STEPHEN LEE JOHNSON (born March 21, 1951) was the Administrator of
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under President George W.
Bush during the second term of his administration. He has received the
Presidential Rank Award
* 1 Education and career in industry * 2 EPA career prior to becoming administrator * 3 EPA Administrator * 4 Post EPA * 5 References * 6 External links
EDUCATION AND CAREER IN INDUSTRY
Taylor University , receiving a B.A. in biology
followed by a master\'s degree in pathology from George Washington
University . Before working for the U.S. Government, he held a number
of positions in laboratory and bio-technology companies. He was also
the director of Hazelton Laboratories, now
EPA CAREER PRIOR TO BECOMING ADMINISTRATOR
Johnson began working at the EPA in 1979. He had been working at a private lab, Litton Bionetics Inc., in Washington. Johnson said that a mentor suggested he get a job at the EPA, learn about regulations from inside government, and then return to industry. "Regulations were really frustrating," Johnson told the Philadelphia Inquirer in 2008, recalling his decision to join the EPA. "I wondered if they really understood what it was like to work in a laboratory."
Johnson's rise from career scientist to EPA chief began in 2001, when
he made the jump from civil service bureaucrat to political appointee.
In January 2001, Johnson was the lead staff toxics official at EPA.
His selection as assistant administrator for the Office of Prevention,
Pesticides and Toxic Substances was set in motion by a Kentucky
lobbyist, Charles Grizzle , whose clients have included power
companies, hospitals, shopping centers, and a formaldehyde industry
association. After the 2000 election, Grizzle called then-senior White
When EPA administrator Christine Todd Whitman resigned in 2003, Johnson became the acting deputy administrator, the number two position at EPA, and remained in that position when former Utah governor Michael O. Leavitt was named administrator.
On January 26, 2005, when Leavitt became secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services , Johnson became acting administrator of EPA. On March 4, 2005, President George W. Bush nominated him formally for the permanent position. He became the first career employee to hold the position of Administrator and the first scientist to head the Agency.
During his April 6, 2005 Senate confirmation hearing, EPA was
criticized for support of using human subjects in pesticide testing.
Johnson "did not have the opportunity to fully address the committee's
criticisms before the hearing was recessed." In April 2005, a secret
hold was placed on his confirmation vote while he evaluated the
Children\'s Environmental Exposure Research Study , which advocated
recording the effects of pesticides on children from infancy to age 3.
In a letter that reached
Senator Barbara Boxer
Johnson tried to block the efforts of 17 states to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions and improve fuel economy . He defended his position by
arguing that “The Bush administration is moving forward with a clear
national solution, not a confusing patchwork of state rules. I believe
this is a better approach than if individual states were to act
alone.” The state rules he was blocking were more stringent than the
Bush administration's proposed national solution. Johnson came under
investigation for allowing the White House to improperly interfere
with the decision to grant
On December 9, 2008, the Office of Inspector General, US EPA
concluded that "EPA's
Johnson's stance on this and other issues was criticized in an editorial by the scientific journal Nature , which claimed he acted with "reckless disregard for law, science or the agency's own rules — or, it seems, the anguished protests of his own subordinates." In spite of this external criticism and over the objections of the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Transportation, Energy, Council on Environmental Quality, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Council of Economic Advisors, and Small Business Administration, Johnson issued the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, "Regulating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Under the Clean Air Act." On February 29, 2008, four labor unions representing 10.000 of the EPA's 17.000 employees (ca. 60%) published an open letter to Johnson, complaining that he had ignored the EPA's official Principles of Scientific Integrity in advancing Bush Administration positions on water fluoridation , pesticide regulation, mercury emissions, and greenhouse gas control.
As Administrator, he managed more than 17,000 Agency employees nationwide and oversaw an annual budget of $7.7 billion. His tenure expired on January 20, 2009.
On June 29, 2010, clean technology company FlexEnergy announced that Johnson had joined its Board of Directors. According to Johnson, the company's technology can minimize air pollutants in congested cities and industrial sites, as well as provide energy in remote areas around the world.
On November 11, 2010, The Scotts Miracle-Gro Company announced that Johnson had been named to its Board of Directors.
Johnson also sits on the Board of Trustees at his alma mater, Taylor University .
* ^ A B C Shiffman, John; John Sullivan (2008-12-07). "An Eroding
Mission at EPA; The Bush administration has weakened the agency
charged with safeguarding health and the environment". Philadelphia
Inquirer. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
* ^ Janofsky, Michael (2005-04-06). "E.P.A. Nominee Gets an Earful
From Committee Democrats". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
* ^ Shawl, Jeannie (2005-04-26). "EPA nominee faces tough Senate
confirmation hearing". Jurist Legal News & Research, University of
Pittsburgh School of Law. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
* ^ Janofsky, Michael (2005-04-07). "Nominee Is Grilled Over
Program on Pesticides". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
* ^ "EPA Issues Final Human Studies Rule/Schedules Stakeholder
Research". Pollution Engineering. 2006-02-15. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
* ^ Broder, John; Felicity Barringer (2007-12-20). "E.P.A. Says 17
States Can’t Set Emission Rules". New York Times. Retrieved
* ^ Coile, Zachary (2008-07-29). "Democrats call for EPA chief to
resign, citing congressional testimony". San Francisco Chronicle.
* ^ "EPA\'s