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S. argenteus S. arlettae S. agnetis S. aureus S. auricularis S. capitis S. caprae S. carnosus S. caseolyticus S. chromogenes S. cohnii S. condimenti S. delphini S. devriesei S. edaphicus S. epidermidis S. equorum S. felis S. fleurettii S. gallinarum S. haemolyticus S. hominis S. hyicus S. intermedius S. kloosii S. leei S. lentus S. lugdunensis S. lutrae S. lyticans S. massiliensis S. microti S. muscae S. nepalensis S. pasteuri S. petrasii S. pettenkoferi S. piscifermentans S. pseudintermedius S. pseudolugdunensis S. pulvereri S. rostri S. saccharolyticus S. saprophyticus S. schleiferi S. schweitzeri S. sciuri S. simiae S. simulans S. stepanovicii S. succinus S. vitulinus S. warneri S. xylosus

Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
(from the Greek: σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. Under the microscope, they appear round (cocci), and form in grape-like clusters. The Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
genus includes at least 40 species. Of these, nine have two subspecies, one has three subspecies, and one has four subspecies.[1] Most are harmless and reside normally on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other organisms. Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
has been found to be a nectar-inhabiting microbe.[2] Found worldwide, they are a small component of soil microbial flora.[3]

Contents

1 Taxonomy

1.1 Subspecies 1.2 Notes

2 Biochemical identification

2.1 Coagulase
Coagulase
production

3 Genomics and molecular biology 4 Host range 5 Clinical 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Taxonomy[edit] The taxonomy is based on 16s rRNA sequences,[4] and most of the staphylococcal species fall into 11 clusters:

S. aureus group – S. argenteus, S. aureus, S. schweitzeri, S. simiae S. auricularis group – S. auricularis S. carnosus group – S. carnosus, S. condimenti, S. massiliensis, S. piscifermentans, S. simulans S. epidermidis group – S. capitis, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, S. saccharolyticus S. haemolyticus group – S. devriesei, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis S. hyicus-intermedius group – S. agnetis, S. chromogenes, S. felis, S. delphini, S. hyicus, S. intermedius, S. lutrae, S. microti, S. muscae, S. pseudintermedius, S. rostri, S. schleiferi S. lugdunensis group – S. lugdunensis S. saprophyticus group – S. arlettae, S. cohnii, S. equorum, S. gallinarum, S. kloosii, S. leei, S. nepalensis, S. saprophyticus, S. succinus, S. xylosus S. sciuri group – S. fleurettii, S. lentus, S. sciuri, S. stepanovicii, S. vitulinus S. simulans group – S. simulans S. warneri group – S. pasteuri, S. warneri

A 12th group – that of S. caseolyticus – has now been moved to a new genus, Macrococcus, the species of which are currently the closest known relatives of Staphylococcus.[5] Two species were described in 2015 - Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
argenteus and Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
schweitzeri - both of which were previously considered variants of S. aureus.[6] A new coagulase negative species - Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
edaphicus - has been isolated from Antarctica.[7] This species is probably a member of the S. saprophyticus group. Subspecies[edit] S. aureus subsp. aureus S. aureus subsp. anaerobius S. capitis subsp. capitis S. capitis subsp. urealyticus S. carnosus subsp. carnosus S. carnosus subsp. utilis S. cohnii subsp. cohnii S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus S. equorum subsp. equorum S. equorum subsp. linens S. hominis subsp. hominis S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus S petrasii subsp. croceilyticus S petrasii subsp. jettensis S petrasii subsp. petrasii S petrasii subsp. pragensis S. saprophyticus subsp. bovis S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans S. schleiferi subsp. schleiferi S. sciuri subsp. carnaticus S. sciuri subsp. rodentium S. sciuri subsp. sciuri S. succinus subsp. casei S. succinus subsp. succinus Notes[edit] As with all generic names in binomial nomenclature, Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
is capitalized when used alone or with a specific species. Also, the abbreviations Staph and S. when used with a species (S. aureus) are correctly italicized and capitalized (though often errors in this are seen in popular literature). However, Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
is not capitalized or italicized when used in adjectival forms, as in a staphylococcal infection, or as the informal plural (staphylococci).[8] The S. saprophyticus and S. sciuri groups are generally novobiocin-resistant, as is S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus. Members of the S. sciuri group are oxidase-positive due to their possession of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. This group is the only clade within the staphylococci to possess this gene. The S. sciuri group appears to be the closest relations to the genus Macrococcus. S. pulvereri has been shown to be a junior synonym of S. vitulinus.[9] Within these clades, the S. haemolyticus and S. simulans groups appear to be related, as do the S. aureus and S. epidermidis groups.[10] S. lugdunensis appears to be related to the S. haemolyticus group. S. petrasii may be related to S. haemolyticus, but this needs to be confirmed. The taxonomic position of S. lyticans, S. pettenkoferi, S. petrasii, and S. pseudolugdunensis has yet to be clarified. The published descriptions of these species do not appear to have been validly published. Biochemical identification[edit] Assignment of a strain to the genus Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
requires it to be a Gram-positive
Gram-positive
coccus that forms clusters, has an appropriate cell wall structure (including peptidoglycan type and teichoic acid presence) and G + C content of DNA in a range of 30–40 mol%. Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
species can be differentiated from other aerobic and facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive
Gram-positive
cocci by several simple tests. Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
species are facultative anaerobes (capable of growth both aerobically and anaerobically). All species grow in the presence of bile salts. All species were once thought to be coagulase-positive, but this has since been disproven.[11][12][13] Growth can also occur in a 6.5% NaCl solution. On Baird Parker medium, Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
species grow fermentatively, except for S. saprophyticus, which grows oxidatively. Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
species are resistant to bacitracin (0.04 U disc: resistance = < 10 mm zone of inhibition) and susceptible to furazolidone (100 μg disc: resistance = < 15 mm zone of inhibition). Further biochemical testing is needed to identify to the species level. When these bacteria divide, they do so along two axes, so form clumps of bacteria. This is as opposed to streptococci, which divide along one axis, so form chains (strep meaning twisted or pliant). Coagulase
Coagulase
production[edit] One of the most important phenotypical features used in the classification of staphylococci is their ability to produce coagulase, an enzyme that causes blood clot formation. Seven species are currently recognised as being coagulase-positive: S. aureus, S. delphini, S. hyicus, S. intermedius, S. lutrae, S. pseudintermedius, and S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans. These species belong to two separate groups – the S. aureus (S. aureus alone) group and the S. hyicus-intermedius group (the remaining five). A eighth species has also been described – Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
leei – from patients with gastritis.[14] S. aureus is coagulase-positive, meaning it produces coagulase. However, while the majority of S. aureus strains are coagulase-positive, some may be atypical in that they do not produce coagulase. S. aureus is catalase-positive (meaning that it can produce the enzyme catalase) and able to convert hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and oxygen, which makes the catalase test useful to distinguish staphylococci from enterococci and streptococci. S. pseudintermedius inhabits and sometimes infects the skin of domestic dogs and cats. This organism, too, can carry the genetic material that imparts multiple bacterial resistance. It is rarely implicated in infections in humans, as a zoonosis. S. epidermidis, a coagulase-negative species, is a commensal of the skin, but can cause severe infections in immunosuppressed patients and those with central venous catheters. S. saprophyticus, another coagulase-negative species that is part of the normal vaginal flora, is predominantly implicated in genitourinary tract infections in sexually active young women. In recent years, several other Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
species have been implicated in human infections, notably S. lugdunensis, S. schleiferi, and S. caprae. Common abbreviations for coagulase-negative staphylococci are CoNS, CNS, or CNST.[15] The American Society for Microbiology
American Society for Microbiology
abbreviates coagulase-negative staphylococci as "CoNS". Genomics and molecular biology[edit] The first S. aureus genomes to be sequenced were those of N315 and Mu50, in 2001. Many more complete S. aureus genomes have been submitted to the public databases, making it one of the most extensively sequenced bacteria. The use of genomic data is now widespread and provides a valuable resource for researchers working with S. aureus. Whole genome technologies, such as sequencing projects and microarrays, have shown an enormous variety of S. aureus strains. Each contains different combinations of surface proteins and different toxins. Relating this information to pathogenic behaviour is one of the major areas of staphylococcal research. The development of molecular typing methods has enabled the tracking of different strains of S. aureus. This may lead to better control of outbreak strains. A greater understanding of how the staphylococci evolve, especially due to the acquisition of mobile genetic elements encoding resistance and virulence genes is helping to identify new outbreak strains and may even prevent their emergence.[16] The widespread incidence of antibiotic resistance across various strains of S. aureus, or across different species of Staphylococcus has been attributed to horizontal gene transfer of genes encoding antibiotic/metal resistance and virulence. A recent study demonstrated the extent of horizontal gene transfer among Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
to be much greater than previously expected, and encompasses genes with functions beyond antibiotic resistance and virulence, and beyond genes residing within the mobile genetic elements.[17] Various strains of Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
are available from biological research centres, such as the National Collection of Type Cultures. Host range[edit]

Unknown variety of Staphylococcus, Gram-stained - numbered ticks on the scale are 11 µm apart

Members of the genus Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
frequently colonize the skin and upper respiratory tracts of mammals and birds. Some species specificity has been observed in host range, such that the Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
species observed on some animals appear more rarely on more distantly related host species.[18] Some of the observed host specificity includes: S. arlattae – chickens, goats S. aureus - humans[19] S. auricularis – deer, dogs, humans S. capitis – humans S. caprae – goats, humans S. cohnii – chickens, humans S. delphini – dolphins S. devriesei – cattle S. epidermidis – humans S. equorum – horses S. felis – cats S. fleurettii – goats S. gallinarum – chickens, goats, pheasants S. haemolyticus – humans, Cercocebus, Erythrocebus, Lemur, Macca, Microcebus, Pan S. hyicus – pigs S. leei – humans S. lentus – goats, rabbits, sheep S. lugdunensis – humans, goats S. lutrae – otters S. microti – voles (Microtus arvalis) S. nepalensis – goats S. pasteuri – humans, goats S. pettenkoferi – humans S. pseudintermedius – dogs S. rostri – pigs S. schleiferi – humans S. sciuri – humans, dogs, goats S. simiae – South American squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) S. simulans – humans S. warneri – humans, Cercopithecoidea, Pongidae S. xylosus – humans Clinical[edit] Main article: Staphylococcal infection Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
can cause a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals through either toxin production or penetration. Staphylococcal toxins are a common cause of food poisoning, for they can be produced by bacteria growing in improperly stored food items. The most common sialadenitis is caused by staphylococci, as bacterial infections.[20] See also[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Staphylococcus

Methicillin-resistant S. aureus Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus

References[edit]

^ Harris L.G.; Foster S.J.; Richards S. G. (2002). "An introduction to Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
aureus, and techniques for identifying and quantifying S. aureus adhesins in relation to adhesion to biomaterials: review" (PDF). European Cells & Materials. 4: 39–60. PMID 14562246.  ^ Jacquemyn, Hans; Lenaerts, Marijke; Brys, Rein; Willems, Kris; Honnay, Olivier; Lievens, Bart (2013-03-11). "Among-Population Variation in Microbial Community Structure in the Floral Nectar
Nectar
of the Bee-Pollinated Forest Herb Pulmonaria officinalis L". PLOS ONE. 8 (3): e56917. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056917. ISSN 1932-6203.  ^ Madigan M, Martinko J, eds. (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1.  ^ Takahashi T, Satoh I, Kikuchi N (1999). "Phylogenetic relationships of 38 taxa of the genus Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis" (PDF). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 (2): 725–728. doi:10.1099/00207713-49-2-725. PMID 10319495.  ^ Kloos WE, Ballard DN, George CG, Webster JA, Hubner RJ, Ludwig W, Schleifer KH, Fiedler F, Schubert K (1998). "Delimiting the genus Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
through description of Macrococcus caseolyticus gen. nov., comb. nov. and Macrococcus equipercicus sp. nov., and Macrococcus bovicus sp. nov. and Macrococcus carouselicus sp. nov" (PDF). Int J Syst Bacteriol. 48 (3): 859–877. doi:10.1099/00207713-48-3-859. PMID 9734040.  ^ Tong SY, Schaumburg F, Ellington MJ, Corander J, Pichon B, Leendertz F, Bentley SD, Parkhill J, Holt DC, Peters G, Giffard PM (2015) Novel staphylococcal species that form part of a Staphylococcus aureus-related complex: the non-pigmented Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
argenteus sp. nov. and the non-human primate-associated Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
schweitzeri sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 65(Pt 1):15-22 ^ Pantůček R, Sedláček I, Indráková A, Vrbovská V, Mašlaňová I, Kovařovic V, Švec P, Králová S, Krištofová L, Kekláková J, Petráš P, Doškař J (2017) Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
edaphicus sp. nov., isolated in Antarctica, harbours mecC gene and genomic islands with suspected role in adaptation to extreme environment. Appl Environ Microbiol pii: AEM.01746-17. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01746-17. ^ See genus and species capitalization. ^ Svec P.; Vancanneyt M.; Sedláek I.; Engelbeen K.; Stetina V.; Swings, J. & Petrá, P. (2004). "Reclassification of Staphylococcus pulvereri Zakrzewska-Czerwiska et al. 1995 as a later synonym of Staphylococcus vitulinus Webster et al. 1994" (PDF). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54 (6): 2213–2215. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63080-0. PMID 15545460.  ^ Ghebremedhin B, Layer F, König W, König B (2008). "Genetic classification and distinguishing of Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
species based on different partial gap, 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoB, sodA, and tuf gene sequences". J. Clin. Microbiol. 46 (3): 1019–1025. doi:10.1128/JCM.02058-07. PMC 2268370 . PMID 18174295.  ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.  ^ PreTest, Surgery, 12th ed., p. 88 ^ Matthews KR, Roberson J, Gillespie BE, Luther DA, Oliver SP (1997). "Identification and Differentiation of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus
by Polymerase Chain Reaction". Journal of Food Protection. 60 (6): 686–8.  ^ Jin M, Rosario W, Watler E, Calhoun DH (2004). "Development of a large-scale HPLC-based purification for the urease from Staphylococcus leei and determination of subunit structure" (PDF). Protein Expr. Purif. 34 (1): 111–117. doi:10.1016/j.pep.2003.10.012. PMID 14766306.  ^ Karsten Becker, Christine Heilmann, Georg Peters: Coagulase-negative staphylococci. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2014 Oct;27(4), S. 870–926 ^ Lindsay J, ed. (2008). Staphylococcus: Molecular Genetics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 1-904455-29-8. [1].  ^ Chan CX, Beiko RG, Ragan MA (2011). "Lateral transfer of genes and gene fragments in Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
extends beyond mobile elements". J Bacteriol. 193 (15): 3964–3977. doi:10.1128/JB.01524-10. PMC 3147504 . PMID 21622749.  ^ Kloos WE (1980). "Natural Populations of the Genus
Genus
Staphylococcus". Annual Review of Microbiology. 34: 559–592. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.34.100180.003015. PMID 7002032.  ^ 'Staph Infection in Nose.' ^ "Sialoadenitis: inflammation of the salivary glands". The Medical Consumer's Advocate. 2001-01-04. Retrieved 2011-01-04. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Staphylococcus.

Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID

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Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q199695 EoL: 83232 EPPO: 1STAPG GBIF: 3227654 ITIS: 359 NCBI:

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