Mead
Blick Mead
- a Mesolithic
Mesolithic
Site in the Stonehenge Landscape -Lecture Transcript". www.gresham.ac.uk. Gresham College. Retrieved 15 January 2017.  ^ a b Siciliano, Leon; et al. (10 September 2014). "Technology unearths 17 new monuments at Stonehenge". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 20 May 2015.  ^ Sarah Knapton (19 December 2014). " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
discovery could rewrite British pre-history". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 December 2014.  ^ "The New Discoveries at Blick Mead: the Key to the Stonehenge Landscape". University of Buckingham. Retrieved 26 December 2014.  ^ a b c Field, David; et al. (March 2010). "Introducing Stonehedge". British Archaeology. York, England: Council for British Archaeology (111): 32–35. ISSN 1357-4442.  ^ Parker Pearson, Mike; Richards, Julian; Pitts, Mike (9 October 2008). " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
'older than believed'". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 14 October 2008.  ^ a b Mike Parker Pearson (20 August 2008). "The Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Riverside Project". Sheffield University. Archived from the original on 26 October 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2008.  ^ John, Brian (26 February 2011). "Stonehenge: glacial transport of bluestones now confirmed?" (PDF) (Press release). University of Leicester. Retrieved 22 June 2012.  ^ a b c d Parker Pearson, Michael; et al. (December 2015). "Craig Rhos-y-felin: a Welsh bluestone megalith quarry for Stonehenge". Antiquity. Antiquity Publications Ltd,. 89 (348): 1331–1352. doi:10.15184/aqy.2015.177. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ Banton, Simon; Bowden, Mark; Daw, Tim; Grady, Damian; Soutar, Sharon (July 2013). "Patchmarks at Stonehenge". Antiquity. 88 (341): 733–739.  ^ Pearson, Mike; Cleal, Ros; Marshall, Peter; Needham, Stuart; Pollard, Josh; Richards, Colin; Ruggles, Clive; Sheridan, Alison; Thomas, Julian; Tilley, Chris; Welham, Kate; Chamberlain, Andrew; Chenery, Carolyn; Evans, Jane; Knüsel, Chris (September 2007). "The Age of Stonehenge". Antiquity. 811 (313): 617–639.  ^ a b Pearson, M. Parker (2005). Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Britain. pp. 63–67. ISBN 0-7134-8849-2.  ^ "Skeleton unearthed at Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was decapitated", BBC News
BBC News
(9 June 2000), ABCE News (13 June 2000), Fox News (14 June 2000), New Scientist (17 June 2000), Archeo News (2 July 2000) ^ a b " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
a monument to unity, new theory claims – CBS News". CBS News.  ^ "Understanding Stonehenge: Two Explanations". DNews. Retrieved 27 September 2015.  ^ Schombert. " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
revealed: Why Stones Were a " Special
Special
Place"". University of Oregon.  ^ Alberge, Dalya (8 September 2013). " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was built on solstice axis, dig confirms". The Guardian.  ^ Pearson. "Stonehenge".  ^ a b c Author not listed (2003). "Stonehenge". Gale Encyclopedia of the Unusual and Unexplained. USA. Retrieved 11 November 2015.  ^ Satter, Raphael (27 September 2008). "UK experts say Stonehenge
Stonehenge
was place of healing". USA Today. Retrieved 1 October 2015.  ^ Maev Kennedy (23 September 2008). "The magic of Stonehenge: new dig finds clues to power of bluestones". Guardian. UK. Retrieved 1 May 2011.  ^ " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
boy 'was from the Med'". BBC
BBC
News. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ Hawkins, GS (1966). Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Decoded. ISBN 978-0-88029-147-7.  ^ Williams, Thomas; Koriech, Hana (2012). "Interview with Mike Parker Pearson". Papers from the Institute of Archaeology. 22: 39–47. doi:10.5334/pia.401.  ^ Anon. "RCA Research Team Uncovers Stonehenge's Sonic Secrets". rca.ac.uk. Royal College of Art.  ^ a b Stanford, Peter (2011). The Extra Mile: A 21st century Pilgrimage. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 20.  ^ Stevens, Edward (July 1866). " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
and Abury". The Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Review. Vol. 11. London: Bradbury, Evans & Co. p. 69. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Measuring Time: Teacher's Guide. Burlington, NC: National Academy of Sciences. 1994. p. 173. ISBN 0892787074. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Andrew Oliver, ed. (1972). "July 1776". The Journal of Samuel Curwen,loyalist. 1. Harvard University Press,. p. 190. ISBN 0674483804. Retrieved 6 March 2015.  ^ "Jeffery of Monmouth's Account of Stonehenge". A Description of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
on Salisbury Plain. Salisbury: J Easton. 1809. p. 5. Retrieved 6 March 2015.  ^ Brewer, Ebenezer Cobham. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. New York: Harper and Brothers. p. 380. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Warne, Charles, 1872, Ancient Dorset. Bournemouth. ^ Historia Regum Britanniae, Book 8, ch. 10. ^ Drawing on the writings of Nennius, the tale is noted in Spenser's Faerie Queene, and given further circulation in William Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum of 1655. Source: The illustrated guide to Old Sarum and Stonehenge. Salisbury, England: Brown and Company. 1868. pp. 35–39. OCLC 181860648.  ^ Francis Stewart Briggs, S. H. Harris, "Joysticks and Fiddlesticks: (the Unofficial History of a Flying Kangaroo) Or, The Flying Kangaroo", Hutchinson & Company Limited, 1938. Retrieved 11 June 2014. ^ a b Heffernan, T. H. J. "The man who bought Stonehenge". This is Amesbury. Archived from the original on 25 June 2009.  ^ The London Mercury Vol. XVII No.98 1927 ^ "The Future of Stonehenge: Public consultation" (PDF). English Heritage. 2008. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.  ^ Hutton 2009. p. 323. ^ Hutton 2009. p. 321-322. ^ MacLeod, Nicola E.; Aitchison, Cara; Shaw, Stephen Joseph (2000). Leisure and tourism landscapes: social and cultural geographies. New York: Routledge. pp. 103–104. ISBN 0-415-27166-5.  ^ LA air force pagans retrieved 12 October 2012 ^ Proposals for a tunnel at Stonehenge: an assessment of the alternatives Archived 15 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. The World Archaeological Congress ^ Planning Your Visit to Stonehenge. English Heritage ^ Milmo, Cahal (3 November 2006). "Troubled Stonehenge
Stonehenge
'lacks magic'". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 11 April 2009.  ^ A303
A303
Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Road Scheme Hansard
Hansard
report of proceedings in the House of Commons 6 December 2007 ^ " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Centre gets Go-Ahead". BBC
BBC
News. 13 May 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ Morris, Steven (19 November 2010). " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
development saved by lottery's £10m". The Guardian. UK. p. 14.  ^ " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
permanent road closure work begins". UK: BBC. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013.  ^ "End in sight after 'decades of dithering' as Government steps in to help secure future for Stonehenge" (Press release). Department of Culture, Media and Sport. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.  ^ " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Visitor Centre by Denton Corker Marshall
Denton Corker Marshall
opens tomorrow". dezeen. 17 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.  ^ Rivers, Julian (2010). The Law of Organized Religions: Between Establishment and Secularism. Oxford University Press. p. 231.  ^ Hallett, Emma (20 June 2014). "Summer solstice: How the Stonehenge battles faded". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 19 January 2015.  ^ Stukeley, William, 1740, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
A Temple Restor'd to the British Druids. London ^ Wood, John, 1747, Choir Guare, Vulgarly called Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain. Oxford ^ a b Johnson, Anthony (2008). Solving Stonehenge: The New Key to an Ancient Enigma. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05155-9.  ^ a b Cleal, Rosamund; et al. (1995). "Y and Z holes". Archaeometry and Stonehenge. English Heritage. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2008.  ^ Young, Emma. "Concrete Evidence". New Scientist. No. 9 January 2001. Retrieved 3 March 2008.  ^ Taverner, Roger (8 January 2001). "How they rebuilt Stonehenge". Western Daily Press, quoted in Cosmic Conspiracies: How they rebuilt Stonehenge. Retrieved 3 March 2008.  ^ Richards, Julian C. (2004). Stonehenge: A History in Photographs. London: English Heritage. ISBN 1-85074-895-0.  ^ " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
execution revealed". BBC
BBC
News. 9 June 2000. Retrieved 4 April 2008.  ^ Whittle, Alasdair (1996). "Eternal stones: Stonehenge
Stonehenge
completed". Antiquity (70): 463–465.  ^ Anon (29 September 2009). "StonehengeBones – epetition response". The prime minister's office epetitions. Crown copyright:Ministry of Justice. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2009.  ^ Anon (April 2008). "Statement on burial law and archaeology" (PDF). Review of Burial Legislation. Crown copyright:Ministry of Justice. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 January 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2009.  ^ "A new 'henge' discovered at Stonehenge". University of Birmingham. 22 July 2010. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2010.  ^ Gaffney, C.; Gaffney, V.; Neubauer, W.; Baldwin, E.; Chapman, H.; Garwood, P.; Moulden, H.; Sparrow, T.; Bates, R.; Löcker, K.; Hinterleitner, A.; Trinks, I.; Nau, E.; Zitz, T.; Floery, S.; Verhoeven, G.; Doneus, M. (2012). "The Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Hidden Landscapes Project". Archaeological Prospection. 19 (2): 147. doi:10.1002/arp.1422.  ^ Boyle, Alan, Pits Add to Stonehgenge Mystery Archived 1 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine., msnbc.com Cosmic Log, 28 November 2011 ^ a b Discoveries Provide Evidence of a Celestial Procession at Stonehenge, University of Birmingham
University of Birmingham
Press Release, 26 November 2011 ^ Birmingham Archaeologists
Archaeologists
Turn Back Clock at Stonehenge, University of Birmingham Press Release, 5 July 2010 ^ Keys, David (18 December 2011). "Scientists discover source of rock used in Stonehenge's first circle". The Independent. London. Retrieved 20 December 2011.  ^ "New Discovery in Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Bluestone
Bluestone
Mystery". National Museum of Wales. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013.  ^ "What Lies Beneath Stonehenge?". Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 20 October 2014. 

Bibliography

Atkinson, R J C, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
(Penguin Books, 1956) Bender, B, Stonehenge: Making Space (Berg Publishers, 1998) Burl, A, Great Stone Circles (Yale University Press, 1999) Aubrey Burl, Prehistoric
Prehistoric
Stone Circles (Shire, 2001) (In Burl's Stonehenge
Stonehenge
(Constable, 2006), he notes, cf. the meaning of the name in paragraph two above, that "the Saxons called the ring 'the hanging stones', as though they were gibbets.") Chippindale, C, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Complete (Thames and Hudson, London, 2004) ISBN 0-500-28467-9 Chippindale, C, et al., Who owns Stonehenge? (B T Batsford Ltd, 1990) Cleal, R. M. J., Walker, K. E. & Montague, R., Stonehenge
Stonehenge
in its landscape (English Heritage, London, 1995) Cunliffe, B, & Renfrew, C, Science and Stonehenge
Stonehenge
(The British Academy 92, Oxford University Press, 1997) Exon et al., Sally Exon, Vincent Gaffney, Ann Woodward, Ron Yortson, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Landscapes: Journeys Through Real-and-imagined Worlds, 2000, Archaeopress, ISBN 0953992306, 9780953992300, google books Godsell, Andrew "Stonehenge: Older Than the Centuries" in "Legends of British History" (2008) Hall, R, Leather, K, & Dobson, G, Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Aotearoa (Awa Press, 2005) Hawley, Lt-Col W, The Excavations at Stonehenge. (The Antiquaries Journal 1, Oxford University Press, 19–41). 1921. Hawley, Lt-Col W, Second Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge. (The Antiquaries Journal 2, Oxford University Press, 1922) Hawley, Lt-Col W, Third Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge. (The Antiquaries Journal 3, Oxford University Press, 1923) Hawley, Lt-Col W, Fourth Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge. (The Antiquaries Journal 4, Oxford University Press, 1923) Hawley, Lt-Col W, Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge
Excavations at Stonehenge
during the season of 1923. (The Antiquaries Journal 5, Oxford University Press, 1925) Hawley, Lt-Col W, Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge
Excavations at Stonehenge
during the season of 1924. (The Antiquaries Journal 6, Oxford University Press, 1926) Hawley, Lt-Col W, Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge
Excavations at Stonehenge
during 1925 and 1926. (The Antiquaries Journal 8, Oxford University Press, 1928) Hutton, R, From Universal Bond to Public Free For All (British Archaeology
Archaeology
83, 2005) John, Brian, "The Bluestone
Bluestone
Enigma: Stonehenge, Preseli and the Ice Age" (Greencroft Books, 2008) ISBN 978-0-905559-89-6 Johnson, Anthony, Solving Stonehenge: The New Key to an Ancient Enigma (Thames & Hudson, 2008) ISBN 978-0-500-05155-9 Legg, Rodney, " Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Antiquaries" (Dorset Publishing Company, 1986) Mooney, J, Encyclopedia of the Bizarre (Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2002) Newall, R S, Stonehenge, Wiltshire
Wiltshire
-Ancient monuments and historic buildings- (Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1959) North, J, Stonehenge: Ritual
Ritual
Origins and Astronomy (HarperCollins, 1997) Pitts, M, Hengeworld (Arrow, London, 2001) Pitts, M W, On the Road to Stonehenge: Report on Investigations beside the A344 in 1968, 1979 and 1980 (Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 48, 1982) Richards, J, English Heritage
English Heritage
Book of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
(B T Batsford Ltd, 1991) Julian Richards Stonehenge: A History in Photographs (English Heritage, London, 2004) Stone, J F S, Wessex Before the Celts (Frederick A Praeger Publishers, 1958) Worthington, A, Stonehenge: Celebration and Subversion (Alternative Albion, 2004) English Heritage: Stonehenge: Historical Background

Videography

SPENCER, Christopher (dir.)" Stonehenge
Stonehenge
decoded", New York City : National Geographic, 2008

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stonehenge.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Stonehenge

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article Stonehenge.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Stonehenge.

Stonehenge
Stonehenge
English Heritage
English Heritage
official site: access and visiting information; research; future plans 360° panoramic English Heritage: A stunning interactive view from the center. Stonehenge Landscape
Stonehenge Landscape
The National Trust – Information about the surrounding area. Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Today and Yesterday By Frank Stevens, at Project Gutenberg. The History of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
BBC
BBC
animation of the monument's construction. Stonehenge, a Temple Restor'd to the British Druids
Druids
By William Stukeley, at Sacred Texts. Stonehenge, and Other British Monuments Astronomically Considered By Norman Lockyer, at Sacred Texts. Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Laser Scans[permanent dead link] English Heritage
English Heritage
report about the evidence of stone-working and carvings revealed after scanning of the stones. Glaciers and the bluestones of Wales British Archaeology
Archaeology
essay about the bluestones as glacial deposits. Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Twentieth Century Excavations Databases An English Heritage commissioned report by Wessex Archaeology
Archaeology
on the twentieth century excavations. Stonehenge: Stones being repositioned during restoration work in 1914 Reconstruction work in the 1950s

v t e

World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
in the United Kingdom

England

Bath Blenheim Palace Canterbury Cathedral, St. Augustine's Abbey and St. Martin's Church Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape Derwent Valley Mills Durham Castle
Durham Castle
and Cathedral Frontiers of the Roman Empire

Hadrian's Wall

Ironbridge Gorge Jurassic Coast Kew Royal Botanic Gardens Lake District Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City Maritime Greenwich Saltaire Stonehenge, Avebury
Avebury
and Associated Sites Studley Royal Park
Studley Royal Park
and Fountains Abbey Tower of London Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
and St. Margaret's Church

Scotland

Edinburgh Old Town and New Town Forth Bridge Frontiers of the Roman Empire

Antonine Wall

Heart of Neolithic
Neolithic
Orkney New Lanark St. Kilda

Wales

Blaenavon Industrial Landscape Castles and Town Walls of King Edward I in Gwynedd Pontcysyllte Aqueduct

Northern Ireland

Giant's Causeway

British Overseas Territories

Gorham's Cave
Gorham's Cave
Complex Gough Island Inaccessible Island Henderson Island Town of St. George and Related Fortifications

v t e

European megaliths

Armenia

Metsamor Zorats Karer

Azerbaijan

Gobustan Rocks

Bulgaria

Beglik Tash Garlo

England

Arbor Low Avebury Barbrook One Birkrigg Boscawen-Un Boskednan Brown Willy Cairns The Bull Ring Burnmoor stone circles Castlerigg Craddock Moor Devil's Arrows Doll Tor Drizzlecombe Duloe Fernacre Gardom's Edge Goodaver Grey Wethers Hoarstones Hordron Edge Hurlers Leper Stone Long Meg and Her Daughters Mên-an-Tol The Merry Maidens Mitchell's Fold Nine Ladies Nine Stones, Altarnun Pipers Rollright Rudston Monolith Scorhill Stannon Stanton Drew Stonehenge Stripple Swinside Trippet

France

Barnenez Tumulus
Tumulus
of Bougon Caixa de Rotllan Carnac Menhir
Menhir
de Champ-Dolent Dolmen
Dolmen
de Bagneux Broken Menhir
Menhir
of Er Grah Filitosa Gallardet Dolmen Gavrinis Harrespil Kerzerho Locmariaquer megaliths Mane Braz Paddaghju Peyre-Brune Tremeca Verziau of Gargantua

Germany

Altendorf Denghoog Fraubillen cross Harhoog Lancken-Granitz dolmens Lohra Megaliths in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Niedertiefenbach Oldendorfer Totenstatt Riesenstein Route of Megalithic Culture Sieben Steinhäuser Wotanstein Züschen

Ireland

Ardgroom Beltany stone circle Bohonagh Brownshill Dolmen Brú na Bóinne Carrigagulla Carrowmore Castlestrange stone Creevykeel Court Tomb Drombeg Gaulstown Portal Tomb Glantane East Grange stone circle High cross Knocknakilla Meehambee Dolmen Piper's Stones Poulnabrone dolmen Reask Templebryan Stone Circle Turoe stone Uragh Stone Circle

Jersey

Jersey Dolmens La Hougue Bie

Malta

Megalithic Temples (Borġ l-Imramma Borġ in-Nadur Buġibba Debdieba Ġgantija Ħaġar Qim Ħal-Ġinwi Kordin Mnajdra Qortin l-Imdawwar Santa Verna Skorba Ta' Ħaġrat Ta' Marżiena Ta' Raddiena Tal-Qadi Tarxien Tas-Silġ Xemxija Xrobb l-Għaġin) Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni Xagħra Stone Circle

Netherlands

Hunebed

Northern Ireland

Aughlish Ballynoe Beaghmore Corick Drumskinny Legananny Giant's Ring

Poland

Brąchnówko Grzybnica Odry Węsiory

Portugal

Almendres Cromlech Anta Grande do Zambujeiro Cunha Baixa Dolmen

Russia

Dolmens of North Caucasus Thunder Stone Megaliths in the Urals Russian Geoglyph

Scandinavia

Picture stones Runestones Stone circles Stone ships

Scotland

Balquhain Callanish

I II III IV VIII X

Carlin Cat Stane Clach an Trushal Colmeallie Drybridge Easter Aquhorthies Lochmaben Stone Pictish Ring of Brodgar Sheldon Stenness Steinacleit Strichen Yonder Bognie

Ukraine

Boundary stones

Wales

Barclodiad y Gawres Bedd Arthur Bedd Taliesin Bodowyr Bryn Cader Faner Bryn Celli Ddu Bryn Gwyn stones Capel Garmon Carreg Coetan Arthur Carreg Samson Coetan Arthur Foel Chwern Llanfechell Lligwy Burial Chamber Maen Llia Maen Madoc Meini Hirion Moel Tŷ Uchaf Parc Cwm long cairn Penrhos Feilw Pentre Ifan St Lythans burial chamber Trefignath Tinkinswood Tŷ Newydd Burial Chamber Whetstones

General articles

Standing stone Dolmen Henge Menhir Stone circle Stone row Concentric stone circle Recumbent stone circle Chambered cairn Harrespil Photographs of stone circles Middle Eastern megaliths

v t e

Prehistoric
Prehistoric
technology

Prehistory

timeline outline Stone Age subdivisions New Stone Age

Technology

history

Tools

Farming

Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution

founder crops New World crops

Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle Terracing

Food processing

Fire Basket Cooking

Earth oven

Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth

Aşıklı Höyük Qesem Cave

Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pit

Hunting

Arrow Boomerang

throwing stick

Bow and arrow

history

Nets Spear

Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen Spears

Projectile points

Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowhead

Systems

Game drive system

Buffalo jump

Toolmaking

Earliest toolmaking

Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian

Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian
Gravettian
culture Hafting Hand axe

Grooves

Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction

analysis debitage flake

Lithic technology Magdalenian
Magdalenian
culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean
Solutrean
industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu technique

Other tools

Adze Awl

bone

Axe Bannerstone Blade

prismatic

Bone tool Bow drill Burin Canoe

Oar Pesse canoe

Chopper

tool

Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper

side

Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel

illustration

Architecture

Ceremonial

Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones

megalith row Stonehenge

Pyramid

Dwellings

Neolithic
Neolithic
architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut

Quiggly hole

Jacal Longhouse Mud brick

Mehrgarh

Neolithic
Neolithic
long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter

Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave

Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house

Alp pile dwellings

Wattle and daub

Water management

Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well

Other architecture

Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound

fulacht fiadh

Causewayed enclosure

Tor enclosure

Circular enclosure

Goseck

Cursus Henge

Thornborough

Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway

Sweet Track

Arts and culture

Material goods

Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles

timeline

Cosmetics Glue Hides

shoes Ötzi

Jewelry

amber use

Mirrors Pottery

Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware

Sewing needle Weaving Wine

Winery wine press

PrehistArt

Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic

Blombos Cave

List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave
Cave
paintings

painting pigment

Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art

Stone carving

Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle

list British Isles and Brittany

Venus figurines

Burial

Burial mounds

Bowl barrow Round barrow

Mound Builders
Mound Builders
culture

U.S. sites

Chamber tomb

Severn-Cotswold

Cist

Dartmoor kistvaens

Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen

Great dolmen

Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairn

Other cultural

Astronomy

sites lunar calendar

Behavioral modernity Origin of language

trepanning

Prehistoric
Prehistoric
medicine Evolutionary musicology

music archaeology

Prehistoric
Prehistoric
music

Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi

Prehistoric
Prehistoric
numerals Origin of religion

Paleolithic religion Prehistoric
Prehistoric
religion Spiritual drug use

Prehistoric
Prehistoric
warfare Symbols

symbolism

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137120591 LCCN: sh85128

.