HOME
The Info List - Stellaland


--- Advertisement ---



The Republic
Republic
of Stellaland
Stellaland
(Dutch: Republiek Stellaland) was from 1882 to 1883 a Boer republic
Boer republic
located in an area of British Bechuanaland (now in South Africa's North West Province), west of the Transvaal. After unification with the neighbouring State of Goshen, it was the United States of Stellaland
Stellaland
(Dutch: Verenigde Staten van Stellaland) from 1883 to 1885. During its short history, the small state became a focal point for conflict between the British Empire
British Empire
and the South African Republic, the two major players vying for control of the territory. After a series of claims and annexations, British fears of Boer
Boer
expansionism led to its demise and, among other factors, set the stage for the Second Boer
Boer
War.

Contents

1 Background 2 Unification 3 Status 4 Annexation 5 In current politics 6 See also 7 References

Background[edit] Before the proclamation of the republic, the area was under the control of competing Griqua and Tswana groups, while the United Kingdom laid claim to it as a part of the emerging protectorate of British Bechuanaland. Two of the indigenous groups were under the leadership of chiefs Mankoroane and Montsioa, whom the British regarded as "friendly,"[2] and another two under the leadership of chiefs Moshette and Massouw. When a feud erupted between Mankoroane and another chief, each side resorted to recruiting volunteers, promising them land in return for their assistance. After a settlement was negotiated with mediation from the Transvaal Republic,[3] large portions of Mankoroane's land with 416 farms of 3,000 morgen (2,563 ha) each were given to Boer
Boer
mercenaries who had fought on his adversary's side, and the new inhabitants decided to declare independence.[4] Unification[edit]

Stellaland
Stellaland
with its capital Vryburg
Vryburg
on a contemporary map prior to unification with Goshen to the northeast

The Republic
Republic
of Stellaland
Stellaland
was created on 26 July 1882, under the leadership of its elected president Gerrit Jacobus van Niekerk, a farmer from Transvaal,[3] and was given the name Stellaland
Stellaland
(Star Land) in reference to a comet that was visible in the skies at the time.[3][4] The town of Vryburg
Vryburg
was founded and declared its capital. At its founding, the new country covered an area of 15,500 km2 (5,985 sq mi) and was home to an estimated population of 20,500 individuals, 3,000 of whom were of European ancestry.[1] The State of Goshen, named after the biblical Land of Goshen, was founded by Nicolaas Claudius Gey van Pittius in October 1882 in the neighbouring area called Rooigrond[4] with the approval of chief Moshette.[5] Goshen had an estimated population of 17,000, of whom approximately 2,000 were of European origin, and covered an area of 10,400 km2 (4,015 sq mi).[1] On 6 August 1883, Stellaland
Stellaland
and Goshen united to form the United States of Stellaland.[6] Status[edit] Whether or not the independence of any of these states was ever recognised by another country is not clear. In Stellaland's favour, one can point out that the Montevideo convention
Montevideo convention
which formalised the definition of sovereignty in the modern sense would not be signed until 1933, and that the local chiefs approved its existence.[5] On the other hand, several British sources refer to van Niekerk and his followers as "freebooters"[7][8] and "marauders",[9] but de iure recognition from the United Kingdom can be implied from a telegram that was erroneously sent by Sir Charles Warren, military commander for British Bechuanaland, to van Niekerk in which he endorsed Cecil Rhodes' settlement in Stellaland. Only later did Warren realise that his wording could be interpreted as an acknowledgment of Stellaland's legality,[8] and he tried to deny the message's implications. In February 1884, Great Britain unilaterally declared the area a British protectorate.[10] Stellaland's laws and constitution were practically identical to those of the South African Republic.[11] It never issued an independent currency, but instead—like all the surrounding states—used the South African pound; it did, however, print its own postage stamps beginning in February 1884[12] which are still traded among collectors to the present day. Annexation[edit] Because van Niekerk's government had announced its intention to levy taxes on all trade going through its territory, Cecil Rhodes, founder of the De Beers
De Beers
diamond company, and the British administration feared a setback for their endeavours in the mining business,[13] because Stellaland
Stellaland
lay on one of the main trade routes. It was also presumed that the small country could eventually be incorporated into the neighbouring South African Republic
South African Republic
in an effort to circumvent the Pretoria Convention of 1881 which called for an end to Boer expansionism.[9] Rhodes even asserted that the area was of such a crucial nature to the Crown that if the territory held by Stellaland
Stellaland
remained under Afrikaner control, British presence "should fall from the position of a paramount state in South Africa
South Africa
to that of a minor state."[14] These fears were fuelled when, on 10 September 1884, President Paul Kruger of Transvaal declared the area to be under the protection of the South African Republic[9] and annexed it six days later.[15] In December 1884 the British sent in a force under Sir Charles Warren, who invaded the country and abolished the republic in August of the following year before it was incorporated into British Bechuanaland.[9] In current politics[edit] Beginning in 2008, the far-right political group Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (Afrikaner Resistance Movement) started lobbying for the area to be re-established as an independent Boer
Boer
republic. According to the group's former leader, Eugène Terre'Blanche, the group is in possession of the old contracts of 1882 that conferred ownership of the area and has vowed to take their case to the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
in The Hague
The Hague
if necessary.[16] Eugène Terre'Blanche
Eugène Terre'Blanche
has since been murdered. On 4 May 2014 the Front National political party said they want to call for restitution of the Republic
Republic
of Stellaland.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Historical states in present-day South Africa

before 1600

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(1050–1270) Kingdom of Mutapa
Kingdom of Mutapa
(1430–1760)

1600–1700

Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1795)

1700–1800

Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(ca. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
(ca. 1780–1817) Swellendam
Swellendam
(1795) Graaff-Reinet
Graaff-Reinet
(1795–96) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1802)

1800–1850

Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1802–06) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1806–1910) Waterboer's Land
Waterboer's Land
(1813–71) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1818–97) Adam Kok's Land
Adam Kok's Land
(1825–61) Winburg
Winburg
(1836–44) Potchefstroom
Potchefstroom
(1837–48) Natalia Republic
Republic
(1839–43)

1850–1875

South African Republic
South African Republic
(1852–1902) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Republic
Republic
of Utrecht (1854–58) Lydenburg Republic
Republic
(1856–60) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–80) Diggers' Republic
Republic
(1870-71)

1875–1900

Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Goshen (1882–83) Nieuw Republiek (1884–88) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

1900–present

Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1910) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) Republic
Republic
of South Africa
South Africa
(1961–present)

South Africa
South Africa
portal

v t e

Postage stamps and postal history of Stellaland
Stellaland
Republic Flag of Stellaland Coat of arms of Stellaland

References[edit]

^ a b c d Tijdschrift van het Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Amsterdam, 2 (1): 690f, 1884  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Williams, Basil (1921), Cecil Rhodes, New York: Henry Holt & Company, pp. 71f  ^ a b c Theal, George M. (1919), History of South Africa
South Africa
from 1873 to 1884, London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., pp. 147f  ^ a b c Webster, Roger (2003), "The Boer
Boer
Republics of Stellaland
Stellaland
and Goshen", The Illustrated at the Fireside: True Southern African Stories, Claremont: Spearhead, p. 23, ISBN 0-86486-558-9  ^ a b Theal, George M. (1919), History of South Africa
South Africa
from 1873 to 1884, London: George Allen & Unwin, p. 153  ^ Stewart, GJohn (2006), African states and rulers, McFarland & Co., p. 114  ^ Meredith, Martin (2007), Diamonds, Gold, and War: The British, the Boers, and the Making of South Africa, New York: Public Affairs, ISBN 978-1-58648-473-6  ^ a b Sillery, Anthony (1974), Botswana: A Short Political History, London: Methuen Young Books, p. 75, ISBN 0-416-75480-5  ^ a b c d Cook, Edward Tyas (1902), Rights and Wrongs of the Transvaal War, London: Edward Arnold, pp. 37f  ^ Fuller, Thomas Elkins (1910), The Right Honourable Cecil John Rhodes, a Monograph and a Reminiscence, London: Longmans, Green and Co., p. 42  ^ Fisher, William Edward Garrett (1900), The Transvaal and the Boers, London: Chapman & Hall, p. 242  ^ Mekeel, ed. (27 September 1919), Mekeel's weekly stamp news, WholeNo. 1500, Portland, ME: Severn-Wylie-Jewett Co., 33 (39): 344  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Paulin, Christopher M. (2001), White men's dreams, Black men's blood: African labor and British expansionism in Southern Africa, 1877–1895, Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, p. 131, ISBN 0-86543-928-1  ^ Tamarkin, Mordechai (1996), Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes
and the Cape Afrikaners, London: Frank Cass & Co., p. 90, ISBN 0-7146-4627-X  ^ Aitton, D. (1897), Geschiedenis van Zuid-Afrika, Amsterdam/Pretoria: J.H. de Bussy, p. 318  ^ Harper, Paddy (15 June 2008), "O volk! Terre Blanche is back again", The Sunday Times 

v t e

Other South African Governments

Kingdoms Colonies Boer
Boer
States Bantustans National

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97)

Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10)

Natalia Republic
Republic
(1839–43) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

Gazankulu
Gazankulu
(1971–94) Lebowa
Lebowa
(1972–94) QwaQwa
QwaQwa
(1974–94) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) KaNgwane
KaNgwane
(1981–94) KwaNdebele
KwaNdebele
(1981–94) KwaZulu
KwaZulu
(1981–94)

Cape Qualified Franchise
Cape Qualified Franchise
(1853–1910) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Republic
Republic
of South Africa
South Africa
(1961–Present)

Current Government

v t e

Boer
Boer
Republics and Griqua States in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
1795–1902

Est. 1795–1830

Swellendam Graaff-Reinet Philippolis
Philippolis
/ Adam Kok's Land Waterboer's Land

Est. 1830–1840

Zoutpansberg Winburg Potchefstroom Winburg-Potchefstroom Natalia Republic

Est. 1840–1870

South African Republic Lydenburg Republic Orange Free State Utrecht Republic Griqualand East Griqualand West

Est. 1880–1902

Goshen Small Free State New Republic Stellaland United States of Stellaland Republic
Republic
of Upingtonia
Upingtonia
/ Lijdensrust

v t e

Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

Events

1652–1815

Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer
Boer
Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand Gold Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans

Apartheid
Apartheid
era

1948 general election Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

Soweto Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre

Post-apartheid

1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner Calvinism Afrikaner nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner Bond Afrikaner Broederbond Afrikaner Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

APF BCM BLATU CNETU CTSWU FCWU FNETU FOSATU ICU IWW MUSA NEUM NURHS PAWE SAAPAWU SACTU SAIF SARHU SATUC Die Spoorbund UDF Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azania

Category

Coordinates: 29°57′S 24°44′E / 29.950°S 24.733°E / -29

.