STANLEY BALDWIN, 1ST EARL BALDWIN OF BEWDLEY, KG , PC , JP , FRS (3
August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British Conservative
politician who dominated the government in his country between the two
world wars . Three times
Baldwin first entered the House of Commons in 1908 as the Member of
Bewdley , in succession to his father Alfred Baldwin .
He held government office in the coalition ministry of David Lloyd
George . In 1922, Baldwin was one of the prime movers in the
withdrawal of Conservative support from Lloyd George; he subsequently
Chancellor of the Exchequer in
After winning the 1924 General Election Baldwin formed his second government, which saw important tenures of office by Sir Austen Chamberlain (Foreign Secretary), Winston Churchill (at the Exchequer) and Neville Chamberlain (Health). The latter two ministers strengthened Conservative appeal by reforms in areas formerly associated with the Liberal Party. They included industrial conciliation, unemployment insurance, a more extensive old-age pension system, slum clearance , more private housing, and expansion of maternal and child care. However, continuing sluggish economic growth and declines in mining and heavy industry weakened his base of support and, although Baldwin was supportive of Labour politicians forming minority governments at Westminster, his government also saw the General Strike in 1926 and the 1927 Trades Disputes Act to curb the powers of trade unions.
Baldwin narrowly lost the 1929 General Election and his continued
leadership of the party was subject to extensive criticism by the
In 1935, Baldwin replaced MacDonald as
Baldwin retired in 1937 and was succeeded by Neville Chamberlain . At that time, he was regarded as a popular and successful prime minister, but for the final decade of his life, and for many years afterwards, he was vilified for having presided over high unemployment in the 1930s and as one of the " Guilty Men " who had tried to appease Adolf Hitler and who had – supposedly – not rearmed sufficiently to prepare for the Second World War .
By 2004, however, historians generally painted a more positive portrait of his governments. Stuart Ball says: Baldwin is now seen as having done more than most and perhaps as much as was possible in the context, but the fact remains that it was not enough to deter the aggressors or ensure their defeat. Less equivocal was his rediscovery as a moderate and inclusive Conservative for the modern age, part of a 'one nation tradition'.
Modern scholars generally rank him in the upper half of British Prime Ministers.
* 1 Early life: family, education and marriage
* 2 Early political career
* 2.1 Joins Cabinet * 2.2 Chancellor of the Exchequer
* 3 Prime Minister: First term (1923–1924) * 4 Leader of the Opposition * 5 Prime Minister: Second term (1924–1929) * 6 Leader of the Opposition
* 7.1 Disarmament
* 8 Prime Minister: Third term: (1935–1937)
* 8.1 Rearmament
* 9 Abdication of Edward VIII
* 10 Retirement
* 10.1 Leaving office and peerage * 10.2 Attitude to appeasement * 10.3 Letter to Lord Halifax * 10.4 Iron gates crisis * 10.5 Comments on politics
* 11 Last years and death * 12 Styles of address * 13 Legacy
* 14 Baldwin\'s governments as
* 14.1 First Government, May 1923 – January 1924 * 14.2 Changes * 14.3 Second Cabinet, November 1924 – June 1929 * 14.4 Changes * 14.5 Third Cabinet, June 1935 – May 1937 * 14.6 Changes
* 15 Cultural depictions * 16 See also * 17 Notes
* 18 Further reading
* 18.1 Primary sources
* 19 External links
EARLY LIFE: FAMILY, EDUCATION AND MARRIAGE
Mason College, now the
University of Birmingham
Baldwin was born at Lower Park House, Lower Park,
Baldwin's schools were St Michael\'s School , at the time located in
In the 1906 general election he contested
Astley Hall near
Although he entered politics at a relatively late age, his rise to
the top leadership was very rapid. He served jointly with Sir Hardman
Lever , who had been appointed in 1916, but after 1919 Baldwin carried
out the duties largely alone. He was appointed to the Privy Council in
the 1920 Birthday Honours. In 1921 he was promoted to the Cabinet as
President of the Board of Trade
CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER
In late 1922 dissatisfaction was steadily growing within the
Conservative Party over its coalition with the Liberal David Lloyd
George . At a meeting of Conservative MPs at the
PRIME MINISTER: FIRST TERM (1923–1924)
Further information: First Baldwin ministry Baldwin, unknown date
In May 1923
It is not entirely clear what factors proved most crucial, but some
Conservative politicians felt that Curzon was unsuitable for the role
The King turned to Baldwin to become Prime Minister. Initially Baldwin was also Chancellor of the Exchequer whilst he sought to recruit the former Liberal Chancellor Reginald McKenna to join the government. When this failed he appointed Neville Chamberlain to that position.
The Conservatives now had a clear majority in the House of Commons
and could govern for five years before holding a general election, but
Baldwin felt bound by Bonar Law's pledge at the previous election that
there would be no introduction of tariffs without a further election.
Thus Baldwin turned towards a degree of protectionism which would
remain a key party message during his lifetime. With the country
facing growing unemployment in the wake of free trade imports driving
down prices and profits, Baldwin decided to call an early general
election in December 1923 to seek a mandate to introduce protectionist
tariffs which, he hoped, would drive down unemployment and spur an
economic recovery. He expected to unite his party but he divided it,
for protectionism proved a divisive issue. The election was
inconclusive: the Conservatives elected 258 MPs, Labour 191 and the
reunited Liberals 159. Whilst the Conservatives retained a plurality
in the House of Commons, they had been clearly defeated on the central
issue: tariffs. Baldwin remained
LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION
Baldwin successfully held on to the party leadership amid some
colleagues' calls for his resignation. For the next ten months, an
unstable minority Labour government under
During a debate on the naval estimates the Conservatives opposed
Labour but supported them on 18 March in a vote on cutting expenditure
The Labour government was negotiating with the Soviet government over intended commercial treaties -- 'the Russian Treaties' -- to provide most favoured nation privileges and diplomatic status for the UK trade delegation; and a treaty that would settle the claims of pre-revolutionary British bondholders and holders of confiscated property, after which the British government would guarantee a loan to the Soviet Union. Baldwin decided to vote against the government over the Russian Treaties, which brought the government down on 8 October.
The general election held in October 1924 brought a landslide majority of 223 for the Conservative party, primarily at the expense of an unpopular Liberal Party . Baldwin campaigned on the "impracticability" of socialism, the Campbell Case , the Zinoviev Letter (which Baldwin thought was genuine, and the conservatives leaked to the Daily Mail at a most damaging time to the labour campaign, considerable doubt now exist to the letters authenticity. ) and the Russian Treaties. In a speech during the campaign Baldwin said:
It makes my blood boil to read of the way which Mr. Zinoviev is
speaking of the
PRIME MINISTER: SECOND TERM (1924–1929)
Baldwin's new Cabinet now included many former political associates
of Lloyd George: former Coalition Conservatives: Austen Chamberlain
(as Foreign Secretary), Lord Birkenhead (Secretary for India) and
At Baldwin's instigation Lord Weir headed a committee to "review the national problem of electrical energy". It published its report on 14 May 1925 and in it Weir recommended the setting up of a Central Electricity Board , a state monopoly half-financed by the Government and half by local undertakings. Baldwin accepted Weir's recommendations and they became law by the end of 1926.
The Board was a success. By 1939 electrical output was up fourfold and generating costs had fallen. Consumers of electricity rose from three-quarters of a million in 1920 to nine million in 1938, with annual growth of 700,000 to 800,000 a year (the fastest rate of growth in the world).
One of his legislative reforms was a paradigm shift in his party. This was the Widows, Orphans and Old Age Contributory Pensions Act of 1925, which provided a pension of 10 shillings a week for widows with extra for children, and 10 shillings a week for insured workers and their wives at 65. This transformed Toryism , away from its historic reliance on community (particularly religious) charities, and towards acceptance of a humanitarian welfare state which would guarantee a minimum living standard for those unable to work or who took out national insurance . In 1927, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society .
LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION
In 1929 Labour returned to office as the largest party in the House of Commons (although without an overall majority) despite obtaining fewer votes than the Conservatives. In opposition, Baldwin was almost ousted as party leader by the press barons Lords Rothermere and Beaverbrook, whom he accused of enjoying "power without responsibility, the prerogative of the harlot throughout the ages".
Ramsden argues that Baldwin made dramatic permanent improvements to the organisation and effectiveness of the Conservative Party. He enlarged the headquarters with professionals, professionalised the party agents, raised ample funds, and was an innovative user of the new mass media of radio and film.
LORD PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL
By 1931, as the economy headed towards crisis, both in Britain and
around the world, with the onset of the
Great Depression , Baldwin and
the Conservatives entered into a coalition with Labour Prime Minister
Ramsay MacDonald. This decision led to MacDonald's expulsion from his
own party, and Baldwin, as
Lord President of the Council , became de
facto Prime Minister, deputising for the increasingly senile
MacDonald, until he once again officially became
One central and vitally important agreement was the Statute of
Westminster 1931 , which conferred full self-government upon the
His government then secured with great difficulty the passage of the landmark Government of India Act 1935 , in the teeth of opposition from Winston Churchill, spokesman for the die-hard imperialists who filled the Conservative ranks.
Baldwin did not advocate total disarmament but believed that, as Sir Edward Grey had stated in 1925, "great armaments lead inevitably to war". However he came to believe that, as he put it on 10 November 1932: "the time has now come to an end when Great Britain can proceed with unilateral disarmament". On 10 November 1932 Baldwin said:
I think it is well also for the man in the street to realise that there is no power on earth that can protect him from being bombed. Whatever people may tell him, the bomber will always get through , The only defence is in offence, which means that you have to kill more women and children more quickly than the enemy if you want to save yourselves...If the conscience of the young men should ever come to feel, with regard to this one instrument that it is evil and should go, the thing will be done; but if they do not feel like that – well, as I say, the future is in their hands. But when the next war comes, and European civilisation is wiped out, as it will be, and by no force more than that force, then do not let them lay blame on the old men. Let them remember that they, principally, or they alone, are responsible for the terrors that have fallen upon the earth.
This speech was often used against Baldwin as allegedly demonstrating the futility of rearmament or disarmament, depending on the critic.
With the second part of the Disarmament Conference starting in
January 1933, Baldwin attempted to see through his hope of air
disarmament. However he became alarmed at Britain's lack of defence
against air raids and German rearmament, saying it "would be a
terrible thing, in fact, the beginning of the end". In April 1933 the
Cabinet agreed to follow through with the construction of the
On 15 September 1933 the German delegate at the Disarmament Conference refused to return to the Conference and Germany left altogether in October. On 6 October Baldwin, in a speech to the Conservative Party Conference in Birmingham, pleaded for a Disarmament Convention and then said:
when I speak of a Disarmament Convention I do not mean disarmament on the part of this country and not on the part of any other. I mean the limitation of armaments as a real limitation...and if we find ourselves on some lower rating and that some other country has higher figures, that country has to come down and we have to go up until we meet.
On 14 October Germany left the League of Nations . The Cabinet decided on 23 October that Britain should still attempt to cooperate with other states, including Germany, in international disarmament. However between mid-September 1933 and the beginning of 1934 Baldwin's mind changed from hoping for disarmament to favouring rearmament, including parity in aircraft. In late 1933 and early 1934 he rejected an invitation from Hitler to meet him, believing that visits to foreign capitals were the job of Foreign Secretaries. On 8 March 1934 Baldwin defended the creation of four new squadrons for the Royal Air Force against Labour criticisms and said of international disarmament:
If all our efforts for an agreement fail, and if it is not possible to obtain this equality in such matters as I have indicated, then any Government of this country—a National Government more than any, and this Government—will see to it that in air strength and air power this country shall no longer be in a position inferior to any country within striking distance of our shores.
On 29 March 1934 Germany published its defence estimates, which showed a total increase of one-third and an increase of 250% in its air force.
A series of by-elections in late 1933 and early 1934 with massive swings against government candidates—most famous was Fulham East with a 26.5% swing— convinced Baldwin that the British public was profoundly pacifist. Baldwin also rejected the "belligerent" views of those like Churchill and Robert Vansittart because he believed that the Nazis were rational men who would appreciate the logic of mutual and equal deterrence. He also believed war to be "the most fearful terror and prostitution of man's knowledge that ever was known".
PRIME MINISTER: THIRD TERM: (1935–1937)
Further information: National government, 1935–1937
With MacDonald's health in decline, he and Baldwin changed places in June 1935: Baldwin was now Prime Minister, MacDonald Lord President of the Council. In October that year Baldwin called a general election . Neville Chamberlain advised Baldwin to make rearmament the leading issue in the election campaign against Labour, saying that if a rearmament programme were not announced until after the election, his government would be seen as having deceived the people. However, Baldwin did not make rearmament the central issue in the election. He said he would support the League of Nations, modernise Britain's defences and remedy deficiencies; but he also said: "I give you my word that there will be no great armaments". The main issues in the election were housing, unemployment and the special areas of economic depression. The election gave 430 seats to National Government supporters (386 of these Conservative) and 154 seats to Labour.
Baldwin's younger son A. Windham Baldwin, writing in 1955, argued that his father Stanley planned a rearmament programme as early as 1934, but had to do so quietly to avoid antagonising the public whose pacifism was revealed by the Peace Ballot of 1934–35 and endorsed by both the Labour and the Liberal oppositions. His thorough presentation of the case for rearmament in 1935, the son argues, defeated pacifism and secured a victory that allowed rearmament to move ahead.
On 31 July 1934, the Cabinet approved a report that called for
expansion of the
Royal Air Force
On 25 February 1936, the Cabinet approved a report calling for
expansion of the
In the debate in the Commons on 12 November 1936, Churchill attacked the government on rearmament as being "decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all-powerful to be impotent. So we go on, preparing more months and years – precious, perhaps vital, to the greatness of Britain – for the locusts to eat". Baldwin replied:
I put before the whole House my own views with an appalling frankness. From 1933, I and my friends were all very worried about what was happening in Europe. You will remember at that time the Disarmament Conference was sitting in Geneva. You will remember at that time there was probably a stronger pacifist feeling running through the country than at any time since the War. I am speaking of 1933 and 1934. You will remember the election at Fulham in the autumn of 1933...That was the feeling of the country in 1933. My position as a leader of a great party was not altogether a comfortable one. I asked myself what chance was there...within the next year or two of that feeling being so changed that the country would give a mandate for rearmament? Supposing I had gone to the country and said that Germany was rearming and we must rearm, does anybody think that this pacific democracy would have rallied to that cry at that moment! I cannot think of anything that would have made the loss of the election from my point of view more certain...We got from the country – with a large majority – a mandate for doing a thing that no one, twelve months before, would have believed possible.
Churchill wrote to a friend: "I have never heard such a squalid
confession from a public man as Baldwin offered us yesterday". In
1935 Baldwin wrote to
J. C. C. Davidson (in a letter now lost) saying
of Churchill: "If there is going to be a war – and no one can say
that there is not – we must keep him fresh to be our war Prime
Minister". Thomas Dugdale also claimed Baldwin said to him: "If we do
have a war, Winston must be Prime Minister. If he is in now we shan't
be able to engage in that war as a united nation". The General
Secretary of the
Trades Union Congress
The Labour Party strongly opposed the rearmament programme. Clement Attlee said on 21 December 1933: "For our part, we are unalterably opposed to anything in the nature of rearmament". On 8 March 1934 Attlee said, after Baldwin defended the Air Estimates, "we on our side are out for total disarmament". On 30 July 1934 Labour moved a motion of censure against the government because of its planned expansion of the RAF. Attlee spoke for it: "We deny the need for increased air arms...and we reject altogether the claim of parity". Sir Stafford Cripps also said on this occasion that it was fallacy that Britain could achieve security through increasing air armaments. On 22 May 1935, the day after Hitler had made a speech claiming that German rearmament offered no threat to peace, Attlee asserted that Hitler's speech gave "a chance to call a halt in the armaments race". Attlee also denounced the Defence White Paper of 1937: "I do not believe the Government are going to get any safety through these armaments".
ABDICATION OF EDWARD VIII
The accession of King
Edward VIII , and the ensuing abdication crisis
, brought Baldwin's last major test in office. The new monarch was "an
ardent exponent of the cause of Anglo-German understanding ", and had
"strong views on his right to intervene in affairs of state," but the
"Government's main fears ... were of indiscretion." The King proposed
During October and November 1936, Baldwin joined the Royal Family in
trying to dissuade the King from that marriage, arguing that the idea
of having a twice-divorced woman as the Queen would be rejected by the
government, by the country, and by the Empire; and that "the voice of
the people must be heard." As the public standing of the King would
be gravely compromised, the
News of the affair was broken in the newspapers on 2 December. There
was some support for the wishes of the King, especially in and around
London. The romantic royalists Churchill, Mosley , and the press
While some recent critics have complained that "Baldwin refused the
reasonable request for time to reflect, preferring to keep the
pressure on the King – once again suggesting that his own agenda was
to force the crisis to a head", and that he "never mentioned that the
alternative was abdication", the House of Commons immediately and
overwhelmingly came out against this marriage. The Labour and Liberal
Trades Union Congress
Baldwin still hoped that the King would choose the throne over Mrs. Simpson. For the King to act against the wishes of the cabinet would have precipitated a constitutional crisis . Baldwin would have had to resign, and no other party leader would have served as the Prime Minister under this King, with the Labour Party having already having indicated that it would not form a ministry to uphold impropriety. Baldwin told the Cabinet one Labour MP had asked, "Are we going to have a fascist monarchy?" When the Cabinet refused the morganatic marriage, King Edward decided on his own volition to abdicate.
The King's final plea, on 4 December, that he should broadcast an
appeal to the nation, was rejected by the
There is no moment when he overstates emotion or indulges in oratory. There is intense silence broken only by the reporters in the gallery scuttling away to telephone the speech...When it was over... file out broken in body and soul, conscious that we have heard the best speech that we shall ever hear in our lives. There was no question of applause. It was the silence of Gettysburg...No man has ever dominated the House as he dominated it tonight, and he knows it.
After the speech, the House adjourned and Nicolson bumped into Baldwin as he was leaving, who asked him what he thought of the speech. Nicolson said it was superb, to which Baldwin replied: "Yes...it was a success. I know it. It was almost wholly unprepared. I had a success, my dear Nicolson, at the moment I most needed it. Now is the time to go".
The King abdicated on 11 December, and he was succeeded by his
Baldwin had defused a political crisis by turning it into a constitutional question. His discreet resolution met with general approval and restored his popularity. He was praised on all sides for his tact and patience, and was not in the least put out by the protestors' cries of "God save the King—from Baldwin!" "Flog Baldwin! Flog him!! We—want—Edward."
Baldwin photographed by the American press on board a ship, with his wife and daughter
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LEAVING OFFICE AND PEERAGE
After the coronation of
ATTITUDE TO APPEASEMENT
Baldwin supported the
Munich Agreement and said to Chamberlain on 26
September 1938: "If you can secure peace, you may be cursed by a lot
of hotheads but my word you will be blessed in Europe and by future
generations". Baldwin made a rare speech in the
House of Lords
Two weeks after Munich, Baldwin said (prophetically) in a
conversation with Lord Hinchingbrooke : "Can't we turn Hitler East?
Baldwin's years in retirement were quiet. After Chamberlain's death
in 1940, Baldwin's perceived part in pre-war appeasement made him an
unpopular figure during and after
World War II
LETTER TO LORD HALIFAX
After Lord Halifax made a speech on the strength of prayer as the instrument which could be invoked by the humblest to use in their country's service, Baldwin wrote to him on 23 July 1940:
With millions of others I had prayed hard at the time of Dunkirk and never did prayer seem to be more speedily answered to the full. And we prayed for France and the next day she surrendered. I thought much, and when I went to bed I lay for a long time vividly awake. And I went over in my mind what had happened, concentrating on the thoughts that you had dwelt on, that prayer to be effective must be in accordance with God's will, and that by far the hardest thing to say from the heart and indeed the last lesson we learn (if we ever do) is to say and mean it, ‘Thy will be done.’ And I thought what mites we all are and how we can never see God's plan, a plan on such a scale that it must be incomprehensible. And suddenly for what must have been a couple of minutes I seemed to see with extraordinary and vivid clarity and to hear someone speaking to me. The words at the time were clear, but the recollection of them had passed when I seemed to come to, as it were, but the sense remained, and the sense was this. ‘You cannot see the plan’; then ‘Have you not thought there is a purpose in stripping you one by one of all the human props on which you depend, that you are being left alone in the world? You have now one upon whom to lean and I have chosen you as my instrument to work with my will. Why then are you afraid?’ And to prove ourselves worthy of that tremendous task is our job.
IRON GATES CRISIS
In September 1941, Baldwin's old enemy, Lord Beaverbrook, asked all local authorities to survey their area's iron and steel railings and gates that could be used for the war effort. Owners of such materials could appeal for an exemption on grounds of artistic or historic merit, which would be decided by a panel set up by local authorities. Baldwin applied for exemption for the iron gates of his country home on artistic grounds and his local council sent an architect to assess them. In December, the architect advised that they be exempt, but, in February 1942, the Ministry of Supply overruled this and said all his gates must go except the ones at the main entrance. A newspaper campaign hounded him for not donating the gates to war production. The Daily Mirror columnist Cassandra denounced Baldwin:
Here was the country in deadly peril with half the Empire swinging in
the wind like a busted barn door hanging on one hinge. Here was Old
England half smothered in a shroud crying for steel to cut her way
out, and right in the heart of beautiful
There were fears that if the gates were not taken by the proper authorities, "others without authority might". Thus, months before any other collections were made, Baldwin's gates were removed except for those at the main entrance. Two of Beaverbrook's friends after the war claimed that this was Beaverbrook's decision despite Churchill saying, "Lay off Baldwin's gates". At Question Time in the House of Commons the Conservative MP Captain Alan Graham said: "Is the honourable Member aware that it is very necessary to leave Lord Baldwin his gates in order to protect him from the just indignation of the mob?"
COMMENTS ON POLITICS
During the war,
Winston Churchill consulted him only once, in
February 1943, on the advisability of his speaking out strongly
against the continued neutrality of
Éamon de Valera
In private, Baldwin defended his conduct in the 1930s:
the critics have no historical sense. I have no Cabinet papers by me and do not want to trust my memory. But recall the Fulham election, the peace ballot, Singapore, sanctions, Malta. The English will only learn by example. When I first heard of Hitler, when Ribbentrop came to see me, I thought they were all crazy. I think I brought Ramsay and Simon to meet Ribbentrop. Remember that Ramsay's health was breaking up in the last two years. He had lost his nerve in the House in the last year. I had to take all the important speeches. The moment he went, I prepared for a general election and got a bigger majority for rearmament. No power on earth could have got rearmament without a general election except by a big split. Simon was inefficient. I had to lead the House, keep the machine together with those Labour fellows.
In December 1944, strongly advised by friends, Baldwin decided to respond to criticisms of him through a biographer. He asked G. M. Young , who accepted, and asked Churchill to grant permission to Young to see Cabinet papers. Baldwin wrote:
I am the last person to complain of fair criticism, but when one book after another appears and I am compared, for example, to Laval, my gorge rises; but I am crippled and cannot go and examine the files of the Cabinet Office. Could G. M. Young go on my behalf?
LAST YEARS AND DEATH
In June 1945, Baldwin's wife Lucy died. Baldwin himself by now
suffered from arthritis and needed a stick to walk. When he made his
final public appearance in London in October 1947 at the unveiling of
a statue of
George V , a crowd of people recognised and cheered him,
but by this time he was deaf and asked: "Are they booing me?" Having
been made Chancellor of the
University of Cambridge in 1930, he
continued in this capacity until his death in his sleep at Astley Hall
Baldwin was a member of the
STYLES OF ADDRESS
* 1867–1897: Mr Stanley Baldwin
* 1897–1908: Mr
Upon his retirement in 1937, he had received a great deal of praise;
the onset of
World War II
what can this man think in the still watches of the night, when he contemplates the ordeal his country is going through as the result of the years, the locust years, in which he held power?
Churchill firmly believed that Baldwin's conciliatory stance toward
Hitler gave the German dictator the impression that Britain would not
fight if attacked. Though known for his magnanimity toward political
rivals such as Chamberlain , Churchill had none to spare for Baldwin.
In 1948, Reginald Bassett published an essay disputing the claim that Baldwin "confessed" to putting party before country, and claimed that Baldwin was referring to 1933/34 when a general election on rearmament would have been lost.
In 1952, G. M. Young published a biography of Baldwin, which Baldwin had asked him to write. He asserted that Baldwin united the nation and helped moderate the policies of the Labour Party. However he accepted the criticism of Baldwin; that he failed to re-arm early enough and that he put party before country. Young contends that Baldwin should have retired in 1935. Churchill and Beaverbrook threatened to sue if certain passages in the biography were not removed or altered. With the help of lawyer Arnold Goodman an agreement was reached to replace the offending sentences, and the publisher Rupert Hart-Davis had the "hideously expensive" job of removing and replacing seven leaves from 7,580 copies.
In response to Young's biography, D. C. Somervell published Stanley Baldwin: An examination of some features of Mr. G. M. Young's biography in 1953 with a foreword by Ernest Brown . This attempted to defend Baldwin against the charges made by Young. Both Young and Somervell were criticised by C. L. Mowat in 1955, who claimed they both failed to rehabilitate Baldwin's reputation.
In 1956, Baldwin's son A. W. Baldwin published a biography entitled My Father: The True Story. It has been written that his son "evidently could not decide whether he was answering the charge of inanition and deceit which grew out of the war, or the radical "dissenters" of the early 1930s who thought the Conservatives were warmongers and denounced them for rearming at all".
In an article written to commemorate the centenary of Baldwin's
In 1999, Philip Williamson published a collection of essays on Baldwin which attempted to explain his beliefs and defended his policies as Prime Minister. Williamson asserted that Baldwin had helped create "a moral basis for rearmament in the mid 1930s" that contributed greatly to "the national spirit of defiance after Munich". His defenders counter that the moderate Baldwin felt he could not start a programme of aggressive re-armament without a national consensus on the matter. Certainly, pacifist appeasement was the dominant mainstream political view of the time in Britain, France, and the United States. Williamson admits that there was a clear postwar consensus that repudiated and denigrated all inter-war governments: Baldwin was targeted with the accusation that he had failed to rearm Britain in the 1930s despite Hitler's threat. Williamson says the negative reputation was chiefly the product of partisan politics, the bandwagon of praise for Churchill, selective recollections, and the need for scapegoats to blame for Britain's very close call in 1940. Only during the 1960s did political distance and then the opening of government records lead to more balanced historical assessments; yet the myth had become so central to larger myths about the 1930s and 1940s that it persists as conventional wisdom about the period.
By 2004 Ball could report that among historians, "The pendulum has swung almost completely towards a positive view." He says "Baldwin is now seen as having done more than most and perhaps as much as was possible in the context, but the fact remains that it was not enough to deter the aggressors or ensure their defeat. Less equivocal was his rediscovery as a moderate and inclusive Conservative for the modern age, part of a 'one nation tradition '."
BALDWIN\'S GOVERNMENTS AS PRIME MINISTER
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FIRST GOVERNMENT, MAY 1923 – JANUARY 1924
* August 1923 – Neville Chamberlain took over from Baldwin as Chancellor of the Exchequer. Sir William Joynson-Hicks succeeded Chamberlain as Minister of Health. Joynson-Hicks' successor as Financial Secretary to the Treasury was not in the Cabinet.
SECOND CABINET, NOVEMBER 1924 – JUNE 1929
* April 1925 – On Curzon's death, Lord Balfour succeeded him as
Lord President. Lord Salisbury became the new Leader of the House of
Lords, remaining also Lord Privy Seal.
* June 1925 – The post of Secretary of State for
THIRD CABINET, JUNE 1935 – MAY 1937
* November 1935 –
Further information: Cultural depictions of British prime ministers
* conservatism portal
* List of people on the cover of Time Magazine: 1920s
* ^ Irvine, J. C. (1948). "Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, K. G.
1867–1947". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the
Royal Society . 6
JSTOR 768907 . doi :10.1098/rsbm.1948.0015 .
George V died on 20 January 1936 and
Edward VIII abdicated on
11 December of the same year, leading to the accession of
* Ball, Stuart. "Baldwin, Stanley, first Earl Baldwin of Bewdley (1867–1947)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 2004; online edn, Jan 2011 doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/30550 a short scholarly biography * Ball, Stuart. Baldwin ">'". Cambridge Journal. II: 84–95. * Cowling, Maurice. The Impact of Labour. 1920–1924. The Beginnings of Modern British Politics (Cambridge University Press, 1971). * Cowling, Maurice. The Impact of Hitler. British Politics and British Policy, 1933–1940 (U of Chicago Press, 1977). * Dunbabin, J. P. D. "British Rearmament in the 1930s: a Chronology and Review." Historical Journal 18#3 (1975): 587-609. Argues Baldwin rearmed enough to save Britain while it stood alone in 1940-41. Delays in rearmament were caused by slow decision-making. not by any political scheme to insure Baldwin's return to office in 1935. * Hyde, H. Montgomery. Baldwin: The Unexpected Prime Minister (1973); 616pp; Jenkins calls it the best biography * Jenkins, Roy. Baldwin (1987), Scholarly biography. * McKercher, B. J. C. Second Baldwin Government & the United States, 1924-1929: Attitudes 1100 pp of details * Ramsden, John. The age of Balfour and Baldwin, 1902-1940. Vol. 3 Of the history of the Conservative Party (1978). * Robertson, James C (1974). "The British General Election of 1935". Journal of Contemporary History. 9 (1): 149–164. JSTOR 260273 . doi :10.1177/002200947400900109 . * Rowse, A. L. 'Reflections on Lord Baldwin', Political Quarterly, XII (1941), pp. 305–17. Reprinted in Rowse, End of an Epoch (1947). * Stannage, Tom. Baldwin Thwarts the Opposition: The British General Election of 1935 (1980) 320pp. * Somervell, D.C. The Reign of King George V, (1936) pp 342 – 409.online free * Taylor, A. J. P. English History, 1914–1945 (Oxford University Press, 1990). * Taylor, Andrew J. "Stanley Baldwin, Heresthetics and the Realignment of British Politics," British Journal of Political Science, (July 2005), 35#3 pp 429–463, Baldwin polarized politics with Labour, squeezing out the Liberals * Williamson, Philip. Stanley Baldwin. Conservative Leadership and National Values (Cambridge University Press, 1999). * Williamson, Philip. "Baldwin's Reputation: Politics and History, 1937–1967," Historical Journal (Mar 2004) 47#1 pp 127–168 in JSTOR * Williamson, Philip. "'Safety First': Baldwin, the Conservative Party, and the 1929 General Election," Historical Journal, (June 1982) 25#2 pp 385–409 in JSTOR * Williamson, Philip. Stanley Baldwin: conservative leadership and national values ( Cambridge UP, 1999). Introduction
* Baldwin, Stanley. Service of Our Lives: Last Speeches as Prime
Minister (London: National
* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Learning resources from Wikiversity
* Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Stanley
Preceded by Sir Robert Horne PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF TRADE 1921–1922 Succeeded by Sir Philip Lloyd-Greame
CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER 1922–1923 Succeeded by Neville Chamberlain
LEADER OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS 1923–1924
PRIME MINISTER OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 4 November 1924 – 5 June 1929
LEADER OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS 1924–1929
LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION 1929–1931 Succeeded by Arthur Henderson
The Lord Parmoor LORD PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL
1931–1935 Succeeded by
The Viscount Snowden LORD PRIVY SEAL
1932–1934 Succeeded by
LEADER OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS 1935–1937
PARLIAMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
Preceded by Alfred Baldwin MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT FOR BEWDLEY 1908–1937 Succeeded by Roger Conant
PARTY POLITICAL OFFICES
David Lloyd George
Preceded by The Viscount Haldane CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ST ANDREWS 1929–1947 Succeeded by The Duke of Hamilton
Preceded by The Earl of Balfour CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 1930–1947 Succeeded by Jan Smuts
The Earl of Balfour VISITOR OF GIRTON COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE
1930–1947 Succeeded by
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
Preceded by The Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor OLDEST LIVING PRIME MINISTER OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 1945–1947 Succeeded by Winston Churchill
PEERAGE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
STANLEY BALDWIN NAVIGATIONAL BOXES
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Prime Ministers of the
KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN
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* v * t * e
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OF GREAT BRITAIN
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* Vansittart * Robinson * Canning * Tenterden * Herries * Goulburn * Althorp * Denman * Peel * Spring Rice * Baring * Goulburn * Wood * Disraeli * Gladstone * Lewis * Disraeli * Gladstone * Disraeli * Hunt * Lowe * Gladstone * Northcote * Gladstone * Childers * Hicks Beach * Harcourt * R. Churchill * Goschen * Harcourt * Hicks Beach * Ritchie * A. Chamberlain * Asquith * Lloyd George * McKenna * Law * A. Chamberlain * Horne * Baldwin * N. Chamberlain * Snowden * W. Churchill * Snowden * N. Chamberlain * Simon * Wood * Anderson * Dalton * Cripps * Gaitskell * Butler * Macmillan * Thorneycroft * Heathcoat-Amory * Lloyd * Maudling * Callaghan * Jenkins * Macleod * Barber * Healey * Howe * Lawson * Major * Lamont * Clarke * Brown * Darling * Osborne * Hammond
Italic: Interim Chancellor of the Exchequer, as Lord Chief Justice
* v * t * e
Leaders of the House of Commons
* H Fox
* Pitt the Elder
* Vacant (caretaker ministry)
* Pitt the Elder
* H Fox
* C Fox
* (C Fox /North )
* Pitt the Younger
* Pitt the Younger
* C Fox
* R Churchill
* v * t * e
Leaders of the Opposition of the
HOUSE OF COMMONS
* Fox * Howick * Ponsonby * Tierney * Peel * Althorp * Peel * Russell * Peel * Russell * Bentinck * Granby * Granby /Herries /Disraeli * Disraeli * Russell * Disraeli * Palmerston * Disraeli * Gladstone * Disraeli * Gladstone * Hartington * Northcote * Gladstone * Hicks Beach * Gladstone * Balfour * Harcourt * Campbell-Bannerman * Balfour * Chamberlain * Balfour * Law * Vacant * Carson * Asquith * Maclean * Asquith * MacDonald * Baldwin * MacDonald * Baldwin * Henderson * Lansbury * Attlee * Lees-Smith * Pethick-Lawrence * Greenwood * Attlee * Churchill * Attlee * Morrison * Gaitskell * Brown * Wilson * Douglas-Home * Heath * Wilson * Heath * Thatcher * Callaghan * Foot * Kinnock * Smith * Beckett * Blair * Major * Hague * Duncan Smith * Howard * Cameron * Harman * Miliband * Harman * Corbyn
HOUSE OF LORDS
* Grenville * Grey * 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne * Wellington * 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne * Wellington * Melbourne * Wellington * Melbourne * 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne * Stanley * 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne * Derby (Stanley) * Granville * Derby * Russell * Granville * Malmesbury * Cairns * Richmond * Granville * Beaconsfield * 3rd Marquess of Salisbury * Granville * 3rd Marquess of Salisbury * Granville * Kimberley * 3rd Marquess of Salisbury * Rosebery * Kimberley * Spencer * Ripon * 5th Marquess of Lansdowne * Crewe * Curzon of Kedleston * Haldane * Parmoor * 4th Marquess of Salisbury * Hailsham * Parmoor * Ponsonby of Shulbrede * Snell * Addison * 5th Marquess of Salisbury * Addison * Jowitt * Alexander of Hillsborough * Carrington * Shackleton * Carrington * Peart * Cledwyn of Penrhos * Richard * Cranborne * Strathclyde * Royall of Blaisdon * Smith of Basildon
* v * t * e
Presidents of the Board of Trade
* Shaftesbury * Bridgewater * Stamford * Weymouth * Stamford * Winchilsea * Guilford * Berkeley * Suffolk * Holderness * Fitzwalter * Monson * Halifax * Sandys * Townshend * Shelburne * Hillsborough * Dartmouth * Hillsborough * Nugent * Hillsborough * Dartmouth * Sackville * Carlisle * Grantham * Sydney * Liverpool * Montrose * Auckland * Bathurst * Clancarty * Robinson * Huskisson * Grant * Vesey-Fitzgerald * Herries * Auckland * Thomson * Baring * Thomson * Labouchere * Ripon * Gladstone * Dalhousie * Clarendon * Labouchere * Henley * Cardwell * Stanley * Henley * Dnoughmore * Gibson * Northcote * Richmond * Bright * Parkinson-Fortescue * Adderley * Sandon * Chamberlain * Richmond * Stanhope * Mundella * Stanley * Hicks Beach * Mundella * Bryce * Ritchie * Balfour * Salisbury * Lloyd George * Churchill * Buxton * Burns * Runciman * Stanley * Geddes * Horne * Baldwin * Cunliffe-Lister * Graham * Cunliffe-Lister * Runciman * Stanley * Duncan * Lyttelton * Duncan * Llewellin * Dalton * Lyttelton * Cripps * Wilson * Shawcross * Thorneycroft * Eccles * Maulding * Erroll * Heath * Jay * Crosland * Mason * Noble * Davies * Walker * Benn * Varley * Joseph * Jenkin * Shore * Dell * Smith * Nott * Biffen * Cockfield * Parkinson * Tebbit * Brittan * Channon * Young * Ridley * Lilley * Heseltine * Lang * Beckett * Mandelson * Byers * Hewitt * Johnson * Darling * Hutton * Mandelson * Cable * Javid * Clark * Fox
* v * t * e
* Lord Cave (1922–1923)
* Lord Salisbury (1922–1923)
CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER
* William Bridgeman (1922–1932)
Leader of the
House of Lords
* Lord Curzon (1922–1923)
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE COLONIES
* The Duke of Devonshire (1922–1923)
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR WAR
* Lord Derby (1922–1923)
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA
* Lord Peel (1922–1923)
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR SCOTLAND
* Lord Novar (1922–1923)
FIRST LORD OF THE ADMIRALTY
PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF TRADE
* Sir Phillip Lloyd-Greame (1922–1923)
MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES
* Sir Robert Sanders (1922–1923)
PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION
* E. F. L. Wood (1922–1923)
MINISTER OF LABOUR
* Sir Anderson Montague-Barlow (1922–1923)
MINISTER OF HEALTH
* v * t * e
* History of the Conservative Party
* History of conservatism in Great Britain
House of Lords
* Wellington * Derby * Malmesbury * Cairns * Richmond * Beaconsfield * Salisbury * Devonshire * Lansdowne * Curzon
House of Commons (1834–1922)
* Peel * Bentinck * Granby * vacant (1848–1849) * Disraeli / Granby / Herries * Disraeli * Northcote * Hicks Beach * R. Churchill * Smith * Balfour * Law * A. Chamberlain
* Law * Baldwin * N. Chamberlain * W. Churchill * Eden * Macmillan * Douglas-Home * Heath * Thatcher * Major * Hague * Duncan Smith * Howard * Cameron * May
* Steel-Maitland * Younger * Jackson * Davidson * N. Chamberlain * Baird * Hacking * Dugdale * Assheton * Woolton * Poole * Hailsham * Butler * Macleod / Poole * Blakenham * du Cann * Barber * Thomas * Carrington * Whitelaw * Thorneycroft * Parkinson * Gummer * Tebbit * Brooke * Baker * Patten * Fowler * Hanley * Mawhinney * Parkinson * Ancram * Davis * May * Fox / Saatchi * Maude * Spelman * Pickles * Warsi / Feldman * Shapps / Feldman * Feldman * McLoughlin
SEE ALSO Deputy Leader of the Conservative Party
* 1965 (Heath ) * 1975 (Thatcher ) * 1989 (Thatcher re-elected) * 1990 (Major ) * 1995 (Major re-elected) * 1997 (Hague ) * 2001 (Duncan Smith ) * 2003 (Howard ) * 2005 (Cameron ) * 2016 (May )
* Conservative Party Conference
DIRECTLY ELECTED CITY MAYORAL AUTHORITIES
* Organisations associated with the Conservative Party
The Atlantic Bridge
* Conservative Animal Welfare Group
Conservative Christian Fellowship
* Conservative Countryside Forum
* Conservative Disability Group
Conservative Europe Group
* Conservative Friends of America
Conservative Friends of Gibraltar
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Conservative Friends of Turkey
* Conservative History Group
* Conservative Humanist Association
* Conservative Health
Conservative Muslim Forum
* Conservative Education Society
* Conservative National Property Advisory
* Bright Blue
Centre for Policy Studies
* List of current alliances
Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe
* List of former alliances
* European People\'s Party (European People\'s Party Group )
* European Conservative Group
* v * t * e
Edward VIII abdication crisis
* Prince Albert (Edward VIII's brother, later George VI)
* His Majesty\'s Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 (United Kingdom) * Executive Authority (External Relations) Act 1936 (Ireland) * His Majesty King Edward the Eighth\'s Abdication Act, 1937 (South Africa) * Succession to the Throne Act 1937 (Canada)
* t * e
Plain Tales from the Hills (1888)
* The Jungle
* "Mowgli\'s Brothers " * "Kaa\'s Hunting " * "Tiger! Tiger! " * " Rikki-Tikki-Tavi "
* The Second Jungle
* " Letting in the Jungle " * "Red Dog "
* All the Mowgli Stories (c. 1895) * The Seven Seas (1896, poetry) * The Day\'s Work (1898) * Stalky border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
* " The Absent-Minded Beggar " * " The Ballad of the "Clampherdown" " * " The Ballad of East and West " * " The Bell Buoy " * "The Betrothed " * " Big Steamers " * "Boots " * "Cold Iron " * "Dane-geld " * " Danny Deever " * " A Death-Bed " * "The Female of the Species " * " Fuzzy-Wuzzy " * " Gentleman ranker " * " The Gods of the Copybook Headings " * " Gunga Din " * " Hymn Before Action " * " If— " * " In the Neolithic Age " * "The King\'s Pilgrimage " * " The Last of the Light Brigade " * " The Lowestoft Boat " * "Mandalay " * "My Boy Jack " * "Recessional " * " A Song in Storm " * " The Sons of Martha " * "Submarines " * " The Sweepers " * "Tommy " * "Ubique " * "The White Man\'s Burden " * " The Widow at Windsor "
The Arrest of Lieutenant Golightly "
* "Baa Baa, Black Sheep "
Bread upon the Waters "
The Broken Link Handicap "
The Butterfly that Stamped "
* "Consequences "
The Conversion of Aurelian McGoggin "
* "Cupid\'s Arrows "
The Devil and the Deep Sea "
The Drums of the Fore and Aft "
* "False Dawn "
A Germ-Destroyer "
His Chance in Life "
His Wedded Wife "
In the House of Suddhoo "
* "Kidnapped "
Learoyd, Mulvaney and Ortheris "
The Man Who Would Be King "
A Matter of Fact "
* "Miss Youghal\'s Sais "
The Mother Hive "
* "The Other Man "
The Rescue of Pluffles "
The Ship that Found Herself "
The Sing-Song of Old Man Kangaroo "
The Taking of Lungtungpen "
Three and – an Extra "
* "The Three Musketeers "
Thrown Away "
Toomai of the Elephants
* Bibliography * Bateman\'s home * Indian Railway Library
Elsie Bambridge (daughter)
John Kipling (son)
John Lockwood Kipling (father)