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Government (339)

     United Russia
United Russia
(338)      Independent (1)

Opposition (105)

     Communist Party (42)      LDPR (40)      A Just Russia
A Just Russia
(23)

Other (2)

     Rodina (1)      Civic Platform (1)      Vacant (4)[1][2][3][4]

Elections

Voting system

Party-list proportional representation
Party-list proportional representation
(2007 and 2011 elections) Parallel voting with 5% threshold (1993-2003 elections and since 2016 elections[5])

Last election

18 September 2016

Next election

September 2021

Meeting place

State Duma
Duma
Building 1 Okhotny Ryad Street, Moscow

Website

www.duma.gov.ru

This article is about the modern Russian assembly. For the historical body, see State Duma
Duma
of the Russian Empire. For other uses, see State Duma (other) and Duma (other). The State Duma
Duma
(Russian: Госуда́рственная Ду́ма, tr. Gosudárstvennaya Dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house being the Council of the Federation. The Duma
Duma
headquarters are located in central Moscow, a few steps from Manege Square. Its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma replaced the Supreme Soviet as a result of the new constitution introduced by Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
in the aftermath of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, and approved by the Russian public in a referendum.

Contents

1 History 2 Powers 3 Procedure 4 Organization

4.1 Committees 4.2 Commissions

5 Membership 6 List of the State Duma
Duma
convocations 7 Chairmen of the State Duma 8 Latest election 9 Presidential envoys to the State Duma 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

History[edit]

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State Duma 7th convocation Chairman: Vyacheslav Volodin

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v t e

Main articles: Boyar Duma
Duma
and State Duma
Duma
of the Russian Empire The State Duma
Duma
was introduced in 1906 and was Russia's first elected parliament. The first two attempts by Tsar Nicholas II
Nicholas II
to make it active were ineffective. Subsequently, each of these Dumas was dissolved after only a few months. The third Duma
Duma
was the only one to last to the end of its 5-year term. After the 1907 electoral reform, the third Duma, elected in November 1907, was largely made up of members of the upper classes, as radical influences in the Duma
Duma
had almost entirely been removed. The establishment of the Duma
Duma
after the 1905 Revolution
1905 Revolution
was to herald significant changes to the Russian autocratic system. Furthermore, the Duma
Duma
was later to have an important effect on Russian history, as it was one of the contributing factors in the February Revolution, which led to the abolition of autocracy in Russia. In the December 1993 elections pro-Yeltsin parties won 175 seats in the Duma
Duma
versus 125 seats for the left bloc. The balance of power lay with the sixty four deputies of the ultranationalist Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. Only parties that won more than five percent of the vote were given party-list seats: eight passed the threshold in 1993. In addition to those eight parties, a pool of thirty five deputies was entitled to form a registered group to reflect regional or sectoral interests. Business was governed by a steering committee, the Duma
Duma
Council, consisting of one person from each party or group. The most important task was dividing up the chair positions in the Duma’s twenty three committees, which was done as part of a power-sharing "package" deal. During the second half of the 1990s the Duma
Duma
became an important forum for lobbying by regional leaders and businessmen looking for tax breaks and legislative favors. The work of the leading committees, such as those for defense, foreign affairs, or budget, attracted a good deal of media attention and lobbying activity. In the early 2000s, following the 1999 parliamentary elections, the pro-presidential Unity party and the Communist Party of the Russian Federation
Federation
were the leading forces in the State Duma. A 2016 exposé by Dissernet
Dissernet
showed that 1 in 9 members of the State Duma
Duma
had obtained academic degrees with theses that were substantially plagiarized and likely ghostwritten.[6] Powers[edit] The State Duma
Duma
has special powers enumerated by the Constitution of Russia. They are:

consent to the appointment of the Prime Minister of Russia; hearing annual reports from the Government of the Russian Federation on the results of its work, including on issues raised by the State Duma; deciding the issue of confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation; appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank of Russia; appointment and dismissal of the Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounts Chamber; appointment and dismissal of the Commissioner for Human rights, who shall act according to federal constitutional law; announcement of amnesty; bringing charges against the President of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
for his impeachment (requires a two-thirds majority);

The State Duma
Duma
adopts decrees on issues relating to its authority by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Procedure[edit] Decrees of the State Duma
Duma
are adopted by a majority of the total number of deputies of the State Duma, unless another procedure is envisaged by the Constitution. All bills are first approved by the State Duma
Duma
and are further debated and approved (or rejected) by the Federation
Federation
Council. Relatively few roll call votes have been published that identify individual deputies' votes.[7] The votes of individuals are recorded only if the voting is open and the electronic method is used.[7] While not all votes are officially roll call votes, every time a deputy electronically votes a computer registers the individual deputy's vote.[8] Organization[edit] Committees[edit]

Duma
Duma
Building on Manege square.

The State Duma
Duma
forms committees and commissions. Committees are the main organs of the House involved in the legislative process. They are formed, as a rule, according to the principle of proportional representation of parliamentary associations. Chairmen of committees and their first deputies and deputies are elected by a majority vote of all deputies of the parliamentary representation of associations. The main structural units of the State Duma
Duma
are committees, each having a different sphere of responsibilities. Duma
Duma
committees are formed for the duration of the current Duma
Duma
itself. There are currently 26 comittees in the 7th State Duma. Their areas of authority include:[citation needed]

proposing to build an exemplary program of legislative work of the State Duma
Duma
for the current session calendar and address the issues of the State Duma
Duma
for the next month; implement prior review of bills and preparing them for consideration by the State Duma; preparation of draft regulations of the State Duma; preparation of opinions on draft laws and draft resolutions brought before the State Duma; training in accordance with the decision of the House requests the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation; in accordance with the decision of the Council of the State Duma, State Duma
Duma
Chairman requested preparation of draft regulations of the State Council to send representatives to the State Duma
Duma
of the Constitutional Court of Russia; organization of the parliamentary hearings; opinions and proposals on appropriate sections of the draft federal budget; analysis of the practice of law.

Commissions[edit]

Identity card of a Deputy of the State Duma
Duma
(6th convocation: 2011—16)

The State Duma
Duma
commissions are formed in the cases and manner prescribed by law. Commissions are formed for a period not exceeding the term of the Duma
Duma
of the convocation. In the 5th convocation of the State Duma, there were five committees:

Commission mandated Affairs and Parliamentary Ethics Accounts Commission Commission for consideration of the federal budget to ensure the defense and national security of the Russian Federation Commission for legislative support of anti-corruption Commission for legislative support of activity of natural monopolies and state corporations and commercial organizations with state participation

Membership[edit] Any Russian citizen who is age 21 or older is eligible to participate in the election may be elected deputy to the State Duma.[9] However, that same person may not be a deputy to the Federation
Federation
Council. In addition, a State Duma
Duma
deputy cannot hold office in any other representative body of state power or bodies of local self-government. The office as deputy of the State Duma
Duma
is a full-time and professional position.[10] Thus, deputies to the State Duma
Duma
may not be employed in the civil service or engage in any activities for remuneration other than teaching, research or other creative activities. List of the State Duma
Duma
convocations[edit]

Duma Period Election

1st 12 December 1993 – 16 December 1995 1993

2nd 17 December 1995 – 19 December 1999 1995

3rd 19 December 1999 – 7 December 2003 1999

4th 7 December 2003 – 24 December 2007 2003

5th 2 December 2007 – 21 December 2011 2007

6th 21 December 2011 – 5 October 2016 2011

7th 5 October 2016 – current 2016

Chairmen of the State Duma[edit] Main article: Chairman of the State Duma

Ivan Rybkin
Ivan Rybkin
(1994–1996) Gennadiy Seleznyov
Gennadiy Seleznyov
(1996–2003) Boris Gryzlov
Boris Gryzlov
(2003–2011) Sergey Naryshkin
Sergey Naryshkin
(2011-2016) Vyacheslav Volodin
Vyacheslav Volodin
(since 2016)

Latest election[edit] Main article: Russian legislative election, 2016

Party PR Constituency Total result

Votes % ±pp Seats Votes % Seats Seats +/–

United Russia 28,527,828 54.20 4.87 140

79.6 203 343 +105

Communist Party of the Russian Federation 7,019,752 13.34 5.85 35

2.7 7 42 –50

Liberal Democratic Party of Russia 6,917,063 13.14 1.47 34

2.0 5 39 –17

A Just Russia 3,275,053 6.22 7.02 16

2.7 7 23 –41

Communists of Russia 1,192,595 2.27 N/A 0

- 0 0 +0

Yabloko 1,051,335 1.99 1.44 0

- 0 0 +0

Russian Party of Pensioners for Justice 910,848 1.73 N/A[11] 0 No SMC

+0

Rodina 792,226 1.51 N/A[12] 0

0.4 1 1 +1

Party of Growth 679,030 1.29 0.69 0

- 0

+0

The Greens 399,429 0.76 N/A[13] 0

- 0

+0

People's Freedom Party 384,675 0.73 N/A[14] 0

- 0

+0

Patriots of Russia 310,015 0.59 0.38 0

- 0

+0

Civic Platform 115,433 0.22 N/A 0

0.4 1 1 +1

Civilian Power 73,971 0.14 N/A 0

- 0

+0

Party of Rural Revival No Party List

- 0

+0

Independent

0.4 1 1 +1

Invalid/blank votes 982,596 – –

– – – – –

Total 52,700,922 100 0.00 225

100 225 450 0

Registered voters/turnout 110,061,200 47.88 0.00

0 0.00

Source: CIKRF

Subsequently three United Russia
United Russia
seats in the State Duma
Duma
were vacated following the death of one deputy - Oleg Grishchenko[15] - and the resignation of two others - Sergey Naryshkin
Sergey Naryshkin
and Vladimir Zhutenkov.[16][17] On 10 September 2017 two by-elections to the State Duma
Duma
were held. These were won by United Russia
United Russia
and LDPR, represented by Serget Yakhnyuk and Boris Paikin, respectively. [18][19] Four seats remains vacant as of January 2018. Presidential envoys to the State Duma[edit]

Alexander Maksimovich Yakovlev (February 18, 1994 – February 10, 1996) Alexander Kotenkov (February 10, 1996 – April 5, 2004) Alexander Kosopkin (April 5, 2004 – January 9, 2009) Garry Minkh (since February 10, 2009)

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

^ Умер депутат Госдумы Олег Грищенко ^ Путин назначил вице-спикера Госдумы Васильева врио главы Дагестана ^ Депутат Исаев сдаст мандат ради поста мэра Саратова ^ Мэром Нижнего Новгорода стал депутат Госдумы Владимир Панов ^ 2014 electoral law Archived 2014-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. at pravo.gov.ru (in Russian) ^ Neyfakh, Leon (2016-05-22). "The Craziest Black Market in Russia". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30. Retrieved 2016-05-23.  ^ a b Chandler, Andrea (2004). Shocking Mother Russia: Democratization, Social Rights, and Pension Reform in Russia, 1990-2001. University of Toronto Press. p. 97. ISBN 0-8020-8930-5.  ^ Ostrow, Joel M. (2000). Comparing Post-Soviet Legislatures: A Theory of Institutional Design and Political Conflict. Ohio State University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 0-8142-0841-X. LCCN 99-059121.  ^ Article 97(2) of the Constitution of Russia ^ Article 97(3) of the Constitution of Russia ^ Russian Party of Pensioners for Justice participated in the last election as part of A Just Russia https://rg.ru/2012/10/29/partii-site.html ^ Rodina participated in the last election as part of A Just Russia https://rg.ru/2012/10/29/partii-site.html ^ The Greens participated in the last election as part of A Just Russia
Russia
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-19. Retrieved 2015-07-08.  ^ The party did not participate in the 2011 elections because its registration was revoked from 2007 until 2012 ^ Умер депутат Госдумы Олег Грищенко ^ Неверов: депутат-единоросс Жутенков написал заявление о сложении мандата ^ В избравшем Нарышкина в ГД округе пройдут дополнительные выборы ^ Вице-губернатор Ленобласти Сергей Яхнюк избран депутатом Госдумы ^ В Брянске подвели окончательные итоги «совершенно прозрачных выборов»

External links[edit]

Official website (in Russian)

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v t e

List of convocations of the State Duma
Duma
of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(and year convened)

   

1 (1993) 2 (1995)

3 (1999) 4 (2003)

5 (2007) 6 (2011)

7 (2016) 8 (2021 or earlier)

Coordinates: 55°45′27″N 37°36′55″E / 55.75750°N 37.61528°E /

.