STOCKHOLM (/ˈstɒkhoʊm, -hoʊlm/ ; Swedish pronunciation: or (
listen )) is the capital of
Sweden and the most populous city in the
Nordic countries ; 932,917 people live in the municipality ,
approximately 1.5 million in the urban area , and 2.3 million in the
metropolitan area . The city stretches across fourteen islands where
Mälaren flows into the
Baltic Sea . Just outside the city and
along the coast is the island chain of the
Stockholm archipelago . The
area has been settled since the
Stone Age , in the
6th millennium BC ,
and was founded as a city in 1252 by a Swedish statesman
Birger Jarl .
It is also the capital of
Stockholm County .
Stockholm is the cultural, media, political, and economic centre of
Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the
GDP , and is among the top 10 regions in
capita . It is an important global city , and the main centre for
corporate headquarters in the Nordic region. The city is home to some
of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the
Stockholm School of
Economics , Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology
(KTH). It hosts the annual
Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the
Stockholm Concert Hall and
Stockholm City Hall . One of the city's
most prized museums, the
Vasa Museum , is the most visited non-art
museum in Scandinavia. The
Stockholm metro , opened in 1950, is well
known for its decoration of the stations; it has been called the
longest art gallery in the world. Sweden's national football arena
is located north of the city centre, in Solna .
Ericsson Globe , the
national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city. The city
was the host of the
1912 Summer Olympics
1912 Summer Olympics , and hosted the equestrian
portion of the
1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne,
Victoria , Australia.
Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its
agencies , including the highest courts in the judiciary , and the
official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister .
The government has its seat in the
Rosenbad building, the Riksdag
(Swedish parliament) is seated in the Parliament House , and the Prime
Minister's residence is adjacent at the
Sager House . The Stockholm
Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the
Swedish monarch, while the
Drottningholm Palace , a World Heritage
Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family 's
* 1 History
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Location
* 2.3 Climate
* 2.4 Daylight hours
* 3 City governance
* 4 Economy
* 5 Fibre optic network
* 6 Education
* 7 Demographics
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Literature
* 8.2 Architecture
* 8.3 Museums
* 8.4 Art galleries
* 8.5 Suburbs
* 8.6 Theatres
* 8.7 Amusement park
* 8.8 Media
* 8.9 Sports
* 8.10 Cuisine
* 8.11 Yearly events
* 9 Environment
* 9.1 Green city with a national urban park
* 9.1.1 Role model
* 10 Transport
* 10.1.1 The City Line Project
* 10.2 Roads
* 10.2.1 Congestion charges
* 10.3 Ferries
* 10.4 City bikes
* 10.5 Airports
* 10.6 Inter-city trains
* 11 International rankings
* 12 Twin cities and towns
* 13 See also
* 14 Notes
* 15 References
* 16 External links
History of Stockholm _ Detail of engraving of
Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna _ by
Erik Dahlbergh and
Willem Swidde , printed in 1693. Panorama over
1868 as seen from a hot air balloon . The Old Town of Stockholm
Gamla stan ) Birds eye view of
After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BCE, there were already a large
number of people living in the present-day
Stockholm area, but, as
temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved towards the South. Thousands
of years later, as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable,
and the lands became fertile, some life moved back to the North. At
the intersection of the
Baltic Sea and lake
Mälaren is an archipelago
site where the Old Town of
Stockholm was first built from about 1000
CE by Vikings. They had a positive trade impact on the area because of
the trade routes they created.
Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as
Agnafit , and in
Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king
Agne . The earliest
written mention of the name
Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time
the mines in
Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade.
The first part of the name (_stock_) means log in Swedish, although it
may also be connected to an old German word (_Stock_) meaning
fortification . The second part of the name (_holm_) means islet, and
is thought to refer to the islet
Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm.
Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by
Birger Jarl to protect
Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians
after the pillage of
Sigtuna on Lake
Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town (Gamla Stan ) was built on the
central island next to
Helgeandsholmen from the mid 13th century
onward. The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the
Baltic trade of the
Hanseatic League .
Stockholm developed strong
economic and cultural linkages with
Visby , Reval , and
Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478
Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were
selected from the town's German-speaking burghers.
The strategic and economic importance of the city made
important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar
Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The
Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8
November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm
Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that eventually led
to the breakup of the
Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa
in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of
Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw
Sweden grow into a major European power,
reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to
1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634,
Stockholm became the
official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were also
created that gave
Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between
foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories.
In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 (36 percent) of the population.
After the end of the
Great Northern War the city stagnated.
Population growth halted and economic growth slowed. The city was in
shock after having lost its place as the capital of a
Great power .
Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of
Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III .
By the second half of the 19th century,
Stockholm had regained its
leading economic role. New industries emerged and
transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a
key gateway point within Sweden. The population also grew dramatically
during this time, mainly through immigration . At the end of the 19th
century, less than 40% of the residents were Stockholm-born.
Settlement began to expand outside the city limits. The 19th century
saw the establishment of a number of scientific institutes, including
Karolinska Institutet . The General Art and Industrial Exposition
was held in 1897. From 1887 to 1953 the Old
Stockholm telephone tower
was a landmark; originally built to link phone lines, it became
redundant after these were buried, and it was latterly used for
Stockholm City Centre after the 1960s.
Stockholm became a modern, technologically advanced, and ethnically
diverse city in the latter half of the 20th century. Many historical
buildings were torn down during the modernist era, including
substantial parts of the historical district of Klara , and replaced
with modern architecture. However, in many other parts of Stockholm
(such as in
Gamla stan ,
Vasastan ), many "old" buildings, blocks and streets built before the
modernism and functionalism movements took off in
1930–1935) survived this era of demolition. Throughout the century,
many industries shifted away from work-intensive activities into more
high-tech and service industry areas.
Currently, Stockholm's metropolitan area is one of the
fastest-growing regions in Europe, and its population is expected to
number 2.5 million by 2024. As a result of this massive population
growth, it has been proposed to build densely-packed high-rise
building in the city centre connected by high-rise walkways.
Geography of Stockholm A 360 degree panorama of
Stockholm inner quarters taken from the City Hall tower. From left to
Södermalm in the background,
Klara sjö , Norrmalm with the central station in the foreground,
Stockholms ström ,
Riddarholmen with the Old Town, and again
Stockholm is located on Sweden's south-central east coast, where the
Mälaren — Sweden's third largest lake — flows out
into the Baltic Sea. The central parts of the city consist of fourteen
islands that are continuous with the
Stockholm archipelago . The
geographical city centre is situated on the water, in Riddarfjärden
bay. Over 30% of the city area is made up of waterways and another 30%
is made up of parks and green spaces.
Positioned at the eastern end of the
Central Swedish lowland the
city's location reflect the early orientation of Swedish trade toward
the Baltic region.
Stockholm belongs to is the Temperate Deciduous Forest,
which means the climate is very similar to that of the far
north-eastern area of the
United States and coastal
Nova Scotia in
Canada . The average annual temperature is 10 °C (50 °F). The
average rainfall is 30 to 60 inches a year. The deciduous forest has
four distinct seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and winter. In the
autumn the leaves change colour. During the winter months the trees
lose their leaves.
For details about the other municipalities in the
Stockholm area, see
the pertinent articles. North of
Stockholm Municipality: Järfälla ,
Täby , Sollentuna ,
Upplands Väsby , Österåker
Sigtuna , Sundbyberg , Danderyd ,
Ekerö , Upplands-Bro
Vaxholm , and
Norrtälje . South of Stockholm: Huddinge ,
Botkyrka , Haninge , Tyresö , Värmdö ,
Södertälje , Salem ,
Stockholm Municipality is an administrative unit defined by
geographical borders. The semi-officially adopted name for the
municipality is _City of Stockholm_ (_Stockholms stad_ in Swedish).
As a municipality, the City of
Stockholm is subdivided into district
councils, which carry responsibility for primary schools, social,
leisure and cultural services within their respective areas. The
municipality is usually described in terms of its three main parts:
Stockholm City Centre ),
Söderort (Southern Stockholm)
Västerort (Western Stockholm). The districts of these parts are:
STOCKHOLM CITY CENTRE
The modern centre Norrmalm (concentrated around the town square
Sergels torg ) is the largest shopping district in
Sweden . It is the
most central part of
Stockholm in business and shopping.
CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )
39 1 −4
27 1 −4
29 4 −2
29 10 2
32 16 7
55 20 11
65 23 15
59 21 14
52 16 10
49 10 6
47 5 1
45 2 −2
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
_Source: NOAA _
1.5 33 25
1.1 33 25
1.1 39 29
1.1 50 36
1.3 62 45
2.2 68 52
2.6 73 58
2.3 71 57
2 60 49
1.9 50 42
1.9 41 34
1.8 35 28
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Stockholm, with a February mean of −3.0 °C (26.6 °F), had a humid
continental climate (Köppen _Dfb_) for the most recent official
reference period. Due to the city's high northerly latitude, daylight
varies widely from more than 18 hours around midsummer, to only around
6 hours in late December.
Stockholm has relatively mild weather
compared to other locations at similar latitude, or even farther
south. With an average of just over 1800 hours of sunshine per year,
it is also one of the sunniest cities in Northern Europe, receiving
more sunshine than Paris,
London and a few other major European
cities of a more southerly latitude. Due to recent amelioration of the
climate it could be classified as cold marine with significant
continental influence if the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm is used.
Because of the urban heat island and the prevailing wind travelling
over land rather than sea during summer months,
Stockholm has the
warmest summers in the Nordic countries.
In spite of its mild climate,
Stockholm is located further north than
Canada that are above the Arctic tree line at sea level.
Summers average daytime high temperatures of 20–25 °C (68–77
°F) and lows of around 13 °C (55 °F), but temperatures can reach 30
°C (86 °F) on some days. Days above 30 °C (86 °F) occur on average
1.55 days per year (1992–2011). Days between 25 °C (77 °F) and 30
°C (86 °F) are relatively common especially in July and August.
Night-time lows of above 20 °C (68 °F) are rare, and the hot summer
nights roam around 17 to 18 °C (63 to 64 °F). Winters generally
bring cloudy weather with the most precipitation falling in December
and January (as rain or as snow). The average winter temperatures
range from −3 to −1 °C (27 to 30 °F), and occasionally drop
below −20 °C (−4 °F). Spring and autumn are generally cool to
The climate table below presents weather data from the years
1981–2010 although the official Köppen reference period was from
1961–1990. According to ongoing measurements, the temperature has
increased during the years 1991–2009 as compared with the last
series. This increase averages about 1.0 °C (1.8 °F) over all
months. Warming is most pronounced during the winter months, with an
increase of more than 2.0 °C (3.6 °F) in January. For the
2002–2014 measurements some further increases have been found,
although some months such as June have been relatively flat.
The highest temperature ever recorded in
Stockholm was 36 °C (97
°F) on 3 July 1811; the lowest was −32 °C (−26 °F) on 20
January 1814. The temperature has not dropped to below −25.1 °C
(−13.2 °F) since 10 January 1987.
Annual precipitation is 539 mm (21.2 in) with around 170 wet days and
light to moderate rainfall throughout the year. Snowfall occurs mainly
from December through March. Snowfall may occasionally occur in late
October as well as in April.
In Stockholm, the aurora borealis can occasionally be observed.
CLIMATE DATA FOR STOCKHOLM, 1981–2010 (PRECIPITATION AND SUNSHINE
1961–1990, EXTREMES 1756–PRESENT)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: NOAA
Source #2: SMHI
Stockholm's location just south of the 60th latitude means that the
number of daylight hours is relatively small during winter — about
six hours, while in June and the first half of July, the nights are
relatively short, with about 18 hours of daylight. Around the Summer
solstice the sun never reaches further below the horizon than 7.3
degrees. This gives the sky a bright blue colour in summer once the
sun has set, because it does not get any darker than nautical
twilight. Also, when looking straight up towards the zenith , few
stars are visible after the sun has gone down. This is not to be
confused with the midnight sun , which occurs north of the Arctic
Circle , around 7 degrees farther north.
Stockholm Municipality and
Stockholm municipal election,
2014 _ The municipal council chamber (Swedish : Rådssalen_),
Stockholm City Hall .
Stockholm Municipal Council (Swedish : _Stockholms
kommunfullmäktige_) is the name of the local assembly. Its 101
councillors are elected concurrently with general elections , held at
the same time as the elections to the
Riksdag and county councils .
The Council convene twice every month at
Stockholm City Hall , and the
meetings are open to the public. The matters on which the councillors
decide have generally already been drafted and discussed by various
boards and committees. Once decisions are referred for practical
implementation, the employees of the City administrations and
companies take over.
The elected majority has a Mayor and eight Vice Mayors. The Mayor and
each majority Vice Mayor is a head of a department, with
responsibility for a particular area of operation, such as City
Planning. The opposition also has four Vice Mayors, but they hold no
executive power. Together the Mayor and the 12 Vice Mayors form the
Council of Mayors, and they prepare matters for the City Executive
Board. The Mayor holds a special position among the Vice Mayors,
chairing both the Council of Mayors and the City Executive Board.
The City Executive Board (Swedish : _Kommunstyrelsen_) is elected by
the City Council and can be thought of as the equivalent of a cabinet
. The City Executive Board renders an opinion in all matters decided
by the Council and bears the overall responsibility for follow-up,
evaluation and execution of its decisions. The Board is also
responsible for financial administration and long-term development.
The City Executive Board consists of 13 members, who represent both
the majority and the opposition. Its meetings are not open to the
Stockholm municipal election, 2014 a majority of seats
in the municipal council is at present held by a left-wing majority
(following two terms of a center-right majority) and the Mayor of
Stockholm (Swedish : _Finansborgarråd_) is
Karin Wanngård from the
Social Democrats . In addition to the eight political parties which
are also represented on the national level in the
Riksdag , the
Feminist Initiative also hold seats in the municipal council and is
part of the ruling majority.
Kista Headquarters of
The vast majority of
Stockholm residents work in the service
industry, which accounts for roughly 85% of jobs in Stockholm. The
almost total absence of heavy industry (and fossil fuel power plants)
Stockholm one of the world's cleanest metropolises . The last
decade has seen a significant number of jobs created in high
technology companies. Large employers include
Ericsson , and
Electrolux . A major IT centre is located in
Kista , in northern
Stockholm is Sweden's financial centre. Major Swedish banks, such as
Handelsbanken , and Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken
, are headquartered in Stockholm, as are the major insurance companies
Folksam and Trygg-Hansa .
Stockholm is also home to Sweden's
foremost stock exchange, the
Stockholm Stock Exchange
(_Stockholmsbörsen_). Additionally, about 45% of Swedish companies
with more than 200 employees are headquartered in Stockholm. Noted
clothes retailer H -webkit-column-width: 27em; column-width: 27em;">
Ericsson — 8,430
Posten AB (national postal service) — 4,710
Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken (SEB) — 4,240
Swedbank — 3,610
Södersjukhuset (Southern Hospital) — 3,610
Stockholm Subway operator) — 3,000
Nordea — 2,820
Handelsbanken — 2,800
IBM Svenska — 2,640
Capgemini — 2,500
* Securitas AB — 2,360
Veolia Transport — 2,300
* ISS Facility Services — 2,000
Sveriges Television (public television) — 1,880
* Nobina Sverige AB — 1,873 (2012)
Sodexo — 1,580
FIBRE OPTIC NETWORK
The city-owned company Stokab started in 1994 to build a fiber-optic
network throughout the municipality as a level playing field for all
operators (City of Stockholm, 2011). Around a decade later, the
network was 1.2 million kilometres (0.7 million miles) long making it
the longest optic fiber network in the world and now has over 90
operators and 450 enterprises as customers. 2011 was the final year of
a three-year project which brought fiber to 100% of public housing,
meaning an extra 95,000 houses were added. (City of Stockholm, 2011)
Education in Stockholm
Stockholm School of
Research and higher education in the sciences started in
the 18th century, with education in medicine and various research
institutions such as the
Stockholm Observatory . The medical education
was eventually formalized in 1811 as the Karolinska Institutet. The
Royal Institute of Technology
Royal Institute of Technology (_Kungliga Tekniska högskolan_, or
_KTH_) was founded in 1827 and is currently Scandinavia's largest
higher education institute of technology with 13,000 students.
Stockholm University , founded in 1878 with university status granted
in 1960, has 52,000 students as of 2008 . It also incorporates many
historical institutions, such as the Observatory, the Swedish Museum
of Natural History , and the botanical garden _Bergianska trädgården
Stockholm School of Economics , founded in 1909, is one of the
few private institutions of higher education in Sweden.
In the fine arts , educational institutions include the Royal College
of Music , which has a history going back to the conservatory founded
as part of the
Royal Swedish Academy of Music in 1771, the Royal
University College of Fine Arts , which has a similar historical
association with the
Royal Swedish Academy of Arts and a foundation
date of 1735, and the
Swedish National Academy of Mime and Acting ,
which is the continuation of the school of the Royal Dramatic Theatre
, once attended by
Greta Garbo . Other schools include the design
Konstfack , founded in 1844, the University College of Opera
(founded in 1968, but with older roots), the University College of
Dance , and the _
Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut _ (the
University College of Music Education).
The Södertörn University College was founded in 1995 as a
multi-disciplinary institution for southern
Metropolitan Stockholm ,
to balance the many institutions located in the northern part of the
Other institutes of higher education are:
Military Academy Karlberg , the world's oldest military academy to
remain in its original location, inaugurated in 1792 and housed in
Karlberg Palace .
Ersta Sköndal University College
Stockholm School of Theology (_Teologiska Högskolan,
* The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (_Gymnastik- och
idrottshögskolan _, or _GIH_)
Stockholm University (Stockholms universitet)
The biggest complaint from students of higher education in Stockholm
is the lack of student accommodations, the difficulty in finding other
accommodations and the high rent.
This section needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2017)_
ESTIMATED POPULATION, 1252–1775
Source: Stockholms Stads Utrednings- och Statistikkontor AB
Stockholm 1252–2005, p. 55
HISTORICAL POPULATION IN 10-YEAR INTERVALS, 1800–PRESENT
Source: Stockholms Stads Utrednings- och Statistikkontor AB
Stockholm 1252–2005, p. 55
Stockholm region is home to around 22% of Sweden's total
population, and accounts for about 29% of its gross domestic product .
The geographical notion of "Stockholm" has changed throughout the
times. By the turn of the 19th century,
Stockholm largely consisted of
the area today known as City Centre, roughly 35 km2 (14 sq mi) or
one-fifth of the current municipal area. In the ensuing decades
several other areas were incorporated (such as Brännkyrka
Municipality in 1913, at which time it had 25,000 inhabitants, and
Spånga in 1949). The municipal border was established in 1971; with
the exception of Hansta, in 1982 purchased by
Sollentuna Municipality and today a nature reserve.
LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS
Of the population of 935,619 in 2016, 461,677 were men and 473,942
women. The average age is 40 years; 40.1% of the population is between
20 and 44 years. 382,887 people, or 40.9% of the population, over the
age 15 were unmarried. 259,153 people, or 27.7% of the population,
were married. 99,524 or 10.6% of the population, had been married but
divorced. 299,925 people or 32,1% of Stockholm's residents are of an
immigrant or non-Swedish background.
As of December 2012, there were 201,821 foreign-born persons in
Stockholm. The largest group of them are the
Finns (17,579), followed
Iraqis (16,374) and Iranian people (11,429).
Stockholm are known as Stockholmers. Some of the suburbs
have large populations of immigrants. Languages spoken in Greater
Stockholm outside of Swedish include Finnish, one of the official
minority languages of
Sweden ; and English, as well as Bosnian,
Syriac, Arabic, Turkish, Kurdish, Persian, Dutch, Spanish, Serbian and
Stockholm metropolitan area , consisting of 26
municipalities, has a population of over 2.2 million, making it the
most populous city in the Nordic region . The
Stockholm urban area ,
defined only for statistical purposes, had a total population of
1,630,738 in 2015. In the following municipalities some of the
districts are contained within the
Stockholm urban area, though not
Stockholm urban area municipalities
Stockholm Municipality population development years
Apart from being Sweden's capital,
Stockholm houses many national
cultural institutions. The
Stockholm region is home to three of
Sweden's World Heritage Sites – spots judged as invaluable places
that belong to all of humanity: The
Drottningholm Palace ,
Skogskyrkogården (The Woodland Cemetery) and
Birka . In 1998,
Stockholm was named
European Capital of Culture .
Authors connected to
Stockholm include the poet and songwriter Carl
Michael Bellman (1740–1795), novelist and dramatist August
Strindberg (1849–1912), and novelist Hjalmar Söderberg
(1869–1941), all of whom made
Stockholm part of their works.
Martin Beck is a fictional Swedish police detective from Stockholm,
who is the main character in a series of 10 novels by Maj Sjöwall and
Per Wahlöö, collectively titled The Story of a Crime, and often
based in Stockholm.
Other authors with notable heritage in
Stockholm were the Nobel Prize
Eyvind Johnson (1900–1976) and the popular poet and
Evert Taube (1890–1976). The novelist Per Anders
Fogelström (1917–1998) wrote a popular series of historical novels
depicting life in
Stockholm from the mid-18th to mid-20th century.
Strandvägen as seen from the island of
Stockholm Public Library , designed by
Gunnar Asplund Main article:
Architecture in Stockholm
Historical fires of Stockholm
The city's oldest section is
Gamla stan (Old Town), located on the
original small islands of the city's earliest settlements and still
featuring the medieval street layout. Some notable buildings of Gamla
Stan are the large German Church (_Tyska kyrkan_) and several mansions
and palaces: the _Riddarhuset _ (the House of Nobility), the Bonde
Palace , the
Tessin Palace and the Oxenstierna Palace.
The oldest building in
Stockholm is the Riddarholmskyrkan from the
late 13th century. After a fire in 1697 when the original medieval
castle was destroyed,
Stockholm Palace was erected in a baroque style.
Storkyrkan Cathedral, the episcopal seat of the Bishop of Stockholm,
stands next to the castle. It was founded in the 13th century but is
clad in a baroque exterior dating to the 18th century.
As early as the 15th century, the city had expanded outside of its
original borders. Some pre-industrial, small-scale buildings from this
era can still be found in
Södermalm . During the 19th century and the
age of industrialization
Stockholm grew rapidly, with plans and
architecture inspired by the large cities of the continent such as
Vienna . Notable works of this time period include public
buildings such as the
Royal Swedish Opera and private developments
such as the luxury housing developments on
In the 20th century, a nationalistic push spurred a new architectural
style inspired by medieval and renaissance ancestry as well as
influences of the Jugend /
Art Nouveau style. A key landmark of
Stockholm City Hall, was erected 1911–1923 by
Ragnar Östberg . Other notable works of these times are the
Stockholm Public Library and the World Heritage Site
Söder Torn , an 86-metre-tall (282-foot)
building in Södermalm.
In the 1930s modernism characterized the development of the city as
it grew. New residential areas sprang up such as the development on
Gärdet while industrial development added to the growth, such as the
KF manufacturing industries on Kvarnholmen located in the Nacka
Municipality. In the 1950s, suburban development entered a new phase
with the introduction of the
Stockholm metro . The modernist
Farsta were internationally praised. In
the 1960s this suburban development continued but with the aesthetic
of the times, the industrialized and mass-produced blocks of flats
received a large amount of criticism.
At the same time that this suburban development was taking place, the
most central areas of the inner city were being redesigned, known as
Sergels Torg , with its five high-rise office
towers was created in the 1960s, followed by the total clearance of
large areas to make room for new development projects. The most
notable buildings from this period include the ensemble of the House
of Culture , City Theatre and National Bank at Sergels Torg, designed
Peter Celsing .
In the 1980s, the planning ideas of modernism were starting to be
questioned, resulting in suburbs with a denser planning, such as
Skarpnäck . In the 1990s this idea was taken further with the
development of and old industrial area close to the inner city,
resulting in a sort of mix of modernistic and urban planning in the
new area of
Hammarby Sjöstad .
The municipality has appointed an official "board of beauty" called
"Skönhetsrådet " to protect and preserve the beauty of the city.
Stockholm's architecture (along with Visby,
Gotland ) provided the
inspiration for Japanese anime director
Hayao Miyazaki as he sought to
evoke an idealized city untouched by World War. His creation, called
_Koriko _, draws directly from what Miyazaki felt was Stockholm's
sense of well-established architectural unity, vibrancy, independence,
List of museums in Stockholm The main hall of the
Vasa Museum with a scale model of Vasa as it might have looked on its
maiden voyage to the left and the preserved ship itself to the right
Moragården, one of many historical homesteads at the Skansen
open-air museum .
Stockholm is one of the most crowded museum-cities in the world with
around 100 museums, visited by millions of people every year.
Vasa Museum (Swedish : _Vasamuseet_) is a maritime museum on
Djurgården which displays the only almost fully intact 17th century
ship that has ever been salvaged, the 64-gun warship _Vasa _ that sank
on her maiden voyage in 1628.
Nationalmuseum houses the largest collection of art in the
country: 16,000 paintings and 30,000 objects of art handicraft. The
collection dates back to the days of Gustav Vasa in the 16th century,
and has since been expanded with works by artists such as
and Antoine Watteau , as well as constituting a main part of Sweden's
art heritage, manifested in the works of
Alexander Roslin , Anders
Johan Tobias Sergel ,
Carl Larsson ,
Carl Fredrik Hill and
Ernst Josephson .
Moderna Museet (Museum of Modern Art) is Sweden's national museum of
modern art . It has works by noted modern artists such as Picasso and
Salvador Dalí .
Skansen (in English: the Sconce ) is a combined open-air museum and
zoo , located on the island of
Djurgården . It was founded in 1891 by
Artur Hazelius (1833–1901) to show the way of life in the different
Sweden before the industrial era.
Other notable museums (in alphabetical order):
* ABBA: The Museum , an interactive exhibit about the pop-group ABBA
Fotografiska , museum of photography
Livrustkammaren , the royal armoury, located at
Nobel Museum , devoted to the
Nobel Prize , Nobel laureates , and
the founder of the prize,
Alfred Nobel (1833–1896)
Nordic Museum , dedicated to the cultural history and ethnography
Royal Coin Cabinet , dedicated to the history of money and
economic history in general
Stockholm City Museum
Swedish Museum of Natural History
Stockholm has a vibrant art scene with a number of internationally
recognized art centres and commercial galleries. Amongst others
privately sponsored initiatives such as Bonniers Konsthall, Magasin 3,
and state supported institutions such as
Tensta Konsthall and Index
all show leading international and national artists. In the last few
years a gallery district has emerged around Hudiksvallsgatan where
leading galleries such as Andréhn-Schiptjenko, Brändström "> Other
parts of the inner suburbs, such as Täby, Danderyd, Lidingö, Flysta
and, as well as some of the suburbs mentioned above, have a majority
of ethnic Swedes .
Royal Dramatic Theatre , one of Stockholm's many theatres.
Distinguished among Stockholm's many theatres are the Royal Dramatic
Theatre (_Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern_), one of Europe's most renowned
theatres, and the Royal Swedish Opera, inaugurated in 1773.
Other notable theatres are the
Stockholm City Theatre (Stockholms
stadsteater), the Peoples Opera (_
Folkoperan _), the Modern Theatre of
Dance (_Moderna dansteatern_), the
China Theatre , the Göta Lejon
Mosebacke Theatre, and the Oscar Theatre .
Gröna Lund is an amusement park located on the island of Djurgården
. This amusement park has over 30 attractions and many restaurants. It
is a popular tourist attraction and visited by thousands of people
every day. It is open from the end of April to the middle of
Gröna Lund also serves as a concert venue.
Norstedt Building , seen from
Vasabron , in
Stockholm is the media centre of Sweden. It has four nationwide daily
newspapers and is also the central location of the publicly funded
radio (SR ) and television (SVT ). In addition, all other major
television channels have their base in Stockholm, such as: TV3 , TV4
and TV6 . All major magazines are also located to Stockholm, as are
the largest literature publisher, the Bonnier group . The hit PC game
Minecraft _ was created in
Stockholm by Markus \'Notch\' Persson in
Friends Arena , the largest retractable roof multi-purpose
stadium in Europe, with a capacity of 50,000 spectators.
The most popular spectator sports are football and ice hockey . The
three most popular football clubs in
Stockholm are AIK , Djurgårdens
Hammarby IF , who all play in the first tier,
Allsvenskan . AIK
play at Sweden's national stadium for football ,
Friends Arena in
Solna , with a capacity of 54,329. Djurgårdens IF and Hammarby play
Tele2 Arena in
Johanneshov , with a capacity of 30,000 spectators.
All three clubs have ice hockey teams; Djurgårdens IF play in the
first tier , AIK in the second and Hammarby in the third tier .
Historically, the city was the host of the
1912 Summer Olympics
1912 Summer Olympics .
From those days stem the Stockholms Olympiastadion which has since
hosted numerous sports events, notably football and athletics. Other
major sport arenas are
Friends Arena the new national football
Stockholm Globe Arena , a multi-sport arena and one of the
largest spherical buildings in the world and the nearby indoor arena
Beside the 1912 Summer Olympics,
Stockholm hosted the 1956 Summer
Olympics Equestrian Games and the
UEFA Euro 1992
UEFA Euro 1992 . The city was also
second runner up in the
2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics bids .
Stockholm also hosted all but one of the
Nordic Games , a winter
multi-sport event that predated the Winter Olympics .
In 2015, the Stockholms Kungar
Rugby league club were formed. They
are Stockholms first
Rugby league team and will play in Sweden's
Rugby league championship.
There are over 1000 restaurants in Stockholm. As of 2013 Stockholm
boasts a total of eight Michelin star restaurants, two of which have
Stockholm Marathon , near
Kungsträdgården in 2008
Stockholm Jazz Festival is one of Sweden's oldest festivals. The
festival takes place at Skeppsholmen in July.
Stockholm Pride is the largest Pride event in the Nordic countries
and takes place in the last week of July every year. The Stockholm
Pride festival always ends with a parade and in 2007, 50,000 people
marched with the parade and about 500,000 watched.
Stockholm Marathon takes place on a Saturday in early June
* The Nobel Banquet takes place at
Stockholm City Hall every year on
Festival (Swe : _Stockholms kulturfestival_)
is a summer festival held annually around the middle of August.
Festival (Swe : _Vattenfestivalen_) was a
popular summer festival held annually in
Stockholm between 1991 and
* Manifestation , a yearly ecumenical Christian festival with up to
* Summerburst Music festival
Stockholm International Film
Festival is an annual film
festival held in
Stockholm each year since 1990.
Park on the island of
Djurgården in central Stockholm.
GREEN CITY WITH A NATIONAL URBAN PARK
Stockholm is one of the cleanest capitals in the world. The city was
granted the 2010
European Green Capital Award by the EU Commission ;
this was Europe's first "green capital". Applicant cities were
evaluated in several ways: climate change, local transport, public
green areas, air quality, noise, waste, water consumption, waste water
treatment, sustainable utilisation of land, biodiversity and
environmental management. Out of 35 participant cities, eight
finalists were chosen: Stockholm,
Freiburg , Hamburg,
Münster , and
Oslo . Some of the reasons why
Stockholm won the 2010
European Green Capital Award were: its
integrated administrative system, which ensures that environmental
aspects are considered in budgets, operational planning, reporting,
and monitoring; its cut in carbon dioxide emissions by 25% per capita
in ten years; and its decision towards being fossil fuel free by 2050.
Stockholm has long demonstrated concern for the environment. The
city's current environmental program is the fifth since the first one
was established in the mid-1970s. In 2011,
Stockholm passed the title
of European Green Capital to Hamburg, Germany.
In the beginning of 2010,
Stockholm launched the program Professional
Study Visits in order to share the city's green best practices. The
program provides visitors with the opportunity to learn how to address
issues such as waste management, urban planning, carbon dioxide
emissions, and sustainable and efficient transportation system, among
According to the European Cities Monitor 2010,
Stockholm is the best
city in terms of freedom from pollution. Surrounded by 219 nature
Stockholm has around 1,000 green spaces, which corresponds
to 30% of the city's area. Founded in 1995, the Royal National City
Park is the world's first legally protected "national urban park".
For a description of the formation process, value assets and
implementation of the legal protection of The Royal National Urban
Park, see Schantz 2006 The water in
Stockholm is so clean that people
can dive and fish in the centre of the city. In fact the waters of
Stockholm serve as spawning grounds for multiple fish species
including trout and salmon. As for carbon dioxide emissions, the
government goal was to have only clean vehicles in the city by 2011.
Public transport in Stockholm A southbound
full-length (3 car) C20 metrotrain departing from the Gamla stan
Stockholm has an extensive public transport system. It consists of
Stockholm Metro (Swedish : _Tunnelbanan_), which consist of three
color-coded main lines (green, red and blue) with seven actual lines
(10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19); the
Stockholm commuter rail (Swedish :
_Pendeltågen_) which runs on the State-owned railroads on four lines
(35, 36, 37, 38); four light rail/tramway lines (7 , 12 , 21 , and 22
); the 891 mm narrow-gauge railway
Roslagsbanan , on three lines (27,
28, 29) in the northeastern part; the local railway
Saltsjöbanan , on
two lines (25, 26) in the southeastern part; a large number of bus
lines, and the inner-city boat line
Djurgårdsfärjan . The
overwhelming majority of the land-based public transport in Stockholm
County (save for the airport buses/airport express trains and other
few commercially viable bus lines) is organized under the common
Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (SL), an aktiebolag wholly
Stockholm County Council . Since the 1990s, the operation and
maintenance of the SL public transport services are contracted out to
independent companies bidding for contracts, such as MTR , which
currently operate the Metro. The archipelago boat traffic is handled
Waxholmsbolaget , which is also wholly owned by the County Council.
An A34 tram on line 7 at
SL has a common ticket system in the entire
Stockholm County, which
allows for easy travel between different modes of transport. The
tickets are of two main types, single ticket and travel cards , both
allowing for unlimited travel with SL in the entire
for the duration of the ticket validity. On 1 April 2007, a zone
system (A, B, C) and price system was introduced. Single tickets were
available in forms of cash ticket, individual unit pre-paid tickets,
pre-paid ticket slips of 8, sms-ticket and machine ticket. Cash
tickets bought at the point of travel were the most expensive and
pre-paid tickets slips of 8 are the cheapest. A single ticket is valid
for 75 minutes. The duration of the travel card validity depended on
the exact type; they were available from 24 hours up to a year. A
30-day card costs 790 SEK (83 EUR; 130 USD). Tickets of all these
types were available with reduced prices for students and persons
under 20 and over 65 years of age. On 9 January 2017, the zone system
was removed, and the costs of the tickets were highered.
The City Line Project
Stockholm City Line
With an estimated cost of SEK 16.8 billion (January 2007 price
level), which equals 2.44 billion US dollars, the City Line , an
environmentally certified project, comprises a 6 km (3.7 mi)-long
commuter train tunnel (in rock and water) beneath Stockholm, with two
new stations (
Stockholm City and
Stockholm Odenplan), and a 1.4 km
(0.87 mi)-long railway bridge at Årsta . The City Line was built by
Swedish Transport Administration in co-operation with the City of
Stockholm County Council, and
Stockholm Transport, SL. As
Stockholm Central Station is overloaded, the purpose of this project
was to double the city's track capacity and improve service
efficiency. Operations began in July 2017.
Riddarholmen and Söder Mälarstrand, the City Line runs
through a submerged concrete tunnel. As a green project, the City
Line includes the purification of waste water; noise reduction through
sound-attenuating tracks; the use of synthetic diesel, which provides
users with clean air; and the recycling of excavated rocks.
Stockholm is at the junction of the European routes E4 , E18 and E20
. A half-completed motorway ring road exists on the south and west
sides of the City Centre. A north section of the ring road will open
for traffic in 2015 while the final subsea eastern section is being
discussed as a future project. A bypass motorway for traffic between
Northern and Southern
Sweden will be built west of Stockholm
2013–2023. The many islands and waterways make extensions of the
road system both complicated and expensive, and new motorways are
often built as systems of tunnels and bridges.
Stockholm congestion tax A control point for the
congestion charge leading up to
Stockholm has a congestion pricing system,
Stockholm congestion tax,
in use on a permanent basis since 1 August 2007, after having had a
seven-month trial period in the first half of 2006. The City Centre
is within the congestion tax zone. All the entrances and exits of this
area have unmanned control points operating with automatic number
plate recognition . All vehicles entering or exiting the congestion
tax affected area, with a few exceptions, have to pay 10–20 SEK
(1.09–2.18 EUR , 1.49–2.98 USD ) depending on the time of day
between 06:30 and 18:29. The maximum tax amount per vehicle per day is
60 SEK (6.53 EUR, ). Payment is done by various means within 14 days
after one has passed one of the control points; one cannot pay at the
After the trial period was over, consultative referendums were held
Stockholm Municipality and several other municipalities in
Stockholm County. The then-reigning government (
Persson Cabinet )
stated that they would only take into consideration the results of the
Stockholm Municipality . The opposition parties
Sweden ) stated that if they were to form a cabinet
after the general election —which was held the same day as the
congestion tax referendums—they would take into consideration the
referendums held in several of the other municipalities in Stockholm
County as well. The results of the referendums were that the Stockholm
Municipality voted for the congestion tax, while the other
municipalities voted against it. The opposition parties won the
general election and a few days before they formed government
Reinfeldt Cabinet ) they announced that the congestion tax would be
reintroduced in Stockholm, but that the revenue would go entirely to
road construction in and around Stockholm. During the trial period and
according to the agenda of the previous government the revenue went
entirely to public transport.
_ Viking Grace_ , one of many cruiseferries on the routes to
Finland and the
Åland Islands .
Stockholm has regular ferry lines to
Turku in Finland
(commonly called "Finlandsfärjan ");
Tallinn , Estonia; Riga, Latvia,
Åland islands and to
Saint Petersburg . The large Stockholm
archipelago is served by the archipelago boats of Waxholmsbolaget
(owned and subsidized by
Stockholm County Council).
Between April and October, during the warmer months, it is possible
Stockholm City Bikes by purchasing a bike card online or
through retailers. Cards allow users to rent bikes from any Stockholm
City Bikes stand spread across the city and return them in any stand.
There are two types of cards: the Season Card (valid from 1 April to
31 October) and the 3-day card. When their validity runs out they can
be reactivated and are therefore reusable. Bikes can be used for up
to three hours per loan and can be rented from Monday to Sunday from 6
am to 10 pm.
ARN BMA NYO VST Map showing the locations
of airports around
* International and domestic:
* Stockholm-Arlanda International Airport (IATA : ARN, ICAO : ESSA)
is the largest and busiest airport in
Sweden with 24.7 million
passengers in 2016. It is located about 40 km (25 mi) north of
Stockholm and serves as a hub for
Scandinavian Airlines .
Bromma Airport (IATA : BMA, ICAO : ESSB) is located
about 8 km (5.0 mi) west of Stockholm.
* Only international:
* Stockholm-Skavsta Airport (IATA : NYO, ICAO : ESKN) is located 108
km (67 mi) south of Stockholm. It is located 5 km (3 mi) away from
Södermanland County capital
Stockholm-Västerås Airport (IATA : VST, ICAO : ESOW) is located
103 km (64 mi) west of Stockholm, in the city of
Arlanda Express airport rail link runs between Arlanda Airport and
central Stockholm. With a journey of 20 minutes, the train ride is the
fastest way of traveling to the city center. Arlanda Central Station
is also served by commuter, regional and intercity trains.
Additionally, there are also bus lines,
Flygbussarna , that run
Stockholm and all the airports.
As of 2010 there are no airports specifically for general aviation
Stockholm Central Station
Stockholm Central Station has train connections to many Swedish
cities as well as to Oslo,
Copenhagen , Denmark. The
X 2000 service to
Gothenburg takes three hours. Most of the
trains are run by
SJ AB .
Stockholm often performs well in international rankings, some of
which are mentioned below:
* In the book _The Ultimate Guide to International Marathons_
(1997), written by Dennis Craythorn and Rich Hanna,
is ranked as the best marathon in the world.
* In the 2006
European Innovation Scoreboard , prepared by the
Maastricht Economic Research Institute on
Innovation and Technology
(MERIT) and the
Joint Research Centre 's Institute for the Protection
and the Security of the Citizen of the
European Commission , Stockholm
was ranked as the most innovative city in Europe.
* In the 2008 World Knowledge
Competitiveness Index, published by
the Centre for International Competitiveness,
Stockholm was ranked as
the sixth most competitive region in the world and the most
competitive region outside the United States.
* In the 2006 European Regional Growth Index (E-REGI), published by
Jones Lang LaSalle ,
Stockholm was ranked fifth on the list of
European cities with the strongest
GDP growth forecast.
ranked first in
Scandinavia and second outside Central and Eastern
* In the 2007 European Cities Monitor, published by Cushman
La Paz ,
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Addis Ababa ,
Bassano del Grappa
Bassano del Grappa ,
* Syracuse ,
Saint Petersburg ,
List of people connected to Stockholm
* Ports of the
Holmium – a chemical element named after Stockholm
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Nordic countries and List of
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