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Styria (german: Steiermark ;
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
and sl, ; hu, Stájerország) is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
(''Bundesland'') in the southeast of
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
. With an area of , Styria is the second largest state of Austria, after
Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; : ''Niedaöstareich'', ''Niedaestareich'') is one of the nine , located in the northeastern corner of the country. Since 1986, the of Lower Austria has been , replacing which became a separate state in 1 ...
. Styria is bordered to the south by
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
, and clockwise, from the southwest, by the Austrian states of
Carinthia Carinthia (german: Kärnten ; sl, Koroška ) is the southernmost Austrian state or ''Land''. Situated within the Eastern Alps Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of a line from L ...
,
Salzburg Salzburg (, ; literally "Salt Castle"; bar, Soizbuag, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian) is the List of cities and towns in Austria, fourth-largest city in Austria. In 2020, it had a population of 156,872. The town is on the site of the ...
,
Upper Austria Upper Austria (german: Oberösterreich ; bar, Obaöstareich) is one of the nine states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The Stat ...
,
Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; : ''Niedaöstareich'', ''Niedaestareich'') is one of the nine , located in the northeastern corner of the country. Since 1986, the of Lower Austria has been , replacing which became a separate state in 1 ...
, and
Burgenland Burgenland (; hu, Őrvidék; hr, Gradišće; Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bava ...
. The state capital is
Graz Graz ( , ; sl, Gradec) is the capital city of the Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, located on the Eastern Alps. It is composed of nine States of A ...

Graz
.


Etymology

The
March of Styria The March of Styria (german: Steiermark), originally known as Carantanian march (''Karantanische Mark'', ''marchia Carantana'' after the former Slavs, Slavic principality of Carantania), was a southeastern March (territorial entity), frontier march ...
derived its name from the original seat of its ruling
Otakar Otakar is a masculine Czech given name of Germanic origin (cf. Audovacar Audovacar (from Proto-Germanic *''Audawakraz'') is a masculine Germanic name. Composed of the roots (wealth) and (awake), it may be translated "warden of riches" or "watch ...
dynasty:
Steyr Steyr (; Central Bavarian Central Bavarian, also known as Central Austro-Bavarian, form a subgroup of Bavarian language, Bavarian dialects in large parts of Austria and the German state of Bavaria along the Danube river, on the northern side of the ...

Steyr
, in today's
Upper Austria Upper Austria (german: Oberösterreich ; bar, Obaöstareich) is one of the nine states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The Stat ...
. In German, the area is still called "Steiermark" while in English the Latin name "Styria" is used. The ancient link between Steyr and Styria is also apparent in their nearly identical coats of arms, a white
Panther Panther may refer to: Large cats * ''Pantherinae'', the cat subfamily that contains the genera ''Panthera'' and ''Neofelis'' **''Panthera'', the cat genus that contains tigers, lions, jaguars and leopards. *** Jaguar (''Panthera onca''), found in ...
on a green background.


Geography

* The term "
Upper Styria Upper Styria (german: Obersteiermark), in the Austrian usage of the term, refers exclusively to the northwestern, generally mountainous and well-wooded half of the States of Austria, federal state of Styria. The southwestern half of the state arou ...
" (german: Obersteiermark) refers to the northern and northwestern parts of the federal-state (districts
Liezen Liezen is a municipality in the Austrian federal state of Styria, district capital of the Liezen (district), district of the same name and economic center on the Enns River, River Enns. Population Politics Since 1995, the left-wing SPÖ party hav ...
,
Murau Murau is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares an origin with the ...
, Murtal,
Leoben Leoben () is a Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian and sl, ; hu, Stájerország, Austro-Bavarian: ''Steiamoak'') is a state (''Bundesland'') in the southeast of Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the& ...
, Bruck-Mürzzuschlag). * The term "Western Styria" (''Weststeiermark'') is used for the districts to the west of Graz (Voitsberg (district), Voitsberg, Deutschlandsberg (district), Deutschlandsberg, western part of the district Leibnitz (district), Leibnitz). Because of the similar landscape with hills, valleys, wine and culture, the region in western Styria is also called "Styrian Tuscany". * The districts east of Graz (Weiz (district), Weiz, Hartberg-Fürstenfeld District, Hartberg-Fürstenfeld, and Südoststeiermark District, Südoststeiermark) are referred to as "Eastern Styria" (''Oststeiermark''). The western and eastern parts of the district Graz-Umgebung (district), Graz-Umgebung (literally, ''surroundings'' of Graz) may or may not be considered parts of West and East Styria, respectively. The southern parts of the Styria (duchy), Duchy of Styria, which formed part of former Yugoslavia and later
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
(with the exception of World War II), were (and sometimes colloquially still are) referred to as "Lower Styria" (''Untersteiermark''; sl, Štajerska).


History

Styria was inhabited by Celts, Celtic tribes. After its conquest by the ancient Rome, Romans, the eastern part of what is now Styria was part of Pannonia, while the western one was included in Noricum. During the Barbarian invasions, it was conquered or crossed by the Visigoths, the Huns, the Ostrogoths, the Rugii, and the Lombards. Slavs under the domination of the Pannonian Avars, Avars settled in the valleys around 600. At the same time, Bavarians under Franks, Frankish domination began to expand their area to the south and east, ultimately absorbing the Slavic population. In 1180, Styria separated from the Duchy of Carinthia and became a Duchy of its own; in 1192 the Austrian Duke Leopold V became also Duke of Styria. Later, Styria formed the central part of Inner Austria. Styria developed culturally and economically under Archduke John of Austria between 1809 and 1859. In 1918, after World War I, it was divided into a northern section (forming what is the current Austrian state), and a southern one, called Styria (Slovenia), Lower Styria, now inhabited by Slovenians, and which was annexed to Yugoslavia, and later became part of Slovenia. As a result of the turbulence of the two world wars, the German-speaking population of Untersteiermark, Lower Styria, which had been concentrated in the cities, migrated out of the region or was expelled.


Economy

file:Südsteiermark.JPG, View over the vineyards of Western Styria The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the state was 49.6 billion € in 2018, accounting for 12.9% of the Austria's economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 35,400 € or 118% of the EU27 average in the same year. As elsewhere in the developed world, there has been a shift away from the manufacturing sector towards the service sector in Styria. This has had negative consequences for the industrial regions of upper Styria which have suffered a steady decline in population in recent years. In 2004, Styria had the strongest economic growth rate in Austria at 3.8%—mainly due to the Graz area which saw strong economic growth that year and has continued to grow in economic and population terms since then. Styria is home to more than 150 clean technology companies of which one dozen are world technology leaders in their field. The revenue of Styrian cleantech companies totals €2.7 billion. This equals 8 percent of the Gross Regional Product (GRP) and is one of the highest concentrations of leading clean technology companies in Europe. The companies have an average (real) growth rate of 22 percent per year—well above the worldwide cleantech market growth of 18 percent per year. The region created roughly 2,000 additional green jobs in 2008 alone. The Formula One Austrian Grand Prix has been held in the region, first at the Zeltweg Air Base, Zeltweg Airfield in 1964 Austrian Grand Prix, 1964 and then at the Osterreichring from 1970 to 1987. The sport returned to the circuit, now redesigned and rebranded as the A1-Ring, from 1997 to 2003. Formula One once again returned to the circuit, now renamed the Red Bull Ring, in 2014 and has been held at the track every year since. The COVID-19 pandemic saw the 2020 Formula One calendar massively revised, resulting in the Red Bull Ring becoming the first circuit to host consecutive Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, with the first round running under the Austrian Grand Prix name and the second held as the Styrian Grand Prix. This continued in 2021.


Administrative divisions

The state is divided into 13 districts of Austria, districts (''Bezirke''), one of them a statutory city (Austria), statutory city.


Statutory city

*
Graz Graz ( , ; sl, Gradec) is the capital city of the Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, located on the Eastern Alps. It is composed of nine States of A ...

Graz


Districts

* Bruck-Mürzzuschlag District, Bruck-Mürzzuschlag * Deutschlandsberg (district), Deutschlandsberg * Graz-Umgebung * Hartberg-Fürstenfeld District, Hartberg-Fürstenfeld * Leibnitz (district), Leibnitz *
Leoben Leoben () is a Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian and sl, ; hu, Stájerország, Austro-Bavarian: ''Steiamoak'') is a state (''Bundesland'') in the southeast of Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the& ...
*
Liezen Liezen is a municipality in the Austrian federal state of Styria, district capital of the Liezen (district), district of the same name and economic center on the Enns River, River Enns. Population Politics Since 1995, the left-wing SPÖ party hav ...
(with the subdistrict Gröbming) *
Murau Murau is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares an origin with the ...
* Murtal * Südoststeiermark District, Südoststeiermark * Voitsberg (district), Voitsberg * Weiz (district), Weiz


Politics

The state had been a stronghold of the right-wing Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) since 1945. However, Graz is markedly more left-wing than the rural districts of the province. The governor (Austrian political term: ''Landeshauptmann'') of Styria has typically been a ÖVP candidate. In the 2021 municipal election in Graz, the KPÖ surprisingly took over first place from the ÖVP, thus pushing long-time mayor Siegfried Nagl (ÖVP) out of office. The result caused a sensation internationally. Elke Kahr led the KPÖ for a third time in the 2021 Graz local election. Despite opinion polling suggesting a victory for the ruling Austrian People's Party (ÖVP), the KPÖ became the largest party with 28.8% of votes and 15 seats. After the election, the KPÖ entered into coalition talks with the The Greens – The Green Alternative, Greens and Social Democratic Party of Austria, SPÖ. On November 13, 2021, the KPÖ, the Greens and the SPÖ announced their coalition: Graz gets a communist mayor with Elke Kahr.


Recent elections

In the 2005 elections for state parliament the Social Democratic Party of Austria, Social Democrats (SPÖ) under their regional chairman Franz Voves won the majority after the ÖVP had damaged its credibility through scandals and the secession of a high-ranking party member who took part in the 2005 elections after setting up his own party. In these elections, the KPÖ also received many votes after it had gained much popularity through its role in local politics in Graz during the preceding few years. The two right-wing populism, right-wing populist parties, the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) and the Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ), failed to win seats. In subsequent elections in 2010 and 2015, the Social Democrats, the Austrian People's Party, and the Communist Party each lost between one fourth and one third of their shares of the vote relative to 2005. The Freedom Party grew from 4.6 percent to 26.8 percent. The current government of Styria is a coalition of Social Democrats and People's Party, with each party holding 4 seats of the 8 seats available. The governor, Hermann Schützenhöfer, is a representative of the People's Party. His deputy, Michael Schickhofer, is a Social Democrat.


Notable people

* Palman (fl. 1310–1363), knight and mercenary commander of the Serbian Empire * Johann Joseph Fux (1660–1741), composer and music theorist, wrote ''Gradus ad Parnassum'' – a composition manual used by Beethoven and Mozart * Archduke John of Austria (1782–1859) * Peter Rosegger (1843–1918), honoured poet * Johann Puch (1862–1914), founded Johann Puch Erste Steiermärkische Fahrrad-Fabriks-Aktiengesellschaft at Graz in 1899. * Robert Stolz (1880-1975), composer born in Graz * Karl Böhm, (1894-1981), conductor * Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn (1909-1999), political scientist * Bert Isatitsch (1911–1994), first president of the International Luge Federation * Frank Stronach (b. 1932), founder of Magna International, billionaire * Jochen Rindt (1942–1970), Formula 1 World Champion * Helmut Marko, Dr. Helmut Marko (b. 1943), former racing driver * Dietrich Mateschitz (b. 1944), founder and CEO of Red Bull, billionaire * Klaus Maria Brandauer (b. 1944), actor and director * Elfriede Jelinek (b. 1946), Nobel Prize in Literature winner * Arnold Schwarzenegger (b. 1947), bodybuilder, film actor and former Governor of California * Hugo Eberhardt (1948) (b. 1948), leader in the field of technical safety * Getty Kaspers (b. 1948), lead vocals of Netherlands, Dutch band Teach-In (band), Teach-In, who won the Eurovision Song Contest 1975, 1975 Eurovision Song Contest. * Eva Rueber-Staier (b. 1951), Miss Austria 1969, Miss World 1969 * Wolfgang Muthspiel (b. 1965), jazz composer and guitarist * Ulla Weigerstorfer (b. 1967), Miss Austria 1987 and Miss World 1987 * Thomas Muster (b. 1967), former World No. 1 tennis player * Renate Götschl (b. 1975), alpine skiing World Champion * Elisabeth Görgl (b. 1981), professional alpine skier * Christoph Strasser (b. 1982), champion ultra cyclist * Conchita Wurst (b. 1988), singer and winner of the Eurovision Song Contest 2014


See also

* Lower Styria


References


External links


Imperial Austria: Treasures of Art, Arms and Armor from the State of Styria – The Canadian Museum of Civilization

Official Tourism Website of Styria
{{Styria Styria, States of Austria Divided regions NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union Wine regions of Austria