India is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories . The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions .
States and union territories of India ordered by
* Area * Population
* Abbreviations * Capitals * Child Nutrition * Crime rate * Economic Freedom * Electricity penetration * Fertility rate * Forest cover * GDP (per capita ) * Highest point * HIV awareness * HDI * Home ownership * Household size * Human Trafficking * Institutional delivery * Life expectancy at birth * Literacy rate * Media exposure * Number of Vehicles * Number of voters * Open defecation * Origin of name * Places of worship * Poverty * Power capacity * Riots rate * Safe Drinking Water * Safety of Women * School Enrollment Rate * Sex ratio * Suicides * Tax revenues * Ease of Doing Business * TV ownership * Toilet availability * Transport network * Underweight people * Unemployment * Vaccination coverage
* v * t * e
* 1 Responsibilities and authorities
* 2 History
* 2.1 Pre-independence * 2.2 1947–1950 * 2.3 States reorganization (1951–1956) * 2.4 Post-1956 * 2.5 Current proposals
* 3 List
* 3.1 States * 3.2 Union territories * 3.3 Former states
* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links
RESPONSIBILITIES AND AUTHORITIES
The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State.
The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj , the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies) that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held _de facto _ sovereignty (suzerainty ) over the princely states.
Between 1947 and 1950, the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana , Himachal Pradesh , Madhya Bharat , and Vindhya Pradesh , made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore , Hyderabad , Bhopal , and Bilaspur , became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India , which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States". The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:
* Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam , Bihar , Bombay , Madhya Pradesh (formerly Central Provinces and Berar), Madras , Orissa , Punjab (formerly East Punjab), Uttar Pradesh (formerly the United Provinces), and West Bengal . * The eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh , who was usually the ruler of a constituent state, and an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India . The Part B states were Hyderabad , Jammu and Kashmir , Madhya Bharat , Mysore , Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), Rajasthan , Saurashtra , and Travancore-Cochin . * The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India. The Part C states were Ajmer , Bhopal , Bilaspur , Coorg , Delhi , Himachal Pradesh , Cutch , Manipur , Tripura , and Vindhya Pradesh . * The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands , which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government.
STATES REORGANIZATION (1951–1956)
The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry , Karaikal , Yanam and Mahé . Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu -speaking northern districts of Madras State .
The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to from Travancore-Cochin . Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin . Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum , Bijapur , North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State , the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar , Raichur and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg . The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep .
Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State , the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State . Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal .
Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963. The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh . The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.
Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur , Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972. Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories.
In November 2000, three new states were created; namely, Chhattisgarh from eastern Madhya Pradesh , Uttaranchal from northwest Uttar Pradesh (renamed Uttarakhand in 2007) and Jharkhand from southern districts of Bihar. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh .
Main article: List of proposed states and territories of India
See also: List of state and union territory capitals in India
STATE ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle code CAPITAL LARGEST CITY STATEHOOD POPULATION Area (km2) Official languages Additional official languages
ARUNACHAL PRADESH IN-AR AR Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English —
GOA IN-GA GA Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani Marathi
KARNATAKA IN-KA KA Bangalore 1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada —
MAHARASHTRA IN-MH MH Mumbai 1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi —
MANIPUR IN-MN MN Imphal 21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,347 Meitei English
MEGHALAYA IN-ML ML Shillong 21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,720 English Khasi
ODISHA IN-OR OD Bhubaneswar 26 January 1950 41,974,218 155,820 Odia —
SIKKIM IN-SK SK Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 English Bhutia , Gurung , Lepcha , Limboo , Manger , Mukhia , Newari , Rai , Sherpa , Tamang
TAMIL NADU IN-TN TN Chennai 26 January 1950 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil English
TRIPURA IN-TR TR Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,492 Bengali , Kokborok , English —
* ^NOTE 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad , located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years. The Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Andhra Pradesh Legislature completed the process of relocating to temporary facilities in the envisaged new capital city Amaravati in early 2017. * ^NOTE 2 Dehradun is the interim capital of Uttarakhand. The town of Gairsain is envisaged as the state's new capital.
UNION TERRITORY ISO 3166-2:IN VEHICLE CODE CAPITAL LARGEST CITY POPULATION Area (km2) Official languages Additional official languages
CHANDIGARH IN-CH CH Chandigarh — 1,055,450 114 English —
DAMAN AND DIU IN-DD DD Daman 243,247 112 English , Gujarati , Hindi , Konkani —
MAP STATE CAPITAL YEARS SUCCESSOR STATE(S)
* Autonomous regions of India * Emblems of Indian States * ISO 3166-2:IN * List of adjectives and demonyms for states and territories of India * List of states and union territories of India by population * List of states in India by past population * List of states of India by wildlife population * List of Indian state and union territory name etymologies * Subdivisions of India * List of princely states of British India (alphabetical)
* ^ Khasi language has been declared as the Additional Official Language for all purposes in the District, Sub-Division and Block level offices of the State Government located in the Districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya. * ^ Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district. * ^ Chandigarh is both a city and a union territory. * ^ It has also been informed that the communication with States/Centre has to be made in Hindi/English. * ^ Delhi is both a city and a union territory.
* ^ "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the _Ramanaiah case_ that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, _Constitutional Law_, 1998 * ^ Krishna Reddy (2003). _Indian History_. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-048369-8 . * ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). _Ancient India_. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0436-8 . * ^ Romila Thapar. _A History of India: Part 1_. * ^ G. Bongard-Levin. _A History of India: Volume 1_. * ^ _Gupta Dynasty – MSN Encarta_. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. * ^ " India – Historical Setting – The Classical Age – Gupta and Harsha". Historymedren.about.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2010. * ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) . _A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar_. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-19-560686-8 . * ^ Chandra, Satish. _Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals_. p. 202. * ^ "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. * ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". _The Sikh empire (1799–1849)_. The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press.
* ^ "Article 1". _Constitution of India_. * ^ "Reorganisation of states" (PDF). Economic Weekly. Retrieved 31 December 2015. * ^ "Map of Madras Presidency in 1909". Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "Article 1". _Constitution of India_. Law Ministry, GOI. Retrieved 31 December 2015. * ^ J.C. Aggarwal, S.P. Agrawal (1995). _Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future_. New DElhi: Concept Publishing. pp. 89–90. * ^ " Nagaland History & Geography-Source". india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ " Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ "The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966" (PDF). india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ "State map of India". Travel India guide. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ "Snapshot of North Eastern States" (PDF). thaibicindia.in. Retrieved 17 February 2016. * ^ "About Sikkim". Official website of the Government of Sikkim. Retrieved 15 June 2009. * ^ " Goa Chronology". goaonline.in. Retrieved 17 February 2016. * ^ "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Jharkhand.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ " Chhattisgarh state – History". Cg.gov.in. Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". Times of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013. * ^ "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". Uk.gov.in. 9 November 2000. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ "The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of law and justice, Government of India. Retrieved 3 March 2014. * ^ " Telangana bill passed by upper house". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 February 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "List of states with Population, Sex Ratio and Literacy Census 2011". * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (pdf) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ http://www.gulte.com/news/56377/After-2200-Years-Amaravati-Gets-Back-Power * ^ http://www.ap.gov.in/ * ^ " Haryana grants second language status to Punjabi". _Hindustan Times_. 28 January 2010. * ^ "Punjabi gets second language status in Haryana". _Zee news_. 28 January 2010. * ^ http://ierj.in/journal/index.php/ierj/article/viewFile/386/364 * ^ _A_ _B_ " Telangana State Profile" (PDF). Telangana government portal. p. 34. Retrieved 11 June 2014. * ^ " Urdu Gets First Language Status". * ^ "Sanskrit: Reviving the language in today’s India – Livemint". * ^ "Bifurcated into Telangana State and residual Andhra Pradesh State". _The Times Of India_. 2 June 2014. * ^ "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014" (PDF). _Ministry of Law and Justice_. Government of India. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. * ^ "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 Sub-section" (PDF). 4 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. * ^ Sanchari Bhattacharya (1 June 2014). " Andhra Pradesh Minus Telangana: 10 Facts". _NDTV_. * ^ "Official Language Act 2000" (PDF). Government of Delhi. 2 July 2003. Retrieved 17 July 2015. * ^ http://www.lawsofindia.org/pdf/puducherry/1965/1965Pondicherry3.pdf
* Maps of the Historical Territorial Evolution of the States of India * Official