STEWART LEE UDALL (January 31, 1920 – March 20, 2010) was an
American politician and later, a federal government official. After
serving three terms as a congressman from
* 1 Early life and career * 2 Secretary of the Interior * 3 Energy policy * 4 Later years * 5 Death and legacy * 6 Family * 7 Books written by Stewart L. Udall * 8 Books co-authored by Stewart L. Udall * 9 Books about Stewart L. Udall and Ermalee Udall * 10 Other information * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links
EARLY LIFE AND CAREER
Born January 31, 1920, in Saint Johns,
Udall received his law degree and was admitted to the
SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
Udall (rear) standing next to Mrs. John F. Kennedy at the president's Swearing In Ceremony, January 21, 1961.
Udall served as Secretary of the Interior from 1961 to 1969 under
John F. Kennedy and
Lyndon B. Johnson . Under his
leadership, the Interior Department aggressively promoted an expansion
of federal public lands and assisted with the enactment of major
environmental legislation. Among his accomplishments, Udall oversaw
the addition of four national parks, six national monuments, eight
national seashores and lakeshores, nine national recreation areas,
twenty national historic sites, and fifty-six national wildlife
Canyonlands National Park in Utah, North Cascades
National Park in Washington,
Redwood National Park in California, the
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, and the
Appalachian National Scenic Trail
Udall played a key role in the enactment of environmental laws such as the Clear Air, Water Quality and Clean Water Restoration Acts and Amendments, the Wilderness Act of 1964 , the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 , the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 , the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965, the National Trail System Act of 1968, and Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968.
Soon after becoming the Secretary of Interior, Udall told the Washington Redskins owner, George Preston Marshall , that he had to integrate the football team as every other franchise in the NFL already had, or risk being evicted from the Washington, D.C. stadium, which was federally owned. Marshall integrated the team in 1962.
During Udall's tenure as Secretary of the Interior, in September
1962, he was summoned unexpectedly into a meeting with Soviet Premier
Nikita Khrushchev while on a tour of the
Udall also helped spark a cultural renaissance in America by setting in motion initiatives that led to the Kennedy Center , Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts , the National Endowment for the Arts , the National Endowment for the Humanities , and the revived Ford\'s Theatre . Upon Udall's recommendation President Kennedy asked former U.S. Poet Laureate Robert Frost to read an original poem at his inauguration, establishing a tradition for that occasion. Lady Bird Johnson and Udall on a trip to Grand Teton National Park , August 1964
A pioneer of the environmental movement, Udall warned of a conservation crisis in the 1960s with his best-selling book on environmental attitudes in the United States, The Quiet Crisis (1963). In the book, he wrote about the dangers of pollution, overuse of natural resources, and dwindling open spaces. Along with Rachel Carson 's Silent Spring, The Quiet Crisis is credited with creating a consciousness in the country that led to the environmental movement. Udall was a staunch supporter of Rachel Carson and her work. Stewart Udall once stated, "Plans to protect air and water, wilderness and wildlife are in fact, plans to protect Man."
Udall also had the foresight, when he was Secretary of the Interior, to spearhead the use of NASA satellites to produce images of Earth from space for scientific research, leading to development of the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) center at the U.S. Geological Survey . Over the course of more than forty years, that program mapped the Earth from space, showing the physical changes to the planet.
In 1967, the
National Audubon Society
During the energy crisis in the 1970s, Udall advocated the use of solar energy as one remedy to the crisis. In October 1972, Udall published a seminal article in The Atlantic Monthly , entitled "The Last Traffic Jam". The article contains arguments for the proposition that "less is more" and foresaw problems with U.S. transportation and energy policy and competition with emerging markets for scarce resources. In 1974, Udall, along with Charles Conconi and David Osterhout, wrote The Energy Balloon, discussing the energy policies of the United States.
After leaving government service in 1969, Udall taught for a year at the School of Forestry at Yale University as a Visiting Professor of Environmental Humanism. He later devoted his time to writing books and articles about environmental issues and to practicing law. In 1971, he published America's Natural Treasures: National Nature Monuments and Seashores, which is about America's national parks, monuments, and reserves.
In 1979, he left Washington to return to the West. In 1980, Udall was
elected to the Central
In 1987, he published To the Inland Empire: Coronado and our Spanish Legacy, which retraces the trails of Spanish explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado as he searched for the "golden cities" of Cibola in what now is Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Udall published The Quiet Crisis and the Next Generation in 1988, a revised edition with nine new chapters of The Quiet Crisis (1963). "The Quiet Crisis" introduced the Myth of Superabundance . In 1990, he co-authored Beyond the Mythic West, which examines effects of change upon the inhabitants and lands of the western United States. In 1998, he published The Myths of August: A Personal Exploration of Our Tragic Cold War Affairs with the Atom.
One of Udall's last essays was his "Letter to My Grandchildren",
written with his wife, Ermalee, which asked for their grandchildren's
assistance in advocating for protection of the Earth. This letter
resulted in Udall being contacted by the VillageTown Stewards who
asked that they videotape the thoughts in that letter, since it was
more likely that the generation of his grandchildren watch internet
videos than read letters. Udall agreed, and the video may be seen
In November 2009, Congress enacted legislation to honor Stewart Udall
by renaming the Morris K. Udall Foundation as the Morris K. Udall and
Stewart L. Udall Foundation , in recognition of the historic Interior
Secretary's contributions. The Udall Foundation, an independent
federal agency, was created initially to honor the legacy of the late
DEATH AND LEGACY
At the age of 90, Stewart L. Udall died peacefully at his home in the
Santa Fe, New Mexico
On June 8, 2010, Obama signed legislation to designate the United States Department of the Interior Building as the "Stewart Lee Udall Department of the Interior Building."
Main article: Udall family
This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )
BOOKS WRITTEN BY STEWART L. UDALL
* The Quiet Crisis, 1963 * 1976: Agenda for Tomorrow, 1968 * America's Natural Treasures: National Nature Monuments and Seashores, 1971 * To the Inland Empire: Coronado and our Spanish Legacy, 1987 * The Quiet Crisis and the Next Generation, 1988 (Revised edition with nine new chapters of The Quiet Crisis (1963)) * In Coronado's Footsteps, 1991