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Steyr
Steyr
(German pronunciation: [ˈʃtaɪ̯ɐ] ( listen)) is a statutory city, located in the Austrian federal state of Upper Austria. It is the administrative capital, though not part of Steyr-Land District. Steyr
Steyr
is Austria's 12th most populated town and the 3rd largest town in Upper Austria. The city has a long history as a manufacturing center and has given its name to several manufacturers headquartered there, such as the former Steyr-Daimler-Puch
Steyr-Daimler-Puch
conglomerate and its successor Steyr
Steyr
Motors.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History 3 Population 4 Local council 5 Economy 6 Infrastructure

6.1 Health systems 6.2 Energy

7 Notable people 8 International relations

8.1 Twin towns—sister cities

9 Gallery 10 References 11 External links

Geography[edit]

Saint Michael's Church, at the confluence of the Enns and Steyr
Steyr
rivers

The city is situated in the Traunviertel
Traunviertel
region, with the two rivers Steyr
Steyr
and Enns flowing through it and meeting near the town centre beneath Lamberg Castle and St Michael's Church. This prominent location has made it prone to severe flooding through the centuries until the present, one of the worst cases being recently in August 2002. To the south of the town rises a series of hills that climb in altitude and stretch out to the Upper Austrian Prealps. To the north, the hills roll downward towards the confluence of the Enns with the Danube
Danube
River, where the town of Enns is situated. In the east, the municipal area borders with Lower Austria. Steyr
Steyr
is an ancient town with modern amenities, marketing its rich cultural and architectural heritage in tourism like Vienna
Vienna
and many other well preserved Austrian historic towns. It marked its 1,000th anniversary in 1980, after undergoing extensive restoration of its historic architecture which has made it one of the best preserved old towns in the country. The famous historic town centre built around the Stadtplatz (town square) was largely restored following World War II. Its best-known piece of architecture is called the Bummerlhaus
Bummerlhaus
which is considered one of the finest examples of Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
for its size in Central Europe. The city comprises the cadastral communities of Christkindl, Föhrenschacherl, Gleink, Hinterberg, Jägerberg, Sarning, Stein, and Steyr. History[edit]

Quayside at Enns river

The town's landmark: Bummerlhaus

Celts
Celts
settled the area from about 600 BC, the name of the Stiria River is of Celtic origin. Their kingdom of Noricum
Noricum
became part of the Roman Empire in 15 BC. A settlement named Gesodunum noted by the ancient geographer Claudius Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(c. 90 – c. 168) was possibly located in the Steyr
Steyr
region. Here the Roman "Iron Road" led from the Erzberg mine along the Enns River to the castra of Lauriacum (at present-day Enns) on the Danube. In the 6th century, Bavarian settlers moved into the area, which Duke Tassilo III of Bavaria granted to nearby Kremsmünster Abbey
Kremsmünster Abbey
in 777. During the Hungarian invasions of Europe, a fortress was erected above the Steyr
Steyr
River by the local Traungau counts, first mentioned as Styraburg in a 980 deed. From 1055 Steyr
Steyr
Castle in the Bavarian Traungau as well as the adjacent "March of Styria" were ruled by the mighty Otakar dynasty. The Otokars controlled the iron mining at Erzberg and made their residence at Steyr
Steyr
a centre of medieval courtly culture and Middle High German
Middle High German
poetry. In 1180 Emperor Frederick Barbarossa elevated Margrave Ottokar IV to a Duke of Styria; however, the line became extinct upon his death in 1192 and, according to the 1186 Georgenberg Pact, his Styrian lands fell to the Babenberg dukes of Austria. Steyr, already named a town (urbs) by then, lost its importance as a ducal residence but retained its status as a centre of ironworking. The Babenberg rulers promoted its economic development as a site of blacksmithing, mainly knife making and armament industry. After the extinction of the Babenbergs in 1246, Steyr
Steyr
together with the Duchy of Austria
Austria
was occupied by the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia
Ottokar II of Bohemia
and finally taken over by the Habsburg king Rudolf I of Germany
Rudolf I of Germany
upon his victory at the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld. The town privileges and market rights were confirmed by Rudolf's son King Albert I in 1287 and the citizens further on benefitted of Steyr's preferred position within the iron trade all over the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and especially with the Republic of Venice. In the 13th and 14th century, Steyr
Steyr
was a centre of the Christian Waldensian movement and a location of the inquisitoral persecutuions led by the Catholic cleric Petrus Zwicker
Petrus Zwicker
(d. 1403). Likewise, the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
quickly spread among the citizens about 1525, fiercely opposed by the Habsburg rulers in the course of the Counter-Reformation. The economic situation changed for the worse, as the iron trade decayed during the Thirty Years' War, when Upper Austria
Austria
was pawned to Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria, and the Peasants' War in Upper Austria
Austria
of 1626. In 1727 the medieval Styraburg was devastated by a blaze and replaced by the Baroque Lamberg Castle. The resurgence of Steyr
Steyr
began under the conditions of late 18th century Josephinism
Josephinism
and continued in the course of the succeeding industrialisation. During the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Steyr
Steyr
was occupied by French troops several times. In 1830 the blacksmith Leopold Werndl founded an armory at Steyr, which his sons Josef and Franz Werndl re-established as a stock company in 1864, named the Österreichische Waffenfabriksgesellschaft (ÖWG) from 1869. Including the Steyr automobile
Steyr automobile
branch from 1915 it was renamed Steyr-Werke AG in 1926 and formed a large industrial conglomerate by the merger with Austro-Daimler
Austro-Daimler
and Puch
Puch
in 1934. However, the Steyr
Steyr
industry was hit hard by the 1929 Great Depression. In 1934, the town became one of several battlegrounds between Social Democratic Schutzbund paramilitary foreces and Christian Social Heimwehr
Heimwehr
militias in the Austrian Civil War, which brought about the fascist corporate Federal State of Austria
Austria
that ruled the country until the 1938 Anschluss
Anschluss
to Nazi Germany. The Nazi authorities incorporated the armament industry into the vast Reichswerke Hermann Göring
Reichswerke Hermann Göring
conglomerate, including the construction of the Steyr-Münichholz subcamp of forced labourers, part of the Mauthausen network. A major producer of arms and military vehicles during World War II, Steyr
Steyr
became a target of Allied bombing raids to knock out its factories. In two major attacks by the US Fifteenth Air Force during the "Big Week" on 23 and 24 February 1944, much of the town was badly damaged, but the factories continued to function until near the end of the war. The city was a meeting point on 9 May 1945, when units of the 5th Guards Airborne of the Red Army
Red Army
and black troops of the US 761st Tank Battalion
761st Tank Battalion
along with the 71st Infantry Division contacted each other on the bridge over the Enns River. Steyr
Steyr
was occupied by the U.S. Army—the Soviet Army moved east behind the demarcation line of the province of Lower Austria. The troops remained until 1955 when Austria
Austria
officially declared neutrality by the Austrian State Treaty. Population[edit]

Largest groups of foreign residents

Nationality Population (2014)

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,524

 Turkey 879

 Germany 580

 Croatia 385

 Slovakia 334

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1869 16,593 —    

1880 21,054 +26.9%

1890 26,139 +24.2%

1900 22,272 −14.8%

1910 22,205 −0.3%

1923 27,200 +22.5%

1934 25,351 −6.8%

1939 31,017 +22.4%

1951 36,818 +18.7%

1961 38,306 +4.0%

1971 40,822 +6.6%

1981 38,942 −4.6%

1991 39,337 +1.0%

2001 39,340 +0.0%

2011 38,313 −2.6%

2014 38,273 −0.1%

Local council[edit] The local council (Gemeinderat) has 36 members. Elections in 2015 showed the following results:

SPÖ 16 seats FPÖ 10 seats ÖVP 5 seats The Greens - The Green Alternative 4 seats NEOS 1 seat[2]

Economy[edit] The most heavily represented sector is the manufacturing automotive parts. The most significant companies in Steyr
Steyr
are:

AVL Commercial Driveline & Tractor Engineering BMW Motors GFM Steyr
Steyr
GmbH MAN NKE AUSTRIA GmbH Profactor SKF Steyr
Steyr
Motors ZF Steyr

In other sectors are also important Austrian companies in Steyr:

Eckelt Glass GmbH Hartlauer Steyr-Mannlicher

Infrastructure[edit] Health systems[edit] The hospital Steyr
Steyr
is a center of gravity hospital. The Steyr
Steyr
School of General Health and Nursing offers a degree in nursing science and a training for a certified nurse. The oldest part is the 1916 castle-like old building. Since 1935, the hospital has been continuously expanded. Energy[edit]

Outside view of the biomass heating plant Steyr

Steyr
Steyr
has a district heating system which supplies the bulk of the buildings and industry with renewable energy. The thermal energy comes from the biomass heating plant Steyr. [3] Notable people[edit]

Ferdinand Redtenbacher

Steyr
Steyr
has had a number of well-known residents or visitors, including Franz Schubert, who wrote his Trout Quintet
Trout Quintet
there while on holiday, and composer Anton Bruckner, organist at the local parish church. Young Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
spent a brief period there while he attended the Steyr
Steyr
secondary school in 1904, living in a room on Grünmarkt. The school is located in the same building as the famous Saint Michael's Church. Natives of Steyr
Steyr
are:

Johannes Stabius (c. 1460–1522), cartographer Johann Michael Vogl
Johann Michael Vogl
(1768–1840), singer Johann Mayrhofer
Johann Mayrhofer
(1787–1836), poet Ferdinand Redtenbacher
Ferdinand Redtenbacher
(1809–1863), engineer Josef Werndl
Josef Werndl
(1831–1889), arms producer, engineer and inventor Michael Blümelhuber
Michael Blümelhuber
(1865-1936), metalcutter August Eigruber
August Eigruber
(1907–1947), Nazi Gauleiter hanged for war crimes Franz Schausberger
Franz Schausberger
(born 1950), politician and historian Erich Hackl (born 1954), novelist Wilhelm Molterer
Wilhelm Molterer
(born 1955), politician Ronald Brunmayr (born 1975), football player Georg Harding
Georg Harding
(born 1981), football player Emanuel Schreiner
Emanuel Schreiner
(born 1989), football player Kevin Stöger
Kevin Stöger
(born 1993), football player Franz Wickhoff
Franz Wickhoff
(1853-1909) was an Austrian art historian and a member of the Vienna
Vienna
School of Art History[4]

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Austria Twin towns—sister cities[edit] Steyr
Steyr
is twinned with:

Bethlehem, Palestine Kettering, Ohio, USA Plauen, Saxony, Germany San Benedetto del Tronto, Ascoli Piceno, Marche, Italy

Gallery[edit]

Stadtplatz with Rococo townhall.

Museum Arbeitswelt on the Steyr
Steyr
river; in August 2002 the river rose up to the bridge railings and damaged it extensively.

Lamberg Castle, in 2002 the Enns river rose up to the bridge girders.

References[edit]

^ Statistik Austria
Austria
- Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn 2002-2016 nach Gemeinden, Erstellt am 14.06.2016 (Last accessed 13.12.2016) for Steyr. ^ Mitglieder des Gemeinderats ^ http://www.fernwaermesteyr.at/waerme_steyr/page/790213410858496064_790686873558106026~790686753835892434_790686753835892434,de.html ^ admin (2018-02-21). "Wickhoff, Franz". www.arthistorians.info. Retrieved 2018-03-30. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Steyr.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Steyr.

Official Homepage of the City of Steyr
Steyr
(in German) Live webcam of main square http://www.e-steyr.com Communitysite for news, nightlife, society, sports and culture

v t e

Cities and districts (Bezirke) of Upper Austria

Cities

Linz Steyr Wels

Districts

Braunau am Inn Eferding Freistadt Gmunden Grieskirchen Kirchdorf an der Krems Linz-Land Perg Ried im Innkreis Rohrbach Schärding Steyr-Land Urfahr-Umgebung Vöcklabruck Wels-Land

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 237247

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