The STANDARD ATOMIC WEIGHT (Ar, standard) or ATOMIC WEIGHT is a
physical quantity for a chemical element, expressed as a relative
atomic mass (Ar). It is specified by (restricted to) the
Because of this practical definition, the value is widely used as 'the' atomic weight for real life substances. For example, in pharmaceuticals and scientific research.
Out of the 118 known chemical elements, 84 are stable and have this Earth-environment based value. Typically, such a value is, for example helium: Ar, standard(He) = 7000400260200000000♠4.002602(2). The "(2)" indicates the uncertainty in the last digit shown, to read 7000400260200000000♠4.002602 ±6994200000000000000♠0.000002. IUPAC also publishes abridged values, rounded to five significant figures. For helium, Ar, abridged(He) = 7000400260000000000♠4.0026.
For twelve elements the samples diverge on this value, because their
sample sources have had a different decay history. For example,
thallium (Tl) in sedimentary rocks has a different isotopic
composition than in igneous rocks and volcanic gases. For these
elements, the standard atomic weight is noted as an interval: Ar,
standard(Tl) = . With such an interval, for less requiring situations,
* 1 Definition
* 1.1 Terrestrial definition * 1.2 Causes of uncertainty on Earth * 1.3 Abridged atomic weight * 1.4 Conventional atomic weight
* 2 Naming controversy
* 3 Determination of relative atomic mass
Excerpt of an
The STANDARD ATOMIC WEIGHT is a more specific value of a relative
atomic mass. It is defined as the relative atomic mass of a source in
the local environment of the Earth\'s crust and atmosphere as
determined by the
The CIAAW-published values are used and sometimes lawfully required in mass calculations. The values have an uncertainty (noted in brackets), or are an expectation interval (see example in illustration immediately above). This uncertainty reflects natural variability in isotopic distribution for an element, rather than uncertainty in measurement (which is much smaller with quality instruments).
Although there is an attempt to cover the range of variability on Earth with standard atomic weight figures, there are known cases of mineral samples which contain elements with atomic weights that are outliers from the standard atomic weight range.
For synthetic elements the isotope formed depends on the means of synthesis, so the concept of natural isotope abundance has no meaning. Therefore, for synthetic elements the total nucleon count of the most stable isotope (i.e., the isotope with the longest half-life) is listed in brackets, in place of the standard atomic weight.
When the term "atomic weight" is used in chemistry, usually it is the more specific standard atomic weight that is implied. It is standard atomic weights that are used in periodic tables and many standard references in ordinary terrestrial chemistry.
An example of why “conventional terrestrial sources" must be
specified in giving standard atomic weight values is the element
argon. Between locations in the
However, such is not the case in the rest of the universe. Argon produced directly by stellar nucleosynthesis , is dominated by the alpha-process nuclide 36 Ar. Correspondingly, solar argon contains 84.6% 36 Ar (according to solar wind measurements), and the ratio of the three isotopes 36Ar : 38Ar : 40Ar in the atmospheres of the outer planets is 8400 : 1600 : 1. The atomic weight of argon in the Sun and most of the universe, therefore, would be only approximately 36.3.
CAUSES OF UNCERTAINTY ON EARTH
Famously, the published atomic weight value comes with an uncertainty. This uncertainty (and related: precision) follows from its definition, the source being "terrestrial and stable". Systematic causes for uncertainty are:
* Measurement limits. As always, the physical measurement is never finite. There is always more detail to be found and read. This applies to every single, pure isotope found. For example, today the mass of the main natural fluorine isotope can be measured to the accuracy of eleven decimal places: 7001189984031630000♠18.998403163(6). But a still more precise measurement system could become available, producing more decimals. * Imperfect mixtures of isotopes. In the samples taken and measured the mix (relative abundance) of those isotopes may vary. For example copper. While in general its two isotopes make out 69.15% and 30.85% each of all copper found, the natural sample being measured can have had an incomplete 'stirring' and so the percentages are different. The precision is improved by measuring more samples of course, but there remains this cause of uncertainty. (Example: lead samples vary so much, it can not be noted more precise than four figures: 7002207200000000000♠207.2) * Earthly sources with a different history. A source is the greater area being researched, for example 'ocean water' or 'volcanic rock' (as opposed to a 'sample': the single heap of material being investigated). It appears that some elements have a different isotopic mix per source. For example thallium in igneous rock has more lighter isotopes, while in sedimentary rock it has more heavy isotopes. There is no Earthly mean number. These elements show the interval notation: Ar, standard(Tl) = . For practical reasons, a simplified 'conventional' number is published too (for Tl: 204.38).
These three uncertainties are accumulative. The published value is a result of all these.
ABRIDGED ATOMIC WEIGHT
The ABRIDGED ATOMIC WEIGHT, also published by CIAAW, is derived from the standard atomic weight reducing the numbers to five digits (five significant figures). The name does not say 'rounded'.
Interval borders are rounded downwards for the first (lowmost) border, and upwards for the upward (upmost) border. This way, the more precise original interval is fully covered.
* Calcium: Ar, standard(Ca) = 40.078(4) → Ar, abridged(Ca) = 40.078
* Helium: Ar, standard(He) = 4.002602(2) → Ar, abridged(He) = 4.0026
* Hydrogen: Ar, standard(H) = → Ar, abridged(H) =
CONVENTIONAL ATOMIC WEIGHT
Twelve chemical elements have a standard atomic weight that is
defined not as a single number, but as an interval. For example,
hydrogen has Ar, standard(H) = . This notation states that the various
sources on Earth have substantially different isotopic constitutions,
and uncertainties are incorporated in the two numbers. For these
elements, there is not an 'Earth average' constitution, and the
'right' value is not its middle (that would be 1.007975 for hydrogen,
with an uncertainty of (±0.000135) that would make it just cover the
interval). However, for situations where a less precise value is
The use of the name "atomic weight" has attracted a great deal of controversy among scientists. Objectors to the name usually prefer the term "relative atomic mass" (not to be confused with atomic mass ). The basic objection is that atomic weight is not a weight , that is the force exerted on an object in a gravitational field , measured in units of force such as the newton or poundal .
In reply, supporters of the term "atomic weight" point out (among other arguments) that
* the name has been in continuous use for the same quantity since it was first conceptualized in 1808; * for most of that time, atomic weights really were measured by weighing (that is by gravimetric analysis ) and the name of a physical quantity should not change simply because the method of its determination has changed; * the term "relative atomic mass" should be reserved for the mass of a specific nuclide (or isotope ), while "atomic weight" be used for the weighted mean of the atomic masses over all the atoms in the sample;
* it is not uncommon to have misleading names of physical quantities which are retained for historical reasons, such as
* electromotive force , which is not a force * resolving power , which is not a power quantity * molar concentration , which is not a molar quantity (a quantity expressed per unit amount of substance).
It could be added that atomic weight is often not truly "atomic" either, as it does not correspond to the property of any individual atom. The same argument could be made against "relative atomic mass" used in this sense.
DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS
Modern relative atomic masses (a term specific to a given element
sample) are calculated from measured values of atomic mass (for each
nuclide) and isotopic composition of a sample. Highly accurate atomic
masses are available for virtually all non-radioactive nuclides, but
isotopic compositions are both harder to measure to high precision and
more subject to variation between samples. For this reason, the
relative atomic masses of the 22 mononuclidic elements (which are the
same as the isotopic masses for each of the single naturally occurring
nuclides of these elements) are known to especially high accuracy. For
example, there is an uncertainty of only one part in 38 million for
the relative atomic mass of fluorine , a precision which is greater
than the current best value for the
ISOTOPE ATOMIC MASS ABUNDANCE
28Si 27.976 926 532 46(194) 92.2297(7)% 92.21–92.25%
29Si 28.976 494 700(22) 4.6832(5)% 4.67–4.69%
30Si 29.973 770 171(32) 3.0872(5)% 3.08–3.10%
The calculation is exemplified for silicon , whose relative atomic
mass is especially important in metrology .
The estimation of the uncertainty is complicated, especially as the
sample distribution is not necessarily symmetrical: the
PERIODIC TABLE WITH STANDARD ATOMIC WEIGHTS
Standard atomic weight
* v * t * e
1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 H 1.008*
2 Li 6.94* Be 9.0122
B 10.81* C 12.011* N 14.007* O 15.999* F 18.998 Ne 20.180
3 Na 22.990 Mg 24.305*
Al 26.982 Si 28.085* P 30.974 S 32.06* Cl 35.45* Ar 39.948
4 K 39.098 Ca 40.078(4) Sc 44.956
Ti 47.867 V 50.942 Cr 51.996 Mn 54.938 Fe 55.845(2) Co 58.933 Ni 58.693 Cu 63.546(3) Zn 65.38(2) Ga 69.723 Ge 72.630(8) As 74.922 Se 78.971 Br 79.904* Kr 83.798(2)
5 Rb 85.468 Sr 87.62 Y 88.906
Zr 91.224(2) Nb 92.906 Mo 95.95 Tc Ru 101.07(2) Rh 102.91 Pd 106.42 Ag 107.87 Cd 112.41 In 114.82 Sn 118.71 Sb 121.76 Te 127.60(3) I 126.90 Xe 131.29
6 Cs 132.91 Ba 137.33 La 138.91
Hf 178.49(2) Ta 180.95 W 183.84 Re 186.21 Os 190.23(3) Ir 192.22 Pt 195.08 Au 196.97 Hg 200.59 Tl 204.38* Pb 207.2 Bi 208.98 Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac
Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
Ce 140.12 Pr 140.91 Nd 144.24 Pm Sm 150.36(2) Eu 151.96 Gd 157.25 Tb 158.93 Dy 162.50 Ho 164.93 Er 167.26 Tm 168.93 Yb 173.05 Lu 174.97
Th 232.04 Pa 231.04 U 238.03 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
* Standard atomic weight The formal standard atomic weight may look like 4.002602(2) for helium, and for hydrogen. The "(n)" is the uncertainty.
* Abridged The value is abridged to five significant figures. The ± uncertainty is noted as "(x)", or "(1)" when omitted. See abridged standard atomic weight .
* Conventional When the formal standard atomic weight is an interval, like , a simple, single number is published too. See conventional standard atomic weight .
LEGEND FOR THE PERIODIC TABLE
* v * t * e
Primordial From decay Synthetic BORDER shows natural occurrence of the element
BACKGROUND COLOR shows subcategory in the metal–metalloid–nonmetal trend:
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
* ^ A B Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements
* ^ A B Wapstra, A.H.; Audi, G.; Thibault, C. (2003), The AME2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation (Online ed.), National Nuclear Data Center . Based on:
* Wapstra, A.H.; Audi, G.; Thibault, C. (2003), "The AME2003 atomic mass evaluation (I)", Nuclear Physics A , 729: 129–336, Bibcode :2003NuPhA.729..129W, doi :10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.002 * Audi, G.; Wapstra, A.H.; Thibault, C. (2003), "The AME2003 atomic mass evaluation (II)", Nuclear Physics A , 729: 337–676, Bibcode :2003NuPhA.729..337A, doi :10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.003
* ^ A B Rosman, K. J. R.; Taylor, P. D. P. (1998), "Isotopic Compositions of the Elements 1997" (PDF), Pure and Applied Chemistry , 70 (1):