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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

India
India
is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories . The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions .

States and union territories of India ordered by

* Area * Population

-------------------------

* Abbreviations * Capitals * Child Nutrition * Crime rate * Economic Freedom * Electricity penetration * Fertility rate * Forest cover * GDP (per capita ) * Highest point * HIV awareness * HDI * Home ownership * Household size * Human Trafficking * Institutional delivery * Life expectancy at birth * Literacy rate * Media exposure * Number of Vehicles * Number of voters * Open defecation * Origin of name * Places of worship * Poverty * Power capacity * Riots rate * Safe Drinking Water * Safety of Women * School Enrollment Rate * Sex ratio * Suicides * Tax revenues * Ease of Doing Business * TV ownership * Toilet availability * Transport network * Underweight people * Unemployment * Vaccination coverage

* v * t * e

CONTENTS

* 1 Responsibilities and authorities

* 2 History

* 2.1 Pre-independence * 2.2 1947–1950 * 2.3 States reorganization (1951–1956) * 2.4 Post-1956 * 2.5 Current proposals

* 3 List

* 3.1 States * 3.2 Union territories * 3.3 Former states

* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

RESPONSIBILITIES AND AUTHORITIES

The Constitution of India
India
distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State.

HISTORY

Administrative division of India
India
in 1951

PRE-INDEPENDENCE

The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj , the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies) that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held _de facto _ sovereignty (suzerainty ) over the princely states.

1947–1950

Between 1947 and 1950, the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana
Rajputana
, Himachal Pradesh , Madhya Bharat , and Vindhya Pradesh
Vindhya Pradesh
, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore
Mysore
, Hyderabad
Hyderabad
, Bhopal
Bhopal
, and Bilaspur , became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India
India
, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India
India
a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States". The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:

* Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam
Assam
, Bihar
Bihar
, Bombay
Bombay
, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
(formerly Central Provinces and Berar), Madras
Madras
, Orissa , Punjab
Punjab
(formerly East Punjab), Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
(formerly the United Provinces), and West Bengal
West Bengal
. * The eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh , who was usually the ruler of a constituent state, and an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India
India
. The Part B states were Hyderabad , Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
, Madhya Bharat , Mysore
Mysore
, Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), Rajasthan
Rajasthan
, Saurashtra , and Travancore-Cochin . * The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India. The Part C states were Ajmer , Bhopal
Bhopal
, Bilaspur , Coorg , Delhi
Delhi
, Himachal Pradesh , Cutch , Manipur
Manipur
, Tripura , and Vindhya Pradesh
Vindhya Pradesh
. * The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government.

STATES REORGANIZATION (1951–1956)

The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry , Karaikal , Yanam and Mahé . Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu -speaking northern districts of Madras State .

The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to from Travancore-Cochin . Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala
Kerala
was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin . Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum , Bijapur , North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State , the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar
Bidar
, Raichur and Gulbarga
Gulbarga
from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg . The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep .

Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State , the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State . Rajasthan and Punjab
Punjab
gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar
Bihar
was transferred to West Bengal
West Bengal
.

POST-1956

Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat
Gujarat
and Maharashtra
Maharashtra
on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay
Bombay
Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963. The Punjab
Punjab
Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana
Haryana
on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab
Punjab
to Himachal Pradesh . The act also designated Chandigarh
Chandigarh
as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab
Punjab
and Haryana.

Madras
Madras
state was renamed Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur
Manipur
, Meghalaya
Meghalaya
and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972. Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka
Karnataka
in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union
Indian Union
and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram
Mizoram
became states on 20 February, followed by Goa
Goa
on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories.

In November 2000, three new states were created; namely, Chhattisgarh from eastern Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
, Uttaranchal from northwest Uttar Pradesh (renamed Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
in 2007) and Jharkhand
Jharkhand
from southern districts of Bihar. Orissa was renamed as Odisha
Odisha
in 2011. Telangana
Telangana
was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh .

CURRENT PROPOSALS

Main article: List of proposed states and territories of India
India

LIST

See also: List of state and union territory capitals in India
India

STATES

STATE ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle code CAPITAL LARGEST CITY STATEHOOD POPULATION Area (km2) Official languages Additional official languages

ANDHRA PRADESH IN-AP AP Hyderabad
Hyderabad
(_de jure_) Amaravati
Amaravati
(_de facto_) Note 1 Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
1 October 1953 49,506,799 160,205 Telugu Urdu
Urdu

ARUNACHAL PRADESH IN-AR AR Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English —

ASSAM IN-AS AS Dispur Guwahati
Guwahati
26 January 1950 31,205,576 78,550 Assamese —

BIHAR IN-BR BR Patna
Patna
26 January 1950 104,099,452 99,200 Hindi
Hindi
Urdu
Urdu

CHHATTISGARH IN-CT CG Naya Raipur Raipur 1 November 2000 25,545,198 135,194 Hindi
Hindi

GOA IN-GA GA Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani Marathi

GUJARAT IN-GJ GJ Gandhinagar Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
1 May 1960 60,439,692 196,024 Gujarati —

HARYANA IN-HR HR Chandigarh
Chandigarh
Faridabad
Faridabad
1 November 1966 25,351,462 44,212 Hindi
Hindi
Punjabi

HIMACHAL PRADESH IN-HP HP Shimla 25 January 1971 6,864,602 55,673 Hindi
Hindi
English

JAMMU AND KASHMIR IN-JK JK Srinagar
Srinagar
(Summer) Jammu
Jammu
(Winter) Srinagar
Srinagar
26 January 1950 12,541,302 222,236 Urdu
Urdu

JHARKHAND IN-JH JH Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 2000 32,988,134 74,677 Hindi
Hindi
Urdu
Urdu

KARNATAKA IN-KA KA Bangalore
Bangalore
1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada —

KERALA IN-KL KL Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
Kochi
Kochi
1 November 1956 33,406,061 38,863 Malayalam
Malayalam

MADHYA PRADESH IN-MP MP Bhopal
Bhopal
Indore 1 November 1956 72,626,809 308,252 Hindi
Hindi

MAHARASHTRA IN-MH MH Mumbai
Mumbai
1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi —

MANIPUR IN-MN MN Imphal
Imphal
21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,347 Meitei English

MEGHALAYA IN-ML ML Shillong
Shillong
21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,720 English Khasi

MIZORAM IN-MZ MZ Aizawl 20 February 1987 1,097,206 21,081 English , Hindi
Hindi
, Mizo —

NAGALAND IN-NL NL Kohima
Kohima
Dimapur 1 December 1963 1,978,502 16,579 English —

ODISHA IN-OR OD Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
26 January 1950 41,974,218 155,820 Odia —

PUNJAB IN-PB PB Chandigarh
Chandigarh
Ludhiana 1 November 1966 27,743,338 50,362 Punjabi —

RAJASTHAN IN-RJ RJ Jaipur
Jaipur
1 November 1956 68,548,437 342,269 Hindi
Hindi
English

SIKKIM IN-SK SK Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 English Bhutia , Gurung , Lepcha , Limboo , Manger , Mukhia , Newari , Rai , Sherpa , Tamang

TAMIL NADU IN-TN TN Chennai
Chennai
26 January 1950 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil English

TELANGANA IN-TG TS Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Note 1 2 June 2014 35,193,978 114,840 Telugu , Urdu
Urdu

TRIPURA IN-TR TR Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,492 Bengali , Kokborok , English —

UTTAR PRADESH IN-UP UP Lucknow
Lucknow
Kanpur
Kanpur
26 January 1950 199,812,341 243,286 Hindi
Hindi
Urdu
Urdu

UTTARAKHAND IN-UT UK Dehradun Note 2 9 November 2000 10,086,292 53,483 Hindi
Hindi
Sanskrit
Sanskrit

WEST BENGAL IN-WB WB Kolkata
Kolkata
26 January 1950 91,276,115 88,752 Bengali , Nepali Hindi
Hindi
, Urdu
Urdu
, Santali , Odia and Punjabi

* ^NOTE 1 Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
was divided into two states, Telangana
Telangana
and a residual Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad
Hyderabad
, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years. The Government of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and the Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Legislature completed the process of relocating to temporary facilities in the envisaged new capital city Amaravati
Amaravati
in early 2017. * ^NOTE 2 Dehradun is the interim capital of Uttarakhand. The town of Gairsain is envisaged as the state's new capital.

UNION TERRITORIES

UNION TERRITORY ISO 3166-2:IN VEHICLE CODE CAPITAL LARGEST CITY POPULATION Area (km2) Official languages Additional official languages

ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS IN-AN AN Port Blair 380,581 8,249 English , Hindi
Hindi

CHANDIGARH IN-CH CH Chandigarh
Chandigarh
— 1,055,450 114 English —

DADRA AND NAGAR HAVELI IN-DN DN Silvassa 343,709 491 Gujarati , Hindi
Hindi
Marathi

DAMAN AND DIU IN-DD DD Daman 243,247 112 English , Gujarati , Hindi
Hindi
, Konkani —

DELHI IN-DL DL New Delhi
Delhi
— 16,787,941 1,490 Hindi
Hindi
Punjabi , Urdu
Urdu

LAKSHADWEEP IN-LD LD Kavaratti
Kavaratti
64,473 32 English Hindi
Hindi

PUDUCHERRY IN-PY PY Pondicherry
Pondicherry
1,247,953 492 English , Tamil Malayalam
Malayalam
, Telugu

FORMER STATES

MAP STATE CAPITAL YEARS SUCCESSOR STATE(S)

Madhya Bharat Gwalior
Gwalior
(winter) Indore (summer) 1947–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh

Eastern States Union Raipur 1947–1948 Bihar
Bihar
, Odisha
Odisha
, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh

Madras State Madras
Madras
1950–1969 Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu

Mysore State Mysore
Mysore
1947–1973 Karnataka
Karnataka

Patiala and East Punjab
East Punjab
States Union Patiala 1948–1956 Punjab, India
India

Bombay State Bombay
Bombay
1947–1960 Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, Gujarat
Gujarat

Bhopal State Bhopal
Bhopal
1949–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh

Saurashtra Rajkot 1948–1956 Bombay State

Coorg State Madikeri 1950–1956 Mysore State

Travancore-Cochin Trivandrum
Trivandrum
1949–1956 Kerala
Kerala
, Madras State

Hyderabad State Hyderabad
Hyderabad
1948–1956 Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh

Vindhya Pradesh
Vindhya Pradesh
Rewa 1948–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh

Kutch State Bhuj
Bhuj
1947–1956 Bombay State

Bilaspur State Bilaspur 1948–1954 Himachal Pradesh

Cooch Behar State Cooch Behar 1949 West Bengal
West Bengal

Ajmer State Ajmer 1947–1956 Rajasthan
Rajasthan

SEE ALSO

* Autonomous regions of India
India
* Emblems of Indian States * ISO 3166-2:IN * List of adjectives and demonyms for states and territories of India
India
* List of states and union territories of India
India
by population * List of states in India
India
by past population * List of states of India
India
by wildlife population * List of Indian state and union territory name etymologies * Subdivisions of India
India
* List of princely states of British India
India
(alphabetical)

NOTES

* ^ Khasi language has been declared as the Additional Official Language for all purposes in the District, Sub-Division and Block level offices of the State Government located in the Districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya. * ^ Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district. * ^ Chandigarh
Chandigarh
is both a city and a union territory. * ^ It has also been informed that the communication with States/Centre has to be made in Hindi/English. * ^ Delhi
Delhi
is both a city and a union territory.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the _Ramanaiah case_ that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, _Constitutional Law_, 1998 * ^ Krishna Reddy (2003). _Indian History_. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-048369-8 . * ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). _Ancient India_. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0436-8 . * ^ Romila Thapar. _A History of India: Part 1_. * ^ G. Bongard-Levin. _A History of India: Volume 1_. * ^ _Gupta Dynasty – MSN Encarta_. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. * ^ " India
India
– Historical Setting – The Classical Age – Gupta and Harsha". Historymedren.about.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2010. * ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) . _A history of South India
India
from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar_. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-19-560686-8 . * ^ Chandra, Satish. _Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals_. p. 202. * ^ "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. * ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". _The Sikh empire (1799–1849)_. The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press.

* ^ "Article 1". _Constitution of India_. * ^ "Reorganisation of states" (PDF). Economic Weekly. Retrieved 31 December 2015. * ^ "Map of Madras
Madras
Presidency in 1909". Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "Article 1". _Constitution of India_. Law Ministry, GOI. Retrieved 31 December 2015. * ^ J.C. Aggarwal, S.P. Agrawal (1995). _Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future_. New DElhi: Concept Publishing. pp. 89–90. * ^ " Nagaland
Nagaland
History & Geography-Source". india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ " Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ "The Punjab
Punjab
Reorganisation Act 1966" (PDF). india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ "State map of India". Travel India
India
guide. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ "Snapshot of North Eastern States" (PDF). thaibicindia.in. Retrieved 17 February 2016. * ^ "About Sikkim". Official website of the Government of Sikkim. Retrieved 15 June 2009. * ^ " Goa
Goa
Chronology". goaonline.in. Retrieved 17 February 2016. * ^ "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Jharkhand.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ " Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
state – History". Cg.gov.in. Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". Times of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013. * ^ "About Us: Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Government Portal, India". Uk.gov.in. 9 November 2000. Retrieved 17 June 2013. * ^ "The Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of law and justice, Government of India. Retrieved 3 March 2014. * ^ " Telangana
Telangana
bill passed by upper house". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 February 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "List of states with Population, Sex Ratio and Literacy Census 2011". * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (pdf) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ http://www.gulte.com/news/56377/After-2200-Years-Amaravati-Gets-Back-Power * ^ http://www.ap.gov.in/ * ^ " Haryana
Haryana
grants second language status to Punjabi". _Hindustan Times_. 28 January 2010. * ^ "Punjabi gets second language status in Haryana". _Zee news_. 28 January 2010. * ^ http://ierj.in/journal/index.php/ierj/article/viewFile/386/364 * ^ _A_ _B_ " Telangana
Telangana
State Profile" (PDF). Telangana
Telangana
government portal. p. 34. Retrieved 11 June 2014. * ^ " Urdu
Urdu
Gets First Language Status". * ^ "Sanskrit: Reviving the language in today’s India
India
– Livemint". * ^ "Bifurcated into Telangana
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State and residual Andhra Pradesh State". _The Times Of India_. 2 June 2014. * ^ "The Gazette of India
India
: The Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
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