Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and
third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated
in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern
South Australia and
New South Wales
New South Wales to the west, south-west
and south respectively. To the east,
Queensland is bordered by the
Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland.
The state is the world's sixth largest sub-national entity, with an
area of 1,852,642 km2.
Queensland has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast
and particularly in the state's South East. The capital and largest
city in the state is Brisbane, Australia's third largest city. Often
referred to as the "Sunshine State",
Queensland is home to 10 of
Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third largest
economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its warm tropical
climate, is a major industry.
Queensland was first inhabited by
Aboriginal Australians and Torres
Strait Islanders. The first European to land in
Australia) was Dutch navigator
Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored
the west coast of the
Cape York Peninsula
Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In
James Cook claimed the east coast of
the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of
New South Wales
New South Wales was
founded in 1788 by Governor
Arthur Phillip at Sydney; New South Wales
at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Victoria and
Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the
establishment of a penal colony at
Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley.
Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed
The state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859
signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales.
Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland
was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of
Australia with federation on 1 January 1901.
1.1 Arrival of Aborigines
1.2 European arrival (1606)
1.3 Frontier War
1.4 Colony of Queensland
1.5 20th century
1.6 21st century
3.1 Age and population
3.2 Religious affiliation
6.1 Local government
9 See also
11 External links
Main article: History of Queensland
The history of
Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both
a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of
post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was
explored by Dutch, Spanish and French navigators before being
encountered by Lieutenant
James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed
frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants
(which did not result in any settlement or treaty), as well as the
exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific
through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as
Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal
Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic
birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of
its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare
record of early settler life in north
Queensland can be seen in a set
of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard
Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia.
Arrival of Aborigines
Main article: History of Indigenous Australians
The Aboriginal occupation of
Queensland is thought to predate
50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait,
and became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and
largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to
the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the
land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast,
stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests.
European arrival (1606)
In February 1606, Dutch navigator
Willem Janszoon landed near the site
of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York. This was the
first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it also marked
the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian
people. The region was also explored by French and Spanish
explorers (commanded by
Louis Antoine de Bougainville
Louis Antoine de Bougainville and Luís Vaez
de Torres, respectively) prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook
in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King
George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession
Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, 'New South
The Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox
epidemic during the late 18th century. (There has been controversy
regarding the origins of smallpox in Australia; while many sources
have claimed that it originated with British settlers, this theory has
been contradicted by scientific evidence. There is
circumstantial evidence that Macassan mariners visiting Arnhem Land
introduced smallpox to Australia. )
In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now
Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone (then Port
Curtis) and Moreton Bay. At Moreton Bay, he found the
He returned in 1824 and established a settlement at what is now
Redcliffe. The settlement, initially known as Edenglassie, was then
transferred to the current location of the
Brisbane city centre.
Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the
Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts
was ceased, culminating in the closure of the
settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port
of Maryborough was opened as a wool port. The first free immigrant
ship to arrive in
Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857,
Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton.
Main article: Australian frontier wars
Fighting between Burke and Wills's supply party and Indigenous
Australians at Bulla in 1861
A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between
Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland. The
Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in
Australia, perhaps due to Queensland's larger
pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other
Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their allies
(consisting of Chinese, Aboriginal and Melanesian assistants)[citation
needed], were killed in frontier skirmishes during the nineteenth
century. Casualties among the Aboriginal people may
have exceeded 30,000. The "
Native Police Force",
employed by the
Queensland government, was key in the oppression of
the indigenous people.
On 27 October 1857, Aboriginals retaliating against being poisoned and
raped by members of the Fraser family, attacked the Hornet Bank
pastoral station on the Dawson River killing eleven people. This was
one of the largest massacres of British colonists by Indigenous
Australians. The largest reported massacre of
colonists by Aboriginals was in 1861 on the Nogoa River where 19
people were killed. One author estimates 24,000 Aboriginal
men, women and children died at the hands of the
Native Police in
Queensland between 1859 and 1897 alone.
See also: Hornet Bank massacre
Colony of Queensland
A public meeting was held in 1851 to consider the proposed separation
Queensland from New South Wales. On 6 June 1859, Queen Victoria
signed Letters Patent to form the separate colony of what is now
Brisbane was appointed as the capital city. On 10 December
1859, a proclamation was read by British author George Bowen, whereby
Queensland was formally separated from the state of New South
Wales. As a result, Bowen became the first Governor of Queensland.
On 22 May 1860 the first
Queensland election was held and Robert
Herbert, Bowen's private secretary, was appointed as the first Premier
Queensland also became the first Australian colony to
establish its own parliament rather than spending time as a Crown
Colony. In 1865, the first rail line in the state opened between
Ipswich and Grandchester.
Queensland's economy expanded rapidly in 1867 after James Nash
discovered gold on the Mary River near the town of Gympie, sparking a
gold rush. While still significant, they were on a much smaller scale
than the gold rushes of Victoria and New South Wales. During the
period from the 1860s till the early 20th century, many labourers,
known at the time as Kanakas, were brought to
neighbouring Pacific Island nations to work in the state's sugar cane
fields. Some of these people had been kidnapped under a process known
as blackbirding or press ganging, and their employment conditions
amounted to indentured labour or even slavery. During the Australian
federation of 1901, the
White Australia policy
White Australia policy came into effect, which
saw all foreign workers in
Australia deported under the Pacific Island
Labourers Act of 1901, which saw the Pacific Islander population of
the state decrease rapidly.
On 1 January 1901,
Australia was federated following a proclamation by
Queen Victoria. During this time,
Queensland had a population of half
a million people.
Brisbane was subsequently proclaimed a city in 1902.
In 1905, women voted in state elections for the first time, and the
University of Queensland
University of Queensland was established in 1909. In 1911, The first
alternative treatments for polio were pioneered in
remain in use across the world today.
World War I
World War I had a major impact on Queensland. Over 58,000
Queenslanders fought in
World War I
World War I and over 10,000 of them died.
Australia's first major airline, Qantas, was founded in 1920 to serve
Queensland abolished the Upper House, becoming the only State
with a unicameral State Parliament in Australia.
In 1935, cane toads were deliberately introduced to
Hawaii in a poorly-thought-out and unsuccessful attempt to reduce the
number of French's cane and greyback cane beetles that were destroying
the roots of sugar cane plants, which are integral to Queensland's
economy. In 1962, the first commercial production of oil in Queensland
Australia began at Moonie.
The humid climate—regulated by the availability of air
Queensland become a more accommodating place to
work and live for Australian migrants. To this day, it is one of
Australia's economic powerhouses and the third most populous state in
Queensland celebrated Q150, its 150th anniversary as an
independent colony and state. The
Queensland government and other
Queensland organisations commemorated the occasion with many events
and publications, including the announcement of the top 150 icons of
Queensland by the
Queensland Premier Anna Bligh, and the
creation of monuments at significant survey points in Queensland's
history to honour the many early explorer/surveyors who mapped the
Main article: Geography of Queensland
Great Barrier Reef, which extends along most of Queensland's coastline
Commonly designated regions of Queensland
Queensland borders the
Torres Strait to the north, with Boigu Island
off the coast of
New Guinea representing the absolute northern extreme
of its territory. The triangular Cape York Peninsula, which points
toward New Guinea, is the northernmost part of the state's mainland.
West of the peninsula's tip, northern
Queensland is bordered by the
Gulf of Carpentaria, while the Coral Sea, an arm of the Pacific Ocean,
Queensland to the east. To the west,
Queensland is bordered by
the Northern Territory, at the 138°E longitude, and to the southwest
by the northeastern corner of South Australia.
In the south, there are three sections that constitute its border: the
watershed from Point Danger to the Dumaresq River; the river section
involving the Dumaresq, the Macintyre and the Barwon; and 29°S
latitude (including some minor historical encroachments below the 29th
parallel) over to the South Australian border.
The state capital is Brisbane, located on the coast 100 kilometres
(60 mi) by road north of the
New South Wales
New South Wales border. The state is
divided into several officially recognised regions. Other smaller
geographical regions of note include the Atherton Tablelands, the
Granite Belt, and the
Channel Country in the far southwest.
Queensland has many areas of natural beauty, including the Sunshine
Coast and the Gold Coast, home to some of the state's most popular
beaches; the Bunya Mountains and the Great Dividing Range, with
numerous lookouts, waterfalls and picnic areas; Carnarvon Gorge;
Whitsunday Islands; and Hinchinbrook Island. The state contains six
World Heritage-listed preservation areas: Australian Fossil Mammal
Sites at Riversleigh in the Gulf Country,
Gondwana Rainforests of
Australia, Fraser Island, Great Barrier Reef, Lamington National Park
and the Wet Tropics of Queensland.
Mangrove swampland in Cape Tribulation
Noosa Main Beach
Mossman River during the wet season
Köppen climate types in Queensland
Great Sandy Strait from orbit
Because of its size, there is significant variation in climate across
the state. Low rainfall and hot humid summers are typical for the
inland and west, a monsoonal "wet" season in the far north, and warm,
temperate conditions along the coastal strip. Elevated areas in the
south-east inland can experience temperatures well below freezing in
mid-winter. The climate of the coastal strip is influenced by warm
ocean waters, keeping the region free from extremes of temperature and
providing moisture for rainfall.
Natural disasters are often a threat in Queensland; severe tropical
cyclones can impact the coast and cause severe damage, with recent
examples including Larry, Yasi, Ita and Debbie. Flooding from
rain-bearing systems can also be severe and can occur anywhere in
Queensland. One of the deadliest and most damaging floods in the
history of the state occurred in early 2011. Droughts and
bushfires can also occur; however, the latter are generally less
severe than those that occur in southern states. Severe springtime
thunderstorms generally affect the south-east and inland of the state
and can bring damaging winds, torrential rain, large hail and even
tornadoes. The strongest tornado ever recorded in Australia
Queensland near Bundaberg.
There are five predominant climatic zones in Queensland, based on
temperature and humidity:
hot humid summer, warm dry winter (far north and coastal): Cairns,
hot humid summer, mild dry winter (coastal elevated areas and coastal
south-east): Brisbane, Bundaberg, Rockhampton
hot dry summer, mild dry winter (central inland and north-west): Mt
Isa, Emerald, Longreach
hot dry summer, cool dry winter (southern inland): Roma, Charleville,
warm humid summer, cold dry winter (elevated south-eastern areas):
Toowoomba, Warwick, Stanthorpe
Port Douglas, Queensland
Port Douglas, Queensland during the dry season
However, most of the
Queensland populace experience two weather
seasons: a "winter" period of mild to warm temperatures and minimal
rainfall, and a sultry summer period of hot, sticky temperatures and
higher levels of rainfall.
The coastal far north of the state is the wettest place in Australia,
with Mount Bellenden Ker, south of Cairns, holding many Australian
rainfall records with its annual average rainfall of over 8
metres. It is not uncommon for locations in this area to receive
more rain in 24 hours during the wet season than the majority of
Queensland receives in a year.
Snow is rare in Queensland, although it
does fall with some regularity along the far southern border with New
South Wales, predominantly in the
Stanthorpe district although on rare
occasions further north and west. The most northerly snow ever
Australia occurred near Mackay; however, this was
The annual mean statistics for some
Queensland centres are shown
No. clear days
15.7 °C (60.3 °F)
25.5 °C (77.9 °F)
1,149.1 mm (45.24 in)
19.0 °C (66.2 °F)
26.4 °C (79.5 °F)
1,570.7 mm (61.84 in)
20.8 °C (69.4 °F)
29.0 °C (84.2 °F)
2,006.3 mm (78.99 in)
19.8 °C (67.6 °F)
28.9 °C (84.0 °F)
1,136.7 mm (44.75 in)
The highest official maximum temperature recorded in the state was
49.5 °C (121.1 °F) at Birdsville Police Station on 24
December 1972, although the Moderate-Resolution Imaging
Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite measured a ground
surface temperature of 69.3 °C (156.7 °F). This
temperature was the hottest value worldwide measured by MODIS in
Queensland has the highest average maximums of any
Australian state, and Stanthorpe, Hervey Bay, Mackay, Atherton, Weipa
and Thursday Island are the only large population centres not to have
recorded a temperature above 40 °C (104 °F).
The lowest minimum temperature is −10.6 °C (12.9 °F) at
Stanthorpe on 23 June 1961 and at The Hermitage (near Warwick) on 12
July 1965. Temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) are,
however, generally uncommon over the majority of populated Queensland.
Climate data for Queensland
Record high °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Source #1: Bureau of Meteorology
Source #2: Bureau of Meteorology
See also: Demographics of Australia
Queensland population by year
State capital and most populous city, Brisbane, located in southeast
Queensland has a less centralised population than other states, with
significant populations in regional cities such as
Age and population
Queensland is less centralised than most other Australian states, with
50% of the population living outside the state capital, and 25% living
South East Queensland
South East Queensland urban agglomeration.
home to many regional cities, the most populous being the Gold Coast,
the Sunshine Coast, Townsville, Cairns, Toowoomba, Mackay, Rockhampton
and Bundaberg. For decades,
Queensland has consistently been the
fastest growing state in Australia, while
Western Australia has grown
faster in the 2010s. At its peak growth in 2007, it was estimated
that over 1,500 people moved to the state per week including 1,000 to
the southern part of the state alone.
The 2016 census showed that the majority of Queenslanders are
Christians (2.64 million; 56.0%), including 1.02 million Roman
Catholics (21.7%), 720,000 Anglicans (15.3%), and 240,000 Uniting
Church Protestants (5.1%). There are also 1.40 million people who
follow no religion (29.7%), and 470,000 who did not state their
religion (9.9%). The largest distinct religious minorities consist of
those who follow Buddhism (70,000; 1.5%), Hinduism (46,000; 1.0%), and
Islam (45,000; 1.0%). The percentage of Christians in Queensland,
and particularly non-Catholic Christians, is therefore greater than
the Australian average, while representation of non-Christian minority
religions is lower than the national average.
Economy of Queensland
Economy of Queensland and Australian economy
Sugar cane fields south of Childers. Queensland's climate is ideal for
growing the crop.
In the 1880s and 1890s, sea ports were established on the coast,
adjacent to the mouth of the Fitzroy River. Broadmount was on the
northern side and Port Alma on the south. Railways were subsequently
constructed to carry goods to the wharves at these locations, the
railway to Broadmount opening on 1 January 1898 and the line to Port
Alma opened on 16 October 1911. Maintenance on the Broadmount line
ceased in August 1929. The following month, the wharf caught fire and
the line was effectively closed in July 1930. The line to Port Alma
closed on 15 October 1986. Queensland's economy has enjoyed a boom
in the tourism and mining industries over the past 20 years. A
sizeable influx of interstate and overseas migrants, large amounts of
federal government investment, increased mining of vast mineral
deposits and an expanding aerospace sector have contributed to the
state's economic growth. The 2008–09 saw the expansion slow to just
0.8%, the state's worst performance in 18 years.
Aerial panorama of Wet and Wild in the Gold Coast and its surrounds on
a cloudy day
Between 1992 and 2002, the growth in the gross state product of
Queensland outperformed that of all the other states and territories.
In that period Queensland's GSP grew 5.0% each year, while growth in
Australia's gross domestic product (GDP) rose on average 3.9% each
year. Queensland's contribution to the Australian GDP increased by
10.4% in that period, one of only three states to do so.
Brisbane had the lowest cost of living of all Australia's
capital cities. In late 2005
Brisbane was the third most expensive
capital for housing after
Sydney and Canberra and just ahead of
Melbourne by $15,000.
Primary industries include: bananas, pineapples, peanuts, a wide
variety of other tropical and temperate fruit and vegetables, grain
crops, wineries, cattle raising, cotton, sugar cane, wool and a mining
industry including bauxite, coal, silver, lead, zinc, gold, and
copper. Secondary industries are mostly further processing of the
above-mentioned primary produce. For example, bauxite is shipped by
Weipa and converted to alumina at Gladstone. There is
also copper refining and the refining of sugar cane to sugar at a
number of mills along the eastern coastline. Major tertiary industries
are the retail trade and tourism.
Interests in Crown land in
Queensland are primarily regulated by the
Land Act 1994.
Summer at Burleigh Heads beach with the Gold Coast skyline in the
distance. Gold Coast beaches are world-renowned.
Tourism is Queensland's leading tertiary industry with millions of
interstate and overseas visitors flocking to the Sunshine State each
year. The industry generates $4.0 billion annually, accounting
for 4.5% of Queensland's GSP.
Queensland is a state of many
landscapes which range from sunny tropical coastal areas, lush
rainforests to dry inland areas and temperate highland ranges.
The main tourist destinations of Queensland include,
Brisbane, Cairns, Port Douglas and the Daintree Rainforest, Gold
Coast, the Great Barrier Reef,
Hervey Bay and nearby Fraser Island,
Townsville, Magnetic Island,
North Stradbroke Island
North Stradbroke Island and South
Stradbroke Island, Sunshine Coast, Hamilton Island, Daydream Island
and the Whitsundays known for Airlie Beach and Whitehaven Beach.
Aerial perspective of the inner waterways of the Gold Coast
Cairns is renowned as the "Gateway to the Barrier Reef" and the
heritage listed Daintree Rainforests. The Gold Coast of
also sometimes referred to as "Australia's Theme Park Capital", with
five major amusement parks. These are Dreamworld, Movie World, Sea
World, Wet 'n' Wild and WhiteWater World.
There are numerous wildlife parks in Queensland. On the Gold Coast
Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary
Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary at Currumbin and David Fleay
Wildlife Park at Burleigh Heads. On the Sunshine Coast there is
UnderWater World at Mooloolaba and
Australia Zoo near Beerwah/Glass
House Mountains, home of
Steve Irwin until his death in 2006.
Koala Sanctuary at Fig Tree Pocket and
Brisbane Forest Park
at The Gap are located in Brisbane. North of
Brisbane is Alma Park Zoo
which is relocating to
Logan City and Kumbartcho Wildlife Sanctuary
which was originally called Bunya Park Wildlife Sanctuary.
Queensland caters for nearly 22% of the total
expenditure, followed by restaurants/meals (15%), airfares (11%), fuel
(11%) and shopping/gifts (11%).
See also: Tourism in Brisbane
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See also: Transportation in Australia
A QR (
Queensland Rail) EMU series train on the South East Queensland
Queensland is served by a number of National Highways and,
particularly in South East Queensland, motorways such as the M1. The
Department of Transport & Main Roads oversees the development and
operation of main roads and public transport, including taxis and
Principal rail services are provided by
Queensland Rail and Pacific
National, predominantly between the major towns along the coastal
strip east of the Great Dividing Range.
Major seaports include the Port of
Brisbane and subsidiary ports at
Townsville and Bundaberg. There are large coal export
facilities at Hay Point / Dalrymple Bay, Gladstone and Abbot Point.
Sugar is another major export, with facilities at Lucinda and Mackay.
Brisbane Airport is the main international and domestic gateway
serving the state. Gold Coast Airport,
Cairns International Airport
Townsville Airport are the next most prominent airports, all with
scheduled international flights. Other regional airports, with
scheduled domestic flights, include
Toowoomba Wellcamp Airport, Great
Barrier Reef Airport,
Hervey Bay Airport,
Bundaberg Airport, Mackay
Mount Isa Airport, Proserpine / Whitsunday Coast Airport,
Rockhampton Airport, and Sunshine Coast Airport.
South East Queensland
South East Queensland has an integrated public transport system
operated by TransLink, which provides services bus, rail, light rail
and ferry services through contracted bus, ferry and light rail
Queensland Rail. The TransLink network operates a fare
system which allows a single ticket to be used across all modes for
the same price irrespective of the number of transfers made on the
trip. Regional bus and long-distance rail services are also provided
throughout the State. Local bus services are also available in most
As at 2017, the city of Gold Coast operates Queensland’s only tram
Main article: Government of Queensland
Executive authority is nominally vested in the Governor, who
represents - and is formally appointed (on the advice of the Premier)
by - Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. The current governor is His
Excellency, The Hon. Paul de Jersey, AC. The Head of Government - the
Premier - fulfils in reality the day-to-day functions of the state's
executive, and is assisted in this by the Cabinet. He or she is
appointed by the Governor but must have the support of the Legislative
Assembly. The Premier is in practice a leading member of the Assembly
and parliamentary leader of his or her political party, or coalition
of parties. The current Premier is
Annastacia Palaszczuk of the Labor
Party. Other ministers, forming the Executive Council (which includes
members of the Cabinet), are appointed by the Governor from among the
notable members of the Legislative Assembly on the Premier's
recommendation. They are in practice members of the Premier's party,
or allied with it. A Speaker is elected by the Assembly to facilitate
proceedings and communicate between the Assembly and the Governor,
usually on matters relating to prorogation or dissolution of the
Parliament House, Brisbane
(photo taken in 2003)
Queensland Parliament or the Legislative Assembly, is unicameral.
It is the only Australian state with a unicameral legislature. A
bicameral system existed until 1922, when the Legislative Council was
abolished by the Labor members' "suicide squad", so called because
they were appointed for the purpose of voting to abolish their own
offices. The Parliament is housed in the 19th century Parliament
House and 20th century Parliamentary Annexe in Brisbane. The state's
politics are traditionally regarded as being conservative relative to
There are several factors that differentiate Queensland's government
from other Australian states. The legislature has no upper house. For
a large portion of its history, the state was under a gerrymander that
heavily favoured rural electorates. This, combined with the already
decentralised nature of Queensland, meant that politics has been
dominated by regional interests. Queensland, along with New South
Wales, formerly operated a balloting system known as Optional
Preferential Voting for state elections. This is different from the
predominant Australian electoral system, the instant-runoff voting
system, and in practice is closer to a first past the post ballot
(similar to the ballot used in the UK), which some say is to the
detriment of minor parties. The next
Queensland election will use
These conditions have had notable practical ramifications for politics
in Queensland. The lack of an upper house for substantial legislative
review has meant that
Queensland has had a tradition of domination by
strong-willed, populist premiers, often with arguably authoritarian
tendencies, holding office for long periods.
The judicial system of
Queensland consists of the Supreme Court and
the District Court, established by the Constitution of Queensland, and
various other courts and tribunals established by ordinary Acts of the
Queensland adopted a new codified constitution, repealing most
of the assorted Acts of Parliament that had previously made up the
constitution. The new constitution took effect on 6 June 2002, the
anniversary of the formation of the colony of
Queensland by the
Letters patent by
Queen Victoria in 1859.
Main article: Local government in Queensland
Local government is the mechanism by which towns and districts can
manage their own affairs to the extent permitted by the Local
Government Act 1993–2007.
Queensland is divided into 73 local
government areas which may be called Cities, Towns, Shires or
Each area has a council which is responsible for providing a range of
public services and utilities, and derives its income from both rates
and charges on resident ratepayers, and grants and subsidies from the
State and Commonwealth governments.
The Great Court, University of Queensland
The state's first university, The University of Queensland, was
established in 1909. It was moved to St Lucia in 1945, where it
remains today. The
University of Queensland
University of Queensland ranks amongst the top 60
universities in all major global rankings.
James Cook University was set up in 1970 to become the first tertiary
education institution in North Queensland.
Griffith University was
established in the
Brisbane suburb of Nathan in 1971. In 1989, the
Queensland University of Technology
Queensland University of Technology was opened (previously the
Queensland Institute of Technology) in the
Brisbane central business
district at Gardens Point. These Universities all have more than one
campus, and all are recognised as leading Australian universities.
Bond University was established in 1989 as a private not-for-profit
university, the first of its type in
Queensland and Australia. It is
located at Robina on the Gold Coast. In 1992, the Central Queensland
University of Southern Queensland
University of Southern Queensland gained university
status from previously operating and Institutes of Technologies, and
University of the Sunshine Coast
University of the Sunshine Coast was established in 1994.
In 1997 the National Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts (ACPA)
was established and in 2010
Southern Cross University opened a new
campus at the southern part of the Gold Coast. The Australian Catholic
University also operates a campus in Brisbane.
Queensland Bulls take part in Australia's domestic cricket
Main article: Sport in Queensland
The state of
Queensland is represented in all of Australia's national
sporting competitions and is also host to a number of domestic and
international sporting events. The most popular winter and summer team
sports are Rugby league,
Rugby union and cricket, respectively. Rugby
State of Origin series
State of Origin series is a major event in the
Queensland sporting calendar, with the
Queensland Maroons in 2013
winning a record eighth series in a row.
Brisbane Broncos are the state's most successful team of any
sport, having won 3 premierships in the NRL rugby league era and 6 in
total during their 23-year existence. The
participated in the 2015 NRL Grand Final losing to the North
Queensland Cowboys 17–16 in extra time, claiming their first
premiership in its history. It is considered one of the greatest Grand
Finals in NRL history. The other two NRL teams in
Queensland are the
North Queensland Cowboys
North Queensland Cowboys and Gold Coast Titans.
Queensland's dominance is not restricted to rugby league. The early
part of this century saw the AFL's
Brisbane Lions claim a hat-trick of
premierships between 2001 and 2003 inclusive, whilst in soccer,
Brisbane Roar FC won back to back
A-League titles in the 2010/11 and
2011/12 season, and also set an Australian sporting record of 36
consecutive games unbeaten. Just four years after being branded "the
joke of rugby union", the
Queensland Reds won its first Super Rugby
title in July 2011. In netball the
Queensland Firebirds went
undefeated in the 2011 season as they went on to win the Grand Final.
Other sports teams are the
Brisbane Bullets and the
who compete in the National Basketball League.
Swimming is also a popular sport in Queensland, with a majority of
Australian team members and international medalists hailing from the
state. At the 2008 Summer Olympics,
Queensland swimmers won all six of
Australia's gold medals, all swimmers on Australia's three female
(finals) relays teams were from Queensland, two of which won gold.
Gold Coast 600
Gold Coast 600 (motorsport; since 1994)
Gold Coast Marathon (athletics; since 1979)
Ipswich Super Sprint
Ipswich Super Sprint (motorsport; since 1999)
NRL All Stars Game
NRL All Stars Game (rugby league; since 2010)
Townsville 400 (motorsport; since 2009)
Quicksilver Pro and Roxy Pro (surfing)
Australian PGA Championship
Australian PGA Championship (golf; since 2000)
Commonwealth realms portal
Outline of Australia
Index of Australia-related articles
Australia – book
^ "3101.0 – Australian Demographic Statistics, Sep 2017". Australian
Bureau of Statistics. 22 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
^ "Gross State Product, 2013-14 Financial Year". Australian Bureau of
Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 15
^ "Floral Emblem of Queensland". AU: ANBG. Archived from the original
on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
^ "Queensland". Parliament@Work. Archived from the original on 8 March
2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
^ "How Old is Australia's Rock Art?". Aboriginal Art Online. Archived
from the original on 4 May 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
^ Dortch, C.E. and Hesp, P.A. 1994. "Rottnest Island artifacts and
palaeosols in the context of Greater Swan Region prehistory" (Journal
of the Royal Society of
Western Australia 77:23–32)
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
Retrieved 13 October 2007. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
^ Karl Bitar. "Labor History: Timeline: Foundations: Colonial
Origins". Retrieved 24 August 2010. [permanent dead link]
^ "Queensland's History". Qld.gov.au. 29 January 2009. Archived from
the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
National Museum of Australia
National Museum of Australia - Richard Daintree's glass plates".
Archived from the original on 17 March 2011.
^ a b A
History of Queensland
History of Queensland by Raymond Evans, Cambridge University
Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-87692-6
^ European discovery and the colonisation of
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 February 2011.
Retrieved 24 February 2014.
^ Cumpston, JHL (1914). The History of Small-Pox in Australia
1788–1908. Melbourne: Australian Government Printer.
^ Fenner, F.; Henderson, D.A.; Arita, I.; Jezek, Z. & Ladnyi, I.D.
(1988). Smallpox and Its Eradication (History of International Public
Health, No. 6) (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization.
ISBN 92-4-156110-6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27
^ a b Campbell, Judy; 2002, Invisible Invaders: Smallpox and Other
Diseases in Aboriginal
Australia 1780–1880, Carlton, Melbourne
University Press, pp60–2, 80–1, 194–6, 201, 216–7
^ Willis, H.A. (2011). "Bringing Smallpox with the First Fleet".
Quadrant. 55 (7–8): 2. ISSN 0033-5002.
^ "New Hope Group". Archived from the original on 27 February 2014.
Retrieved 25 February 2014.
^ "EXTERMINATION OF THE QUEENSLAND BLACKS". Empire (5246). New South
Wales, Australia. 12 September 1868. p. 3. Retrieved 12 September
2017 – via National Library of Australia.
^ "Welcome to Frontier". Abc.net.au. Archived from the original on 18
July 2006. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
^ Australia. "Stories of the Dreaming – Australian Museum".
Dreamtime.net.au. Archived from the original on 8 February 2009.
Retrieved 4 August 2010.
^ NSWV&P re 26 October 1857
^ MBC 14 November 1857
^ Book: Reid, Gordon: A Nest of Hornets: The Massacre of the Fraser
family at Hornet Bank Station, Central Queensland, 1857, and related
events, Melbourne 1982.
^ "THE MASSACRE BY THE BLACKS AT NOGOA". The Maitland Mercury And
Hunter River General Advertiser. XVIII, (2106). New South Wales,
Australia. 19 November 1861. p. 2. Retrieved 12 September 2017
– via National Library of Australia.
^ R Evans, quoted in T Bottoms (2013) Conspiracy of Silence:
Queensland's frontier killing times, Allen & Unwin, p.181
Queensland Treasury. Archived from the original on
3 September 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
^ "Documenting Democracy". Foundingdocs.gov.au. Archived from the
original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
Queensland Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages World War One
commemorative death certificates Queensland's World War 1
Centenary". blogs.slq.qld.gov.au. Archived from the original on 3
February 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
^ Lowe, Ian (2012). Bigger Or Better?: Australia's Population Debate.
University of Queensland
University of Queensland Press. ISBN 9780702248078.
Queensland turns 150 in 2009". Q150.
Archived from the original on 15 December 2009. Retrieved 14 July
^ Bligh, Anna (10 June 2009). "Premier unveils Queensland's 150
icons". Media Statements.
Queensland Government. Archived from the
original on 24 May 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
Q150 icons list".
Brisbane Times. 10 June 2009. Archived from the
original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
^ Robertson, Stephen (24 June 2009). "
Q150 honours Queensland's
earliest explorers". Media statements.
Queensland Government. Archived
from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
^ "About SSSI
Q150 Project". Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute
Q150. Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute. Archived from the
original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
^ National Climate Centre. "Australian Government, Bureau of
Meteorology – Climate of Queensland". Bureau of Meteorology.
Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 4 August
Queensland Cyclones". Emergency Management Queensland. Retrieved 4
Queensland Floods Summary". Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from
the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
Queensland Severe Storms". Emergency Management Queensland.
Archived from the original on 10 July 2014. Retrieved 4 June
^ "Tornadoes". Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 17
March 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2008.
^ "Australian Government,
Bureau of Meteorology
Bureau of Meteorology – Australian
climatic zones". Bom.gov.au. Retrieved 4 August 2010. [dead link]
^ "Rainfall and Temperature Records". Climate Extremes. Bureau of
Meteorology. 28 February 2013. Archived from the original on 13 March
2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
Snow Events". Weather Armidale. Archived from the
original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
^ "Australian Government,
Bureau of Meteorology
Bureau of Meteorology – Climate statistics
for Australian locations". Bureau of Meteorology. 19 July 2010.
Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 4 August
Brisbane Regional Office". Climate statistics for Australian
locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
^ "Mackay M.O." Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of
Meteorology. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
Cairns Aero". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau
of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
Townsville Aero". Climate statistics for Australian locations.
Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
^ "Rainfall and Temperature Records". Bureau of Meteorology
(Australian Government). Archived from the original on 4 June 2013.
Retrieved 13 June 2013.
^ "The Hottest Spot on Earth".
^ "Rainfall and Temperature Records: National" (PDF). Bureau of
Meteorology. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 November 2010.
Retrieved 14 November 2009.
^ "Official records for
Queensland in February". Daily Extremes.
Bureau of Meteorology. 30 June 2017. Archived from the original on 12
March 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
^ "Official records for
Queensland in October". Daily Extremes. Bureau
of Meteorology. 30 June 2017. Archived from the original on 12 March
2018. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
^ a b c d e f g h i "3105.0.65.001 - Australian Historical Population
Statistics, 2014". Archived from the original on 9 August 2014.
^ Tara Ravens (2 July 2008). "Couriermail.com.au". Couriermail.com.au.
Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 4 August
^ "3301.0 – Births, Australia, 2008". Australian Bureau of
Statistics. Archived from the original on 22 November 2009. Retrieved
10 January 2010.
^ "2016Census_G14_QLD_SSC - Census DataPacks - General Community
Australian Bureau of Statistics
Australian Bureau of Statistics – Census 2016. Archived
from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
^ The Port Railways of
Rockhampton Kerr, John Australian Railway
Historical Society Bulletin, August 2001 pp283-306
^ Tom Dusevic (17 December 2009). "
Queensland falls back with the
pack". The Australian. Archived from the original on 29 January 2012.
Retrieved 10 January 2010.
^ "1387.3 –
Queensland in Review, 2003". Australian Bureau of
Statistics. Archived from the original on 26 December 2009. Retrieved
10 January 2010.
^ "Gladstone". Comalco.com. Rio Tinto Aluminium. Archived from the
original on 17 August 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
^ Lucy Cradduck and Andrea Blake, Dealing with unique interests in
Crown Land: A
Queensland perspective, 2010."Archived copy" (PDF).
Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 16
^ Land Act 1994, Long title An Act to consolidate and amend the law
relating to the administration and management of non-freehold land and
deeds of grant in trust and the creation of freehold land, and for
related purposes "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12
March 2018. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
^ "About TQ – Profile". Tourism Queensland. Archived from the
original on 14 September 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
^ Lonely Planet Writer (1 September 2015). "The
Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef and
beyond: a beginner's guide to Queensland's coast". Lonely Planet
Writer. LonelyPlanet.com. Archived from the original on 21 October
2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
^ Kristof Haines (19 August 2015). "Earth's Top Travel Destinations
Revealed". Writer for AirportRentals.com. AirportRentals.com. Archived
from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
^ TravelTreks (8 September 2016). "Australia's Top 50 Small Towns".
www.DiscountMyFlights.com.au. Stapylton, Queensland, Australia:
www.DiscountMyFlights.com.au. Archived from the original on 27 October
2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
^ "Tourism related information and statistics".
Discoverqueensland.com.au. Archived from the original on 20 February
2011. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
^ "Sharing the road with trams Transport and motoring". Department
of Transport and Main Roads.
Queensland Government. Archived from the
original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
^ Wanna, John (2003). "Queensland". In Moon, Campbell; Sharman,
Jeremy. Australian Politics and Government: The Commonwealth, the
States and Territories. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-521-82507-5. Archived from
the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
^ Daly, Margo (2003). The Rough Guide To Australia. Rough Guides Ltd.
p. 397. ISBN 978-1-84353-090-9.
^ Penrith, Deborah (2008). Live & Work in Australia. Crimson
Publishing. p. 478. ISBN 978-1-85458-418-2.
^ "Why Labor struggles in Queensland". Archived from the original on
15 January 2013.
^ George Megalogenis, "The Green and the Grey", Quarterly Essay, Vol.
40, 2010, p69.
Australia ready for first female leader". BBC News. 25 June 2010.
Archived from the original on 25 April 2012.
^ Local Government Act 1993 Archived 23 April 2011 at the Wayback
Machine., s.34. (Reprint 11E, as in force at 22 November 2007.)
^ "Rates and valuations". Queensland: Department of Local Government,
Sport and Recreation. 26 July 2007. Archived from the original on 19
March 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
Media related to
Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
Queensland travel guide from Wikivoyage
Geographic data related to
Queensland at OpenStreetMap
Government of Queensland
State Archives, Government of Queensland
State Library, Government of Queensland
North Queensland (historical footage), AU: National Film and Sound
Daintrees, Richard, Glass plates, AU: National Museum .
Queensland at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
Queensland at Internet Archive
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