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Ras (Serbian Cyrillic: Рас; Latin: Arsa), known in modern Serbian historiography as Stari Ras
Stari Ras
(Serbian Cyrillic: Стари Рас, meaning Old Ras), is a medieval fortress located in the vicinity of former market-place of Staro Trgovište, some 11 km west of modern day city of Novi Pazar
Novi Pazar
in Serbia. Old Ras was one of the first capitals of the medieval Serbian state of Raška, and the most important one for quite a long period of time. Located in today's region of Raška, the city was positioned in the center of the early medieval state. It was founded before 9th century and was deserted sometime in the 13th century. Its favorable position in the area known as Old Serbia, along the Raška gorge, on the crossroads and trading routes between neighbouring regions of Zeta and Bosnia in the west and Kosovo
Kosovo
and Metohija
Metohija
in the south added to its importance as a city. Today the fortress of Arsa lies in mostly unenclosed and unprotected ruins. However, there are plans for future reconstruction of the site. In the close vicinity of Arsa there is impressive group of medieval monuments consisting of fortresses, old market-places, churches and monasteries. Serbian medieval Monastery of Sopoćani
Sopoćani
near Arsa is a reminder of the contacts between Western world
Western world
and the Byzantine world. The site of Stari Ras, in combination with the nearby Monastery of Sopoćani, is already a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, and Stari Ras monastery (12th century) is being reconstructed and it too may be included on the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List with the site. Stari Ras and Sopoćani
Sopoćani
World Heritage site is not far from another UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site of Serbia, the magnificent medieval monastery and churches of Studenica. The 6th century Church of Saint Apostles Peter and Paul is one of the oldest early medieval churches in Serbia. Stari Ras
Stari Ras
was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1990, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Monuments 3 See also 4 References 5 External links 6 Further reading

History[edit] Main article: Medieval Serbia Archeological findings of fortified structures and early churches from the area of Stari Ras, dated from 4th to 6th century, correspond to testimony of Byzantine
Byzantine
historian Procopius
Procopius
who wrote that Roman castellum of Arsa in the province of Dardania was refortified during the reign of emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(527-565).[2] With the arrival of Slavs
Slavs
in the 6th century and the final collapse of Byzantine
Byzantine
rule in Dardania at the beginning of the 7th century, the fort of Arsa was destroyed. To newly settled Serbs, old Arsa was known as Ras. It soon became a peripheral place for Serbia. In the early stages of Serbian statehood it was the easternmost town, bordering the First Bulgarian Empire, also annexed by the Bulgars in 924–927. A bishopric for inner Serbia
Serbia
was founded probably in Ras in the time of major ecclesiastical events that took place around the Council of Constantinople in 869-870 and the Council of Constantinople in 879–880.[3] In the time of emperor John I Tzimiskes
John I Tzimiskes
(r. 969-976), Byzantine
Byzantine
rule was briefly restored in the region of Ras, and protospatharios John was appointed as governor (catepan) of Ras.[4][5] After the victories of emperor Basil II and the restoration of Byzantine
Byzantine
power in Southeastern Europe (1018), Ras became the political and church center of Byzantine
Byzantine
Serbia. In the imperial charters of Basil II from 1019 and 1020, rights and jurisdictions of the autonomous Archbishopric of Ohrid
Archbishopric of Ohrid
were established. One of the bishoprics in its jurisdiction was that of Ras, with the seat at the Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul. During the Hungarian- Byzantine
Byzantine
War (1127–29), the Serbs
Serbs
fought on the Hungarian side, re-conquering Ras which had been under Byzantine
Byzantine
rule. In the next war (1149–51) the Byzantines seized Ras again. A late 12th-century cave monastery existed in the region north of the Studenica monastery.[6] During the 14th century there was an important market-place below the Stari Ras, Trgovište, that started to develop. By the mid-15th century, in the time of the final Ottoman conquest of the region, another market-place was developing some 11 km to the east. The older place was known as Staro Trgovište ("old market-place", in Turkish: Eski Pazar) and younger as Novo Trgovište
Novo Trgovište
("new market-place", Turkish: Yeni Pazar). The latter developed into the modern city of Novi Pazar.

Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul

Đurđevi stupovi, 12th century

Sopoćani, 13th century

Monuments[edit]

The oldest early medieval church-building in Serbia, the Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, was founded sometime during the 9th century on foundations of an Early Christian
Early Christian
church. According to tradition, Serbian Prince Petar Gojniković
Petar Gojniković
(r. 892-917) was entombed in this church.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stari Ras.

Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance Tourism in Serbia Nemanjić dynasty Spatial Cultural-Historical Units of Great Importance

References[edit]

^ a b Monuments of Culture in Serbia: СТАРИ РАС СА СОПОЋАНИМА (SANU) (in Serbian) (in English) ^ The World of the Slavs : Studies of the East, West and South Slavs
Slavs
at Google Books
Google Books
p. 216 ^ The Entry of the Slavs
Slavs
Into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs
Slavs
at Google Books
Google Books
p. 67-68, 208-209 ^ Stephenson, Paul (2003). The Legend of Basil the Bulgar-slayer. Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-521-81530-7.  ^ Byzantium in the year 1000. BRILL. 2003. p. 122. ISBN 978-90-04-12097-6.  ^ Patrich, Joseph (2001-01-01). The Sabaite Heritage in the Orthodox Church from the Fifth Century to the Present. Peeters Publishers. ISBN 9789042909762. 

External links[edit]

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site Official site of monastery Đurđevi stupovi
Đurđevi stupovi
in Stari Ras

Further reading[edit]

Mrkobrad, D. 1997, "Ras-Postenje: Phases in the development of the fortress", Zbornik radova Vizantološkog instituta, no. 36, pp. 203–219. "О ПРОУЧАВАЊУ И ПУБЛИКОВАЊУ УТВРЂЕНИХ МЕСТА У СРБИЈИ ИЗ VII-X СТОЛЕЋА".  Damjanović, L., Holclajtner-Antunović, I., Mioč, U.B., Bikić, V., Milovanović, D. and Evans, I.R., 2011. Archaeometric study of medieval pottery excavated at Stari (Old) Ras, Serbia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(4), pp. 818–828. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.11.004 Borojević, K., 2005. Nutrition and environment in medieval Serbia: charred cereal, weed and fruit remains from the fortress of Ras. Vegetation history and archaeobotany, 14(4), pp. 453–464. doi:10.1007/s00334-005-0092-9 Borojević, K., 2002. The analysis of plant remains from the fortress Ras-the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. Starinar, (52), pp. 191–205. doi:10.2298/STA0252191B Vanderheyde, C., 2002. M. POPOVIĆ, The Fortress of Ras (= Archaeological Institute Monographies, n° 34), Belgrade, 1999. Dinić, B. and Janković, M., 1979. ABO blood groups in medieval remains (Ras, Novi Pazar, X-XII AD). Journal of Human Evolution, 8(7), pp. 715–718. Popović, M., Stepanović, N., Ristić, M., Botorić, D., Borić, N., Radovanović, I., Vilotić, D., Blažić, S., Maksimović, L. and Ivanišević, V., 1999. Tvrđava Ras: The Fortress of Ras. Arheološki institut. Живковић, Тибор (2002). Јужни Словени под византијском влашћу 600-1025 (South Slavs
Slavs
under the Byzantine
Byzantine
Rule 600-1025). Београд: Историјски институт САНУ, Службени гласник.  Živković, Tibor (2008). Forging unity: The South Slavs
Slavs
between East and West 550-1150. Belgrade: The Institute of History, Čigoja štampa. 

v t e

World Heritage Sites of Serbia

Gamzigrad-Romuliana, Palace of Galerius Stari Ras
Stari Ras
and Sopoćani Studenica Monastery Medieval Monuments in Kosovo

Visoki Dečani Patriarchate of Peć Our Lady of Ljeviš Gračanica Monastery

Stećci Medieval Tombstones Graveyards
Stećci Medieval Tombstones Graveyards
(with Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro)

v t e

Historical capitals of Serbia

Ras (950–1276) Debrc
Debrc
(1276–1283) Belgrade
Belgrade
(1283–1430; since 1841) Prizren
Prizren
(1300–1345) Skopje
Skopje
(1345–1371) Priština and Kruševac
Kruševac
(1371–1389) Smederevo
Smederevo
(1430–1453) Subotica
Subotica
(1526–1527) Kragujevac
Kragujevac
(1818–1841) Temišvar (1849–1860) Kragujevac
Kragujevac
(1914–1915) Niš
Niš
(1915)

v t e

National symbols of Serbia
Serbia

Constitutional

Coat of arms (see also List) Flag (see also List) Anthem (see also List) National colours

Cultural icons

State decoration Regalia Heraldry

Serbian eagle Serbian cross

Cuisine

Ćevapčići Gibanica Pljeskavica Šljivovica

Monuments

UNESCO

Studenica Stari Ras
Stari Ras
and Sopoćani Gamzigrad Medieval Monuments in Kosovo

Visoki Dečani Patriarchate of Peć Our Lady of Ljeviš Gračanica

Mramorje (part of Stećci Medieval Tombstones Graveyards)

Other

Church of Saint Sava Belgrade
Belgrade
Fortress Smederevo
Smederevo
Fortress Manasija Šargan Eight Golubac Fortress

People

Patron Saint

Sveti Sava

Depicted on Serbian dinar

Vuk Karadžić
Vuk Karadžić
(Linguist) Petar II Njegoš (Poet) Stevan Mokranjac
Stevan Mokranjac
(Composer) Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
(Inventor) Nadežda Petrović
Nadežda Petrović
(Painter)

Jovan Cvijić
Jovan Cvijić
(Geographer) Đorđe Vajfert
Đorđe Vajfert
(Industrialist) Milutin Milanković
Milutin Milanković
(Geophysicist) Slobodan Jovanović
Slobodan Jovanović
(Jurist)

Fauna and flora

Wolf Eagle Plum Oak Serbian Spruce

Names and codes

Names of Serbia .rs .срб

Unofficial

Serbian folk heroes Serbian epic poetry Three-fingers salute Mottos (Only Unity Saves the Serbs) National costume

Šajkača Opanak

Musical instruments

Gusle Gaida Frula

Mother Serbia

Category

v t e

Cultural Heritage of Serbia
Serbia

Archaeological sites

Exceptional Importance

Vinča-Belo Brdo Viminacium Gamzigrad Justiniana Prima Mediana Trajan's Bridge Diana Fortress Kraku Lu Jordan Rudna Glava Velika humka Židovar Starčevo site Bassianae Gomolava Sirmium Titel plateau Čelarevo site Ulpiana

Great Importance

Acumincum Blaškovina Dupljaja Gradac Cave Gradina Gradina on Bosut Gradište Drengrad Kalakača Castellum Onagrinum Kulina (Balajnac) Grgurevci Site Matejski Brod Mihaljevačka Forest Peres Risovačka Cave Timacum Minus Remesiana Roman Necropolis Lederata Turkish Trench Hummock near Varcal's Mill Humska Čuka Crkvine (Horgoš) Čarnok

Protected

Cultural Monuments

Exceptional Importance

Great Importance

Protected

Historic Landmarks

Exceptional Importance

Great Importance

Protected

Spatial Cultural-Historical Units

Exceptional Importance

Knez Mihailova Street Tešnjar Stara Čaršija, Novi Pazar Negotin Wine Cellars Topčider Stari Ras
Stari Ras
with Sopoćani Gazimestan Bač Fortress Sremski Karlovci Fruška Gora Dositej's Lyceum
Dositej's Lyceum
area

Great Importance

Petrovaradin Fortress Subotica
Subotica
centre Novi Sad old cemetaries Greek Lane Karačoni Castle Kupinovo ethno-park Sremska Mitrovica barley market Venac, Sombor Lodine Spa Godovik Complex Kosančićev Venac Lukarevina Field Bistrica river mills and Valjavica Novi Sad Synagogue Novi Sad memorial graveyard Belgrade
Belgrade
Old Town Ivanjica Old Town Belgrade
Belgrade
Old City Kragujevac
Kragujevac
Old City Negotin Old City Pančevo Old City Pančevo Old Town Bečej Old Town Zrenjanin Old Town Irig Old Town National Heroes Square Čajkino Hill

Protected

Pasha Mill Peć Old Town Gjakova Old Bazaar Prizren
Prizren
urban complex

Potkaljaja Pantelija Potok-mahala

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Protected areas of Serbia

National parks

Đerdap Fruška Gora Kopaonik Šar Mountain Tara

Nature reserves

Bagremara Brzansko Moravište Bukovo Stari Begej – Carska Bara Danilova kosa Deliblato Sand Goč Gornje Podunavlje Jelašnička river Gorge Jerma Karađorđevo Koviljsko-petrovaradinski rit Kraljevac Lake Ludaš Obedska bara Okanj Pastures of the Great Bustard Prebreza Prokop Selevenjske pustare Slano Kopovo Suva Planina Titelski Breg Trešnjica
Trešnjica
river Gorge Uvac Venerina padina Vinatovača Zasavica

Nature parks

Begečka jama Golija Grmija Jegricka Nature Park Kamaraš Šargan - Mokra Gora Palić lake Ponjavica Sićevačka Gorge Stara Planina Tikvara Stara Tisa Zlatibor

Landscapes of outstanding features

Avala Đetinja
Đetinja
Gorge Gradac Gorge Kamena Gora Kosmaj Ćelije hydroacumulation Mali Rzav
Mali Rzav
Springs Miruša Waterfalls Ovčar-Kablar Gorge River Pčinja Valley Radan Lepterija - Soko Grad Ras - *Sopoćani Subotička Peščara Veliko Ratno Ostrvo Vlasina Vršac Mountains Zaovine

Natural monuments (selection)

Đavolja Varoš Marble cave Resavska cave Rugova Canyon Šalinac

.