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The States and Territories of Australia are the regional governments in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, smal ...

Australia
, distinct from the federal government and local governments. States are self-administered regions with their own constitutions, legislature, police force, departments, and certain civil authorities, that administer and deliver most public policies and programs. Territories administer local policies and programs much like states, but are constitutionally and financially subordinate to the federal government. Australia consists of six states ( New South Wales ,
Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wale ...
,
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Australi ...
,
Tasmania Tasmania (; abbreviated as Tas, nicknamed Tassie, xpz, Lutruwita; Palawa kani: ''Lutruwita'') is an island States and territories of Australia, state of Australia. It is located to the south of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland, ...
, Victoria, and
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excluding external territories. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, and the So ...
), three internal territories (the
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a federal territory of Australia containing the Australian capital city of Canberra and some surrounding township#Australia, townships. It is loc ...
, the Jervis Bay Territory, and the
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an states and territories of Australia, Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. Northern Territory shares its borders with Weste ...
), and seven external territories ( Ashmore and Cartier Islands, the '' Australian Antarctic Territory'', Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the
Coral Sea Islands
Coral Sea Islands
, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, and Norfolk Island). In total, there are ten territories in Australia, with ''internal territories'' being on the mainland Australia, Australian mainland, and ''external territories'' being sovereign territories offshore. Every state and internal territory, excluding the Jervis Bay Territory, has its own executive government, legislative branch, and judicial system. State and territory governments have executive authority to legislate on matters concerning their citizens, with the only limitations being on subjects of national importance, such as defence and foreign policy. Each state and internal territory, excluding the Jervis Bay Territory, also has its own legislature, although the federal government can overwrite any territory legislation. The federal High Court of Australia acts as a final court of appeal for all matters and has the authority to override any state judiciary. While all states and internal territories have their own judicial system, which is subject to appeal from the High Court, most external territories are subject to the judiciary and legislature of either a state or internal territory. Excluding the Heard Island and McDonald Islands and the Australian Antarctic Territory (which are governed by the Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment), the external territories are governed by the federal Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Communications. Each state of Australia is a successor to historical #Background and overview, Australian colonies under British governance, and has its own constitution. The ACT and Northern Territory for the most part operate indistinguishably from states. The Jervis Bay Territory is considered as part of the ACT for almost all intents and purposes. Up until 2015, Norfolk Island was also a self-governing territory, like the ACT.


Geography of Australia

Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific Oceans, Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura Sea and Timor Sea, and from New Zealand by the Tasman Sea. The world's smallest continent, Australia is also the sixth largest country by land area and sometimes considered the world's largest island. Australia has a mainland coastline of and claims an Exclusive Economic Zone of .


Statistical divisions

The Australian Bureau of Statistics' (ABS) ''Australian Statistical Geography Standard'' describes several main statistical divisions of Australia: * Mesh Block (MB) – the smallest area of division, MBs are rarely used for statistics and represent 3060 dwellings, though some have no population or development. They are conventionally used as a way to ensure confidentiality of responses. * Statistical Area Level 1 (SA1) – SA1s are small areas of 200800 people and are used to balance spatial detail and cross comparison in the Census in Australia, Census of Population and Housing. * Statistical Area Level 2 (SA2) – SA2s are designed to represent financial and social interactions, such as a suburb or neighbourhood of 3,00025,000 people (averaging at 10,000) and is often the smallest division used in statistical releases. * Statistical Area Level 3 (SA3) – SA3s are regional representations of local communities, generally containing similar characteristics, administrative boundaries, and labour markets, each having 30,000130,000 people. * Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4) – SA4s are broader representations of labour forces in population centres, with 100,000300,000 people in regional areas and 300,000500,000 in metropolitan areas. * States and Territories The ABS also defines other divisions such as the Greater Capital City Statistical Area Structure, Significant Urban Area Structure, Remoteness Structure, and Indigenous Structure. Other non-ABS divisions include Local Government Areas, Postal Areas, electoral divisions, and tourism regions.


States and territories

At Federation in 1901, what is now the Northern Territory was within South Australia, what are now the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory were within New South Wales, and Coral Sea Islands was part of Queensland. Ashmore and Cartier Islands was accepted by Australia in 1934 and was annexed to the Northern Territory prior to adoption of the Statute of Westminster 1931, Statute of Westminster in 1942, deemed effective from 1939; it has thus become part of Australia. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands voted for 1984 Cocos (Keeling) Islands status referendum, integration in 1984. Together with Christmas Island, Commonwealth laws apply automatically to the territory unless expressly stated otherwise and residents of both external territories are associated with Northern Territory for federal elections. They are, thus, constitutionally part of Australia. The Heard Island and McDonald Islands, although uninhabited, are treated as constitutionally part of Australia by the central government. The constitutional status of the Australian Antarctic Territory is unclear, with successive governments treating it either as a separate territory (as in the British Antarctic Territory, United Kingdom and list of possessions of Norway, Norway) or an integral part of the country (as in Ross Dependency, New Zealand and Adelie Land, France). , the present government appears to take the view that it is not constitutionally part of Australia. Norfolk Island's status is controversial, with the present () government taking measures to integrate the territory into Australia proper (including representation in parliament and compulsory voting). The Norfolk Islanders have not formally consented to this change in constitutional status and assert that they are not Australian.


Former territories


Internal territories

Two territories established by the federal government under section 122 of the Constitution of Australia no longer exist: *Central Australia (territory), Central Australia (1926–1931), consisting of the area of the current Northern Territory south of the 20th parallel south *North Australia (territory), North Australia (1926–1931), consisting of the area of the current Northern Territory north of the 20th parallel south


External territories

Two present-day countries, Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Nauru, were administered by the federal government of Australia as ''de facto'' and/or ''de jure'' external territories, for differing periods, between 1902 and 1975. Nauru and parts of PNG were previously part of the German colonial empire. Papua and New Guinea, 1883–1949 *Territory of Papua: ** 1883–1902: A ''de facto'' part of
Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wale ...
(''de jure'' British territory in 1888–1900) ** 1902–1949: An external territory of Australia *Territory of New Guinea: 1920–1949, under a League of Nations mandate. (The territory was previously known as German New Guinea, between 1884 and 1914; it was formally under Australian military occupation, in 1914–1920.) In 1949, the combined Territory of Papua and New Guinea was created, although both the two territories remained technically distinct, for some administrative and legal purposes, until 1975, when the combined entity became independent. Nauru, 1920–1968
The Australian government received a League of Nations History of Nauru, mandate for Nauru, following World War I. Following World War II, Papua, New Guinea and Nauru were controlled by the Australian government as United Nations trust territories. The ''Papua and New Guinea Act 1949'' placed the Territory of New Guinea in an "administrative union" with the Territory of Papua. The Territory of Papua and New Guinea was eventually given independence as Papua New Guinea in 1975. Nauru was granted independence in 1968.


Background and overview

The states originated as separate United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, British colonies prior to Federation of Australia, Federation in 1901. The Colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 and originally comprised much of the Australian mainland, as well as Lord Howe Island, Colony of New Zealand, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, and Van Diemen's Land, in addition to the area currently referred to as the state of New South Wales. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the Colony of Tasmania (initially established as a separate colony named Van Diemen's Land in 1825), the History of Western Australia#British Colony, Colony of Western Australia (initially established as the smaller Swan River Colony in 1829), the History of South Australia#The Proclamation of South Australia .281836.29, Province of South Australia (1836), the Colony of New Zealand (1840), the Victoria (Australia)#Colonial Victoria, Victoria Colony (1851) and the Queensland#Colony of Queensland, Colony of Queensland (1859). Upon Federation, the six colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania became the founding states of the new Commonwealth of Australia. The legislative powers of the states are protected by the Constitution of Australia, Australian constitution, section 107, and under the principle of Federalism in Australia, federalism, Commonwealth legislation only applies to the states where permitted by the constitution. The territories, by contrast, are from a constitutional perspective directly subject to the Government of Australia, Commonwealth Government; laws for territories are determined by the Australian Parliament. Most of the territories are directly administered by the Commonwealth Government, while two (the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory) have some degree of self-government although less than that of the states. In the self-governing territories, the Australian Parliament retains the full power to legislate, and can override laws made by the territorial institutions, which it has done on rare occasions. For the purposes of Australian (and joint Australia-New Zealand) intergovernmental bodies, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory are treated as if they were states. Each state has a Governors of the Australian states, governor, appointed by Monarchy of Australia, the monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II), which by convention she does on the advice of the state premier. The Administrator of the Northern Territory, by contrast, is appointed by the Governor-General of Australia, Governor-General. The Australian Capital Territory has neither a Governor nor an Administrator, but the Governor-General exercises some powers that in other jurisdictions are exercised by the Governor of a state or Administrator of a territory, such as the power to dissolve the Legislative Assembly. Jervis Bay Territory is the only non-self-governing internal territory. Until 1989, it was administered as if it were a part of the ACT, although it has always been a separate territory. Under the terms of the ''Jervis Bay Territory Acceptance Act 1915'', the laws of the ACT apply to the Jervis Bay Territory insofar as they are applicable and providing they are not inconsistent with an Ordinance. Although residents of the Jervis Bay Territory are generally subject to laws made by the ACT Legislative Assembly, they are not represented in the Assembly. They are represented in the Parliament of Australia as part of the Electoral Division of Fenner (named the Division of Fraser (Australian Capital Territory), Division of Fraser until 2016) in the ACT and by the ACT's two Senators. In other respects, the territory is administered directly by the Federal Government through the Territories portfolio. The external territory of Norfolk Island possessed a degree of self-government from 1979 until 2015. Each state has a bicameral parliament except Queensland, which abolished its upper house in 1922. The lower house is called the Legislative Assembly, except in South Australia and Tasmania, where it is called the House of Assembly. Tasmania is the only state to use proportional representation for elections to its lower house; all others elect members from single member constituencies, using instant-runoff voting, preferential voting. The upper house is called the Legislative Council and is generally elected from multi-member constituencies using proportional representation. The three self-governing territories, the ACT, the Northern Territory, and Norfolk Island, each have unicameral Legislative Assemblies. The head of government of each state is called the premier, appointed by the state's Governor. In normal circumstances, the Governor will appoint as premier whoever leads the party or coalition which exercises control of the lower house (in the case of Queensland, the only house) of the state Parliament. However, in times of constitutional crisis, the Governor can appoint someone else as Premier. The head of government of the self-governing internal territories is called the chief minister. The Northern Territory's chief minister, in normal circumstances whoever controls the Legislative Assembly, is appointed by the administrator. The term "interstate" is used within Australia to refer to a number of events, transactions, registrations, travel, etc. which occurs across borders or outside of the particular state or territory of the user of the term. Examples of use include motor vehicle registration, travel, applications to educational institutions out of one's home state. There are very few urban areas bifurcated by state/territory borders. The Queensland/New South Wales border runs through Coolangatta (
Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most populous Australian state. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wale ...
) and Tweed Heads, New South Wales, Tweed Heads (New South Wales) and splits Gold Coast Airport. Oaks Estate, a contiguous residential of Queanbeyan, was excised out of New South Wales when the
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a federal territory of Australia containing the Australian capital city of Canberra and some surrounding township#Australia, townships. It is loc ...
was established in 1909. Some urban area, Urban Centres and Localities reported by the Australian Bureau of Statistics include some agglomerations of cities spreading across state borders, including Gold Coast, Queensland, Gold Coast–Tweed Heads, New South Wales, Tweed Heads, Canberra–Queanbeyan, Albury, New South Wales, Albury–Wodonga, Victoria, Wodonga (New South Wales-Victoria) and Mildura, Victoria, Mildura–Wentworth, New South Wales, Wentworth (Victoria-New South Wales)


Timeline

*1788 – British Empire establishes Colony of New South Wales across central and eastern mainland Australia, the island of Tasmania, both islands of New Zealand and Norfolk Island. *1803 – The are claimed by New South Wales. *1825 – The island of Tasmania becomes the independent colony of Van Diemen's Land. New South Wales extends its borders further west in mainland Australia. *1829 – British Empire establishes Swan River Colony in western mainland Australia. *1832 – Swan River Colony is renamed the colony of
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excluding external territories. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, and the So ...
. *1836 – The Colony of
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Australi ...
is established. *1841 – The islands of New Zealand become the independent colony of New Zealand. Much of eastern Antarctica is annexed by Britain as Victoria Land. *1844 – New South Wales transfers Norfolk Island to Van Diemen's Land. *1846 – Northern central and eastern Australia briefly become the independent Colony of North Australia, then are returned to New South Wales. *1851 – Southeastern mainland Australia becomes the independent colony of Victoria. *1856 – Van Diemen's Land is renamed the colony of Tasmania. Norfolk Island becomes the independent colony of Norfolk Island, however it is to be administered by the same Governor as New South Wales. *1857 – Much of southern central mainland Australia becomes the independent colony of
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Australi ...
. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are annexed by Britain. *1859 – Northeastern mainland Australia and Coral Sea Islands become the independent colony of Queensland. *1860 – A pocket of New South Wales territory remaining in southern central mainland Australia is transferred to South Australia. *1862 – Some of New South Wales' northern central mainland Australian territory is transferred to Queensland. *1863 – New South Wales' remaining northern central mainland Australian territory is transferred to South Australia. *1878 – Britain annexes Ashmore Island. *1883 – Queensland annexes southeastern New Guinea. *1884 – Southeastern New Guinea becomes the independent Territory of Papua. *1886 – The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are to be administered by the same Governor as the Straits Settlements. *1888 – Christmas Island is annexed by Britain and incorporated into the Straits Settlements. *1897 – Norfolk Island is officially reintegrated into New South Wales. *1901 – New South Wales, Tasmania, Western Australia, Victoria and South Australia federate into the Commonwealth of Australia. Queensland transfers the Coral Sea Islands to the federal government, creating a federal external territory. *1902 – Britain transfers Papua to Australia as an external territory. *1903 – The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are incorporated into the Straits Settlements. *1909 – Britain annexes Cartier Island. *1910 – Britain claims Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Heard Island and the McDonald Islands. *1911 – The state of South Australia transfers control of northern central mainland Australia to the federal government, creating the
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an states and territories of Australia, Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. Northern Territory shares its borders with Weste ...
. A small pocket of New South Wales around the city of Canberra is transferred to the federal government (who are seated within it), creating the Federal Capital Territory. *1913 – New South Wales transfers Norfolk Island to the federal government, making it a federal external territory. *1915 – A small pocket of New South Wales around Jervis Bay is transferred to the federal government and incorporated into the Federal Capital Territory. *1920 – Following the defeat of the German Empire in World War I, the League of Nations establishes an Australian mandate in northeastern New Guinea, it becomes the external Territory of New Guinea. *1923 – Another conquered German territory, the island of Nauru, is established as an Australian mandate and external territory by the League of Nations, this time as a co-mandate with Britain and New Zealand. *1927 – The Northern Territory is split into two territories – North Australia and Central Australia (territory), Central Australia. *1930 – Remaining territory in eastern Antarctica is annexed by Britain as Enderby Land. *1931 – North Australia and Central Australia are reincorporated as the Northern Territory. Britain recognises Australia as possessors of the uninhabited Ashmore and Cartier Islands, making them an external federal territory. *1933 – Britain transfers Victoria Land and Enderby Land to Australia, creating the Australian Antarctic Territory, with ongoing limited international recognition. *1938 – The Federal Capital Territory is renamed the
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a federal territory of Australia containing the Australian capital city of Canberra and some surrounding township#Australia, townships. It is loc ...
. *1942 – The Japanese Empire conquers Nauru from Australia, Britain and New Zealand as part of World War II. Japan also conquers much of the Straits Settlements, including Christmas Island. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are not conquered and are transferred to the British Ceylon, Colony of Ceylon. *1946 – The United Nations, the successor to the League of Nations, renews its mandate of New Guinea to Australia. *1947 – Following the defeat of Japan in World War II, the United Nations returns Nauru to Australia, Britain and New Zealand as a joint mandate. Christmas Island returns to Britain and is incorporated into the Colony of Singapore. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are also transferred to Singapore. *1949 – Papua and New Guinea are incorporated into the singular Territory of Papua and New Guinea. Britain transfers Heard Island and the McDonald Islands to Australia, creating a federal external territory. *1955 – Britain transfers the Cocos (Keeling) Islands to Australia, they become an external territory. *1958 – Britain transfers Christmas Island to Australia, it becomes an external territory. *1966 – The Republic of Nauru is established, ending Australian/British/New Zealander control of the island. *1975 – Papua and New Guinea becomes the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, ending British/Australian control. *1978 – Northern Territory gains self-government with certain Commonwealth control. *1979 – Norfolk Island gains self-government with certain Commonwealth control. *1989 – Australian Capital Territory gains self-government with certain Commonwealth control. Jervis Bay becomes independent of the ACT, becoming the Jervis Bay Territory. *2015 – Norfolk Island loses self-government with full Commonwealth control.


Comparative terminology


Governors and administrators


Premiers and chief ministers


Parliaments

* Parliament of New South Wales * Parliament of Queensland * Parliament of South Australia * Parliament of Tasmania * Parliament of Victoria * Parliament of Western Australia * Northern Territory Legislative Assembly * Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly


Supreme courts

* Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory * Supreme Court of New South Wales * Supreme Court of the Northern Territory * Supreme Court of Queensland * Supreme Court of South Australia * Supreme Court of Tasmania * Supreme Court of Victoria * Supreme Court of Western Australia * Supreme Court of Norfolk Island


Police forces

* ACT Police, Australian Capital Territory Police (performed by Australian Federal Police) * New South Wales Police Force, New South Wales Police * Northern Territory Police * Queensland Police * South Australia Police * Tasmania Police * Victoria Police * Western Australia Police


Borders

* Australian Capital Territory border * New South Wales borders * Northern Territory borders * Queensland borders * South Australian borders * Boundary Islet, Tasmanian borders * Victorian borders * Western Australia border


Statistics


State and territory codes


See also

* Australian regional rivalries * ISO 3166-2:AU, the ISO codes for the states and territories of Australia. * List of Australian demonyms * List of Australian states by Human Development Index * List of proposed states of Australia


Notes


References

{{States and territories of Australia States and territories of Australia, Australia geography-related lists Administrative divisions in Oceania, Australia 1 First-level administrative divisions by country, States, Australia Lists of subdivisions of Australia, States and territories Subdivisions of Australia