Steven Paul Jobs (/dʒɒbz/; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011)
was an American entrepreneur, business magnate, inventor, and
industrial designer. He was the chairman, chief executive officer
(CEO), and a co-founder of Apple Inc., CEO and majority shareholder of
Pixar, a member of The Walt
Disney Company's board of directors
following its acquisition of Pixar, and the founder, chairman, and CEO
of NeXT. Jobs and Apple co-founder
Steve Wozniak are widely recognized
as pioneers of the microcomputer revolution of the 1970s and 1980s.
Jobs was born in San Francisco, California, to parents who put him up
for adoption at birth. He was raised in the
San Francisco Bay Area
during the 1960s. He attended
Reed College in 1972 before dropping
out, and traveled through
India in 1974 seeking enlightenment and
Zen Buddhism. His declassified FBI report states that he
used marijuana and
LSD while he was in college, and he once told a
reporter that taking
LSD was "one of the two or three most important
things" that he did in his life.
Jobs and Wozniak co-founded Apple in 1976 to sell Wozniak's Apple I
personal computer. The duo gained fame and wealth a year later for the
Apple II, one of the first highly successful mass-produced personal
computers. Jobs saw the commercial potential of the
Xerox Alto in
1979, which was mouse-driven and had a graphical user interface (GUI).
This led to development of the unsuccessful
Apple Lisa in 1983,
followed by the breakthrough
Macintosh in 1984, the first
mass-produced computer with a GUI. The
Macintosh introduced the
desktop publishing industry in 1985 with the addition of the Apple
LaserWriter, the first laser printer to feature vector graphics. Jobs
was forced out of Apple in 1985 after a long power struggle.:310
Jobs took a few of Apple's members with him to found NeXT, a computer
platform development company that specialized in computers for
higher-education and business markets. In addition, he helped to
develop the visual effects industry when he funded the computer
graphics division of George Lucas's
Lucasfilm in 1986. The new
company was Pixar, which produced Toy Story, the first fully
Apple merged with
NeXT in 1997, and Jobs became CEO of his former
company within a few months. He revived Apple, which had been at the
verge of bankruptcy. He worked closely with designer
Jonathan Ive to
develop a line of products that had larger cultural ramifications,
beginning in 1997 with the "Think different" advertising campaign and
leading to the iMac, iTunes, iTunes Store, Apple Store, iPod, iPhone,
App Store, and the iPad. In 2001, the original Mac OS was replaced
with a completely new Mac OS X, based on NeXT's
giving the OS a modern Unix-based foundation for the first time.
Jobs was diagnosed with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in 2003. He
died at age 56 on October 5, 2011, of respiratory arrest that was
related to the tumor.
1.1 Biological and adoptive family
3 Homestead High
4 Reed College
5.2 Apple (1976–1985)
Pixar and Disney
7.1 Return to Apple
7.2 Health issues
8 Portrayals and coverage in books, film, and theater
9 Innovations and designs
9.1 Apple II
9.2 Apple Lisa
10 Honors and awards
11 See also
13 External links
Biological and adoptive family
Abdul Lateef Jandali was born to Abdulfattah Jandali and
Joanne Schieble, and was adopted by Paul Jobs and Clara Hagopian, who
named him Steven Paul Jobs.
His biological father, Abdulfattah "John" Jandali (Arabic: عبد
الفتاح الجندلي) (b. 1931), grew up in Homs, Syria, and
was born into an Arab
Muslim household. Jandali is the son of a
self-made millionaire who did not go to college and a mother who was a
traditional housewife. While an undergraduate at the American
University of Beirut, Lebanon, he was a student activist and spent
time in jail for his political activities. Although Jandali
initially wanted to study law, he eventually decided to study
economics and political science. He pursued a PhD in the latter
subject at the University of Wisconsin, where he met Joanne Carole
Schieble (b. 1932), a Catholic of Swiss and German descent, who grew
up on a farm in Wisconsin.[page needed] As a doctoral
candidate, Jandali was a teaching assistant for a course Schieble was
taking, although both were the same age. Mona Simpson, Jobs'
biological sister, notes that her maternal grandparents were not happy
that their daughter was dating Jandali: "it wasn't that he was
Middle-Eastern so much as that he was a Muslim. But there are a lot of
Arabs in Michigan and Wisconsin. So it's not that unusual." Walter
Isaacson, Steve Jobs' official biographer, additionally states that
Schieble's father "threatened to cut Joanne off completely" if she
continued the relationship.[page needed]
Jobs' adoptive father, Paul Reinhold Jobs (1922–1993), grew up in a
Calvinist household,[page needed] the son of an "alcoholic
and sometimes abusive" father.[page needed] The family lived
on a farm in Germantown,
Wisconsin.[page needed][page needed] Paul bore an
ostensible resemblance to James Dean; he had tattoos, dropped out of
high school, and traveled around the Midwest for several years during
the 1930s looking for
work.[page needed][page needed] He eventually joined
United States Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard as an engine-room
machinist.[page needed] After World War II, Paul Jobs decided
to leave the Coast Guard when his ship docked in San
Francisco.[page needed] He made a bet that he would find his
San Francisco and promptly went on a blind date with Clara
Hagopian (1924–1986). They were engaged ten days later and married
in 1946.[page needed] Clara, the daughter of Armenian
immigrants, grew up in
San Francisco and had been married before, but
her husband had been killed in the war. After a series of moves, Paul
and Clara settled in San Francisco's Sunset District in
1952.[page needed] As a hobby, Paul Jobs rebuilt cars, but
his career was as a "repo man", which suited his "aggressive, tough
personality."[page needed] Meanwhile, their attempts to start
a family were halted after Clara had an ectopic pregnancy, leading
them to consider adoption in 1955.[page needed]
"Of all the inventions of humans, the computer is going to rank near
or at the top as history unfolds and we look back. It is the most
awesome tool that we have ever invented. I feel incredibly lucky to be
at exactly the right place in Silicon Valley, at exactly the right
time, historically, where this invention has taken form."
—Steve Jobs, 1995. From the documentary, Steve Jobs: The Lost
Schieble became pregnant with Jobs in 1954 when she and Jandali spent
the summer with his family in Homs, Syria. Jandali has stated that he
"was very much in love with Joanne ... but sadly, her father was a
tyrant, and forbade her to marry me, as I was from Syria. And so she
told me she wanted to give the baby up for adoption." Jobs told
his official biographer that Schieble's father was dying at the time,
Schieble did not want to aggravate him, and both felt that at 23 they
were too young to marry.[page needed] In addition, as there
was a strong stigma against bearing a child out of wedlock and raising
it as a single mother, and as abortions were illegal and dangerous,
adoption was the only option women had in the United States in
1954.[page needed] According to Jandali, Schieble
deliberately did not involve him in the process: "without telling me,
Joanne upped and left to move to
San Francisco to have the baby
without anyone knowing, including me ... she did not want to bring
shame onto the family and thought this was the best for everyone."
Schieble put herself in the care of a "doctor who sheltered unwed
mothers, delivered their babies, and quietly arranged closed
Schieble gave birth to Jobs on February 24, 1955, in
San Francisco and
chose an adoptive couple for him that was "Catholic, well-educated,
and wealthy."[page needed] The couple changed their mind,
however, and decided to adopt a girl instead.[page needed]
The baby boy was then placed with the Bay Area blue collar couple Paul
and Clara Jobs, neither of whom had a college education, and Schieble
refused to sign the adoption papers.[page needed] She then
took the matter to court in an attempt to have her baby placed with a
different family[page needed] and only consented to releasing
the baby to Paul and Clara after they promised that he would attend
college.[page needed] When
Steve Jobs was in high school, his
mother Clara admitted to his girlfriend, 17-year-old Chrisann Brennan,
that she "was too frightened to love [Steve] for the first six months
of his life ... I was scared they were going to take him away from me.
Even after we won the case, Steve was so difficult a child that by the
time he was two I felt we had made a mistake. I wanted to return
him."[page needed] When Chrisann shared his mother's comment
with Steve, he stated that he was already aware of
that[page needed] and would later say he was deeply loved and
indulged by Paul and Clara.[page needed] Many years later,
Steve Jobs's wife Laurene also noted that "he felt he had been really
blessed by having the two of them as parents."[page needed]
Jobs would become upset when Paul and Clara were referred to as
"adoptive parents" as they "were my parents
1,000%."[page needed] With regard to his biological parents,
Jobs referred to them as "my sperm and egg bank. That's not harsh,
it's just the way it was, a sperm bank thing, nothing
more."[page needed] Jandali has also stated that "I really am
not his dad. Mr. and Mrs. Jobs are, as they raised him. And I don't
want to take their place."
"I always thought of myself as a humanities person as a kid, but I
liked electronics … then I read something that one of my heroes,
Edwin Land of Polaroid, said about the importance of people who could
stand at the intersection of humanities and sciences, and I decided
that's what I wanted to do."
—Steve Jobs[page needed]
Paul and Clara adopted Jobs's sister Patricia in
1957[page needed] and the family moved to Mountain View,
California, in 1961.[page needed] It was during this time
that Paul built a workbench in his garage for his son in order to
"pass along his love of mechanics."[page needed] Jobs,
meanwhile, admired his father's craftsmanship "because he knew how to
build anything. If we needed a cabinet, he would build it. When he
built our fence, he gave me a hammer so I could work with him ... I
wasn't that into fixing cars ... but I was eager to hang out with my
dad."[page needed] By the time he was ten, Jobs was deeply
involved in electronics and befriended many of the engineers who lived
in the neighborhood.[page needed] He had difficulty making
friends with children his own age, however, and was seen by his
classmates as a "loner."[page needed]
Childhood home of
Steve Jobs in
Los Altos, California
Los Altos, California that served as
the original site of Apple Computer. The home was added to a list of
historic Los Altos sites in 2013.
Jobs had difficulty functioning in a traditional classroom, tended to
resist authority figures, frequently misbehaved and was suspended a
few times.[page needed] Clara had taught him to read as a
toddler, and Jobs stated that he was "pretty bored in school and [had]
turned into a little terror... you should have seen us in the third
grade, we basically destroyed the teacher."[page needed] He
frequently played pranks on others at Monta Loma Elementary school in
Mountain View.[page needed] His father Paul (who was abused
as a child) never reprimanded him, however, and instead blamed the
school for not placing enough challenge on his brilliant
Jobs would later credit his fourth grade teacher, Imogene 'Teddy'
Hill, with turning him around: "She taught an advanced fourth grade
class and it took her about a month to get hip to my situation. She
bribed me into learning. She would say, 'I really want you to finish
this workbook. I'll give you five bucks if you finish it.' That really
kindled a passion in me for learning things! I learned more that year
than I think I learned in any other year in school. They wanted me to
skip the next two years in grade school and go straight to junior high
to learn a foreign language but my parents very wisely wouldn't let it
happen."[page needed] Jobs skipped the fifth grade and
transferred to the sixth grade at Crittenden Middle School in Mountain
View[page needed] where he became a "socially awkward
loner."[page needed] Jobs "was often bullied" and gave his
parents an ultimatum: they had to either take him out of Crittenden or
he would drop out of school.
Though the Jobs family was not well off, they used all their savings
in 1967 to buy a new home, which would allow Jobs to change
schools.[page needed] The new house (a three-bedroom home on
Crist Drive in Los Altos, California) was in the better Cupertino
School District, Cupertino, California,[page needed] and was
embedded in an environment that was even more heavily populated with
engineering families than the Mountain View
home.[page needed] The house was declared a historic site in
2013 as it was the first site for Apple Computer and is now owned
by Patty and occupied by Jobs's step-mother Marilyn.
When he was 13 in 1968, Jobs was given a summer job by Bill Hewlett
(of Hewlett-Packard) after Jobs cold-called him to ask for parts for
an electronics project: "He didn't know me at all, but he ended up
giving me some parts and he got me a job that summer working at
Hewlett-Packard on the line, assembling frequency counters...well,
assembling may be too strong. I was putting in screws. It didn't
matter; I was in heaven."[page needed]
Bill Fernandez, a fellow electronics hobbyist who was in Jobs's grade
at Cupertino Junior High, was his first friend after the 1967 move.
Fernandez later commented that "for some reason the kids in the eighth
grade didn't like [Jobs] because they thought he was odd. I was one of
his few friends." Fernandez eventually introduced Jobs to 18-year-old
electronics whiz and Homestead High alum Steve Wozniak, who lived
across the street from Fernandez.
The location of the Los Altos home meant that Jobs would be able to
attend nearby Homestead High School, which had strong ties to Silicon
Valley.[page needed] He began his first year there in late
1968 along with Fernandez.[page needed] Neither Jobs nor
Fernandez (whose father was a lawyer) came from engineering households
and thus decided to enroll in John McCollum's "Electronics
1."[page needed] McCollum and the rebellious Jobs (who had
grown his hair long and become involved in the growing counterculture)
would eventually clash and Jobs began to lose interest in the class.
He also had no interest in sports and would later say that he didn't
have what it took to "be a jock. I was always a
He underwent a change during mid-1970: "I got stoned for the first
time; I discovered Shakespeare, Dylan Thomas, and all that classic
stuff. I read
Moby Dick and went back as a junior taking creative
writing classes."[page needed] Jobs also later noted to his
official biographer that "I started to listen to music a whole lot,
and I started to read more outside of just science and
technology—Shakespeare, Plato. I loved
King Lear ... when I was a
senior I had this phenomenal AP English class. The teacher was this
guy who looked like Ernest Hemingway. He took a bunch of us
snowshoeing in Yosemite." From that point, Jobs developed two
different circles of friends: those who were involved in electronics
and engineering and those who were interested in art and
literature.[page needed] These dual interests were
particularly reflected during Jobs's senior year as his best friends
were Wozniak and his first girlfriend, the artistic Homestead junior
Chrisann Brennan.[page needed]
In 1971 after Wozniak began attending University of California,
Berkeley, Jobs would visit him there a few times a week. This
experience led him to study in nearby Stanford University's student
union. Jobs also decided that rather than join the electronics club,
he would put on light shows with a friend for Homestead's avant-garde
Jazz program. He was described by a Homestead classmate as "kind of a
brain and kind of a hippie ... but he never fit into either group. He
was smart enough to be a nerd, but wasn't nerdy. And he was too
intellectual for the hippies, who just wanted to get wasted all the
time. He was kind of an outsider. In high school everything revolved
around what group you were in. and if you weren't in a carefully
defined group, you weren't anybody. He was an individual, in a world
where individuality was suspect." By his senior year in late 1971, he
was taking freshman English class at Stanford and working on a
Homestead underground film project with
Chrisann.[page needed] In mid-1972, after graduation and
before leaving for Reed College, Jobs and Brennan rented a house from
their other roommate, Al.[page needed] During the summer,
Brennan, Jobs, and
Steve Wozniak found an advertisement posted on the
De Anza College
De Anza College bulletin board for a job that required people to dress
up as characters from Alice in Wonderland. Brennan portrayed Alice
while Wozniak, Jobs, and Al portrayed the White Rabbit and the Mad
"I was interested in Eastern mysticism which hit the shores about
then. At Reed there was a constant flow of people stopping by – from
Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert, to Gary Snyder. There was a constant
flow of intellectual questioning about the truth of life. That was the
time when every college student in the country read Be Here Now and
Diet for a Small Planet."
—Steve Jobs[page needed]
Later in the year, Jobs enrolled at
Reed College in Portland, Oregon.
Reed was an expensive school that Paul and Clara could ill afford, and
they were spending much of their life savings on their son's higher
education.[page needed] Brennan remained involved with Jobs
while he was at Reed. She also met his friend at Reed, Daniel Kottke,
for the first time.[page needed] Jobs also became friends
with Reed's student body president, Robert
Brennan was now a senior at Homestead, and she did not have plans to
attend college. She was supportive of Jobs when he told her that he
planned to drop out of Reed because he did not want to spend his
parents' money on it (neither her father nor Jobs's adoptive parents
had gone to college). Jobs continued to attend by auditing his
classes, which included a course on calligraphy that was taught by
Robert Palladino. Jobs was no longer an official student, and Brennan
stopped visiting him. Jobs later asked her to come and live with him
in a house he rented near the Reed campus, but she refused. He had
started seeing other women, and she was interested in someone she met
in her art class. Brennan speculated that the house was Jobs's attempt
to make their relationship monogamous again.[page needed] In
a 2005 commencement speech at Stanford University, Jobs stated that
during this period, he slept on the floor in friends' dorm rooms,
returned Coke bottles for food money, and got weekly free meals at the
local Hare Krishna temple. In that same speech, Jobs said: "If I had
never dropped in on that single calligraphy course in college, the Mac
would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced
I was lucky to get into computers when it was a very young and
idealistic industry. There weren't many degrees offered in computer
science, so people in computers were brilliant people from
mathematics, physics, music, zoology, whatever. They loved it, and no
one was really in it for the money [...] There are people around here
who start companies just to make money, but the great companies, well,
that's not what they're about."
In mid-1972, Jobs moved back to the
San Francisco Bay Area and was
renting his own apartment. Brennan states by this point that their
"relationship was complicated. I couldn't break the connection and I
couldn't commit. Steve couldn't either." Jobs hitchhiked and worked
around the West Coast and Brennan would occasionally join him. At the
same time, Brennan notes, "little by little, Steve and I separated.
But we were never able to fully let go. We never talked about breaking
up or going our separate ways and we didn't have that conversation
where one person says it's over." They continued to grow apart, but
Jobs would still seek her out, and visit her while she was working in
a health food store or as a live-in babysitter. They remained involved
with each other while continuing to see other
people.[page needed] In 1973,
Steve Wozniak designed his own
version of the classic video game Pong. After finishing it, Wozniak
gave the board to Jobs, who then took the game down to
Atari, Inc. in
Los Gatos, California.
Atari thought that Jobs had built it and gave
him a job as a technician. Atari's cofounder Nolan Bushnell
later described him as "difficult but valuable", pointing out that "he
was very often the smartest guy in the room, and he would let people
By early 1973, Jobs was living what Brennan describes as a "simple
life" in a Los Gatos cabin, working at Atari, and saving money for his
impending trip to India. Brennan visited him twice at the cabin. She
states in her memoir that her memories of this cabin consist of Jobs
reading Be Here Now (and giving her a copy), listening to South Indian
music, and using a Japanese meditation pillow. Brennan felt that he
was more distant and negative toward her. Brennan states in her memoir
that she met with Jobs right before he left for
India and that he
tried to give her a $100 bill that he had earned at Atari. She
initially refused to accept it but eventually accepted the money.:
Jobs traveled to
India in mid-1974 to visit Neem Karoli Baba
at his Kainchi ashram with his Reed friend (and eventual Apple
employee) Daniel Kottke, in search of spiritual enlightenment. When
they got to the Neem Karoli ashram, it was almost deserted because
Neem Karoli Baba
Neem Karoli Baba had died in September 1973. Then they made a long
trek up a dry riverbed to an ashram of Haidakhan Babaji. In India,
they spent a lot of time on bus rides from
Uttar Pradesh and
After staying for seven months, Jobs left India and returned to
the US ahead of Daniel Kottke. Jobs had changed his appearance;
his head was shaved and he wore traditional Indian clothing.
During this time, Jobs experimented with psychedelics, later calling
LSD experiences "one of the two or three most important things [he
had] done in [his] life." He spent a period at the All One
Farm, a commune in
Oregon that was owned by Robert Friedland. Brennan
joined him there for a period.[page needed]
During this time period, Jobs and Brennan both became practitioners of
Buddhism through the
Zen master Kōbun Chino Otogawa. Jobs was
living with his parents again, in their backyard toolshed which he had
converted into a bedroom with a sleeping bag, mat, books, a candle,
and a meditation pillow.[page needed] Jobs engaged in lengthy
meditation retreats at the Tassajara
Zen Mountain Center, the oldest
Zen monastery in the US. He considered taking up monastic
Eihei-ji in Japan, and maintained a lifelong appreciation
for Zen. Jobs would later say that people around him who did not
share his countercultural roots could not fully relate to his
Jobs then returned to
Atari and was assigned to create a circuit board
for the arcade video game Breakout. According to Bushnell, Atari
offered US$100 for each TTL chip that was eliminated in the machine.
Jobs had little specialized knowledge of circuit board design and made
a deal with Wozniak to split the fee evenly between them if Wozniak
could minimize the number of chips. Much to the amazement of Atari
engineers, Wozniak reduced the TTL count to 46, a design so tight that
it was impossible to reproduce on an assembly line. According to
Wozniak, Jobs told him that
Atari gave them only $700 (instead of the
$5,000 paid out), and that Wozniak's share was thus $350. Wozniak
did not learn about the actual bonus until ten years later, but said
that if Jobs had told him about it and explained that he needed the
money, Wozniak would have given it to him.:104–107
Wozniak had designed a low-cost digital "blue box" to generate the
necessary tones to manipulate the telephone network, allowing free
long-distance calls. Jobs decided that they could make money selling
it. The clandestine sales of the illegal "blue boxes" went well and
perhaps planted the seed in Jobs's mind that electronics could be both
fun and profitable. Jobs, in a 1994 interview, recalled that it
took six months for him and Wozniak to figure out how to build the
blue boxes. Jobs said that if not for the blue boxes, there would
have been no Apple. He states it showed them that they could take on
large companies and beat them.
Jobs and Wozniak attended meetings of the
Homebrew Computer Club
Homebrew Computer Club in
1975, which was a stepping stone to the development and marketing of
the first Apple computer.
See also: History of Apple § 1975–1985: Jobs and Wozniak
Steve Wozniak and I invented the Apple because we wanted a
personal computer. Not only couldn't we afford the computers that were
on the market, those computers were impractical for us to use. We
needed a Volkswagen. The Volkswagen isn't as fast or comfortable as
other ways of traveling, but the VW owners can go where they want,
when they want and with whom they want. The VW owners have personal
control of their car."
—Steve Jobs.[page needed]
In 1976, Wozniak invented the
Apple I computer and showed it to Jobs,
who suggested that they sell it. Jobs, Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne
Apple Computer (now called Apple Inc.) in the garage of Jobs's
Los Altos home on Crist Drive. Wayne stayed only a short time,
leaving Jobs and Wozniak as the active primary cofounders of the
company. The two decided on the name "Apple" after Jobs returned
from the All One Farm commune in
Oregon and told Wozniak about his
time spent in the farm's apple orchard. A neighbor on Crist Drive
recalled Jobs as an odd individual who would greet his clients "with
his underwear hanging out, barefoot and hippie-like." Another
neighbor, Larry Waterland, who had just earned his PhD in chemical
engineering at Stanford, recalled dismissing Jobs's budding business:
" 'You punched cards, put them in a big deck,' he said about the
mainframe machines of that time. 'Steve took me over to the garage. He
had a circuit board with a chip on it, a DuMont TV set, a Panasonic
cassette tape deck and a keyboard. He said, 'This is an Apple
computer.' I said, 'You've got to be joking.' I dismissed the whole
idea.'" Jobs's friend from
Reed College and India, and an early
Apple employee, Daniel Kottke, recalled that he "was the only person
who worked in the garage ... Woz would show up once a week with his
Steve Jobs didn't get his hands dirty in that sense."
Kottke also stated that much of the early work took place in Jobs's
kitchen, where he spent hours on the phone trying to find investors
for the company.
They received funding from a then-semi-retired
Intel product marketing
manager and engineer Mike Markkula. Scott McNealy, one of the
cofounders of Sun Microsystems, said that Jobs broke a "glass age
Silicon Valley because he'd created a very successful
company at a young age.
"For what characterizes Apple is that its scientific staff always
acted and performed like artists – in a field filled with dry
personalities limited by the rational and binary worlds they inhabit,
Apple's engineering teams had passion. They always believed that what
they were doing was important and, most of all, fun. Working at Apple
was never just a job; it was also a crusade, a mission, to bring
better computer power to people. At its roots that attitude came from
Steve Jobs. It was "Power to the People", the slogan of the sixties,
rewritten in technology for the eighties and called Macintosh."
—Jeffrey S. Young, Steve Jobs: The Journey is the Reward
After she returned from her own journey to India, Brennan visited Jobs
at his parents' home, where he was still living. It was during this
period that Jobs and Brennan fell in love again, as Brennan noted
changes in him that she attributes to Kobun (whom she was also still
following). It was also at this time that Jobs displayed a prototype
Apple computer for Brennan and his parents in their living room.
Brennan notes a shift in this time period, where the two main
influences on Jobs were Apple and Kobun. By the early 1977, she and
Jobs would spend time together at her home at Duveneck Ranch in Los
Altos, which served as a hostel and environmental education center.
Brennan also worked there as a teacher for inner city children who
came to learn about the farm.[page needed]
In 1977, Jobs and Wozniak introduced the
Apple II at the West Coast
Computer Faire. It was the first consumer product sold by Apple
Computer and was one of the first highly successful mass-produced
microcomputer products, It was designed primarily by Steve
Wozniak. Jobs oversaw the development of the Apple II's unusual
case[page needed] and
Rod Holt developed the unique power
Jobs usually went to work wearing a black long-sleeved mock turtleneck
Issey Miyake (it was sometimes reported as St. Croix brand),
Levi's 501 blue jeans, and
New Balance 991 sneakers. He said
his choice was inspired by that of Stuart Geman, a noted applied
mathematics professor at Brown University. Jobs told his biographer
Walter Isaacson "...he came to like the idea of having a uniform for
himself, both because of its daily convenience (the rationale he
claimed) and its ability to convey a signature style."
As Jobs became more successful with his new company, his relationship
with Brennan grew more complex. In 1977, the success of Apple was now
a part of their relationship, and Brennan, Daniel Kottke, and Jobs
moved into a house near the Apple office in
Cupertino.[page needed] Brennan eventually took a position in
the shipping department at Apple .[page needed] Brennan's
relationship with Jobs was deteriorating as his position with Apple
grew, and she began to consider ending the relationship through small
changes. In October 1977, Brennan was approached by Rod Holt, who
asked her to take "a paid apprenticeship designing blueprints for the
Apples."[page needed] Both Holt and Jobs felt that it would
be a good position for her, given her artistic abilities. Holt was
particularly eager that she take the position and puzzled by her
ambivalence toward it. Brennan's decision, however, was overshadowed
by the fact that she realized she was pregnant and that Jobs was the
father. It took her a few days to tell Jobs, whose face, according to
Brennan "turned ugly" at the news. At the same time, according to
Brennan, at the beginning of her third trimester, Jobs said to her: "I
never wanted to ask that you get an abortion. I just didn't want to do
that."[page needed] He also refused to discuss the pregnancy
with her.[page needed] Brennan herself felt confused about
what to do. She was estranged from her mother and afraid to discuss
the matter with her father. She also did not feel comfortable with the
idea of having an abortion. She chose instead to discuss the matter
with Kobun, who encouraged her to have and keep the baby, and pledged
his support. Meanwhile, Holt was waiting for her decision on the
internship. Brennan stated that Jobs continued to encourage her to
take the internship, stating she could "be pregnant and work at Apple,
you can take the job. I don't get what the problem
is."[page needed] Brennan however notes that she "felt so
ashamed: the thought of my growing belly in the professional
environment at Apple, with the child being his, while he was
unpredictable, in turn being punishing and sentimentally ridiculous. I
could not have endured it."[page needed]
Brennan turned down the internship and decided to leave Apple. She
stated that Jobs told her "If you give up this baby for adoption, you
will be sorry" and "I am never going to help
you."[page needed] Now alone, Brennan was on welfare and
cleaning houses to earn money. She would sometimes ask Jobs for money
but he always refused. Brennan hid her pregnancy for as long as she
could, living in a variety of homes and continuing her work with Zen
meditation. At the same time, according to Brennan, Jobs "started to
seed people with the notion that I slept around and he was infertile,
which meant that this could not be his child." A few weeks before she
was due to give birth, Brennan was invited to deliver her baby at the
All One Farm and she accepted the offer.[page needed] When
Jobs was 23 (the same age as his biological parents when they had
him)[page needed] Brennan gave birth to her baby, Lisa
Brennan, on May 17, 1978.[page needed]
"Dear Mike, This morning's papers carried suggestions that Apple is
considering removing me as chairman. I don't know the source of these
reports, but they are both misleading to the public and unfair to me.
You will recall that at last Thursday's Board meeting I stated I had
decided to start a new venture, and I tendered my resignation as
chairman. The Board declined to accept my resignation and asked me to
defer it for a week. I agreed to do so in light of the encouragement
the Board offered with regard to the proposed new venture and the
indications that Apple would invest in it. On Friday, after I told
John Sculley who would be joining me, he confirmed Apple's willingness
to discuss areas of possible collaboration between Apple and my new
venture. Subsequently the Company appears to be adopting a hostile
posture toward me and the new venture. Accordingly, I must insist upon
the immediate acceptance of my resignation. I would hope that in any
statement it feels it must issue, the Company will make it clear that
the decision to resign as chairman was mine. I find myself both
saddened and perplexed by the management's conduct in this matter
which seems to me contrary to Apple's best interests. Those interests
remain a matter of deep concern to me, both because of my past
association with Apple and the substantial investment I retain in it.
I continue to hope that calmer voices within the Company may yet be
heard. Some Company representatives have said they fear I will use
proprietary Apple technology in my new venture. There is no basis for
any such concern. If that concern is the real source of Apple's
hostility to the venture, I can allay it. As you know, the company's
recent re-organization left me with no work to do and no access even
to regular management reports. I am but 30 and want still to
contribute and achieve. After what we have accomplished together, I
would wish our parting to be both amicable and dignified. Yours
sincerely, Steven P. Jobs."
—Steve Jobs, letter of resignation from Apple Computer, September
17th, 1985.[page needed]
Jobs went there for the birth after he was contacted by Robert
Friedland, their mutual friend and the farm owner. While distant, Jobs
worked with her on a name for the baby, which they discussed while
sitting in the fields on a blanket. Brennan suggested the name "Lisa"
which Jobs also liked and notes that Jobs was very attached to the
name "Lisa" while he "was also publicly denying paternity." She would
discover later that during this time, Jobs was preparing to unveil a
new kind of computer that he wanted to give a female name (his first
choice was "Claire" after St. Clare). She also stated that she never
gave him permission to use the baby's name for a computer and he hid
the plans from her. Jobs also worked with his team to come up with the
phrase, "Local Integrated Software Architecture" as an alternative
explanation for the Apple Lisa. Decades later, however, Jobs
admitted to his biographer
Walter Isaacson that "obviously, it was
named for my daughter".:93 Brennan would come under intense
criticism from Jobs, who claimed that "she doesn't want money, she
just wants me." According to Brennan, Apple's Mike Scott wanted Jobs
to give her money, while other Apple executives "advised him to ignore
me or fight if I tried to go after a paternity
When Jobs denied paternity, a DNA test established him as Lisa's
father. It required him to give Brennan $385 a month in addition to
returning the welfare money she had received. Jobs gave her $500 a
month at the time when Apple went public, and Jobs became a
millionaire. Brennan worked as a waitress in Palo Alto. Later, Brennan
agreed to give an interview with
Michael Moritz for Time magazine for
Time Person of the Year special, released on January 3, 1983, in
which she discussed her relationship with Jobs. Rather than name Jobs
the Person of the Year, the magazine named the computer the "Machine
of the Year". In the issue, Jobs questioned the reliability of the
paternity test (which stated that the "probability of paternity for
Jobs, Steven... is 94.1%"). Jobs responded by arguing that "28% of
the male population of the United States could be the
father."[page needed] Time also noted that "the baby girl
and the machine on which Apple has placed so much hope for the future
share the same name: Lisa."
Jobs was worth a million dollars when he was 23 in 1978, 10 million
when he was 24, and over 100 million when he was 25.
He was also one of the youngest "people ever to make the Forbes list
of the nation's richest people—and one of only a handful to have
done it themselves, without inherited wealth."[page needed]
In 1978, Apple recruited Mike Scott from
National Semiconductor to
serve as CEO for what turned out to be several turbulent years. In
1983, Jobs lured
John Sculley away from
Pepsi-Cola to serve as Apple's
CEO, asking, "Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling
sugared water, or do you want a chance to change the
In 1982, Jobs bought an apartment in the two top floors of The San
Remo, a Manhattan building with a politically progressive reputation.
Although he never lived there, he spent years renovating it with
the help of I. M. Pei. In 2003, he sold it to U2 singer Bono.
In 1984, Jobs bought the
Jackling House and estate, and resided there
for a decade. After that, he leased it out for several years until
2000 when he stopped maintaining the house, allowing exposure to the
weather to degrade it. In 2004, Jobs received permission from the town
of Woodside to demolish the house in order to build a smaller
contemporary styled one. After a few years in court, the house was
finally demolished in 2011, a few months before he died.
In early 1984, Apple introduced the Macintosh, which was based on The
Lisa (and Xerox PARC's mouse-driven graphical user interface).
The following year, Apple aired a
Super Bowl television commercial
titled "1984." At Apple's annual shareholders meeting on January 24,
1984, an emotional Jobs introduced the
Macintosh to a wildly
Andy Hertzfeld described the scene as
Despite the fanfare, the expensive
Macintosh was a hard
sell.:308–309 Shortly after its release in 1985, Bill Gates's
then-developing company, Microsoft, threatened to stop developing Mac
applications unless it was granted "a license for the Mac operating
Microsoft was developing its graphical user interface
... for DOS, which it was calling Windows and didn't want Apple to sue
over the similarities between the Windows GUI and the Mac
interface.":321 Sculley granted
Microsoft the license which later
led to problems for Apple.:321 In addition, cheap IBM PC clones
that ran on
Microsoft software and had a graphical user interface
began to appear. Although the
Macintosh preceded the clones, it was
far more expensive, so "through the late 80s, the Windows user
interface was getting better and better and was thus taking
increasingly more share from Apple.":322 Windows-based IBM-PC
clones also led to the development of additional GUIs such as IBM's
TopView or Digital Research's GEM,:322 and thus "the graphical user
interface was beginning to be taken for granted, undermining the most
apparent advantage of the Mac...it seemed clear as the 80s wound down
that Apple couldn't go it alone indefinitely against the whole
Machine That Changed The World, The; Paperback Computer, The;
Interview with Steve Jobs, 1990, 50:08, 05/14/1990, WGBH Media Library
Sculley's and Jobs's respective visions for the company greatly
differed. The former favored open architecture computers like the
Apple II, sold to education, small business, and home markets less
vulnerable to IBM. Jobs wanted the company to focus on the closed
Macintosh as a business alternative to the IBM PC.
President and CEO Sculley had little control over chairman of the
Macintosh division; it and the
Apple II division operated
like separate companies, duplicating services. Although its
products provided 85 percent of Apple's sales in early 1985, the
company's January 1985 annual meeting did not mention the Apple II
division or employees. Many left including Wozniak, who stated that
the company had "been going in the wrong direction for the last five
years" and sold most of his stock. The Macintosh's failure to
defeat the PC strengthened Sculley's position in the company.
In May 1985, Sculley—encouraged by Arthur Rock—decided to
reorganize Apple, and proposed a plan to the board that would remove
Jobs from the
Macintosh group and put him in charge of "New Product
Development." This move would effectively render Jobs powerless within
Apple.[page needed] In response, Jobs then developed a plan
to get rid of Sculley and take over Apple. However, Jobs was
confronted after the plan was leaked, and he said that he would leave
Apple. The Board declined his resignation and asked him to reconsider.
Sculley also told Jobs that he had all of the votes needed to go ahead
with the reorganization. A few months later, on September 17, 1985,
Jobs submitted a letter of resignation to the Apple Board. Five
additional senior Apple employees also resigned and joined Jobs in his
new venture, NeXT.[page needed]
See also: NeXT
Following his resignation from Apple in 1985, Jobs founded NeXT
Inc. with $7 million. A year later he was running out of
money, and he sought venture capital with no product on the horizon.
Eventually, Jobs attracted the attention of billionaire Ross Perot,
who invested heavily in the company. The
NeXT computer was shown
to the world in what was considered Jobs's comeback event, a
lavish invitation only gala launch event that was described as a
multimedia extravaganza. The celebration was held at the Louise M.
Davies Symphony Hall, San Francisco, California on Wednesday October
Steve Wozniak said in a 2013 interview that while Jobs was
NeXT he was "really getting his head together".
NeXT workstations were first released in 1990 and priced at US$9,999.
Like the Apple Lisa, the
NeXT workstation was technologically advanced
and designed for the education sector, but was largely dismissed as
cost-prohibitive for educational institutions. The NeXT
workstation was known for its technical strengths, chief among them
its object-oriented software development system. Jobs marketed NeXT
products to the financial, scientific, and academic community,
highlighting its innovative, experimental new technologies, such as
the Mach kernel, the digital signal processor chip, and the built-in
Ethernet port. Making use of a
NeXT computer, English computer
Tim Berners-Lee invented the
World Wide Web
World Wide Web in 1989 at CERN
The revised, second generation
NeXTcube was released in 1990. Jobs
touted it as the first "interpersonal" computer that would replace the
personal computer. With its innovative
NeXTMail multimedia email
NeXTcube could share voice, image, graphics, and video in
email for the first time. "Interpersonal computing is going to
revolutionize human communications and groupwork", Jobs told
reporters. Jobs ran
NeXT with an obsession for aesthetic
perfection, as evidenced by the development of and attention to
NeXTcube's magnesium case. This put considerable strain on NeXT's
hardware division, and in 1993, after having sold only 50,000
NeXT transitioned fully to software development with the
release of NeXTSTEP/Intel. The company reported its first profit
of $1.03 million in 1994. In 1996,
NeXT Software, Inc.
released WebObjects, a framework for Web application development.
NeXT was acquired by
Apple Inc. in 1997,
WebObjects was used to
build and run the Apple Store,
MobileMe services, and the iTunes
Pixar and Disney
In 1986, Jobs funded the spinout of The Graphics Group (later renamed
Pixar) from Lucasfilm's computer graphics division for the price of
$10 million, $5 million of which was given to the company as
capital and $5 million of which was paid to
The first film produced by
Pixar with its
Disney partnership, Toy
Story (1995), with Jobs credited as executive producer, brought
fame and critical acclaim to the studio when it was released. Over the
next 15 years, under Pixar's creative chief John Lasseter, the company
produced box-office hits
A Bug's Life
A Bug's Life (1998);
Toy Story 2 (1999);
Monsters, Inc. (2001);
Finding Nemo (2003);
The Incredibles (2004);
Cars (2006); Ratatouille (2007);
WALL-E (2008); Up (2009); and Toy
Story 3 (2010). Finding Nemo, The Incredibles, Ratatouille, WALL-E, Up
Toy Story 3 each received the Academy Award for Best Animated
Feature, an award introduced in 2001.
In 2003 and 2004, as Pixar's contract with
Disney was running out,
Disney chief executive
Michael Eisner tried but failed to
negotiate a new partnership, and in early 2004, Jobs announced
Pixar would seek a new partner to distribute its films after its
In October 2005,
Bob Iger replaced Eisner at Disney, and Iger quickly
worked to mend relations with Jobs and Pixar. On January 24, 2006,
Jobs and Iger announced that
Disney had agreed to purchase
Pixar in an
all-stock transaction worth $7.4 billion. When the deal closed,
Jobs became The Walt
Disney Company's largest single shareholder with
approximately seven percent of the company's stock. Jobs's
Disney far exceeded those of Eisner, who holds 1.7%, and
Disney family member Roy E. Disney, who until his 2009 death held
about 1% of the company's stock and whose criticisms of
Eisner—especially that he soured Disney's relationship with
Pixar—accelerated Eisner's ousting. Upon completion of the merger,
Jobs received 7% of
Disney shares, and joined the board of directors
as the largest individual shareholder. Upon Jobs's death
his shares in
Disney were transferred to the Steven P. Jobs Trust led
by Laurene Jobs.
Floyd Norman, of Pixar, described Jobs as a "mature, mellow
individual" who never interfered with the creative process of the
filmmakers. In early June 2014,
Pixar cofounder and Walt Disney
Animation Studios President Ed Catmull revealed that Jobs once advised
him to "just explain it to them until they understand" in
disagreements. Catmull released the book
Creativity, Inc. in 2014, in
which he recounts numerous experiences of working with Jobs. Regarding
his own manner of dealing with Jobs, Catmull
In all the 26 years with Steve, Steve and I never had one of these
loud verbal arguments and it's not my nature to do that. ... but we
did disagree fairly frequently about things. ... I would say something
to him and he would immediately shoot it down because he could think
faster than I could. ... I would then wait a week ... I'd call him up
and I give my counter argument to what he had said and he'd
immediately shoot it down. So I had to wait another week, and
sometimes this went on for months. But in the end one of three things
happened. About a third of the time he said, 'Oh, I get it, you're
right.' And that was the end of it. And it was another third of the
time in which [I'd] say, 'Actually I think he is right.' The other
third of the time, where we didn't reach consensus, he just let me do
it my way, never said anything more about it.
Steve Jobs's house in Palo Alto
Steve Jobs's house, as viewed from an adjacent sidewalk. Abundant
fruit trees are visible next to the house.
Chrisann Brennan notes that after Jobs was forced out of Apple, "he
apologized many times over for his behavior" towards her and Lisa. She
also states that Jobs "said that he never took responsibility when he
should have, and that he was sorry."[page needed] By this
time, Jobs had developed a strong relationship with Lisa and when she
was nine, Jobs had her name on her birth certificate changed from
"Lisa Brennan" to "Lisa Brennan-Jobs."[page needed] In
addition, Jobs and Brennan developed a working relationship to
co-parent Lisa, a change Brennan credits to the influence of his newly
found biological sister,
Mona Simpson (who worked to repair the
relationship between Lisa and Jobs).[page needed] Jobs found
Mona after first finding his birth mother, Joanne Schieble Simpson,
shortly after he left Apple.[page needed]
Jobs did not contact his birth family during his adoptive mother
Clara's lifetime, however. He would later tell his official biographer
Walter Isaacson: "I never wanted [Paul and Clara] to feel like I
didn't consider them my parents, because they were totally my parents
[...] I loved them so much that I never wanted them to know of my
search, and I even had reporters keep it quiet when any of them found
out."[page needed] However, in 1986 when he was 31, Clara was
diagnosed with lung cancer. He began to spend a great deal of time
with her and learned more details about her background and his
adoption, information that motivated him to find his biological
mother. Jobs found on his birth certificate the name of the San
Francisco doctor to whom Schieble had turned when she was pregnant.
Although the doctor did not help Jobs while he was alive, he left a
letter for Jobs to be opened upon his death. As he died soon
afterwards, Jobs was given the letter which stated that "his mother
had been an unmarried graduate student from Wisconsin named Joanne
Jobs only contacted Schieble after Clara died and after he received
permission from his father, Paul. In addition, out of respect for
Paul, he asked the media not to report on his
search.[page needed] Jobs stated that he was motivated to
find his birth mother out of both curiosity and a need "to see if she
was okay and to thank her, because I'm glad I didn't end up as an
abortion. She was twenty-three and she went through a lot to have
me."[page needed] Schieble was emotional during their first
meeting (though she wasn't familiar with the history of Apple or
Jobs's role in it) and told him that she had been pressured into
signing the adoption papers. She said that she regretted giving him up
and repeatedly apologized to him for it. Jobs and Schieble would
develop a friendly relationship throughout the rest of his life and
would spend Christmas together.[page needed] When Jobs died
in 2011, Schieble was suffering from dementia and living in a nursing
home. She was not told about his death.
During this first visit, Schieble told Jobs that he had a sister,
Mona, who was not aware that she had a brother.[page needed]
Schieble then arranged for them to meet in New York where Mona worked.
Her first impression of Jobs was that "he was totally straightforward
and lovely, just a normal and sweet guy."[page needed]
Simpson and Jobs then went for a long walk to get to know each
other.[page needed] Jobs later told his biographer that "Mona
was not completely thrilled at first to have me in her life and have
her mother so emotionally affectionate toward me . . . . As we got to
know each other, we became really good friends, and she is my family.
I don't know what I'd do without her. I can't imagine a better sister.
My adopted sister, Patty, and I were never
"I grew up as an only child, with a single mother. Because we were
poor and because I knew my father had emigrated from Syria, I imagined
he looked like Omar Sharif. I hoped he would be rich and kind and
would come into our lives (and our not-yet-furnished apartment) and
help us. Later, after I'd met my father, I tried to believe he'd
changed his number and left no forwarding address because he was an
idealistic revolutionary, plotting a new world for the Arab people.
Even as a feminist, my whole life I'd been waiting for a man to love,
who could love me. For decades, I'd thought that man would be my
father. When I was 25, I met that man, and he was my brother."
Jobs then learned his family history. Six months after he was given up
for adoption, Schieble's father died, she wed Jandali, and they had a
daughter, Mona.[page needed] Jandali states that after
finishing his PhD he returned to Syria to work and that it was during
this period that Schieble left him (they divorced in
1962).[page needed] He also states that after the divorce he
lost contact with Mona for a period of time:
I also bear the responsibility for being away from my daughter when
she was four years old, as her mother divorced me when I went to
Syria, but we got back in touch after 10 years. We lost touch again
when her mother moved and I didn't know where she was, but since 10
years ago we've been in constant contact, and I see her three times a
year. I organized a trip for her last year to visit Syria and Lebanon
and she went with a relative from Florida.
A few years later, Schieble married an ice skating teacher, George
Simpson. Mona Jandali took her stepfather's last name and thus became
Mona Simpson. In 1970, after they divorced, Schieble took Mona to Los
Angeles and raised her on her own.[page needed]
Jobs told his official biographer that after meeting Simpson, he
wanted to become involved in her ongoing search for their father. When
he was found working in Sacramento, they decided that only Simpson
would meet him. Jandali and Simpson spoke for several hours at which
point he told her that he had left teaching for the restaurant
business. He also said that he and Schieble had given another child
away for adoption but that "we'll never see that baby again. That
baby's gone." (Simpson did not mention that she had met
Jobs).[page needed] Jandali further told Simpson that he once
managed a Mediterranean restaurant near San Jose and that "all of the
successful technology people used to come there. Even
Steve Jobs ...
oh yeah, he used to come in, and he was a sweet guy and a big
tipper."[page needed] After hearing about the visit, Jobs
recalled that "it was amazing .... I had been to that restaurant a few
times, and I remember meeting the owner. He was Syrian. Balding. We
shook hands."[page needed] However, Jobs did not want to meet
Jandali because "I was a wealthy man by then, and I didn't trust him
not to try to blackmail me or go to the press about it ... I asked
Mona not to tell him about me."[page needed] Jandali later
discovered his relationship to Jobs through an online blog. He then
contacted Simpson and asked "what is this thing about Steve Jobs?"
Simpson told him that it was true and later commented, "My father is
thoughtful and a beautiful storyteller, but he is very, very passive
... He never contacted Steve."[page needed] Because Simpson,
herself, researched her Syrian roots and began to meet members of the
family, she assumed that Jobs would eventually want to meet their
father, but he never did.[page needed] Jobs also never showed
an interest in his Syrian heritage or the Middle
East.[page needed] Simpson fictionalized the search for their
father in the 1992 novel, The Lost Father.[page needed]
In 1989, Jobs first met his future wife, Laurene Powell, when he gave
a lecture at the Stanford Graduate School of Business, where she was a
student. Soon after the event, he stated that Laurene "was right there
in the front row in the lecture hall, and I couldn't take my eyes off
of her ... kept losing my train of thought, and started feeling a
little giddy."[page needed] After the lecture, Jobs met up
with her in the parking lot and invited her out to dinner. From that
point forward, they were together, with a few minor exceptions, for
the rest of his life.[page needed] Powell's father died when
she was very young, and her mother raised her in a middle class New
Jersey home similar to the one Jobs grew up in. After she received her
BA from the University of Pennsylvania, she spent a short period in
high finance but found it didn't interest her, so she decided to
pursue her MBA at Stanford instead. In addition, unlike Jobs, she was
athletic and followed professional sports. She also brought as much
self-sufficiency to the relationship as he did and was more of a
private than public person.[page needed] Jobs proposed on New
Year's Day 1990 with "a fistful of freshly picked
wildflowers."[page needed] They married on March 18, 1991, in
a Buddhist ceremony at the
Ahwahnee Hotel in Yosemite National
Park.[page needed] Fifty people, including his father, Paul,
and his sister, Mona, attended. The ceremony was conducted by Jobs's
guru, Kobun Chino Otogawa. The vegan wedding cake was in the shape of
Yosemite's Half Dome, and the wedding ended with a hike (during which
Laurene's brothers had a snowball fight). Jobs is reported to have
said to Mona: "You see, Mona [...], Laurene is descended from Joe
Namath, and we're descended from John Muir."[page needed]
Jobs's and Powell's first child, Reed, was born September 1991.
Jobs's father, Paul, died a year and a half later, on March 5, 1993.
Jobs and Powell had two more children, Erin, born in August 1995, and
Eve, born in 1998. The family lived in Palo Alto, California.
A journalist who grew up locally remembered him as owning the house
with "the scariest [Hallow'een] decorations in Palo Alto...I don't
remember seeing him. I was busy being terrified."
Return to Apple
Apple Inc. § 1997–2007: Return to profitability
Jobs on stage at Macworld Conference & Expo, San Francisco,
January 11, 2005
In 1996, Apple announced that it would buy
NeXT for $427 million.
The deal was finalized in February 1997, bringing Jobs back to the
company he had cofounded. Jobs became de facto chief after then-CEO
Gil Amelio was ousted in July 1997. He was formally named interim
chief executive in September. In March 1998, to concentrate
Apple's efforts on returning to profitability, Jobs terminated a
number of projects, such as Newton, Cyberdog, and OpenDoc. In the
coming months, many employees developed a fear of encountering Jobs
while riding in the elevator, "afraid that they might not have a job
when the doors opened. The reality was that Jobs's summary executions
were rare, but a handful of victims was enough to terrorize a whole
company." Jobs changed the licensing program for
making it too costly for the manufacturers to continue making
With the purchase of NeXT, much of the company's technology found its
way into Apple products, most notably NeXTSTEP, which evolved into Mac
OS X. Under Jobs's guidance, the company increased sales significantly
with the introduction of the iMac and other new products; since then,
appealing designs and powerful branding have worked well for Apple. At
the 2000 Macworld Expo, Jobs officially dropped the "interim" modifier
from his title at Apple and became permanent CEO. Jobs quipped at
the time that he would be using the title "iCEO".
The company subsequently branched out, introducing and improving upon
other digital appliances. With the introduction of the iPod portable
music player, iTunes digital music software, and the iTunes Store, the
company made forays into consumer electronics and music distribution.
On June 29, 2007, Apple entered the cellular phone business with the
introduction of the iPhone, a multi-touch display cell phone, which
also included the features of an iPod and, with its own mobile
browser, revolutionized the mobile browsing scene. While nurturing
innovation, Jobs also reminded his employees that "real artists ship
Jobs had a public war of words with Dell Computer CEO Michael Dell,
starting in 1987, when Jobs first criticized Dell for making
"un-innovative beige boxes". On October 6, 1997, at a Gartner
Symposium, when Dell was asked what he would do if he ran the
Apple Computer company, he said: "I'd shut it down and
give the money back to the shareholders." Then, in 2006, Jobs
sent an email to all employees when Apple's market capitalization rose
Team, it turned out that
Michael Dell wasn't perfect at predicting the
future. Based on today's stock market close, Apple is worth more than
Dell. Stocks go up and down, and things may be different tomorrow, but
I thought it was worth a moment of reflection today. Steve.
Jobs was both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at
persuasion and salesmanship, which has been dubbed the "reality
distortion field" and was particularly evident during his keynote
speeches (colloquially known as "Stevenotes") at Macworld Expos and at
Apple Worldwide Developers Conferences.
Jobs was a board member at
Gap Inc. from 1999 to 2002.
Steve Jobs and
Bill Gates at the fifth D: All Things Digital
conference (D5) in May 2007
In 2001, Jobs was granted stock options in the amount of
7.5 million shares of Apple with an exercise price of $18.30. It
was alleged that the options had been backdated, and that the exercise
price should have been $21.10. It was further alleged that Jobs had
thereby incurred taxable income of $20,000,000 that he did not report,
and that Apple overstated its earnings by that same amount. As a
result, Jobs potentially faced a number of criminal charges and civil
penalties. The case was the subject of active criminal and civil
government investigations, though an independent internal Apple
investigation completed on December 29, 2006 found that Jobs was
unaware of these issues and that the options granted to him were
returned without being exercised in 2003.
In 2005, Jobs responded to criticism of Apple's poor recycling
programs for e-waste in the US by lashing out at environmental and
other advocates at Apple's annual meeting in Cupertino in April. A few
weeks later, Apple announced it would take back iPods for free at its
retail stores. The Computer TakeBack Campaign responded by flying a
banner from a plane over the
Stanford University graduation at which
Jobs was the commencement speaker. The banner read "Steve, don't be a
mini-player—recycle all e-waste."
In 2006, he further expanded Apple's recycling programs to any US
customer who buys a new Mac. This program includes shipping and
"environmentally friendly disposal" of their old systems. The
success of Apple's unique products and services provided several years
of stable financial returns, propelling Apple to become the world's
most valuable publicly traded company in 2011.
Jobs was perceived as a demanding perfectionist who always
aspired to position his businesses and their products at the forefront
of the information technology industry by foreseeing and setting
innovation and style trends. He summed up this self-concept at the end
of his keynote speech at the
Macworld Conference and Expo
Macworld Conference and Expo in January
2007, by quoting ice hockey player Wayne Gretzky:
There's an old
Wayne Gretzky quote that I love. "I skate to where the
puck is going to be, not where it has been." And we've always tried to
do that at Apple. Since the very, very beginning. And we always
On July 1, 2008, a US$7 billion class action suit was filed against
several members of the Apple board of directors for revenue lost
because of alleged securities fraud.
In a 2011 interview with biographer Walter Isaacson, Jobs revealed
that he had met with US President Barack Obama, complained about the
nation's shortage of software engineers, and told Obama that he was
"headed for a one-term presidency". Jobs proposed that any
foreign student who got an engineering degree at a US university
should automatically be offered a green card. After the meeting, Jobs
commented, "The president is very smart, but he kept explaining to us
reasons why things can't get done . . . . It infuriates me."
In October 2003, Jobs was diagnosed with cancer. In mid-2004, he
announced to his employees that he had a cancerous tumor in his
pancreas. The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is usually very
poor; Jobs stated that he had a rare, much less aggressive type,
known as islet cell neuroendocrine tumor.
Despite his diagnosis, Jobs resisted his doctors' recommendations for
medical intervention for nine months, instead relying on a
pseudo-medicine diet to try natural healing to thwart the disease.
According to Harvard researcher Ramzi Amri, his choice of alternative
treatment "led to an unnecessarily early death". Other doctors
agree that Jobs's diet was insufficient to address his disease. Cancer
researcher and alternative medicine critic David Gorski, for instance,
said, "My best guess was that Jobs probably only modestly decreased
his chances of survival, if that." Barrie R. Cassileth, the chief
of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center's integrative medicine
department, said, "Jobs's faith in alternative medicine likely
cost him his life.... He had the only kind of pancreatic cancer that
is treatable and curable.... He essentially committed suicide."
According to Jobs's biographer, Walter Isaacson, "for nine months he
refused to undergo surgery for his pancreatic cancer – a decision he
later regretted as his health declined". "Instead, he tried a
vegan diet, acupuncture, herbal remedies, and other treatments he
found online, and even consulted a psychic. He was also influenced by
a doctor who ran a clinic that advised juice fasts, bowel cleansings
and other unproven approaches, before finally having surgery in July
2004." He eventually underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy (or
"Whipple procedure") in July 2004, that appeared to remove the tumor
successfully. Jobs did not receive chemotherapy or radiation
therapy. During Jobs's absence, Tim Cook, head of worldwide
sales and operations at Apple, ran the company.
In early August 2006, Jobs delivered the keynote for Apple's annual
Worldwide Developers Conference. His "thin, almost gaunt" appearance
and unusually "listless" delivery, together with his choice
to delegate significant portions of his keynote to other presenters,
inspired a flurry of media and Internet speculation about the state of
his health. In contrast, according to an
Ars Technica journal
Worldwide Developers Conference
Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) attendees who saw Jobs
in person said he "looked fine". Following the keynote, an Apple
spokesperson said that "Steve's health is robust."
Two years later, similar concerns followed Jobs's 2008 WWDC keynote
address. Apple officials stated that Jobs was victim to a "common
bug" and was taking antibiotics, while others surmised his
cachectic appearance was due to the Whipple procedure. During a
July conference call discussing Apple earnings, participants responded
to repeated questions about Jobs's health by insisting that it was a
"private matter". Others said that shareholders had a right to know
more, given Jobs's hands-on approach to running his company.
Based on an off-the-record phone conversation with Jobs, The New York
Times reported, "While his health problems amounted to a good deal
more than 'a common bug', they weren't life-threatening and he doesn't
have a recurrence of cancer."
On August 28, 2008, Bloomberg mistakenly published a 2500-word
obituary of Jobs in its corporate news service, containing blank
spaces for his age and cause of death. (News carriers customarily
stockpile up-to-date obituaries to facilitate news delivery in the
event of a well-known figure's death.) Although the error was promptly
rectified, many news carriers and blogs reported on it,
intensifying rumors concerning Jobs's health. Jobs responded at
Apple's September 2008 Let's Rock keynote by paraphrasing Mark Twain:
"Reports of my death are greatly exaggerated." At a
subsequent media event, Jobs concluded his presentation with a slide
reading "110/70", referring to his blood pressure, stating he would
not address further questions about his health.
On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that marketing vice-president
Phil Schiller would deliver the company's final keynote address at the
Macworld Conference and Expo
Macworld Conference and Expo 2009, again reviving questions about
Jobs's health. In a statement given on January 5, 2009, on
Apple.com, Jobs said that he had been suffering from a "hormone
imbalance" for several months.
On January 14, 2009, Jobs wrote in an internal Apple memo that in the
previous week he had "learned that my health-related issues are more
complex than I originally thought". He announced a six-month
leave of absence until the end of June 2009, to allow him to better
focus on his health. Tim Cook, who previously acted as CEO in Jobs's
2004 absence, became acting CEO of Apple, with Jobs still involved
with "major strategic decisions".
Tim Cook offered a portion of his liver to Jobs, since both
share a rare blood type. (The donor liver can regenerate tissue after
such an operation.) Jobs yelled, "I'll never let you do that. I'll
never do that."
In April 2009, Jobs underwent a liver transplant at Methodist
University Hospital Transplant Institute in Memphis,
Tennessee. Jobs's prognosis was described as
On January 17, 2011, a year and a half after Jobs returned to work
following the liver transplant, Apple announced that he had been
granted a medical leave of absence. Jobs announced his leave in a
letter to employees, stating his decision was made "so he could focus
on his health." As it did at the time of his 2009 medical leave, Apple
Tim Cook would run day-to-day operations and that Jobs
would continue to be involved in major strategic decisions at the
company. Despite the leave, Jobs appeared at the iPad 2
launch event (March 2), the WWDC keynote introducing iCloud (June 6),
and before the Cupertino City Council (June 7).
On August 24, 2011, Jobs announced his resignation as Apple's CEO,
writing to the board, "I have always said if there ever came a day
when I could no longer meet my duties and expectations as Apple's CEO,
I would be the first to let you know. Unfortunately, that day has
come." Jobs became chairman of the board and named
Tim Cook as
his successor as CEO. Jobs continued to work for Apple until
the day before his death six weeks later.
Flags flying at half-staff outside Apple HQ in Cupertino, on the
evening of Steve Jobs's death
Memorial candles and iPads pay tribute to
Steve Jobs outside the Apple
Store in Palo Alto, California, shortly after his death.
Jobs died at his Palo Alto, California, home around 3 p.m. (PDT)
on October 5, 2011, due to complications from a relapse of his
previously treated islet-cell pancreatic neuroendocrine
tumor, which resulted in respiratory arrest. He had
lost consciousness the day before and died with his wife, children,
and sisters at his side. His sister, Mona Simpson, described his
death thus: "Steve's final words, hours earlier, were monosyllables,
repeated three times. Before embarking, he'd looked at his sister
Patty, then for a long time at his children, then at his life's
partner, Laurene, and then over their shoulders past them. Steve's
final words were: 'Oh wow. Oh wow. Oh wow.'" He then lost
consciousness and died several hours later. A small private
funeral was held on October 7, 2011, the details of which were not
revealed out of respect for Jobs's family.
Pixar each issued announcements of his death.
Apple announced on the same day that they had no plans for a public
service, but were encouraging "well-wishers" to send their remembrance
messages to an email address created to receive such messages.
Microsoft both flew their flags at half-staff throughout
their respective headquarters and campuses.
Bob Iger ordered all
Disney properties, including Walt
and Disneyland, to fly their flags at half-staff from October 6 to 12,
2011. For two weeks following his death, Apple displayed on its
corporate Web site a simple page that showed Jobs's name and lifespan
next to his grayscale portrait. On October 19, 2011,
Apple employees held a private memorial service for Jobs on the Apple
campus in Cupertino. Jobs's widow, Laurene, was in attendance, as well
as Cook, Bill Campbell, Norah Jones, Al Gore, and Coldplay. Some
of Apple's retail stores closed briefly so employees could attend the
memorial. A video of the service was uploaded to Apple's website.
Jerry Brown of California declared Sunday, October 16, 2011,
to be "
Steve Jobs Day." On that day, an invitation-only memorial
was held at Stanford University. Those in attendance included Apple
and other tech company executives, members of the media, celebrities,
close friends of Jobs, and politicians, along with Jobs's family.
Bono, Yo Yo Ma, and
Joan Baez performed at the service, which lasted
longer than an hour. The service was highly secured, with guards at
all of the university's gates, and a helicopter flying overhead from
an area news station. Each attendee was given a small brown
box as a "farewell gift" from Jobs. The box contained a copy of the
Autobiography of a Yogi
Autobiography of a Yogi by Paramahansa Yogananda.
Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak, former owner of what would become
Pixar, George Lucas, former rival,
Microsoft co-founder Bill
Gates, and President Barack Obama all offered statements in
response to his death.
Jobs is buried in an unmarked grave at Alta Mesa Memorial Park, the
only nonsectarian cemetery in Palo Alto.
Portrayals and coverage in books, film, and theater
Main article: List of artistic depictions of Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs is the subject of a number of books and films.
Innovations and designs
Jobs's design aesthetic was influenced by the modernist architectural
style of Joseph Eichler, by the industrial designs of Braun's Dieter
Rams, and by Buddhism. In India, he experienced
Buddhism while on his
seven-month spiritual journey, and his sense of intuition was
influenced by the spiritual people with whom he studied.
According to Apple cofounder
Steve Wozniak "Steve didn't ever code. He
wasn't an engineer and he didn't do any original design..."
Daniel Kottke, one of Apple's earliest employees and a college friend
of Jobs's, stated that "Between Woz and Jobs, Woz was the innovator,
Steve Jobs was the marketing person."
He is listed as either primary inventor or co-inventor in 346 United
States patents or patent applications related to a range of
technologies from actual computer and portable devices to user
interfaces (including touch-based), speakers, keyboards, power
adapters, staircases, clasps, sleeves, lanyards and packages. Jobs's
contributions to most of his patents were to "the look and feel of the
product". His industrial design chief
Jonathan Ive had his name along
with him for 200 of the patents. Most of these are design patents
(specific product designs; for example, Jobs listed as primary
inventor in patents for both original and lamp-style iMacs, as well as
PowerBook G4 Titanium) as opposed to utility patents
(inventions). He has 43 issued US patents on
inventions. The patent on the
Mac OS X
Mac OS X Dock user interface with
"magnification" feature was issued the day before he died.
Although Jobs had little involvement in the engineering and technical
side of the original Apple computers, Jobs later used his CEO
position to directly involve himself with product design.
Involved in many projects throughout his career was his long-time
marketing executive and confidant Joanna Hoffman, known as one of the
few employees at Apple and
NeXT who could successfully stand up to
Jobs while also engaging with him.
Even while terminally ill in the hospital, Jobs sketched new devices
that would hold the iPad in a hospital bed. He also despised the
oxygen monitor on his finger and suggested ways to revise the design
Since his death, the former Apple CEO has won 141 patents, more than
most inventors win during their lifetimes. Currently, Jobs holds over
Main article: Apple II
Apple II is an
8-bit home computer, one of the first highly
successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed
Steve Wozniak (Jobs oversaw the development of the Apple
II's unusual case[page needed] and
Rod Holt developed the
unique power supply). It was introduced in 1977 at the West Coast
Computer Faire by Jobs and was the first consumer product sold by
Main article: Apple Lisa
The Lisa is a personal computer designed by Apple Computer, Inc.
during the early 1980s. It was the first personal computer to offer a
graphical user interface in a machine aimed at individual business
users. Development of the Lisa began in 1978. The Lisa sold
poorly, with only 100,000 units sold.
In 1982, after Jobs was forced out of the Lisa
project,[page needed] he joined the
Macintosh project. The
Macintosh is not a direct descendant of Lisa, although there are
obvious similarities between the systems. The final revision, the Lisa
2/10, was modified and sold as the
Main article: Macintosh
Once he joined the original
Macintosh team, Jobs took over the project
after Wozniak had experienced a traumatic airplane accident and
temporarily left the company. Jobs introduced the Macintosh
computer on January 24, 1984. This was the first mass-market personal
computer featuring an integral graphical user interface and
mouse. This first model was later renamed to "
Macintosh 128k" for
uniqueness amongst a populous family of subsequently updated models
which are also based on Apple's same proprietary architecture. Since
1998, Apple has largely phased out the
Macintosh name in favor of
"Mac", though the product family has been nicknamed "Mac" or "the Mac"
since the development of the first model. The
Macintosh was introduced
by a US$1.5 million
Ridley Scott television commercial,
"1984". It most notably aired during the third quarter of Super
Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984, and some people consider the ad a
"watershed event" and a "masterpiece."
Regis McKenna called
the ad "more successful than the Mac itself." "1984" used an
unnamed heroine to represent the coming of the
Macintosh (indicated by
a Picasso-style picture of the computer on her white tank top) as a
means of saving humanity from the "conformity" of IBM's attempts to
dominate the computer industry. The ad alludes to George Orwell's
novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four, which described a dystopian future ruled
by a televised "Big Brother."
The Macintosh, however, was expensive, which hindered its ability to
be competitive in a market already dominated by the
Commodore 64 for
consumers, as well as the
IBM Personal Computer
IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying
clone market for businesses.
Macintosh systems still found
success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the
second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade.
After Jobs was forced out of Apple in 1985, he started a company that
built workstation computers. The
NeXT Computer was introduced in 1988
at a lavish launch event.
Tim Berners-Lee created the world's first
web browser (WorldWideWeb) using the
NeXT Computer. The
was the basis for today's macOS (formerly OS X) and iOS (formerly
Main article: iMac
Apple iMac was introduced in 1998 and its innovative design was
directly the result of Jobs's return to Apple. Apple boasted "the back
of our computer looks better than the front of anyone else's."
Described as "cartoonlike", the first iMac, clad in Bondi Blue
plastic, was unlike any personal computer that came before. In 1999,
Apple introduced the Graphite gray Apple iMac and since has varied the
shape, colour and size considerably while maintaining the all-in-one
design. Design ideas were intended to create a connection with the
user such as the handle and a breathing light effect when the computer
went to sleep. The Apple iMac sold for $1299 at that time. The
iMac also featured some technical innovations, such as having USB
ports as the only device inputs. This latter change resulted, through
the iMac's success, in the interface being popularised among third
party peripheral makers—as evidenced by the fact that many early USB
peripherals were made of translucent plastic (to match the iMac
Main article: iTunes
iTunes is a media player, media library, online radio broadcaster, and
mobile device management application developed by
Apple Inc. It is
used to play, download, and organize digital audio and video (as well
as other types of media available on the iTunes Store) on personal
computers running the macOS and
Microsoft Windows operating systems.
The iTunes Store is also available on the iPod Touch, iPhone, and
Through the iTunes Store, users can purchase and download music, music
videos, television shows, audiobooks, podcasts, movies, and movie
rentals in some countries, and ringtones, available on the iPhone and
iPod Touch (fourth generation onward).
Application software for the
iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch can be downloaded from the App Store.
Main article: iPod
The first generation of iPod was released October 23, 2001. The major
innovation of the iPod was its small size achieved by using a 1.8"
hard drive compared to the 2.5" drives common to players at that time.
The capacity of the first generation iPod ranged from 5 GB to
10 GB. The iPod sold for US$399 and more than 100,000 iPods
were sold before the end of 2001. The introduction of the iPod
resulted in Apple becoming a major player in the music industry.
Also, the iPod's success prepared the way for the iTunes music store
and the iPhone. After the 1st generation of iPod, Apple released
the hard drive-based iPod Classic, the touchscreen iPod Touch, the
video-capable iPod Nano, and the screenless iPod Shuffle in the
Main article: iPhone
Apple began work on the first iPhone in 2005 and the first iPhone was
released on June 29, 2007. The iPhone created such a sensation that a
survey indicated six out of ten Americans were aware of its release.
Time Magazine declared it "Invention of the Year" for 2007. The
Apple iPhone is a small device with multimedia capabilities and
functions as a quad-band touch screen smartphone. A year later,
the iPhone 3G was released in July 2008 with three key features:
support for GPS, 3G data and tri-band UMTS/HSDPA. In June 2009, the
iPhone 3GS, whose improvements included voice control, a better
camera, and a faster processor, was introduced by Phil Schiller.
The iPhone 4 is thinner than previous models, has a five megapixel
camera capable of recording video in 720p HD, and adds a secondary
front-facing camera for video calls. A major feature of the
iPhone 4S, introduced in October 2011, was Siri, a virtual assistant
capable of voice recognition.
Main article: iPad
Jobs introducing the iPad, San Francisco, January 27, 2010
iPad is an iOS-based line of tablet computers designed and marketed by
Apple Inc. The first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; the most
recent iPad models, the iPad (2017), iPad Pro, and iPad Mini 4, were
released on September 9, 2015 and March 24, 2017. The user interface
is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual
keyboard. The iPad includes built-in
Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity
on select models. As of April 2015, there have been over 250 million
Honors and awards
Statue of Jobs at Graphisoft Park, Budapest.
National Medal of Technology
National Medal of Technology (with Steve Wozniak), awarded by US
President Ronald Reagan.
1987: Jefferson Award for Public Service
1989: Entrepreneur of the Decade by Inc. magazine
Howard Vollum Award from Reed College
2007: Named the most powerful person in business by Fortune
2007: Inducted into the California Hall of Fame, located at The
California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.
2012: Grammy Trustees Award, an award for those who have influenced
the music industry in areas unrelated to performance.
2013: Posthumously inducted as a
Steve Jobs Theatre opens at Apple Park.
Book: Apple Inc.
San Francisco Bay Area portal
List of artistic depictions of Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs media
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company and Affiliated Companies – board of
directors". The Walt
Disney Company. Retrieved October 2, 2009.
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Steve Jobs way: Exploring the intersection of
psychedelics and technology ZDNet". ZDNet. Retrieved February 24,
Steve Jobs Nobody Knew". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 24,
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Zen Meditation Changed Steve Jobs's Life And Sparked A
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file mentions drug use, 2.65 GPA". The Washington Post.
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More Creative?". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved February 24,
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Valley: The Birth and Death of the Personal Computer, 3rd Edition,
Dallas: Pragmatic Bookshelf, 2014
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^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb
Isaacson, Walter (2011). Steve Jobs. Simon &
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^ Graff, Amy (November 18, 2015). "Social media reminds us Steve Jobs
was the son of a Syrian migrant". SFGate. Hearst Communications.
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Simpson". Bomb (20). Retrieved July 7, 2015.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad
Young, Jeffrey S. (1987). "Steve Jobs: The Journey Is the Reward".
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^ "The Lost Interview:
Steve Jobs Tells Us What Really Matters".
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York Post. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac
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^ a b c d e f g Schlender, Brent; Tetzeli, Rick (2015). "Becoming
Steve Jobs: The Evolution of a Reckless Upstart into a Visionary
Leader". Crown (ebook). Missing or empty url= (help);
access-date= requires url= (help)[page needed]
^ a b "Steve Jobs' childhood home becomes a landmark".
^ a b c d "Steve Jobs' old garage about to become a piece of history".
^ Brennan, Chrisann (October 19, 2011). "Jobs at 17: Nerd, Poet,
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address, June 2005". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original
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^ Schlender, Brent (November 9, 1998). "The Three Faces of Steve in
this exclusive, personal conversation, Apple's CEO reflects on the
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^ a b c d "An exclusive interview with Daniel Kottke".
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^ "Cassidy on Nolan Bushnell: 'Steve was difficult,' says man who
first hired Steve Jobs". Mercury News. March 29, 2013. Archived from
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^ "What really shaped Steve Jobs's view of
India – Realms of
intuition or the pains of
Delhi belly?". Economic Times. India.
September 25, 2011. Archived from the original on May 11, 2012.
Retrieved October 27, 2011.
^ "Il santone della
Silicon Valley che ha conquistato i tecno-boss"
(in Italian). Repubblica.it. June 9, 2008. Archived from the original
on June 24, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
^ "Wandering in
India for 7 months: Steve Jobs". Yahoo News. October
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^ Andrews, Amanda (January 14, 2009). "Steve Jobs, Apple's iGod:
Profile". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Archived from the original on May
11, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2009.
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^ a b Markoff, John (2005). What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties
Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry. Penguin Books.
p. preface xix. ISBN 978-0-14-303676-0
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^ "Jobs's Pentagon papers: kidnap fears, drug use and a speeding
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24, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
^ Silberman, Steve (October 28, 2011). "What Kind of Buddhist was
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^ Burke, Daniel (November 2, 2011). "Steve Jobs' private spirituality
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^ "Letters – General Questions Answered". Archived from the original
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^ McBurney, Sally (Director) (2013).
Steve Jobs 1994 Uncut Interview
with English Subtitles (Video). Menlo Park, California: Silicon Valley
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Silicon Valley Historical Association official
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Retrieved June 14, 2015. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
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Entrepreneur (Video). Menlo Park, California: Silicon Valley
Historical Association. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ a b Markoff, John (October 5, 2011). "Steven P. Jobs, 1955–2011:
Apple's Visionary Redefined Digital Age". The New York Times.
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Computer, Inc". The Denver Post. Archived from the original on March
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Find more aboutSteve Jobsat's sister projects
Media from Wikimedia Commons
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Quotations from Wikiquote
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Learning resources from Wikiversity
"Steve Jobs: From Garage to World's Most Valuable Company." Computer
Steve Jobs @ Andy Hertzfeld's The Original
Steve Jobs @ Steve Wozniak's woz.org
Steve Jobs (1955–2011) on IMDb
FBI Records: The Vault - Steven Paul Jobs at vault.fbi.gov
Steve Jobs commencement speech at Stanford University
1995: Excerpts from an Oral History Interview with Steve Job, Founder,
NeXT Computer – Smithsonian Institution, April 20, 1995.
Steve Jobs in 1994: The
Rolling Stone Interview – Rolling
1990: Memory and Imagination
1983: The "Lost"
Steve Jobs Speech from 1983; Foreshadowing Wireless
Networking, the iPad, and the App Store (audio clip)
CEO of Apple
Return to Apple
Honors and public recognition
Laurene Powell Jobs
Laurene Powell Jobs (wife)
Mona Simpson (sister)
Chrisann Brennan (mother of his first born)
Lisa Brennan-Jobs (daughter)
Reality distortion field
Stay Hungry Stay Foolish
James A. Bell
Tim Cook (CEO)
Albert Gore Jr.
Robert A. Iger
Arthur D. Levinson (Chairman)
Ronald D. Sugar
Susan L. Wagner
Fred D. Anderson
Edgar S. Woolard Jr.
Tim Cook (CEO)
Jonathan Ive (CDO)
Jeff Williams (COO)
Luca Maestri (CFO)
Katherine Adams (General Counsel)
Fred D. Anderson
Guerrino De Luca
Nancy R. Heinen
Classic Mac OS
Final Cut Pro
Mac App Store
One to One
Get a Mac
FBI–Apple encryption dispute
iOS app approvals
Apple Music Festival
Macintosh (2008 documentary)
Artistic depictions of Steve Jobs
Original programs distributed by Apple
Key figures in the history of Apple Inc.
Michael Scott (1977–1981)
Mike Markkula (1981–1983)
John Sculley (1983–1993)
Michael Spindler (1993–1996)
Gil Amelio (1996–1997)
Steve Jobs (1997–2011)
Tim Cook (2011–present)
Fred D. Anderson
Satjiv S. Chahil
Guerrino De Luca
Macintosh developer team
NeXT (1985 to 1996)
John Patrick Crecine
John Patrick Crecine (as of 1988)
NeXT Team Members
NeXT MegaPixel Display
NeXT Laser Printer
$140 million USD (FY 1992)
www.next.com at the
Wayback Machine (archived April 12, 1997)
Pixar Animation Studios
Toy Story (1995)
A Bug's Life
A Bug's Life (1998)
Toy Story 2 (1999)
Monsters, Inc. (2001)
Finding Nemo (2003)
The Incredibles (2004)
Toy Story 3 (2010)
Cars 2 (2011)
Monsters University (2013)
Inside Out (2015)
The Good Dinosaur
The Good Dinosaur (2015)
Finding Dory (2016)
Cars 3 (2017)
Incredibles 2 (2018)
Toy Story 4 (2019)
The Adventures of André & Wally B. (1984)
Luxo Jr. (1986)
Red's Dream (1987)
Tin Toy (1988)
Knick Knack (1989)
Geri's Game (1997)
For the Birds (2000)
Mike's New Car
Mike's New Car (2002)
Jack-Jack Attack (2005)
Mr. Incredible and Pals
Mr. Incredible and Pals (2005)
One Man Band (2005)
Mater and the Ghostlight
Mater and the Ghostlight (2006)
Your Friend the Rat
Your Friend the Rat (2007)
Partly Cloudy (2009)
Special Mission (2009)
George & A.J. (2009)
Day & Night (2010)
La Luna (2011)
Hawaiian Vacation (2011)
Small Fry (2011)
Partysaurus Rex (2012)
The Legend of Mor'du (2012)
The Blue Umbrella (2013)
Party Central (2013)
Sanjay's Super Team
Sanjay's Super Team (2015)
Riley's First Date? (2015)
Cars Toons (2008–2014)
Toy Story Toons (2011–2012)
Tiny Toy Stories
Tiny Toy Stories (1996)
Pixar Short Films Collection, Volume 1 (2007)
Cars Toons: Mater's Tall Tales (2010)
Pixar Short Films Collection, Volume 2 (2012)
Beach Chair (1986)
Flags and Waves (1986)
Light & Heavy (1990)
Toy Story of Terror! (2013)
Toy Story That Time Forgot (2014)
It's Tough to Be a Bug!
It's Tough to Be a Bug! (1998)
Buzz Lightyear of Star Command: The Adventure Begins (2000)
Buzz Lightyear of Star Command
Buzz Lightyear of Star Command (2000–2001)
Exploring the Reef
Exploring the Reef (2003)
Turtle Talk with Crush
Turtle Talk with Crush (2004)
John Carter (2012)
Planes: Fire & Rescue (2014)
Borrowed Time (2016)
Pixar Story (2007)
Pixar Image Computer
Alvy Ray Smith
Pixar awards and nominations
Pixar film references
Computer Graphics Lab
Industrial Light & Magic
Circle 7 Animation
A Computer Animated Hand
The Shadow King
Kingdom Hearts III
Pixar universe theory
Disney Animation Studios
ISNI: 0000 0000 7861 3326
BNF: cb12154091r (data)