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Stockholm
Stockholm
(/ˈstɒkhoʊm, -hoʊlm/;[8] Swedish pronunciation: [²stɔkːhɔlm] or [²stɔkːɔlm] ( listen))[9] is the capital of Sweden
Sweden
and the most populous city in the Nordic countries;[10][a] 949,761 people live in the municipality,[11] approximately 1.5 million in the urban area,[5] and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.[3] The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren
Mälaren
flows into the Baltic Sea. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm
Stockholm
archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm
Stockholm
County. Stockholm
Stockholm
is the cultural, media, political, and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm
Stockholm
region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP,[12] and is among the top 10 regions in Europe
Europe
by GDP per capita.[13] It is an important global city,[14][15] and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region.[16] The city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm
Stockholm
School of Economics, Karolinska Institute
Karolinska Institute
and Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).[17][18] It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall
Stockholm Concert Hall
and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.[19][20] The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for its decoration of the stations; it has been called the longest art gallery in the world.[21][22][23] Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson
Ericsson
Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city. The city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, and hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics
1956 Summer Olympics
otherwise held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Stockholm
Stockholm
is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies,[24] including the highest courts in the judiciary,[25][26] and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister. The government has its seat in the Rosenbad
Rosenbad
building, the Riksdag
Riksdag
(Swedish parliament) is seated in the Parliament House, and the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at the Sager House.[27][28][29] The Stockholm Palace
Stockholm Palace
is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while the Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence.[30][31]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Location 2.2 Stockholm
Stockholm
Municipality 2.3 Climate 2.4 Daylight hours

3 City governance 4 Economy 5 Fibre optic network 6 Education 7 Demographics 8 Culture

8.1 Literature 8.2 Architecture 8.3 Museums 8.4 Art galleries 8.5 Suburbs 8.6 Theatres 8.7 Amusement park 8.8 Media 8.9 Sports 8.10 Cuisine 8.11 Yearly events

9 Environment

9.1 Green city with a national urban park

9.1.1 Role model

9.2 Air quality

10 Transport

10.1 Public transport

10.1.1 The City Line Project

10.2 Roads

10.2.1 Congestion charges

10.3 Ferries 10.4 City bikes 10.5 Airports 10.6 Inter-city trains

11 International rankings 12 Twin cities and towns 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Stockholm

Detail of engraving of Stockholm
Stockholm
from Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna
Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna
by Erik Dahlbergh
Erik Dahlbergh
and Willem Swidde, printed in 1693.

Panorama over Stockholm
Stockholm
around 1868 as seen from a hot air balloon.

The Old Town of Stockholm
Stockholm
(Gamla stan)

After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BCE, there were already many people living in the present-day Stockholm
Stockholm
area, but, as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved towards the South. Thousands of years later, as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable, and the lands became fertile, some life moved back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and lake Mälaren
Mälaren
is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm
Stockholm
was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings. They had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla
Heimskringla
in connection with the legendary king Agne. The earliest written mention of the name Stockholm
Stockholm
dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen
Bergslagen
made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name (stock) means log in Swedish, although it may also be connected to an old German word (Stock) meaning fortification. The second part of the name (holm) means islet, and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen
Helgeandsholmen
in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl
Birger Jarl
to protect Sweden
Sweden
from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna
Sigtuna
on Lake Mälaren
Mälaren
in the summer of 1187.[32] Stockholm's core, the present Old Town (Gamla Stan) was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen
Helgeandsholmen
from the mid 13th century onward. The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm
Stockholm
developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Hamburg, Gdańsk, Visby, Reval, and Riga
Riga
during this time[citation needed]. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers. The strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm
Stockholm
an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that eventually led to the breakup of the Kalmar
Kalmar
Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm
Stockholm
began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600. The 17th century saw Sweden
Sweden
grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm
Stockholm
became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were also created that gave Stockholm
Stockholm
an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor (castle)
Tre Kronor (castle)
burned and was replaced by Stockholm
Stockholm
Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 (36 percent) of the population.[33] After the end of the Great Northern War
Great Northern War
the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed. The city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However Stockholm
Stockholm
maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden
Sweden
and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm
Stockholm
had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm
Stockholm
was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden. The population also grew dramatically during this time, mainly through immigration. At the end of the 19th century, less than 40% of the residents were Stockholm-born. Settlement began to expand outside the city limits. The 19th century saw the establishment of a number of scientific institutes, including the Karolinska Institutet. The General Art and Industrial Exposition was held in 1897. From 1887 to 1953 the Old Stockholm
Stockholm
telephone tower was a landmark; originally built to link phone lines, it became redundant after these were buried, and it was latterly used for advertising.

Stockholm City Centre
Stockholm City Centre
after the 1960s.

Stockholm
Stockholm
became a modern, technologically advanced, and ethnically diverse city in the latter half of the 20th century. Many historical buildings were torn down during the modernist era, including substantial parts of the historical district of Klara, and replaced with modern architecture. However, in many other parts of Stockholm (such as in Gamla stan, Södermalm, Östermalm, Kungsholmen
Kungsholmen
and Vasastan), many "old" buildings, blocks and streets built before the modernism and functionalism movements took off in Sweden
Sweden
(around 1930–1935) survived this era of demolition. Throughout the century, many industries shifted away from work-intensive activities into more high-tech and service industry areas. Currently, Stockholm's metropolitan area is one of the fastest-growing regions in Europe, and its population is expected to number 2.5 million by 2024. As a result of this massive population growth, it has been proposed to build densely-packed high-rise building in the city centre connected by high-rise walkways.[34] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Stockholm

A 360 degree panorama of Stockholm
Stockholm
inner quarters taken from the City Hall tower. From left to right: Riddarfjärden
Riddarfjärden
with Södermalm
Södermalm
in the background, Kungsholmen, Klara sjö, Norrmalm with the central station in the foreground, Stockholms ström, Riddarholmen
Riddarholmen
with the Old Town, and again Riddarfjärden
Riddarfjärden
with Södermalm

Location[edit] Stockholm
Stockholm
is located on Sweden's south-central east coast, where the freshwater Lake Mälaren — Sweden's third largest lake — flows out into the Baltic Sea. The central parts of the city consist of fourteen islands that are continuous with the Stockholm archipelago. The geographical city centre is situated on the water, in Riddarfjärden
Riddarfjärden
bay. Over 30% of the city area is made up of waterways and another 30% is made up of parks and green spaces. Positioned at the eastern end of the Central Swedish lowland
Central Swedish lowland
the city's location reflect the early orientation of Swedish trade toward the Baltic region.[35] The biome Stockholm
Stockholm
belongs to is the Temperate Deciduous Forest, which means the climate is very similar to that of the far north-eastern area of the United States
United States
and coastal Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
in Canada. The average annual temperature is 10 °C (50 °F). The average rainfall is 30 to 60 inches a year. The deciduous forest has four distinct seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and winter. In the autumn the leaves change colour. During the winter months the trees lose their leaves. For details about the other municipalities in the Stockholm
Stockholm
area, see the pertinent articles. North of Stockholm
Stockholm
Municipality: Järfälla, Solna, Täby, Sollentuna, Lidingö, Upplands Väsby, Österåker, Sigtuna, Sundbyberg, Danderyd, Vallentuna, Ekerö, Upplands-Bro, Vaxholm, and Norrtälje. South of Stockholm: Huddinge, Nacka, Botkyrka, Haninge, Tyresö, Värmdö, Södertälje, Salem, Nykvarn
Nykvarn
and Nynäshamn.

Stockholm
Stockholm
Palace

Stockholm
Stockholm
Municipality[edit] Main article: Stockholm
Stockholm
Municipality Stockholm Municipality
Stockholm Municipality
is an administrative unit defined by geographical borders. The semi-officially adopted name for the municipality is City of Stockholm
Stockholm
(Stockholms stad in Swedish).[36] As a municipality, the City of Stockholm
Stockholm
is subdivided into district councils, which carry responsibility for primary schools, social, leisure and cultural services within their respective areas. The municipality is usually described in terms of its three main parts: Innerstaden ( Stockholm
Stockholm
City Centre), Söderort
Söderort
(Southern Stockholm) and Västerort (Western Stockholm). The districts of these parts are: Stockholm
Stockholm
City Centre

Kungsholmen Norrmalm Södermalm Östermalm

Söderort

Enskede-Årsta-Vantör Farsta Hägersten-Liljeholmen Skarpnäck Skärholmen Älvsjö

Västerort

Bromma Hässelby-Vällingby Rinkeby-Kista Spånga-Tensta

The modern centre Norrmalm (concentrated around the town square Sergels torg) is the largest shopping district in Sweden[citation needed]. It is the most central part of Stockholm
Stockholm
in business and shopping. Climate[edit] Stockholm, with a February mean of −1.7 °C (28.9 °F), has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) for the most recent official reference period, that can be classified as an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) if the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm is used. Due to the city's high northerly latitude, daylight varies widely from more than 18 hours around midsummer, to only around 6 hours in late December. Stockholm
Stockholm
has relatively mild weather compared to other locations at similar latitude, or even farther south. With an average of just over 1800 hours of sunshine per year, it is also one of the sunniest cities in Northern Europe, receiving more sunshine than Paris,[37] London[38] and a few other major European cities of a more southerly latitude. Due to recent amelioration of the climate it could be classified as cold marine with significant continental influence if the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm is used. Because of the urban heat island and the prevailing wind travelling over land rather than sea during summer months, Stockholm
Stockholm
has the warmest summers in the Nordic countries. In spite of its mild climate, Stockholm
Stockholm
is located further north than parts of Canada
Canada
that are above the Arctic tree line at sea level.[39] Summers average daytime high temperatures of 20–25 °C (68–77 °F) and lows of around 13 °C (55 °F), but temperatures can reach 30 °C (86 °F) on some days. Days above 30 °C (86 °F) occur on average 1.55 days per year (1992–2011).[40] Days between 25 °C (77 °F) and 30 °C (86 °F) are relatively common especially in July and August. Night-time lows of above 20 °C (68 °F) are rare, and the hot summer nights roam around 17 to 18 °C (63 to 64 °F). Winters generally bring cloudy weather with the most precipitation falling in December and January (as rain or as snow). The average winter temperatures range from −3 to −1 °C (27 to 30 °F), and occasionally drop below −20 °C (−4 °F). Spring and autumn are generally cool to mild. The climate table below presents weather data from the years 1981–2010 although the official Köppen reference period was from 1961–1990. According to ongoing measurements, the temperature has increased during the years 1991–2009 as compared with the last series. This increase averages about 1.0 °C (1.8 °F) over all months. Warming is most pronounced during the winter months, with an increase of more than 2.0 °C (3.6 °F) in January.[41] For the 2002–2014 measurements some further increases have been found, although some months such as June have been relatively flat. The highest temperature ever recorded in Stockholm
Stockholm
was 36 °C (97 °F) on 3 July 1811; the lowest was −32 °C (−26 °F) on 20 January 1814.[42] The temperature has not dropped to below −25.1 °C (−13.2 °F) since 10 January 1987.[43][44] Annual precipitation is 539 mm (21.2 in) with around 170 wet days and light to moderate rainfall throughout the year. Snowfall occurs mainly from December through March. Snowfall may occasionally occur in late October as well as in April. In Stockholm, the aurora borealis can occasionally be observed.

Climate data for Stockholm, 1981–2010 ( Precipitation
Precipitation
and Sunshine 1961–1990, Extremes 1756–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 11.0 (51.8) 12.2 (54) 17.8 (64) 26.1 (79) 29.0 (84.2) 32.2 (90) 36.0 (96.8) 35.4 (95.7) 27.9 (82.2) 20.2 (68.4) 14.0 (57.2) 12.7 (54.9) 36.0 (96.8)

Average high °C (°F) 0.5 (32.9) 0.6 (33.1) 3.9 (39) 9.9 (49.8) 16.4 (61.5) 20.1 (68.2) 23.0 (73.4) 21.4 (70.5) 15.8 (60.4) 9.9 (49.8) 4.8 (40.6) 1.7 (35.1) 10.7 (51.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) −1.6 (29.1) −1.7 (28.9) 1.2 (34.2) 6.0 (42.8) 11.7 (53.1) 15.7 (60.3) 18.8 (65.8) 17.6 (63.7) 12.7 (54.9) 7.7 (45.9) 3.0 (37.4) −0.3 (31.5) 7.6 (45.7)

Average low °C (°F) −3.7 (25.3) −3.9 (25) −1.5 (29.3) 2.1 (35.8) 7.0 (44.6) 11.3 (52.3) 14.5 (58.1) 13.8 (56.8) 9.6 (49.3) 5.5 (41.9) 1.2 (34.2) −2.3 (27.9) 4.5 (40.1)

Record low °C (°F) −32 (−26) −30 (−22) −25.5 (−13.9) −22.0 (−7.6) −6.5 (20.3) 0.0 (32) 4.3 (39.7) 2.0 (35.6) −3.5 (25.7) −9.0 (15.8) −18 (0) −22.5 (−8.5) −32.0 (−25.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 39 (1.54) 27 (1.06) 29 (1.14) 29 (1.14) 32 (1.26) 55 (2.17) 65 (2.56) 59 (2.32) 52 (2.05) 49 (1.93) 47 (1.85) 45 (1.77) 531 (20.91)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9 7 7 6 6 9 9 9 8 9 10 10 100

Mean monthly sunshine hours 40 72 135 185 276 292 260 221 154 99 54 33 1,821

Source #1: Météo Climat [45]

Source #2: SMHI[46]

Daylight hours[edit] Stockholm's location just south of the 60th latitude means that the number of daylight hours is relatively small during winter – about six hours – while in June and the first half of July, the nights are relatively short, with about 18 hours of daylight. Around the summer solstice the sun never reaches further below the horizon than 7.3 degrees.[47] This gives the sky a bright blue colour in summer once the sun has set, because it does not get any darker than nautical twilight. Also, when looking straight up towards the zenith, few stars are visible after the sun has gone down. This is not to be confused with the midnight sun, which occurs north of the Arctic Circle, around 7 degrees farther north. City governance[edit] See also: Stockholm Municipality
Stockholm Municipality
and Stockholm
Stockholm
municipal election, 2014

The municipal council chamber (Swedish: Rådssalen), inside Stockholm City Hall.

The Stockholm
Stockholm
Municipal Council (Swedish: Stockholms kommunfullmäktige) is the name of the local assembly. Its 101 councillors are elected concurrently with general elections, held at the same time as the elections to the Riksdag
Riksdag
and county councils. The Council convenes twice every month at Stockholm
Stockholm
City Hall, and the meetings are open to the public. The matters on which the councillors decide have generally already been drafted and discussed by various boards and committees. Once decisions are referred for practical implementation, the employees of the City administrations and companies take over.[48] The elected majority has a Mayor and eight Vice Mayors. The Mayor and each majority Vice Mayor is a head of a department, with responsibility for a particular area of operation, such as City Planning. The opposition also has four Vice Mayors, but they hold no executive power. Together the Mayor and the 12 Vice Mayors form the Council of Mayors, and they prepare matters for the City Executive Board. The Mayor holds a special position among the Vice Mayors, chairing both the Council of Mayors and the City Executive Board.[48] The City Executive Board (Swedish: Kommunstyrelsen) is elected by the City Council and can be thought of as the equivalent of a cabinet. The City Executive Board renders an opinion in all matters decided by the Council and bears the overall responsibility for follow-up, evaluation and execution of its decisions. The Board is also responsible for financial administration and long-term development. The City Executive Board consists of 13 members, who represent both the majority and the opposition. Its meetings are not open to the public.[48] Following the Stockholm municipal election, 2014 a majority of seats in the municipal council is at present held by a left-wing majority (following two terms of a center-right majority) and the Mayor of Stockholm
Stockholm
(Swedish: Finansborgarråd) is Karin Wanngård
Karin Wanngård
from the Social Democrats. In addition to the eight political parties which are also represented on the national level in the Riksdag, the Feminist Initiative also hold seats in the municipal council and is part of the ruling majority. Economy[edit]

Offices in Kista

Headquarters of Ericsson

The vast majority of Stockholm
Stockholm
residents work in the service industry, which accounts for roughly 85% of jobs in Stockholm. The almost total absence of heavy industry (and fossil fuel power plants) makes Stockholm
Stockholm
one of the world's cleanest metropolises. The last decade has seen a significant number of jobs created in high technology companies. Large employers include IBM, Ericsson, and Electrolux. A major IT centre is located in Kista, in northern Stockholm. Stockholm
Stockholm
is Sweden's financial centre. Major Swedish banks, such as Nordea, Swedbank, Handelsbanken, and Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken, are headquartered in Stockholm, as are the major insurance companies Skandia, Folksam and Trygg-Hansa. Stockholm
Stockholm
is also home to Sweden's foremost stock exchange, the Stockholm
Stockholm
Stock Exchange (Stockholmsbörsen). Additionally, about 45% of Swedish companies with more than 200 employees are headquartered in Stockholm.[49] Noted clothes retailer H&M is also headquartered in the city. In recent years, tourism has played an important part in the city's economy. Stockholm County
Stockholm County
is ranked as the 10th largest visitor destination in Europe, with over 10 million commercial overnight stays per year. Among 44 European cities Stockholm
Stockholm
had the 6th highest growth in number of nights spent in the period 2004–2008.[50] The largest companies by number of employees:[51]

Ericsson — 8,430 Posten AB
Posten AB
(national postal service) — 4,710 Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken
Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken
(SEB) — 4,240 Swedbank — 3,610 Södersjukhuset
Södersjukhuset
(Southern Hospital) — 3,610 MTR Stockholm ( Stockholm
Stockholm
Subway operator) — 3,000 Nordea — 2,820 Handelsbanken — 2,800 IBM
IBM
Svenska — 2,640 Capgemini — 2,500 Securitas AB — 2,360 Veolia Transport — 2,300 ISS Facility Services — 2,000 Sveriges Television
Sveriges Television
(public television) — 1,880 Nobina Sverige AB — 1,873 (2012) Sodexo — 1,580

Fibre optic network[edit] The city-owned company Stokab started in 1994 to build a fiber-optic network throughout the municipality as a level playing field for all operators (City of Stockholm, 2011). Around a decade later, the network was 1.2 million kilometres (0.7 million miles) long making it the longest optic fiber network in the world and now has over 90 operators and 450 enterprises as customers. 2011 was the final year of a three-year project which brought fiber to 100% of public housing, meaning an extra 95,000 houses were added. (City of Stockholm, 2011) Education[edit] Main article: Education in Stockholm

Stockholm
Stockholm
School of Economics

Research and higher education in the sciences started in Stockholm
Stockholm
in the 18th century, with education in medicine and various research institutions such as the Stockholm
Stockholm
Observatory. The medical education was eventually formalized in 1811 as Karolinska Institutet. The Royal Institute of Technology (Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, or KTH) was founded in 1827 and is currently Scandinavia's largest higher education institute of technology with 13,000 students. Stockholm University, founded in 1878 with university status granted in 1960, has 52,000 students as of 2008[update]. It also incorporates many historical institutions, such as the Observatory, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, and the botanical garden Bergianska trädgården. The Stockholm
Stockholm
School of Economics, founded in 1909, is one of the few private institutions of higher education in Sweden. In the fine arts, educational institutions include the Royal College of Music, which has a history going back to the conservatory founded as part of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music
Royal Swedish Academy of Music
in 1771, the Royal University College of Fine Arts, which has a similar historical association with the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts
Royal Swedish Academy of Arts
and a foundation date of 1735, and the Swedish National Academy of Mime and Acting, which is the continuation of the school of the Royal Dramatic Theatre, once attended by Greta Garbo. Other schools include the design school Konstfack, founded in 1844, the University College of Opera (founded in 1968, but with older roots), the University College of Dance, and the Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut (the University College of Music Education). The Södertörn University College was founded in 1995 as a multi-disciplinary institution for southern Metropolitan Stockholm, to balance the many institutions located in the northern part of the region. Other institutes of higher education are:

Military Academy Karlberg, the world's oldest military academy to remain in its original location, inaugurated in 1792 and housed in Karlberg Palace. Ersta Sköndal University College The Stockholm School of Theology (Teologiska Högskolan, Stockholm) The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, or GIH) Stockholm University
Stockholm University
(Stockholms universitet) Swedish Defence University

The biggest complaint from students of higher education in Stockholm is the lack of student accommodations, the difficulty in finding other accommodations and the high rent.[52][53] Demographics[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2017)

Estimated population, 1252–1775

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1252 100 —    

1289 3,000 +9.63%

1460 6,000 +0.41%

1500 7,000 +0.39%

1523 3,000 −3.62%

1582 9,000 +1.88%

1600 9,000 +0.00%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1635 16,000 +1.66%

1650 30,000 +4.28%

1685 60,000 +2.00%

1700 40,000 −2.67%

1725 48,800 +0.80%

1750 58,400 +0.72%

1775 72,300 +0.86%

Source: Stockholms Stads Utrednings- och Statistikkontor AB Befolkningen i Stockholm
Stockholm
1252–2005, p. 55

Historical population in 10-year intervals, 1800–Present

Year Pop. ±%

1800 75,800 —    

1810 65,600 −13.5%

1820 75,700 +15.4%

1830 80,400 +6.2%

1840 83,600 +4.0%

1850 93,070 +11.3%

1860 109,878 +18.1%

1870 133,597 +21.6%

1880 167,868 +25.7%

1890 245,331 +46.1%

1900 300,523 +22.5%

Year Pop. ±%

1910 343,832 +14.4%

1920 419,788 +22.1%

1930 502,203 +19.6%

1940 590,543 +17.6%

1950 744,562 +26.1%

1960 808,603 +8.6%

1970 744,911 −7.9%

1980 647,214 −13.1%

1990 674,452 +4.2%

2000 750,348 +11.3%

2010 847,073 +12.9%

Source: Stockholms Stads Utrednings- och Statistikkontor AB Befolkningen i Stockholm
Stockholm
1252–2005, p. 55

The Stockholm
Stockholm
region is home to around 22% of Sweden's total population, and accounts for about 29% of its gross domestic product.[54] The geographical notion of "Stockholm" has changed throughout the times. By the turn of the 19th century, Stockholm largely consisted of the area today known as City Centre, roughly 35 km2 (14 sq mi) or one-fifth of the current municipal area. In the ensuing decades several other areas were incorporated (such as Brännkyrka Municipality in 1913, at which time it had 25,000 inhabitants, and Spånga in 1949). The municipal border was established in 1971; with the exception of Hansta, in 1982 purchased by Stockholm Municipality
Stockholm Municipality
from Sollentuna Municipality
Sollentuna Municipality
and today a nature reserve.[55]

Largest groups of foreign residents[56]

Nationality Population (2014)

 Finland 17,576

 Iraq 16,374

 Syria 16,429

 Iran 11,429

 Poland 10,612

 Turkey 7,429

 Somalia 7,364

 Chile 5,440

 Germany 4,791

 Serbia 4,785

 Morocco 4,556

 France 1,913

 Hungary 1,911

Of the population of 935,619 in 2016, 461,677 were men and 473,942 women. The average age is 40 years; 40.1% of the population is between 20 and 44 years. 382,887 people, or 40.9% of the population, over the age 15 were unmarried. 259,153 people, or 27.7% of the population, were married. 99,524 or 10.6% of the population, had been married but divorced. 299,925 people or 32,1% of Stockholm's residents are of an immigrant or non-Swedish background.[57] As of December 2012, there were 201,821 foreign-born persons in Stockholm. The largest group of them are the Finns
Finns
(17,579), followed by Iraqis
Iraqis
(16,374) and Iranian people (11,429). Residents of Stockholm
Stockholm
are known as Stockholmers. Some of the suburbs have large populations of immigrants. Languages spoken in Greater Stockholm
Stockholm
outside of Swedish include Finnish, one of the official minority languages of Sweden; and English, as well as Bosnian, Syriac, Arabic, Turkish, Kurdish, Persian, Dutch, Spanish, Serbian and Croatian. The entire Stockholm
Stockholm
metropolitan area, consisting of 26 municipalities, has a population of over 2.2 million,[58] making it the most populous city in the Nordic region.[10] The Stockholm
Stockholm
urban area, defined only for statistical purposes, had a total population of 1,630,738 in 2015. In the following municipalities some of the districts are contained within the Stockholm
Stockholm
urban area, though not all:[4][5]

Stockholm urban area
Stockholm urban area
municipalities

Municipality Population[5]

Stockholm 917,297

Botkyrka 89,268

Danderyd 32,343

Haninge 83,042

Huddinge 104,772

Järfälla 71,625

Nacka 96,874

Sollentuna 69,711

Solna 74,790

Sundbyberg 45,194

Tyresö 45,822

Stockholm Municipality
Stockholm Municipality
population development years 1570–2012[59]

Culture[edit] Apart from being Sweden's capital, Stockholm
Stockholm
houses many national cultural institutions. The Stockholm
Stockholm
region is home to three of Sweden's World Heritage Sites – spots judged as invaluable places that belong to all of humanity: The Drottningholm Palace, Skogskyrkogården
Skogskyrkogården
(The Woodland Cemetery) and Birka.[31][60][61] In 1998, Stockholm
Stockholm
was named European Capital of Culture. Literature[edit] Authors connected to Stockholm
Stockholm
include the poet and songwriter Carl Michael Bellman (1740–1795), novelist and dramatist August Strindberg (1849–1912), and novelist Hjalmar Söderberg (1869–1941), all of whom made Stockholm
Stockholm
part of their works. Martin Beck is a fictional Swedish police detective from Stockholm, who is the main character in a series of 10 novels by Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö, collectively titled The Story of a Crime, and often based in Stockholm. Other authors with notable heritage in Stockholm
Stockholm
were the Nobel Prize laureate Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
(1900–1976) and the popular poet and composer Evert Taube
Evert Taube
(1890–1976). The novelist Per Anders Fogelström (1917–1998) wrote a popular series of historical novels depicting life in Stockholm
Stockholm
from the mid-18th to mid-20th century. Architecture[edit]

Strandvägen
Strandvägen
as seen from the island of Djurgården.

Djurgårdsbron

Stockholm
Stockholm
Public Library, designed by architect Gunnar Asplund

Main article: Architecture in Stockholm See also: Historical fires of Stockholm The city's oldest section is Gamla stan
Gamla stan
(Old Town), located on the original small islands of the city's earliest settlements and still featuring the medieval street layout. Some notable buildings of Gamla Stan are the large German Church (Tyska kyrkan) and several mansions and palaces: the Riddarhuset (the House of Nobility), the Bonde Palace, the Tessin Palace
Tessin Palace
and the Oxenstierna Palace. The oldest building in Stockholm
Stockholm
is the Riddarholmskyrkan from the late 13th century. After a fire in 1697 when the original medieval castle was destroyed, Stockholm Palace
Stockholm Palace
was erected in a baroque style. Storkyrkan
Storkyrkan
Cathedral, the episcopal seat of the Bishop of Stockholm, stands next to the castle. It was founded in the 13th century but is clad in a baroque exterior dating to the 18th century. As early as the 15th century, the city had expanded outside of its original borders. Some pre-industrial, small-scale buildings from this era can still be found in Södermalm. During the 19th century and the age of industrialization Stockholm
Stockholm
grew rapidly, with plans and architecture inspired by the large cities of the continent such as Berlin
Berlin
and Vienna. Notable works of this time period include public buildings such as the Royal Swedish Opera
Royal Swedish Opera
and private developments such as the luxury housing developments on Strandvägen. In the 20th century, a nationalistic push spurred a new architectural style inspired by medieval and renaissance ancestry as well as influences of the Jugend/ Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style. A key landmark of Stockholm, the Stockholm
Stockholm
City Hall, was erected 1911–1923 by architect Ragnar Östberg. Other notable works of these times are the Stockholm Public Library
Stockholm Public Library
and the World Heritage Site Skogskyrkogården.[61]

Söder Torn, an 86-metre-tall (282-foot) building in Södermalm.

In the 1930s modernism characterized the development of the city as it grew. New residential areas sprang up such as the development on Gärdet
Gärdet
while industrial development added to the growth, such as the KF manufacturing industries on Kvarnholmen located in the Nacka Municipality. In the 1950s, suburban development entered a new phase with the introduction of the Stockholm
Stockholm
metro. The modernist developments of Vällingby
Vällingby
and Farsta
Farsta
were internationally praised. In the 1960s this suburban development continued but with the aesthetic of the times, the industrialized and mass-produced blocks of flats received a large amount of criticism. At the same time that this suburban development was taking place, the most central areas of the inner city were being redesigned, known as Norrmalmsregleringen. Sergels Torg, with its five high-rise office towers was created in the 1960s, followed by the total clearance of large areas to make room for new development projects. The most notable buildings from this period include the ensemble of the House of Culture, City Theatre and National Bank at Sergels Torg, designed by architect Peter Celsing. In the 1980s, the planning ideas of modernism were starting to be questioned, resulting in suburbs with a denser planning, such as Skarpnäck. In the 1990s this idea was taken further with the development of and old industrial area close to the inner city, resulting in a sort of mix of modernistic and urban planning[clarification needed] in the new area of Hammarby Sjöstad. The municipality has appointed an official "board of beauty" called "Skönhetsrådet" to protect and preserve the beauty of the city.[62] Stockholm's architecture (along with Visby, Gotland[63]) provided the inspiration for Japanese anime director Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki
as he sought to evoke an idealized city untouched by World War. His creation, called Koriko, draws directly from what Miyazaki felt was Stockholm's sense of well-established architectural unity, vibrancy, independence, and safety.[64] Museums[edit] Main article: List of museums in Stockholm

The main hall of the Vasa Museum
Vasa Museum
with a scale model of Vasa as it might have looked on its maiden voyage to the left and the preserved ship itself to the right

Moragården, one of many historical homesteads at the Skansen
Skansen
open-air museum.

Stockholm
Stockholm
is one of the most crowded museum-cities in the world with around 100 museums, visited by millions of people every year.[65] The Vasa Museum
Vasa Museum
(Swedish: Vasamuseet) is a maritime museum on Djurgården
Djurgården
which displays the only almost fully intact 17th century ship that has ever been salvaged, the 64-gun warship Vasa that sank on her maiden voyage in 1628. The Nationalmuseum
Nationalmuseum
houses the largest collection of art in the country: 16,000 paintings and 30,000 objects of art handicraft. The collection dates back to the days of Gustav Vasa in the 16th century, and has since been expanded with works by artists such as Rembrandt, and Antoine Watteau, as well as constituting a main part of Sweden's art heritage, manifested in the works of Alexander Roslin, Anders Zorn, Johan Tobias Sergel, Carl Larsson, Carl Fredrik Hill
Carl Fredrik Hill
and Ernst Josephson. Moderna Museet
Moderna Museet
(Museum of Modern Art) is Sweden's national museum of modern art. It has works by noted modern artists such as Picasso and Salvador Dalí. Skansen
Skansen
(in English: the Sconce) is a combined open-air museum and zoo, located on the island of Djurgården. It was founded in 1891 by Artur Hazelius
Artur Hazelius
(1833–1901) to show the way of life in the different parts of Sweden
Sweden
before the industrial era. Other notable museums (in alphabetical order):

ABBA: The Museum, an interactive exhibit about the pop-group ABBA Fotografiska, museum of photography Livrustkammaren, the royal armoury, located at Stockholm
Stockholm
Palace Nobel Museum, devoted to the Nobel Prize, Nobel laureates, and the founder of the prize, Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
(1833–1896) Nordic Museum, dedicated to the cultural history and ethnography of Sweden Royal Coin Cabinet, dedicated to the history of money and economic history in general Stockholm
Stockholm
City Museum Swedish Museum of Natural History

Art galleries[edit] Stockholm
Stockholm
has a vibrant art scene with a number of internationally recognized art centres and commercial galleries. Amongst others privately sponsored initiatives such as Bonniers Konsthall, Magasin 3, and state supported institutions such as Tensta Konsthall
Tensta Konsthall
and Index all show leading international and national artists. In the last few years a gallery district has emerged around Hudiksvallsgatan where leading galleries such as Andréhn-Schiptjenko, Brändström & Stene have located. Other important commercial galleries include Nordenhake, Milliken Gallery and Galleri Magnus Karlsson. Suburbs[edit] The Stockholm
Stockholm
suburbs are places with diverse cultural background. Some areas in the inner suburbs, including those of Skärholmen, Tensta, Jordbro, Fittja, Husby, Brandbergen, Rinkeby, Rissne, Hallonbergen, Kista, Hagsätra, Hässelby, Farsta, Rågsved, Flemingsberg, and the outer suburb of Södertälje, have high percentages of immigrants or second generation immigrants. These mainly come from the Middle East
Middle East
(Assyrians, Syriacs, Turks and Kurds) and former Yugoslavia, but there are also immigrants from Africa, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and Latin America.[66][67] Other parts of the inner suburbs, such as Täby, Danderyd, Lidingö, Flysta and, as well as some of the suburbs mentioned above, have a majority of ethnic Swedes. Theatres[edit]

Royal Dramatic Theatre, one of Stockholm's many theatres.

Distinguished among Stockholm's many theatres are the Royal Dramatic Theatre (Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern), one of Europe's most renowned theatres, and the Royal Swedish Opera, inaugurated in 1773. Other notable theatres are the Stockholm City Theatre
Stockholm City Theatre
(Stockholms stadsteater), the Peoples Opera (Folkoperan), the Modern Theatre of Dance (Moderna dansteatern), the China
China
Theatre, the Göta Lejon Theatre, the Mosebacke
Mosebacke
Theatre, and the Oscar Theatre. Amusement park[edit] Gröna Lund
Gröna Lund
is an amusement park located on the island of Djurgården. This amusement park has over 30 attractions and many restaurants. It is a popular tourist attraction and visited by thousands of people every day. It is open from the end of April to the middle of September. Gröna Lund
Gröna Lund
also serves as a concert venue. Media[edit]

Bookpublisher, Norstedt Building, seen from Vasabron, in Riddarholmen.

Stockholm
Stockholm
is the media centre of Sweden. It has four nationwide daily newspapers and is also the central location of the publicly funded radio (SR) and television (SVT). In addition, all other major television channels have their base in Stockholm, such as: TV3, TV4 and TV6. All major magazines are also located to Stockholm, as are the largest literature publisher, the Bonnier group. The hit PC game Minecraft
Minecraft
was created in Stockholm
Stockholm
by Markus 'Notch' Persson in 2009. Sports[edit]

Friends Arena, the largest retractable roof multi-purpose stadium in Europe, with a capacity of 50,000 spectators.

Celebration after Hammarby has won their first national bandy title in 2010

The most popular spectator sports are football and ice hockey. The three most popular football clubs in Stockholm
Stockholm
are AIK, Djurgårdens IF and Hammarby IF, who all play in the first tier, Allsvenskan. AIK play at Sweden's national stadium for football, Friends Arena
Friends Arena
in Solna, with a capacity of 54,329. Djurgårdens IF and Hammarby play at Tele2 Arena
Tele2 Arena
in Johanneshov, with a capacity of 30,000 spectators. All three clubs are multi-sport clubs, which have ice hockey teams; Djurgårdens IF play in the first tier, AIK in the second and Hammarby in the third tier, as well as teams in bandy, basketball, floorball and other sports, including individual sports. Historically, the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics. From those days stem the Stockholms Olympiastadion which has since hosted numerous sports events, notably football and athletics. Other major sport arenas are Friends Arena
Friends Arena
the new national football stadium, Stockholm
Stockholm
Globe Arena, a multi-sport arena and one of the largest spherical buildings in the world and the nearby indoor arena Hovet. Beside the 1912 Summer Olympics, Stockholm
Stockholm
hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics Equestrian Games and the UEFA Euro
Euro
1992. The city was also second runner up in the 2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics
bids. Stockholm
Stockholm
hosted the 1958 FIFA World Cup Stockholm
Stockholm
also hosted all but one of the Nordic Games, a winter multi-sport event that predated the Winter Olympics. In 2015, the Stockholms Kungar Rugby league
Rugby league
club were formed. They are Stockholm's first Rugby league
Rugby league
team and will play in Sweden's National Rugby league
Rugby league
championship. Every year Stockholm
Stockholm
is host to the ÖTILLÖ Swimrun World Championship.[68] Stockholm
Stockholm
has hosted the Stockholm
Stockholm
Open, an ATP World Tour 250 series professional tennis tournament annually since 1969. Each year since 1995, the tournament has been hosted at the Kungliga tennishallen.[69] Cuisine[edit] There are over 1000 restaurants in Stockholm.[70] As of 2013[update] Stockholm
Stockholm
boasts a total of eight Michelin star restaurants, two of which have two stars.

Stockholm
Stockholm
Marathon, near Kungsträdgården
Kungsträdgården
in 2008

Yearly events[edit]

Stockholm Jazz Festival
Stockholm Jazz Festival
is one of Sweden's oldest festivals. The festival takes place at Skeppsholmen in July.[71] Stockholm Pride
Stockholm Pride
is the largest Pride event in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
and takes place in the last week of July every year. The Stockholm
Stockholm
Pride festival always ends with a parade and in 2007, 50,000 people marched with the parade and about 500,000 watched.[72] The Stockholm Marathon
Stockholm Marathon
takes place on a Saturday in early June each year. The Nobel Banquet takes place at Stockholm City Hall
Stockholm City Hall
every year on 10 December. The Stockholm
Stockholm
Culture Festival (sv) (Swe: Stockholms kulturfestival) is a summer festival held annually around the middle of August. The Stockholm
Stockholm
Water Festival
Festival
(Swe: Vattenfestivalen) was a popular summer festival held annually in Stockholm
Stockholm
between 1991 and 1999. Manifestation, a yearly ecumenical Christian festival with up to 25,000 participants. Summerburst Music festival (sv) The Stockholm
Stockholm
International Film Festival
Festival
is an annual film festival held in Stockholm
Stockholm
each year since 1990.

Environment[edit]

Park on the island of Djurgården
Djurgården
in central Stockholm.

Green city with a national urban park[edit] Stockholm
Stockholm
is one of the cleanest capitals in the world. The city was granted the 2010 European Green Capital Award
European Green Capital Award
by the EU Commission; this was Europe's first "green capital".[73] Applicant cities were evaluated in several ways: climate change, local transport, public green areas, air quality, noise, waste, water consumption, waste water treatment, sustainable utilisation of land, biodiversity and environmental management.[74] Out of 35 participant cities, eight finalists were chosen: Stockholm, Amsterdam, Bristol, Copenhagen, Freiburg, Hamburg, Münster, and Oslo.[75] Some of the reasons why Stockholm
Stockholm
won the 2010 European Green Capital Award
European Green Capital Award
were: its integrated administrative system, which ensures that environmental aspects are considered in budgets, operational planning, reporting, and monitoring; its cut in carbon dioxide emissions by 25% per capita in ten years; and its decision towards being fossil fuel free by 2050.[74] Stockholm
Stockholm
has long demonstrated concern for the environment. The city's current environmental program is the fifth since the first one was established in the mid-1970s.[76] In 2011, Stockholm
Stockholm
passed the title of European Green Capital to Hamburg, Germany.[75] Role model[edit] In the beginning of 2010, Stockholm
Stockholm
launched the program Professional Study Visits[77] in order to share the city's green best practices. The program provides visitors with the opportunity to learn how to address issues such as waste management, urban planning, carbon dioxide emissions, and sustainable and efficient transportation system, among others.[73] According to the European Cities Monitor 2010,[78] Stockholm
Stockholm
is the best city in terms of freedom from pollution. Surrounded by 219 nature reserves, Stockholm
Stockholm
has around 1,000 green spaces, which corresponds to 30% of the city's area.[79] Founded in 1995, the Royal National City Park is the world's first legally protected "national urban park".[80][81] For a description of the formation process, value assets and implementation of the legal protection of The Royal National Urban Park, see Schantz 2006 The water in Stockholm
Stockholm
is so clean that people can dive and fish in the centre of the city.[79] In fact the waters of downtown Stockholm
Stockholm
serve as spawning grounds for multiple fish species including trout and salmon. As for carbon dioxide emissions, the government goal was to have only clean vehicles in the city by 2011.[79] Air quality[edit] Stockholm
Stockholm
used to have problematic levels of particulates (PM10) due to studded winter tires, but as of 2016 the levels are below limits, after street-specific bans. Instead the current (2016) problem is nitrogen oxides emitted by diesel vehicles. In 2016 the average levels for urban background (roof of Torkel Knutssonsgatan) were: NO2 11 μg/m3, NOx 14 μg/m3, PM10 12 μg/m3, PM2.5 4.9 μg/m3, soot 0.4 μg/m3, ultrafine particles 6200/cm3, CO 0.2 mg/m3, SO2 0.4 μg/m3, ozone 51 μg/m3. For urban street level (the densely trafficked Hornsgatan) the average levels were: NO2 43 μg/m3, NOx 104 μg/m3, PM10 23 μg/m3, PM2.5 5.9 μg/m3, soot 1.0 μg/m3, ultrafine particles 17100/cm3, CO 0.3 mg/m3, ozone 31 μg/m3.[82] Transport[edit] Public transport[edit] Main article: Public transport
Public transport
in Stockholm

A southbound full-length (3 car) C20 metrotrain departing from the Gamla stan
Gamla stan
station.

Stockholm
Stockholm
has an extensive public transport system. It consists of the Stockholm Metro
Stockholm Metro
(Swedish: Tunnelbanan), which consist of three color-coded main lines (green, red and blue) with seven actual lines (10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19); the Stockholm commuter rail
Stockholm commuter rail
(Swedish: Pendeltågen) which runs on the State-owned railroads on four lines (35, 36, 37, 38); four light rail/tramway lines (7, 12, 21, and 22); the 891 mm narrow-gauge railway Roslagsbanan, on three lines (27, 28, 29) in the northeastern part; the local railway Saltsjöbanan, on two lines (25, 26) in the southeastern part; a large number of bus lines, and the inner-city Djurgården
Djurgården
ferry. The overwhelming majority of the land-based public transport in Stockholm County
Stockholm County
(save for the airport buses/airport express trains and other few commercially viable bus lines) is organized under the common umbrella of Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (SL), an aktiebolag wholly owned by Stockholm
Stockholm
County Council. Since the 1990s, the operation and maintenance of the SL public transport services are contracted out to independent companies bidding for contracts, such as MTR, which currently operate the Metro. The archipelago boat traffic is handled by Waxholmsbolaget, which is also wholly owned by the County Council.

An A34 tram on line 7 at Djurgårdsbron.

SL has a common ticket system in the entire Stockholm
Stockholm
County, which allows for easy travel between different modes of transport. The tickets are of two main types, single ticket and travel cards, both allowing for unlimited travel with SL in the entire Stockholm
Stockholm
County for the duration of the ticket validity. On 1 April 2007, a zone system (A, B, C) and price system was introduced. Single tickets were available in forms of cash ticket, individual unit pre-paid tickets, pre-paid ticket slips of 8, sms-ticket and machine ticket. Cash tickets bought at the point of travel were the most expensive and pre-paid tickets slips of 8 are the cheapest. A single ticket is valid for 75 minutes. The duration of the travel card validity depended on the exact type; they were available from 24 hours up to a year. A 30-day card costs 790 SEK (83 EUR; 130 USD). Tickets of all these types were available with reduced prices for students and persons under 20 and over 65 years of age. On 9 January 2017, the zone system was removed, and the cost of the tickets was increased.[83] The City Line Project[edit] Main article: Stockholm
Stockholm
City Line With an estimated cost of SEK 16.8 billion (January 2007 price level), which equals 2.44 billion US dollars, the City Line, an environmentally certified project, comprises a 6 km (3.7 mi)-long commuter train tunnel (in rock and water) beneath Stockholm, with two new stations ( Stockholm
Stockholm
City and Stockholm Odenplan), and a 1.4 km (0.87 mi)-long railway bridge at Årsta. The City Line was built by the Swedish Transport Administration in co-operation with the City of Stockholm, Stockholm County Council, and Stockholm
Stockholm
Transport, SL. As Stockholm
Stockholm
Central Station is overloaded, the purpose of this project was to double the city's track capacity and improve service efficiency. Operations began in July 2017.[84][85] Between Riddarholmen
Riddarholmen
and Söder Mälarstrand, the City Line runs through a submerged concrete tunnel.[84] As a green project, the City Line includes the purification of waste water; noise reduction through sound-attenuating tracks; the use of synthetic diesel, which provides users with clean air; and the recycling of excavated rocks.[84] Roads[edit]

Norra länken
Norra länken
(North link) motorway in Stockholm.

Stockholm
Stockholm
is at the junction of the European routes E4, E18 and E20. A half-completed motorway ring road exists on the south, west and north sides of the City Centre. The northern section of the ring road opened for traffic in 2015 while the final subsea eastern section is being discussed as a future project. A bypass motorway for traffic between Northern and Southern Sweden
Sweden
will be built west of Stockholm 2013–2023. The many islands and waterways make extensions of the road system both complicated and expensive, and new motorways are often built as systems of tunnels and bridges. Congestion charges[edit] Main article: Stockholm
Stockholm
congestion tax

A control point for the congestion charge leading up to Essingeleden.

Stockholm
Stockholm
has a congestion pricing system, Stockholm
Stockholm
congestion tax,[86] in use on a permanent basis since 1 August 2007,[87][88] after having had a seven-month trial period in the first half of 2006.[89] The City Centre is within the congestion tax zone. All the entrances and exits of this area have unmanned control points operating with automatic number plate recognition. All vehicles entering or exiting the congestion tax affected area, with a few exceptions, have to pay 10–20 SEK (1.09–2.18 EUR, 1.49–2.98 USD) depending on the time of day between 06:30 and 18:29. The maximum tax amount per vehicle per day is 60 SEK (6.53 EUR, ).[90] Payment is done by various means within 14 days after one has passed one of the control points; one cannot pay at the control points.[91] After the trial period was over, consultative referendums were held in Stockholm Municipality
Stockholm Municipality
and several other municipalities in Stockholm County. The then-reigning government (Persson Cabinet) stated that they would only take into consideration the results of the referendum in Stockholm
Stockholm
Municipality. The opposition parties (Alliance for Sweden) stated that if they were to form a cabinet after the general election—which was held the same day as the congestion tax referendums—they would take into consideration the referendums held in several of the other municipalities in Stockholm County
Stockholm County
as well. The results of the referendums were that the Stockholm
Stockholm
Municipality voted for the congestion tax, while the other municipalities voted against it. The opposition parties won the general election and a few days before they formed government (Reinfeldt Cabinet) they announced that the congestion tax would be reintroduced in Stockholm, but that the revenue would go entirely to road construction in and around Stockholm. During the trial period and according to the agenda of the previous government the revenue went entirely to public transport. Ferries[edit]

Viking Grace, one of many cruiseferries on the routes to Finland
Finland
and the Åland Islands.

Stockholm
Stockholm
has regular ferry lines to Helsinki
Helsinki
and Turku
Turku
in Finland (commonly called "Finlandsfärjan"); Tallinn, Estonia; Riga, Latvia, Åland islands and to Saint Petersburg. The large Stockholm archipelago is served by the archipelago boats of Waxholmsbolaget (owned and subsidized by Stockholm County
Stockholm County
Council). City bikes[edit] Between April and October, during the warmer months, it is possible to rent Stockholm City Bikes
Stockholm City Bikes
by purchasing a bike card online or through retailers.[92] Cards allow users to rent bikes from any Stockholm
Stockholm
City Bikes stand spread across the city and return them in any stand.[93] There are two types of cards: the Season Card (valid from 1 April to 31 October) and the 3-day card. When their validity runs out they can be reactivated and are therefore reusable.[94] Bikes can be used for up to three hours per loan and can be rented from Monday to Sunday from 6 am to 10 pm.[93] Airports[edit]

ARN

BMA

NYO

VST

Map showing the locations of airports around Stockholm

International and domestic:

Stockholm-Arlanda International Airport (IATA: ARN, ICAO: ESSA) is the largest and busiest airport in Sweden
Sweden
with 24.7 million passengers in 2016. It is located about 40 km (25 mi) north of Stockholm and serves as a hub for Scandinavian Airlines. Stockholm- Bromma
Bromma
Airport (IATA: BMA, ICAO: ESSB) is located about 8 km (5.0 mi) west of Stockholm.

Only international:

Stockholm-Skavsta Airport (IATA: NYO, ICAO: ESKN) is located 108 km (67 mi) south of Stockholm. It is located 5 km (3 mi) away from Södermanland
Södermanland
County capital Nyköping. Stockholm-Västerås Airport
Stockholm-Västerås Airport
(IATA: VST, ICAO: ESOW) is located 103 km (64 mi) west of Stockholm, in the city of Västerås.

Arlanda Express
Arlanda Express
airport rail link runs between Arlanda Airport and central Stockholm. With a journey of 20 minutes, the train ride is the fastest way of traveling to the city center. Arlanda Central Station is also served by commuter, regional and intercity trains. Additionally, there are also bus lines, Flygbussarna, that run between central Stockholm
Stockholm
and all the airports. As of 2010[update] there are no airports specifically for general aviation in the Stockholm
Stockholm
area. Inter-city trains[edit]

Stockholm
Stockholm
Central Station

Stockholm Central Station
Stockholm Central Station
has train connections to many Swedish cities as well as to Oslo, Norway
Norway
and Copenhagen, Denmark. The popular X 2000 service to Gothenburg
Gothenburg
takes three hours. Most of the trains are run by SJ AB. International rankings[edit] Stockholm
Stockholm
often performs well in international rankings, some of which are mentioned below:

In the book The Ultimate Guide to International Marathons (1997), written by Dennis Craythorn and Rich Hanna, Stockholm Marathon
Stockholm Marathon
is ranked as the best marathon in the world.[95] In the 2006 European Innovation
Innovation
Scoreboard, prepared by the Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation
Innovation
and Technology (MERIT) and the Joint Research Centre's Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen of the European Commission, Stockholm
Stockholm
was ranked as the most innovative city in Europe.[96] In the 2008 World Knowledge Competitiveness
Competitiveness
Index, published by the Centre for International Competitiveness, Stockholm
Stockholm
was ranked as the sixth most competitive region in the world and the most competitive region outside the United States.[97] In the 2006 European Regional Growth Index (E-REGI), published by Jones Lang LaSalle, Stockholm
Stockholm
was ranked fifth on the list of European cities with the strongest GDP
GDP
growth forecast. Stockholm
Stockholm
was ranked first in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and second outside Central and Eastern Europe.[98] In the 2007 European Cities Monitor, published by Cushman & Wakefield, Stockholm
Stockholm
was ranked as the best Nordic city to locate a business. In the same report, Stockholm
Stockholm
was ranked first in Europe
Europe
in terms of freedom from pollution.[99] In a 2007 survey performed by the environmental economist Matthew Kahn for the Reader's Digest
Reader's Digest
magazine, Stockholm
Stockholm
was ranked first on its list of the "greenest" and most "livable" cities in the world.[100] In a 2008 survey published by Reader's Digest
Reader's Digest
magazine, Stockholm
Stockholm
was ranked fourth in the world in its list of the "world's top ten honest cities".[101] In a 2008 survey published by the National Geographic Traveler magazine, Gamla stan
Gamla stan
(the old town) in Stockholm
Stockholm
was ranked sixth on its list of rated historic places.[102] In a 2008 survey published by the Foreign Policy magazine, Stockholm was ranked twenty-fourth on its list of the world's most global cities.[103] In 2009 Stockholm
Stockholm
was awarded the title as European Green Capital 2010, as the first Green capital ever in the European Green Capital Award scheme. In 2013, Stockholm
Stockholm
was named the 8th most competitive city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit.[104]

Twin cities and towns[edit]

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La Paz, Bolivia Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Cali, Colombia Copenhagen, Denmark Tallinn, Estonia Tórshavn, Faroe Islands Helsinki, Finland Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Nuuk, Greenland Reykjavík, Iceland Bassano del Grappa, Italy Syracuse, Sicily, Italy Riga, Latvia Vilnius, Lithuania Podgorica, Montenegro Khemisset, Morocco Amsterdam, Netherlands Saint Petersburg, Russia Belgrade, Serbia Istanbul, Turkey Kiev, Ukraine

See also[edit]

List of people connected to Stockholm Ports of the Baltic Sea Stockholm
Stockholm
syndrome Holmium
Holmium
– a chemical element named after Stockholm

Sweden
Sweden
portal

Notes[edit]

^ See List of urban areas in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
and List of metropolitan areas in Europe

References[edit]

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calls itself "stad" (or City), as do a small number of other Swedish municipalities, and especially the other two Swedish metropolis: Gothenburg
Gothenburg
and Malmö. However, the term city has administratively been discontinued in Sweden. See also city status in Sweden ^ Paris#Climate ^ London#Climate ^ "Arctic Tree Line Map of Canada". Jackson School of International Studies. Archived from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved 8 October 2015.  ^ "Stockholm — Bromma". Data.smhi.se. Retrieved 11 April 2014.  ^ "Stockholm — Bromma". Data.smhi.se. Retrieved 1 December 2012.  ^ "Temperaturrekord i Stockholm
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Stockholm
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Stockholm
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Stockholm
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Stockholm
Office of Research and Statistics, or Utrednings- och statistikkontoret (USK), in Swedish. (USK official web information in English ^ "Statistisk arsbok for Stockholm
Stockholm
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Stockholm
1252–2005" (in Swedish). Stockholm Municipality. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.  ^ "Three world heritage sites". Stockholm
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Links to related articles

v t e

Boroughs of Stockholm

Bromma Enskede-Årsta-Vantör Farsta Hägersten-Liljeholmen Hässelby-Vällingby Kungsholmen Norrmalm Rinkeby-Kista Skärholmen Skarpnäck Södermalm Spånga-Tensta Älvsjö Östermalm

Stockholm
Stockholm
Municipality (Innerstaden Söderort Västerort) Stockholm Metropolitan Stockholm

v t e

Municipalities and seats of Stockholm
Stockholm
County

Municipalities

Botkyrka Danderyd Ekerö Haninge Huddinge Järfälla Lidingö Nacka Norrtälje Nykvarn Nynäshamn Österåker Salem Sigtuna Södertälje Sollentuna Solna Stockholm Sundbyberg Täby Tyresö Upplands-Bro Upplands Väsby Vallentuna Värmdö Vaxholm

Municipal seats

Åkersberga Danderyd (Djursholm) Ekerö Gustavsberg Handen Huddinge Järfälla (Jakobsberg) Kungsängen Lidingö Märsta Nacka Norrtälje Nykvarn Nynäshamn Salem Södertälje Sollentuna Solna (Skytteholm) Stockholm Sundbyberg Täby Tyresö (Bollmora) Tumba Upplands Väsby Vallentuna Vaxholm

Counties of Sweden Sweden

v t e

Administrative seats of Swedish counties (län)

Falun (Dalarna) Gävle (Gävleborg) Gothenburg (Västra Götaland) Halmstad (Halland) Härnösand (Västernorrland) Jönköping (Jönköping) Kalmar (Kalmar) Karlskrona (Blekinge) Karlstad (Värmland) Linköping (Östergötland) Luleå (Norrbotten) Malmö (Skåne) Nyköping (Södermanland) Örebro (Örebro) Östersund (Jämtland) Stockholm (Stockholm) Umeå (Västerbotten) Uppsala (Uppsala) Västerås (Västmanland) Växjö (Kronoberg) Visby (Gotland)

v t e

30 most populous cities of Sweden

as of 2010, according to Statistics Sweden
Sweden
[2]

1. Stockholm 1,372,565

2. Gothenburg 549,839

3. Malmö 280,415

4. Uppsala 140,454

5. Västerås 110,877

6. Örebro 107,038

7. Linköping 104,232

8. Helsingborg 97,122

9. Jönköping 89,396

10. Norrköping 87,247

11. Lund 82,800

12. Umeå 79,594

13. Gävle 71,033

14. Borås 66,273

15. Eskilstuna 64,679

16. Södertälje 64,619

17. Karlstad 61,685

18. Täby 61,272

19. Växjö 60,887

20. Halmstad 58,577

21. Sundsvall 50,712

22. Luleå 46,607

23. Trollhättan 46,457

24. Östersund 44,327

25. Borlänge 41,734

26. Tumba 37,852

27. Upplands Väsby 37,594

28. Falun 37,291

29. Kalmar 36,392

30. Kristianstad 35,711

v t e

50 most populous urban areas in the Nordic countries

 Denmark  Finland  Iceland  Norway  Sweden

1. Stockholm 1,372,565

2. Copenhagen 1,263,698

3. Helsinki 1,214,210

4. Oslo 958,378

5. Gothenburg 549,839

6. Tampere 325,025

7. Malmö 280,415

8. Aarhus 261,570

9. Turku 260,367

10. Bergen 250,420

11. Stavanger 210,874

12. Reykjavík 209,510

13. Oulu 193,817

14. Trondheim 175,068

15. Odense 173,814

16. Uppsala 140,454

17. Aalborg 132,578

18. Jyväskylä 120,306

19. Lahti 117,424

20. Drammen 113,534

21. Västerås 110,877

22. Fredrikstad-Sarpsborg 108,636

23. Örebro 107,038

24. Linköping 104,232

25. Helsingborg 97,122

26. Porsgrunn-Skien 91,737

27. Jönköping 89,396

28. Norrköping 87,247

29. Kuopio 86,034

30. Pori 84,509

31. Lund 82,800

32. Umeå 79,594

33. Esbjerg 72,060

34. Gävle 71,033

35. Vaasa 66,911

36. Borås 66,273

37. Joensuu 65,686

38. Eskilstuna 64,679

39. Södertälje 64,619

40. Karlstad 61,685

41. Randers 61,664

42. Täby 61,272

43. Växjö 60,887

44. Kristiansand 60,583

45. Kolding 58,757

46. Halmstad 58,577

47. Horsens 56,536

48. Lappeenranta 55,429

49. Vejle 53,975

50. Kotka 52,600

v t e

Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

European Capitals of Sport

2001 Madrid 2002 Stockholm 2003 Glasgow 2004 Alicante 2005 Rotterdam 2006 Copenhagen 2007 Stuttgart 2008 Warsaw 2009 Milan 2010 Dublin 2011 Valencia 2012 Istanbul 2013 Antwerp 2014 Cardiff 2015 Turin 2016 Prague 2017 Marseille 2018 Sofia 2019 Budapest 2020 Málaga 2021 Lisboa 2022 The Hague

v t e

Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
host cities

1896: Athens 1900: Paris 1904: St. Louis 1908: London 1912: Stockholm 1916: None[c1] 1920: Antwerp 1924: Paris 1928: Amsterdam 1932: Los Angeles 1936: Berlin 1940: None[c2] 1944: None[c2] 1948: London 1952: Helsinki 1956: Melbourne 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Mexico
Mexico
City 1972: Munich 1976: Montreal 1980: Moscow 1984: Los Angeles 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II

v t e

Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest

History Host cities Languages Presenters Rules Voting Winners Winners discography

Contests

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Countries

Active

Albania Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Inactive

Andorra Bosnia and Herzegovina Luxembourg Monaco Morocco Slovakia Turkey

Former

Lebanon Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro Yugoslavia

Relations

Armenia–Azerbaijan Russia–Ukraine

National selections

Current

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Television and concerts

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Authority control

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