CHU (Chinese : 楚,
Old Chinese : *s-r̥aʔ ) was a hegemonic, Zhou
dynasty era state . From
King Wu of Chu in the early 8th century BCE,
the rulers of Chu declared themselves kings on an equal footing with
the Zhou kings. Though initially inconsequential, removed to the south
of the Zhou heartland and practising differing customs, Chu began a
series of administrative reforms, becoming a successful expansionist
state during the
Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period . With its continued
expansion Chu became a great
Warring States period
Warring States period power.
Also known as JING (荆), JINGCHU (荆楚) and SHU (舒), Chu
included most of the present-day provinces of
Hunan , along
with parts of
Jiangxi , Jiangsu
Zhejiang , and
Shanghai . For more than 400 years, the Chu capital
Danyang was located at the junction of the Dan and Xi Rivers near
Xichuan County , Henan, but later moved to Ying . The
ruling house of Chu originally bore the clan name Nai (嬭) and
lineage name Yan (酓), but they are later written as Mi (芈) and
Xiong (熊), respectively.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Founding
* 1.2 Western Zhou
* 1.3 Spring and Autumn Period
* 1.4 Warring States Period
* 1.5 Defeat
* 1.6 Qin and Han Dynasties
* 2 Culture
* 3 Bureaucracy
* 4 Geography
* 5 List of states annexed by Chu
* 6 Rulers
* 7 Famous people
* 8 Chu in astronomy
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
According to legends recounted in
Sima Qian 's Records of the Grand
Historian , the royal family of Chu descended from the Yellow Emperor
and his grandson and successor
Zhuanxu . Zhuanxu's great-grandson
Wuhui (吳回) was put in charge of fire by
Emperor Ku and given the
Zhurong . Wuhui's son Luzhong (陸終) had six sons, all born by
Caesarian section . The youngest,
Jilian , adopted the ancestral
surname Mi . Jilian’s descendant
Yuxiong was the teacher of King
Wen of Zhou (r. 1099–1050 BCE). After the Zhou overthrew the Shang
dynasty , King Cheng (r. 1042–1021 BCE) awarded Yuxiong's
Xiong Yi with the fiefdom of Chu and the hereditary
title of 子 (zǐ, "viscount ").
Xiong Yi built the first capital of
Chu at Danyang (present-day Xichuan in Henan).
In 977 BCE, during his campaign against Chu ,
King Zhao of Zhou
King Zhao of Zhou 's
boat sank and he drowned in the Han River . After this death, Zhou
ceased to expand to the south, allowing the southern tribes and Chu to
cement their own autonomy much earlier than the states to the north.
The Chu viscount
Xiong Qu overthrew E in 863 BCE but subsequently
made its capital
Ezhou one of his capitals. In either 703 or 706,
the ruler Xiong Tong proclaimed himself king, establishing Chu's full
independence from the Zhou dynasty.
SPRING AND AUTUMN PERIOD
A lacquerware painting from the Jingmen Tomb (Chinese:
荊門楚墓; Pinyin: Jīngmén chǔ mù) of the State of Chu
(704–223 BC), depicting men wearing precursors to
traditional silk dress) and riding in a two-horsed chariot
In its early years, Chu was a successful expansionist and
militaristic state that developed a reputation for coercing and
absorbing its allies . Chu grew from a small state into a large
kingdom. King Zhuang was even considered one of the five Hegemons of
the era. After a number of battles with neighboring states, sometime
between 695 and 689 BCE, the Chu capital moved southeast from Danyang
to Ying. Chu first consolidated its power by absorbing lesser states
in its original area (modern
Hubei ), then it expanded into the north
North China Plain
North China Plain . The threat from Chu resulted in
multiple northern alliances under the leadership of Jin . These
alliances kept Chu in check, with the first major victory won at the
Chengpu in 632 BCE. During the 6th century BCE, Jin and Chu fought
numerous battles over the hegemony of central plain . In
597 BCE , Jin
was defeated by Chu in the battle of Bi , causing Jin's temporary
inability to counter Chu's expansion. Chu strategically used the state
of Zheng as its representative in the central plain area, through the
means of intimidation and threats, Chu forced Zheng to ally with
itself. On the other hand, Jin had to balance out Chu's influence by
repeatedly allying with Lu , Wey , and Song . The tension between Chu
and Jin did not loosen untill the year of 579 BCE when a truce was
signed between the two states.
At the beginning of the sixth century BCE, Jin strengthened the state
of Wu near the
Yangtze delta to act as a counterweight against Chu. Wu
defeated Qi and then invaded Chu in 506 BCE. Following the Battle of
Boju , it occupied Chu's capital at Ying, forcing King Zhao to flee to
his allies in Yun and "Sui ". King Zhao eventually returned to Ying
but, after another attack from Wu in 504 BCE, he temporarily moved the
capital into the territory of the former state of Ruo . Chu began to
strengthen Yue in modern
Zhejiang to serve as allies against Wu. Yue
was initially subjugated by
King Fuchai of Wu until he released their
king Goujian , who took revenge for his former captivity by crushing
and completely annexing Wu.
WARRING STATES PERIOD
Freed from its difficulties with Wu, Chu annexed Chen in 479 BCE and
overran Cai to the north in 447 BCE. This policy of expansion
continued until the last generation before the fall to Qin (Lu was
conquered by King Kaolie in 223 BCE). However, by the end of the 5th
century BCE, the Chu government had become very corrupt and
inefficient, with much of the state's treasury used primarily to pay
for the royal entourage. Many officials had no meaningful task except
taking money and Chu's army, while large, was of low quality.
In the late 390s BCE,
King Dao of Chu made
Wu Qi his chancellor .
Wu's reforms began to transform Chu into an efficient and powerful
state in 389 BCE, as he lowered the salaries of officials and removed
useless ones. He also enacted building codes to make the capital Ying
seem less barbaric. Despite Wu Qi's unpopularity among Chu's ruling
class, his reforms strengthened the king and left the state very
powerful until the late 4th century BCE, when Zhao and Qin were
ascendant. Chu's powerful army once again became successful, defeating
the states of Wei and Yue . Yue was partitioned between Chu and Qi in
either 334 or 333 BCE. However, the officials of Chu wasted no time
in their revenge and
Wu Qi was assassinated at King Dao's funeral in
381 BCE. Prior to Wu's service in the state of Chu, Wu lived in the
state of Wei, where his military analysis of the six opposing states
was recorded in his magnum opus, The Book of Master Wu . Of Chu, he
said: Bronze from the Tomb of Chu in
Xichuan County .
Chu's military formations are complete but cannot be maintained for
Wuzi , Master Wu
The Chu people are soft and weak. Their lands stretch far and wide,
and the government cannot effectively administer the expanse. Their
troops are weary and although their formations are well-ordered, they
do not have the resources to maintain their positions for long. To
defeat them, we must strike swiftly, unexpectedly and retreat quickly
before they can counter attack. This will create unease in their weary
soldiers and reduce their fighting spirit. Thus, with persistence,
their army can be defeated. —
Wuzi , Master Wu
During the late Warring States Period, Chu was increasingly pressured
by Qin to its west, especially after Qin enacted and preserved the
Legalistic reforms of
Shang Yang . In 241 BCE, five of the seven major
warring states - Chu, Zhao, Wei, Yan and Han - formed an alliance to
fight the rising power of Qin.
King Kaolie of Chu was named the leader
of the alliance and
Lord Chunshen the military commander. According to
Yang Kuan , the Zhao general Pang Nuan (庞煖) was the
actual commander in the battle. The allies attacked Qin at the
Hangu Pass but were defeated. King Kaolie blamed Lord
Chunshen for the loss and began to mistrust him. Afterwards, Chu moved
its capital east to
Shouchun , farther away from the threat of Qin.
Chu's size and power made it the key state in alliances against Qin.
As Qin expanded into Chu territory, Chu was forced to expand
southwards and eastwards, absorbing local cultural influences along
the way. By the late 4th century BCE, however, Chu's prominent status
had fallen into decay. As a result of several invasions headed by Zhao
and Qin, Chu was eventually subjugated by Qin.
Main article: Qin\'s wars of unification § Conquest of Chu
Bronze bells from the
Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng , dated 433 BCE,
State of Chu.
According to the
Records of the Warring States , a debate between the
Diplomat strategist Zhang Yi and the Qin general Sima Cuo led to two
conclusions concerning the unification of China. Zhang Yi argued in
favor of conquering Han and seizing the
Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven from the
powerless Zhou king would be wise. Sima Cuo, however, considered that
the primary difficulty was not legitimacy but the strength of Qin's
opponents; he argued that "conquering Shu is conquering Chu" and,
"once Chu is eliminated, the country will be united".
The importance of Shu in the
Sichuan Basin was its great agricultural
output and its control over the upper reaches of the
Yangtze River ,
leading directly into the Chu heartland.
King Huiwen of Qin opted to
support Sima Cuo. In 316 BCE, Qin invaded and conquered Shu and nearby
Ba , expanding downriver in the following decades. In 278 BCE, the Qin
Bai Qi finally conquered Chu's capital at Ying. Following the
fall of Ying, the Chu government moved to various locations in the
east until settling in
Shouchun in 241 BCE. After a massive two-year
Bai Qi lured the main Zhao force of 400,000 men onto the
field, surrounding them and forcing their surrender at Changping in
260 BCE. The Qin army massacred their prisoners, removing the last
major obstacle to Qin dominance over the Chinese states.
By 225 BCE, only four kingdoms remained: Qin, Chu, Yan , and Qi . Chu
had recovered significantly enough to mount serious resistance.
Despite its size, resources, and manpower, though, Chu's corrupt
government worked against it. In 224 BCE, Ying Zheng called for a
meeting with his subjects to discuss his plans for the invasion of
Chu. Wang Jian said that the invasion force needed to be at least
600,000 strong, while Li Xin thought that less than 200,000 men would
be sufficient. Ying Zheng sided with Li and ordered him and Meng Wu to
lead the army against Chu; Wang Jian was forced to retire from state
affairs upon a pretense of illness.
The Qin armies scored initial victories as Li Xin's force conquered
Pingyu (平輿, north of present-day Pingyu in
Henan ) and Meng Wu's
captured Qinqiu (寢丘, present-day Linquan in
Anhui ). After
conquering Yan (鄢, present-day Yanling in Henan), Li Xin led his
army west to rendezvous with Meng at Chengfu (城父, east of
present-day Baofeng in Henan). The Chu army, led by Xiang Yan , had
avoided using its main force and waited for an opportunity to launch a
counterattack. They secretly followed Li Xin's army for three days and
three nights, before launching a surprise offensive and defeating the
Upon learning of Li's defeat, Ying Zheng visited the exiled Wang Jian
in person and invited him back, putting Wang in command of the
600,000-strong army he had requested earlier and placing Meng Wu
beneath him as a deputy. Worried that the Qin tyrant might fear the
power he now possessed and order him executed upon some pretense, Wang
Jian constantly sent messengers back to the king in order to remain in
contact and reduce the king's suspicion.
Wang Jian's army passed through southern Chen (陳; present-day
Huaiyang in Henan) and made camp at Pingyu. The Chu armies under Xiang
Yan used their full strength against the camp but failed. Wang Jian
ordered his troops to defend their positions firmly but avoid
advancing further into Chu territory. After failing to lure the Qin
army into an attack, Xiang Yan ordered a retreat; Wang Jian seized
this opportunity to launch a swift assault. The Qin forces pursued the
retreating Chu forces to Qinan (蕲南; northwest of present-day
Hubei ) and Xiang Yan was either killed in the action or
committed suicide following his defeat.
The next year, in 223 BCE, Qin launched another campaign and captured
the Chu capital Shouchun. King
Fuchu was captured and his state
annexed. The following year, Wang Jian and Meng Wu led the Qin army
Wuyue around the mouth of the
Yangtze , capturing the
descendants of the royal family of Yue . These conquered territories
Kuaiji Prefecture of the Qin Empire.
At their peak, Chu and Qin together fielded over 1,000,000 troops,
more than the massive
Battle of Changping between Qin and Zhao 35
years before. The excavated personal letters of two regular Qin
soldiers, Hei Fu (黑夫) and Jing (惊), tell of a protracted
campaign in Huaiyang under Wang Jian. Both soldiers wrote letters
requesting supplies of clothing and money from home to sustain the
long waiting campaign.
QIN AND HAN DYNASTIES
The Chu realm at its most powerful was vast with many ethnicities and
various customs. Though diverse, the Chu people were united by a
common respect for nature, the supernatural, and their heritage and
loyalty to their ruling house and nobility, epitomized by the famed
Qu Yuan and the Songs of Chu . The Chu populace in
areas conquered by Qin openly ignored the stringent Qin laws and
governance, as recorded in the excavated bamboo slips of a Qin
administrator in Hubei. Chu was one of the last states to fall and its
people aspired to overthrowing the painful yoke of Qin rule and
reestablishing a separate state. The attitude was immortalized in a
Chinese expression about implacable hostility: "Though Chu have but
three clans , it must kill Qin" (楚雖三戶, 亡秦必楚).
After Ying Zheng declared himself the First Emperor (
Shi Huangdi )
and served his short reign, the people of Chu and its former ruling
house organized the first violent insurrections against the new Qin
administration. They were especially resentful of the Qin corvee ;
folk poems record the mournful sadness of Chu families whose men
worked in the frigid north to construct the
Great Wall of China
Great Wall of China .
Dazexiang Uprising occurred in 209 BCE under the leadership of a
Chen Sheng , who proclaimed himself "King of Rising Chu"
(Zhangchu). This uprising was crushed by the Qin army but it inspired
a new wave of other rebellions. One of the leaders,
Jing Ju of Chu,
proclaimed himself the new king of Chu.
Jing Ju was defeated by
another rebel force under
Xiang Liang . Xiang installed Xiong Xin , a
scion of Chu's traditional royal family, on the throne of Chu under
the regnal name King Huai II. In 206 BCE, after the fall of the Qin
Xiang Yu , Xiang Liang's nephew, proclaimed himself the
"Hegemon-King of Western Chu" and promoted King Huai II to "Emperor
Yi". He subsequently had Yi assassinated.
Xiang Yu then engaged with
Liu Bang , another prominent Chu rebel, in a long struggle for
supremacy over the lands of the former Qin Empire, which became known
Chu-Han Contention . The conflict ended in victory for Liu
Bang: he proclaimed the
Han Dynasty and was later honored with the
temple name Gaozu, while
Xiang Yu committed suicide in defeat.
The Chu people and customs were major influences on the new era of
the Han. Liu Bang immediately enacted a more traditional and less
intrusive administration than the Qin before him, made peace with the
Xiongnu through heqin intermarriages, rewarded his allies with large
fiefdoms, and allowed the population to rest from centuries of
warfare. By the time of
Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han , Chu folk culture and
aesthetics were amalgamated with the Han-sponsored Confucian tradition
and Qin-influenced central governance to create a distinct "Chinese "
Based on the archaeological finds, Chu's culture was initially quite
similar to that of the other Zhou states of the
Yellow River basin.
Subsequently, however, Chu absorbed indigenous elements from the
Baiyue lands the state conquered to its south and east, developing a
distinct culture from the states of the northern plains.
Early Chu burial offerings consisted primarily of bronze vessels in
the Zhou style. Later Chu burials, especially during the Warring
States, featured distinct burial objects , such as colorful
lacquerware , iron, and silk, accompanied by a reduction in bronze
vessel offerings .
A common Chu motif was the vivid depiction of wildlife, mystical
animals, and natural imagery, such as snakes , dragons , phoenixes ,
tigers, and free-flowing clouds and serpent-like beings. Some
archaeologists speculate that Chu may have had cultural connections to
Shang dynasty , since many motifs used by Chu appeared
earlier at Shang sites such as serpent-tailed gods.
Later Chu culture was known for its affinity for shamans . The Chu
culture and government strongly supported
Taoism and native shamanism
supplemented with some Confucian glosses on Zhou ritual. Chu people
affiliated themselves with the god of fire
Zhurong in Chinese
mythodology. For this reason, fire worshiping and red coloring were
practiced by Chu people.
The naturalistic and flowing art, the Songs of Chu , historical
records, excavated bamboo documents such as the Guodian slips , and
other artifacts reveal heavy Taoist and native folk influence in Chu
culture. The disposition to a spiritual, often pleasurable and
decadent lifestyle, and the confidence in the size of the Chu realm
led to the inefficiency and eventual destruction of the Chu state by
the ruthless Legalist state of Qin. Even though the Qin realm lacked
the vast natural resources and waterways of Chu, the Qin government
maximized its output under the efficient minister
Shang Yang ,
installing a meritocracy focused solely on agricultural and military
Chu was known for its distinct music. Archaeological evidence shows
that Chu music was annotated differently from Zhou. Chu music also
showed an inclination for using different performance ensembles, as
well as unique instruments. In Chu, the se was preferred over the
zither , while both instruments were equally preferred in the northern
Chu came into frequent contact with other peoples in the south, most
notably the Ba , Yue , and the
Baiyue . Numerous burials and burial
objects in the Ba and Yue styles have been discovered throughout the
territory of Chu, co-existing with Chu-style burials and burial
The early rulers of the
Han Dynasty romanticized the culture of Chu,
sparking a renewed interest in Chu cultural elements such as the Songs
of Chu. Evidence of heavy Chu cultural influence appears at Mawangdui
. After the Han dynasty, some Confucian scholars considered Chu
culture with distaste, criticizing the "lewd" music and shamanistic
rituals associated with Chu culture.
Chu artisanship shows a mastery of form and color, especially the
lacquer woodworks. Red and black pigmented lacquer were most used.
Silk-weaving also attained a high level of craftsmanship, creating
lightweight robes with flowing designs. These examples (as at
Mawangdui) were preserved in waterlogged tombs where the lacquer did
not peel off over time and in tombs sealed with coal or white clay.
Chu used the complex calligraphic script called "Birds and Worms"
style , which was borrowed by the Wu and Yue states. It has an
intricate design that embellishes the characters with motifs of
animals, snakes, birds, and insects. This is another representation of
the Chu reverence of the natural world and its liveliness. Chu
produced broad bronze swords that were similar to
Wuyue swords but not
Chu was in the region of many rivers, so it created an efficient
riverine transport system of boats augmented by wagons. These are
detailed in bronze tallies with gold inlay regarding trade along the
river systems connecting with those of the Chu capital at Ying.
Chu's bureaucracy was distinct from other
Zhou dynasty states.
According to Li Tiaoyuan 's "Zuozhuan Guanming Kao", Mo\'ao (莫敖)
and Lingyin were the top government officials of Chu. Sima was the
military commander of Chu's army. Lingyin, Mo'ao and Sima were the San
Gong(三公) of Chu. In the Spring and Autumn period, Zuoyin(左尹)
and Youyin(右尹) were added as the undersecretaries of Lingyin.
Likewise, Sima(司馬) was assisted by Zuosima(左司馬) and
Yousima(右司馬) respectively. Mo'ao's status was gradually lowered
while Lingyin and Sima became more powerful posts in the Chu court.
Ministers whose functions vary according to their titles were called
Yin(尹). For example: Lingyin(Prime minister), Gongyin(Minister of
works), and Zhenyin were all suffixed by the word "Yin".
Shenyin(沈尹) was the minister of religious duties or the high
priest of Chu, multiple entries in
Zuo Zhuan indicated their role as
oracles. Other Yins recorded by history were: Yuyin, Lianyin,
Jiaoyin, Gongjiyin, Ling(陵)yin, Huanlie Zhi Yin(Commander of Palace
guards) and Yueyin(minister of musics). In counties and commanderies,
Gong(公), also known as Xianyin(minister of county) was the chief
In many cases, positions in Chu's bureaucracy were hereditarily held
by members of a cadet branch of Chu's royal house; Mi . Mo'ao, one of
the three chancellors of Chu, was exclusively chosen from Qu(屈)
clan. During the early spring and autumn period and before the Ruo\'ao
rebellion , Lingyin was a position held by Ruo'aos, namely Dou(鬭)
Chu's expanse was one of the largest among ancient Chinese states.
Progenitors of Chu such as viscount
Xiong Yi were said to originate
from Jing mountains ; a chain of mountains located in today's Hubei
province . Rulers of Chu systematically migrated states annexed by Chu
to the Jing mountains in order to control them more efficiently. East
of Jing mountains are the Tu(塗) mountains. In the north east part of
Chu are the Dabie mountains ; the drainage divide of Huai river and
Yangtse river . The first capital of Chu, Dangyang(丹陽) was located
in today's Zhijiang ,
Hubei province. Ying(郢), one of the later
capitals of Chu, is known by its contemporary name
Jingzhou . In Chu's
northern border lies the Fangcheng mountain. Strategically, Fangcheng
is an ideal denfense against states of central plain . Due to its
strategic value, numerous castles were built on the Fangcheng
Yunmeng Ze in
Jianghan Plain was an immense fresh water lake that
historically existed in Chu's realm, It was crossed by Yanzi river,
the northern Yunmeng was named Meng(夢), the southern Yunmeng was
known as Yun(雲). The lake's body covers parts of today's Zhijiang,
Huanggang , and
Shaoxi Pass was an important outpost in the mountainous western
border of Chu. It was located in today's Wuguan town of Danfeng County
Shaanxi . Any forces that marches from the west, mainly from Qin, to
Chu's realm would have to pass Shaoxi.
LIST OF STATES ANNEXED BY CHU
This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it .
* 863 BCE E
* 704 BCE Quan
* 690 BCE Luo
* 688–680 BCE Shen
* 684–680 BCE Xi
* 678 BCE Deng
* 648 BCE Huang
* after 643 BCE Dao
* 623 BCE Jiang
* 622 BCE Liao
* 622 BCE Lù(六).
* after 622 BCE Ruo
* 611 BCE Yong
* 601 BCE Shuliao
* after 506 BCE Sui
* 574 BCE Shuyong
* 512 BCE Xu
* 479 BCE Chen
* 445 BCE Qi
* 447 BCE Cai
* 431 BCE Ju
* after 418 BCE Pi
* About 348 BCE Zou
* 334 BCE Yue
* 249 BCE Lu
See also: Rulers of Chu family tree Early rulers
Jilian (季連), married Bi Zhui (妣隹), granddaughter of Shang
Pangeng ; adopted Mi (芈) as ancestral name
Yingbo (𦀚伯), son of Jilian
Yuxiong (鬻熊), ruled 11th century BCE: also called Xuexiong
(穴熊), teacher of
King Wen of Zhou
King Wen of Zhou
Xiong Li (熊麗), ruled 11th century BCE: son of Yuxiong, first
use of clan name Yan (酓), later written as Xiong (熊)
Xiong Kuang (熊狂), ruled 11th century BCE: son of Xiong Li
Xiong Yi (熊繹), ruled 11th century BCE: son of Xiong Kuang,
King Cheng of Zhou
King Cheng of Zhou
Xiong Ai (熊艾), ruled c. 977 BCE: son of Xiong Yi, defeated
King Zhao of Zhou
King Zhao of Zhou
Xiong Dan (熊䵣), ruled c. 941 BCE: son of Xiong Ai, defeated
King Mu of Zhou
King Mu of Zhou
Xiong Sheng (熊勝), son of Xiong Dan
Xiong Yang (熊楊), younger brother of Xiong Sheng
Xiong Qu (熊渠), son of Xiong Yang, gave the title king to his
Xiong Kang (熊康), son of Xiong Qu.
Xiong Kang died
early without ascending the throne, but the Tsinghua Bamboo Slips
recorded him as the successor of Xiong Qu.
Xiong Zhi (熊摯), son of Xiong Kang, abdicated due to illness
Xiong Yan (elder) (熊延), ruled ?–848 BCE: younger brother of
Xiong Yong (熊勇), ruled 847–838 BCE: son of Xiong Yan
Xiong Yan (younger) (熊嚴), ruled 837–828 BCE: brother of
Xiong Shuang (熊霜), ruled 827–822 BCE: son of Xiong Yan
Xiong Xun (熊徇), ruled 821–800 BCE: youngest brother of Xiong
Xiong E (熊咢), ruled 799–791 BCE: son of Xiong Xun
* Ruo\'ao (若敖) (
Xiong Yi 熊儀), ruled 790–764 BCE: son of
* Xiao\'ao (霄敖) (Xiong Kan 熊坎), ruled 763–758 BCE: son of
Fenmao (蚡冒) (Xiong Xuan 熊眴) ruled 757–741 BCE: son of
King Wu of Chu (楚武王) (Xiong Da 熊達), ruled 740–690 BCE:
either younger brother or younger son of Fenmao, murdered son of
Fenmao and usurped the throne. Declared himself first king of Chu.
King Wen of Chu (楚文王) (Xiong Zi 熊貲), ruled 689–677
BCE: son of King Wu, moved the capital to Ying
* Du\'ao (堵敖) or Zhuang'ao (莊敖) (Xiong Jian 熊艱), ruled
676–672 BCE: son of King Wen, killed by younger brother, the future
King Cheng of Chu
King Cheng of Chu (楚成王) (Xiong Yun 熊惲), ruled 671–626
BCE: brother of Du'ao, defeated by the state of Jin at the Battle of
Chengpu . Husband to
Zheng Mao . He was murdered by his son, the
future King Mu
King Mu of Chu (楚穆王) (Xiong Shangchen 熊商臣) ruled
625–614 BCE: son of King Cheng
King Zhuang of Chu (楚莊王) (Xiong Lü 熊侶) ruled 613–591
BCE: son of King Mu. Defeated the State of Jin at the
Battle of Bi ,
and was recognized as a Hegemon .
King Gong of Chu (楚共王) (Xiong Shen 熊審) ruled 590–560
BCE: son of King Zhuang. Defeated by Jin at the
Battle of Chengpu .
King Kang of Chu (楚康王) (Xiong Zhao 熊招) ruled 559–545
BCE: son of King Gong
* Jia\'ao (郟敖) (Xiong Yuan 熊員) ruled 544–541 BCE: son of
King Kang, murdered by his uncle, the future King Ling.
King Ling of Chu (楚靈王) (Xiong Wei 熊圍, changed to Xiong
Qian 熊虔) ruled 540–529 BCE: uncle of
Jia'ao and younger brother
of King Kang, overthrown by his younger brothers and committed
* Zi\'ao (訾敖) (Xiong Bi 熊比) ruled 529 BCE (less than 20
days): younger brother of King Ling, committed suicide.
King Ping of Chu (楚平王) (Xiong Qiji 熊弃疾, changed to
Xiong Ju 熊居) ruled 528–516 BCE: younger brother of Zi'ao,
Zi'ao into committing suicide.
King Zhao of Chu (楚昭王) (Xiong Zhen 熊珍) ruled 515–489
BCE: son of King Ping. The
State of Wu captured the capital Ying and
he fled to the
State of Sui .
King Hui of Chu (楚惠王) (Xiong Zhang 熊章) ruled 488–432
BCE: son of King Zhao. He conquered the states of Cai and Chen . The
year before he died, Marquis Yi of Zeng died, so he made a
commemorative bell and attended the Marquis's funeral at
King Jian of Chu (楚簡王) (Xiong Zhong 熊中) ruled 431–408
BCE: son of King Hui
King Sheng of Chu (楚聲王) (Xiong Dang 熊當) ruled 407–402
BCE: son of King Jian
King Dao of Chu (楚悼王) (
Xiong Yi 熊疑) ruled 401–381 BCE:
son of King Sheng. He made
Wu Qi chancellor and reformed the Chu
government and army.
King Su of Chu (楚肅王) (Xiong Zang 熊臧) ruled 380–370
BCE: son of King Dao
King Xuan of Chu (楚宣王) (Xiong Liangfu 熊良夫) ruled
369–340 BCE: brother of King Su. Defeated and annexed the Zuo state
around 348 BCE.
King Wei of Chu (楚威王) (Xiong Shang 熊商) ruled 339–329
BCE: son of King Xuan. Defeated and partitioned the Yue state with Qi
King Huai of Chu (楚懷王) (Xiong Huai 熊槐) ruled 328–299
BCE: son of King Wei, was tricked and held hostage by the State of Qin
until death in 296 BC
King Qingxiang of Chu (楚頃襄王) (Xiong Heng 熊橫) ruled
298–263 BCE: son of King Huai. As a prince, one of his elderly
tutors was buried at the site of the
Guodian Chu Slips in
Hubei . The
Chu capital of Ying was captured and sacked by Qin.
King Kaolie of Chu (楚考烈王) (Xiong Yuan 熊元) ruled
262–238 BCE: son of King Qingxiang. Moved capital to
King You of Chu (楚幽王) (Xiong Han 熊悍) ruled 237–228
BCE: son of King Kaolie.
King Ai of Chu (楚哀王) (Xiong You 熊猶 or Xiong Hao 熊郝)
ruled 228 BCE: brother of King You, killed by Fuchu
Fuchu (楚王負芻) (熊負芻 Xiong Fuchu) ruled 227–223 BCE:
brother of King Ai. Captured by Qin troops and deposed
Lord Changping (昌平君) ruled 223 BCE (Chu conquered by Qin):
brother of Fuchu, killed in battle against Qin
Chen Sheng (陳勝) as King Yin of Chu (楚隱王) ruled 210–209
Jing Ju (景駒) as King Jia of Chu 楚假王 (Jia for fake) ruled
* Xiong Xin (熊心) as
Emperor Yi of Chu (楚義帝) (originally
King Huai II 楚後懷王) ruled 208–206 BCE: grandson or
great-grandson of King Huai
Xiang Yu (項羽) as Hegemon-King of Western Chu (西楚霸王)
ruled 206–202 BCE
Qu Yuan , famed for his poetry and the story that his suicide
Dragon Boat Festival
Lord Chunshen , one of the
Four Lords of the Warring States
Xiang Yu , the Hegemon-King of Western Chu who defeated the Qin at
Julu and vied with Liu Bang in the
* Liu Bang , founder of the
CHU IN ASTRONOMY
Chinese astronomy , Chu is represented by a star in
the "Twelve States" asterism , part of the "Girl " lunar mansion in
the "Black Turtle " symbol . Opinions differ, however, as to whether
that star is Phi or
24 Capricorni . It is also represented by the
Epsilon Ophiuchi in the "Right Wall" asterism in the "Heavenly
Market" enclosure .
* Prime Minister of Chu
* ^ "楚都丹阳". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07.
* ^ Baxter & Sagart (2014) , p. 332.
合肥晚报. 2011-01-25. Archived from the original on 2011-07-11.
* ^ "科大考古队觅宝千余件". 凤凰网. 2011-01-25.
* ^ "关于黄帝和楚国的姓氏问题". zgxiong.com. Retrieved
23 October 2015.
* ^ A B C
Sima Qian . "楚世家 (House of Chu)". Records of the
Grand Historian (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 10 March
2012. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
* ^ "Yu Ding: Evidence of the Extermination of the State of E
during the Western Zhou Dynasty (禹鼎：西周灭鄂国的见证)"
(in Chinese). Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved
23 October 2010.
* ^ Lothar von Falkenahausen in Cambridge History of Ancient China,
1999, page 516
Cho-Yun Hsu in Cambridge History of Ancient China, 1999, page
* ^ A B C D E Gu, Donggao (1993). 春秋大事表. Zhonghua Book
Company. pp. 940–945, 972, 1140, 2055–2066. ISBN 9787101012187 .
* ^ Sources differ on the exact date.
* ^ A B Li and Zheng, page 188
* ^ "The Warring States" (in Chinese). Retrieved 4 October 2010.
* ^ Traditionally taken to be the Qu (屈), Jing (景), and Zhao
Sima Qian .
Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian , "Biography of
Xiang Yu" (項羽本紀).
* ^ Lin, Qingzhang (2008). 中國學術思想研究輯刊: 二編,
Volume 6. p. 176. ISBN 9789866528071 .
* ^ 中國早期國家性質. Zhishufang Press. 2003. p. 372. ISBN
* ^ Song, Zhiying (2012).
《左传》研究文献辑刊（全二十二册）. Beijing: National
Library of China publishing house. ISBN 9787501346158 .
* ^ Tian, Chengfang (Autumn 2008).
– via 简帛网.
* ^ Hong, Gang (2012). 财政史研究.
* ^ A B
Gongyang Zhuan , Duke Wen, 6th year of, Duke Xuan, 8th year
* ^ See also, the
Tsinghua Bamboo Slips .
* ^ A B Ziju (子居). 清华简《楚居》解析 (IN CHINESE).
JIANBO.ORG. ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 2 DECEMBER 2013. RETRIEVED
10 APRIL 2012.
* ^ Note:
Shiji calls him Xiong Zhihong (熊摯紅), and says his
younger Xiong Yan killed him and usurped the throne. However, Zuo
Zhuan and Guoyu both say that
Xiong Zhi abdicated due to illness and
was succeeded by brother Xiong Yan.
Shiji also says he was the younger
brother of Xiong Kang, but historians generally agree that he was the
son of Xiong Kang.
* ^ Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy.
"天文教育資訊網 Archived 2011-05-22 at the
Wayback Machine .".
4 Jul 2006. (in Chinese)
* ^ Allen, Richard. "Star Names – Their Lore and Meaning:
* ^ "Richard Hinckley Allen: Star Names – Their Lore and Meaning:
Ophiuchus". penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
* ^ AEEA. "天文教育資訊網 Archived 2011-05-22 at the Wayback
Machine .". 24 Jun 2006. (in Chinese)
* Sima, Qian.
Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian (史記).
* Zuo Qiuming,
Zuo Zhuan (左传）
* 张淑一. 《先秦姓氏制度考察》. (in Chinese)
* Defining Chu: Image And Reality In Ancient China, Edited by
Constance A. Cook and John S. Major, ISBN 0-8248-2905-0
* So, Jenny F., Music in the Age of Confucius, ISBN 0-295-97953-4
* Cook, Constance. Death in Ancient China: The Tale of One Man's
Journey. Leiden: Brill, 2006 ISBN 90-04-15312-8
Zhou dynasty states
SPRING AND AUTUMN