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The steppe polecat ( Mustela
Mustela
eversmanii), also known as the white or masked polecat, is a species of mustelid native to Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. It is listed as Least Concern
Least Concern
by the IUCN because of its wide distribution, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and tolerance to some degree of habitat modification.[1] It is generally of a very light yellowish colour, with dark limbs and a dark mask across the face.[2] Compared to its relative, the European polecat, the steppe polecat is larger in size and has a more powerfully built skull.[3] The steppe polecat is a nomadic animal which typically only settles in one area until its prey, mainly ground squirrels, are extirpated.[4] It mates from March to May, and generally gives birth to litters of three to six kits, which attain their full growth at the age of two years.[5] It hunts for larger prey than the European polecat, including pikas and marmots.[6]

Contents

1 Evolution

1.1 Subspecies

2 Description 3 Behaviour

3.1 Territorial and sheltering behaviours 3.2 Reproduction and development 3.3 Diet

4 Distribution and habitat 5 Diseases and parasites 6 Relationships with humans 7 References

7.1 Notes 7.2 Bibliography

8 External links

Evolution[edit]

Skull and jaw of the extinct Mustela
Mustela
eversmanii beringianae

The earliest true polecat was Mustela
Mustela
stromeri, which appeared during the late Villafranchian. It was considerably smaller than the present form, thus indicating polecats evolved at a relatively late period. The steppe polecat's closest relatives are the European polecat
European polecat
and black-footed ferret, with which it is thought to have shared Mustela stromeri as a common ancestor.[7] The steppe polecat likely diverged from the European polecat
European polecat
1.5 million years ago based on IRBP, though cytochrome b transversions indicate a younger date of 430,000 years.[8] As a species, the steppe polecat represents a more specialised form than the European polecat
European polecat
in the direction of carnivory, being more adapted to preying on larger rodent species; its skull has a stronger dentition, its projections are more strongly developed and its muscles of mastication are more powerful. The steppe polecat's growth rate is also much slower than the European polecat's, as its skull undergoes further development at an age when the European polecat attains full growth.[3] The species may have once been present in Pleistocene
Pleistocene
central Alaska.[9] Subspecies[edit] As of 2005[update],[10] seven subspecies are recognised. Not included is an extinct subspecies, M. e. beringiae, which was native to Beringia, and was much larger than M. e. michnoi, the largest extant subspecies.[11]

Subspecies Trinomial authority Description Range Synonyms

Petropavlov steppe polecat M. e. eversmanii (Nominate subspecies)

Lesson, 1827 A moderately sized subspecies with dense, soft winter fur, the general tone of the fur is pale, straw-whitish, with white underfur. The guard hairs on the hindquarters are lighter than in other subspecies.[12] Trans-Volzhsky, western Siberia
Siberia
east to Irkutsk Oblast
Irkutsk Oblast
and south to the Cis-Altai steppes, Pri-Balkhash, the plains portion of Semirechye, and north, western and eastern Kazakhstan, outside the former Soviet Union, it may occur in parts of China
China
contiguous with eastern Kazakhstan, outside the USSR, its occurrence has not been established, it may possibly be encountered that part of China
China
contiguous with eastern Kazakhstan

aureus (Pocock, 1936) heptapotamicus (Stroganov, 1960) nobilis (Stroganov, 1958) pallidus (Stroganov, 1958)

Chinese steppe polecat M. e. admirata Pocock, 1936

Hebei, Shaanxi
Shaanxi
and Ordos

Amur steppe polecat M. e. amurensis Ognev, 1930 This is a moderately sized subspecies with short, dense and soft fur. The general colour of the back is bright reddish-ochreous, almost without dark tones[13] Left bank of middle River Amur, eastern former Manchuria
Manchuria
and possibly farther south

European steppe polecat M. e. hungarica Éhik, 1928 A small subspecies with sparse and coarse fur, its fur colour is the darkest among steppe polecats, being relatively dark-brownish with yellowish underfur and dark, tawny frosting.[12] Westernmost European Russia, northwards to northern limit of Russia, eastwards, probably to Volga
Volga
and northern Caucasus, outside the former Soviet Union, its range encompasses former Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, northeastern former Yugoslavia, northern Bulgaria, Romania and apparently in a small section of Poland
Poland
at its boundary with Lvov moravica (Kostron, 1948) occidentalis (Brauner, 1929) satunini (Migulin, 1928)

Tibetan polecat M. e. larvatus Hodgson, 1849 A poorly understood form, likely of large size[14] Tibet
Tibet
and Kashmir tibetanus (Horsfield, 1851)

Baikal steppe polecat M. e. michnoi Kastschenko, 1910 A very large subspecies with very long, coarse winter fur and long, shaggy guard hairs, it is of a whitish colour, with black guard hairs and sometimes a light reddish fur.[15] Cis-Baikalia on the west to the range of the form M. e. eversmanii in the east, Trans-Baikalia, Tuva, the montaine parts of Altai, former Manchuria, Mongolia
Mongolia
and possibly the northern parts of Inner Mongolia and some eastern parts of Dzungaria dauricus (Stroganov, 1958) lineiventer (Hollister, 1913) sibiricus (Kastschenko, 1912) triarata (Hollister, 1913) tuvinicus (Stroganov, 1958)

Turkestan steppe polecat M. e. talassicus Ognev, 1928 A small subspecies with long, dense, but coarse winter fur, the general tone of its fur is very pale whitish, lacking any rusty tone. The underfur is slightly yellowish, the guard hairs are black and the facial mask is barely noticeable.[15] Between the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and Lake Balkhash, the western borders of Tien Shan, southern Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Turkmenia

Description[edit]

Skull, as illustrated by N. N. Kondakov.

Pelt

The species is very close to the European polecat
European polecat
in general appearance, proportions and habits, though its body seems somewhat more elongated, due to its shorter guard hairs. The tail is short, constituting a third of its body length.[16] The skull is heavier and more massive than that of the European polecat, having more widely spaced zygomatic arches and more strongly developed projections, particularly the sagittal crest.[17] It greatly resembles the black-footed ferret of North America, with the only noticeable differences between them being the steppe polecat's much longer and softer fur, shorter ears, and shorter postmolar extension of the palate.[18] It has four pairs of teats and well-developed anal glands, which can produce a sharp-smelling liquid which is sprayed in self-defence.[2] Males measure 320–562 mm in body length, while females measure 290–520 mm. Tail length of males is 80–183 mm and 290–520 mm for females. Males in Siberia may weigh up to 2,050 grams, while females weigh 1,350 grams. One giant polecat from Semirechye
Semirechye
had a body length of about 775 mm.[19] Overall, specimens exhibiting gigantism are more common than in the European polecat, and occur primarily in western Siberia, where they likely hybridise with Siberian weasels.[20] The winter fur is soft and tall, with short, dense underfur and long, sparse guard hairs. The fur is generally shorter and not as thick as that of the European polecat. The guard hairs are especially well developed on the lower back, though still sparser than those of the European polecat. Contrary to the former, the steppe polecat's guard hairs never completely cover the underfur. The base colour of the winter fur is very light yellowish or whitish-yellowish. The tips of the guard hairs are blackish-brown or brown, forming a frosting effect over the yellow underfur. This frosting is stronger in the middle and lower back, where the guard hairs are denser and longer. The guard hairs on the upper back, the flanks, between the shoulders and along the upper neck are extremely short, thus being lighter in colour than the posterior region. The head is piebald, with the eye region and the upper side of the nose being covered by a brownish mask. Behind the mask, a white band crosses the head from cheek to cheek. A small brownish area is usually located in front of each ear. The ears are completely white, while the throat is yellowish-white or almost white. Sometimes, the head is entirely white. The lower surface of the neck is dark blackish-brown or brown, while the chest and forelegs are black or blackish-brown. The abdomen is light, yellowish-straw in colour. The groin is the same colour of the forelimbs. The base of the tail is light in colour, while the tip is dark brown. The summer coat is shorter and coarser than the winter fur, and is not as dense and close-fitting, with a more strongly developed ochreous or reddish tone. The head is, overall, darker than in winter, with greater contrast between the dark and white tones.[2] Behaviour[edit] Territorial and sheltering behaviours[edit]

Skull and dentition, as illustrated in Pocock's The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma - Mammalia Vol 2

The steppe polecat does not hold sharply defined home ranges. During warm seasons, especially in areas rich in ground squirrels, aged polecats hold relatively stable territories until they have extirpated their prey. Younger polecats are less sedentary, and will sleep overnight in the burrows of ground squirrels they have killed. Females nursing their litters are the most settled, but will begin roaming once the kits are old enough to accompany them. Generally, the steppe polecat only occupies one home range for a few days or up to a few months. In winter, the steppe polecat is more active, and will move 12–18 km a day. During heavy snowfall, the steppe polecat migrates to more favourable areas, such as along the slopes of steppe ravines, near settlements and winter encampments.[4] The species does not usually dig its own burrow, instead using those of marmots, ground squirrels, hamsters, moles, voles, jerboas and others, after slightly widening them. Its burrow is often poorly constructed, as it does not inhabit one long enough to warrant restructuring. Nesting burrows are not lined, and have many outlets, ranging from three to 20. Alongside the nest chamber is a food store. Independently dug burrows are typically shallow and simple in construction.[4] Reproduction and development[edit] In captivity, mating was observed in early March till the end of the month. In the Moscow Zoo, seven cases were observed of polecats mating from 9 April till 9 June. Symptoms of estrus were noted on 12–13 March, and continued to develop for two to three weeks. After mating, these symptoms disappeared within three to four weeks. The mating season in western Siberia
Siberia
occurs in March, while in Transbaikalia it occurs to the end of May. Copulation
Copulation
lasts from 20 minutes to three hours. Estrus may last longer or be repeated should a female fail to produce a litter or if the litter dies prematurely. Typically, the steppe polecat mates once a year and produces one litter. The gestation period lasts from 36–43 days. Placentation
Placentation
occurs two weeks after mating, with the blastocyst stage lasting seven to eight days. Litters usually consist of three to six kits, though litters of 18 are known.[5] Kits are born blind and naked, with pale rose skin and a membrane over the ears. At birth, they measure 6.5-7.0 cm in length and weigh 4.5 grams, though polecats born in the Moscow Zoo
Moscow Zoo
weighed 10 grams. Usually, the weight of newborn kits depends on litter size. A thin, white underfur appears on the body after three days, and the body length doubles, while the weight increases six-fold at up to 33 grams. Milk teeth
Milk teeth
erupt around the same time, and the feet begin to darken. On the 20th day, the kits darken in colour and weigh 70-72 grams. The eyes open after 28–34 days, and the kits become more active, to the point of attempting to tear apart prey whilst still relying on the mother's milk. At the age of one month, kits measure 190 mm in length and weigh 138 grams. By the age of 45 days, they are able to hunt young ground squirrels, and begin to target adults at the age of 60 days. The kits remain in the family burrow for 2.0-2.5 months. The kits begin to disperse from July or later, and attain sexual maturity at the age of 10 months. They reach adulthood at the age of two years.[5] Diet[edit] Unlike the European polecat, which feeds mostly on mouse-like rodents, the steppe polecat preys on larger, steppe-dwelling mammals such as ground squirrels, hamsters, pikas and young or injured adult marmots. Ground squirrels are its most frequent prey throughout the year; in warm periods, they are hunted on the surface, while in autumn they are excavated from their burrows. Male polecats often have to widen squirrel burrows to enter them, while young or female polecats can usually enter them easily. In areas where ground squirrels are absent, the steppe polecat feeds primarily on hamsters and pikas, or water voles on the banks of water bodies. Along the shores of rivers and lakes, fish, chickens and carrion may be prey. Birds occasionally killed by the steppe polecat include grey partridges and willow grouse. Amphibians and reptiles are rarely eaten.[6] Distribution and habitat[edit] The steppe polecat occurs from Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
in the west through southern Russia, northern Georgia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
to Mongolia
Mongolia
and northern and western China.[1] In 2014, it has been recorded at an elevation of 5,050 m (16,570 ft) in Upper Mustang, Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.[21] Diseases and parasites[edit] The steppe polecat is weakly susceptible to sylvatic plague, tularemia and canine distemper. Weakened individuals are susceptible to pasteurellosis. Helminth
Helminth
infections, as well as tick infestations are widespread in the species. Up to 11 flea species are known to infest the steppe polecat, some of which are picked up from its prey.[22] Relationships with humans[edit] The steppe polecat is of great economic value to nations of the former Soviet Union. It kills large numbers of rodents harmful to agriculture and which spread disease; a single steppe polecat can destroy at least 200 ground squirrels a year or 1,500 mouse-like rodents in winter alone. It is also very important to the fur trade of the former Soviet Union. It holds first place among harvested furbearers in Kazakhstan and other regions. However, steppe polecat numbers dropped noticeably during 1926-1929 and 1956-1959. This decline was attributed to changes in steppe landscapes and a decrease in the species' natural prey in connection with the application of chemical methods in controlling rodent populations, the plowing of Virgin Lands and changes in agrochemical methods. The steppe polecat is fairly easy to harvest. It is primarily caught with jaw traps located near inhabited burrows.[23] References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b c Maran, T.; Skumatov, D.; Abramov A. V. & Kranz, A. (2016). " Mustela
Mustela
eversmanii". The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T29679A45203762. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T29679A45203762.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.  ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1136–1137 ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1143 ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1169–1170 ^ a b c Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1172–1173 ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1166–1167 ^ Kurtén 1968, pp. 98–100 ^ Sato, J., T. Hosada, W. Mieczyslaw, K. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamamoto, H. Suzuki. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among mustelids (Mammalia: Carnivora) based on nucleotide sequences of the nuclear interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein and mitochondrial cytochrome b genes. Zoologial Science, 20: 243-264. ^ ANDERSON, E. 1973. Ferrets from the pleistocene of central Alaska. J. Mammal. 54: 778-779 ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Kurtén, Björn (1980). " Pleistocene
Pleistocene
mammals of North America". Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-03733-3.  ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1160–1161 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1164–1165 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1163–1164 ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1162–1163 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1135 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1138–1139 ^ Merriam, Clinton Hart (1896). "Synopsis of the weasels of North America". Washington : Govt. Print. Off  ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1142–1143 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1141 ^ Chetri, M., Odden, M., McCarthy, T. and Wegge, P. (2014). First record of Steppe Polecat Mustela
Mustela
eversmanii in Nepal. Small Carnivore Conservation 51: 79–81. ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1173–1174 ^ Heptner & Sludskii 2002, pp. 1175–1176

Bibliography[edit]

Allen, Glover Morrill (1938). "The mammals of China
China
and Mongolia, Volume 1". New York : American Museum of Natural History.  Heptner, V. G.; Sludskii, A. A. (2002). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol. II, part 1b, Carnivores ( Mustelidae
Mustelidae
and Procyonidae). Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation. ISBN 90-04-08876-8.  Kurtén, Björn (1968). " Pleistocene
Pleistocene
mammals of Europe". Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mustela
Mustela
eversmanii.

Russian article with photos

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q732127 ADW: Mustela_eversmannii BioLib: 1760 EoL: 926026 EPPO: MUSTEV Fauna Europaea: 305320 GBIF: 5219057 ITIS: 726280 IUCN: 29679 MSW: 14

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