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STANDARD ZHUANG (autonym : Zhuang : _Vahcuengh_ (pre-1982: _Vaƅcueŋƅ_; Sawndip : 话壮); simplified Chinese : 壮语; traditional Chinese : 壯語; pinyin : _Zhuàngyǔ_) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages , which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages . Its pronunciation is based on that of the Yongbei Zhuang dialect of Shuangqiao, Guangxi in Wuming District , Guangxi with some influence from Fuliang, also in Wuming District, while its vocabulary is based mainly on northern dialects. The official standard covers both spoken and written Zhuang. It is the national standard of the Zhuang languages, though in Yunnan a local standard is used.

CONTENTS

* 1 Phonology * 2 Classification * 3 Domains of use * 4 Official Exam * 5 Differences from Wuming Zhuang * 6 Writing systems * 7 Example * 8 References

PHONOLOGY

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (April 2010)_

Standard Zhuang has six tones, reduced to two (numbered 7–8) in checked syllables :

NUMBER LETTER CONTOUR DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE GLOSS

1 (none) ˨˦ rising _son_ to teach

2 -z ˧˩ low falling _mwngZ_ you(sing.)

3 -j ˥ high level _hwnJ_ to climb up

4 -x ˦˨ falling _maX_ a horse

5 -q ˧˥ high rising _gvaQ_ to cross

6 -h ˧ mid level _daH_ a river

7 LONG long vowel + -p/t/k ˧˥ high rising _bak_ a mouth

7 SHORT short vowel + -p/t/k ˥ high level _daep_ a liver

8 -b/g/d ˧ mid level bag daeb to hack to stack

The sentence _Son mwngz hwnj max gvaq dah_ "Teach you to climb on a horse to cross a river" is often used to help people remember the six tones.

Consonants 1957 1982 IPA 1957 1982 IPA 1957 1982 IPA 1957 1982 IPA 1957 1982 IPA

B b B b /p / Ƃ ƃ Mb mb /ɓ / M m M m /m / F f F f /f / V v V v /β /

D d D d /t / Ƌ ƌ Nd nd /ɗ / N n N n /n / S s S s /θ / L l L l /l /

G g G g /k / Gv gv Gv gv /kʷ / Ŋ ŋ Ng ng /ŋ / H h H h /h / R r R r /ɣ /

C c C c /ɕ / Y y Y y /j / Ny ny Ny ny /ɲ / Ŋv ŋv Ngv ngv /ŋʷ /

By by By by /pʲ/ Gy gy Gy gy /kʲ/ My my My my /mʲ/

Vowels 1957 1982 IPA 1957 1982 IPA 1957 1982 IPA

A a A a /aː / E e E e /e / Ə ə AE ae /a /

I i I i /i / O o O o /oː / Ɯ ɯ W w /ɯ /

U u U u /u / Ɵ ɵ OE oe /o /

Tones TONE 1957 1982 TONE CONTOUR IPA

1 (no letter) 24 /˨˦/

2 Ƨ ƨ Z z 31 /˧˩/

3 З з J j 55 /˥/

4 Ч ч X x 42 /˦˨/

5 Ƽ ƽ Q q 35 /˧˥/

6 Ƅ ƅ H h 33 /˧/

(In the tables above the 1982 version is in green)

CLASSIFICATION

Standard Zhuang is an artificial mixture of several Zhuang languages . The lexicon is based on various Northern Zhuang dialects. The phonology is essentially that of Shuangqiao , with the addition of _ny, ei, ou_ from Fuliang, both located in Wuming County . Zhang (1999), along with other Chinese scholars, classifies Shuangqiao dialect as Northern Tai (Northern Zhuang), while Pittayaporn (2009) places it outside of Northern Tai proper, though closely related to it. (See _Tai languages#Pittayaporn (2009) _.) Shuangqiao was chosen for the standard pronunciation in the 1950s because it was considered to be Northern Zhuang but with characteristics of Southern Zhuang.

DOMAINS OF USE

Standard Zhuang is used most frequently in domains where written Zhuang was previously seldom used, such as newspapers, translations of communist literature and prose. It is one of the official languages of China that appears on bank notes; all Chinese laws must be published in it, and it is used for bilingual signs. Whilst used for adult literacy programs, it is currently only taught in a very small percent of primary and secondary schools in Zhuang-speaking areas. In less formal domains the traditional writing system Sawndip is more often used and for folk songs Sawndip remains the predominant genre with most standard Zhuang versions being based on Sawndip versions.

OFFICIAL EXAM

In 2012 the first Zhuang Proficiency Test took place which 328 people took and 58% passed.

DIFFERENCES FROM WUMING ZHUANG

While Standard Zhuang is largely pronounced as Shuangqiao Wuming dialect, there is a degree of purposeful dialect mixture in vocabulary:

STANDARD IPA WUMING IPA GLOSS

gyaeuj kʲau˥ raeuj ɣau˥ head

da ta˨˦ ra ɣa˨˦ eye

ga ɡa˨˦ ha ha˨˦ leg

WRITING SYSTEMS

Zhuang Sawndip manuscript

In 1957 the People's Republic of China introduced an alphabetical script for the newly standardized Zhuang language. The alphabet included a mixture of modified Cyrillic and IPA letters. A spelling reform in 1982 replaced both the Cyrillic and IPA letters with Latin letters to facilitate printing and computer use. These alphabetical scripts are part of Standard Zhuang.

The Old Zhuang script, _ Sawndip _, is a Chinese character –based writing system, similar to Vietnamese _chữ nôm _. Some _Sawndip_ logograms were borrowed directly from Chinese, while others were created from the existing components of Chinese characters. _Sawndip_ has been used for over one thousand years for various Zhuang dialects. Unlike Chinese, _Sawndip_ has never been standardized, and authors may differ in their choices of characters, or spelling and is not currently part of the official writing system.

EXAMPLE

First article of the Declaration of Human Rights .

LATIN SCRIPT

1957 1982 ENGLISH

Bouч bouч ma dəŋƨ laзƃɯn couƅ miƨ cɯyouƨ, cinƅyenƨ cəuƽ genƨli bouчbouч biŋƨdəŋз. Gyɵŋƽ vunƨ miƨ liзsiŋ cəuƽ lieŋƨsim, ɯŋdaŋ daiƅ gyɵŋƽ de lumз beiчnueŋч ityieŋƅ. Boux boux ma daengz lajmbwn couh miz cwyouz, cinhyenz caeuq genzli bouxboux bingzdaengj. Gyoengq vunz miz lijsing caeuq liengzsim, wngdang daih gyoengq de lumj beixnuengx ityiengh. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

SAWNDIP

REFERENCES

_ ZHUANG EDITION _ of Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia

* ^ Zhuang: Gvangsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih Saujsu Minzcuz Yijyenz Vwnzsw Gunghcoz Veijyenzvei; Chinese: 广西壮族自治区少数民族语言文字工作委员会 * ^ "广西区直有关单位机构名称英文参考译法". Retrieved 2015-07-03. * ^ 张均如 / Zhang Junru, et al. 壮语方言研究 / Zhuang yu fang yan yan jiu . Chengdu: 四川民族出版社 / Sichuan min zu chu ban she, 1999. page 429f ISBN 7-5409-2293-1 /H.75 * ^ "壮语拼音方案(一)". Wszhuangzu.cn. Retrieved 2012-04-06. * ^ "壮语拼音方案(二)". Wszhuangzu.cn. Retrieved 2012-04-06. * ^ 张均如 / Zhang Junru, et al. 壮语方言研究 / Zhuang yu fang yan yan jiu . Chengdu: 四川民族出版社 / Sichuan min zu chu ban she, 1999. * ^ Pittayaporn, Pittayawat. 2009. _The Phonology of Proto-Tai._ Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Linguistics, Cornell University. * ^ Li, Xulian; Huang, Quanxi (2004). "The Introduction and Development of the Zhuang Writing System". In Zhou, Minglang; Sun, Hongkai. Language Policy in the People's Republic of China: Theory and Practice Since 1949. Springer. p. 245 * ^ 《广西壮族人文字使用现状及文字社会声望调查研究》 "Research into survey of the scripts used by Zhuang in Guangxi" 唐未平 Tang Weiping http://www.doc88.com/p-644582398739.html * ^ 广西首次壮语文水平考试及格率58% Chinese news report on first Zhuang Proficiency Test * ^ Minglang Zhou, _Multilingualism in China: the politics of writing reforms for minority languages 1949-2002_ (Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter 2003), ISBN 3-11-017896-6 , pp. 251–258.

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ONG BE

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Tai (Zhuang )

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