STANDARD OIL CO. INC. was an American oil producing, transporting,
refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870 by John D.
Rockefeller as a corporation in
Ohio , it was the largest oil refinery
in the world of its time. Its controversial history as one of the
world's first and largest multinational corporations ended in 1911,
United States Supreme Court ruled that
Standard Oil was an
illegal monopoly .
Standard Oil dominated the oil products market initially through
horizontal integration in the refining sector, then, in later years
vertical integration ; the company was an innovator in the development
of the business trust . The
Standard Oil trust streamlined production
and logistics, lowered costs, and undercut competitors. "Trust-busting
" critics accused
Standard Oil of using aggressive pricing to destroy
competitors and form a monopoly that threatened other businesses.
John D. Rockefeller was a founder, chairman and a major shareholder.
With the dissolution of the
Standard Oil trust into 34 smaller
companies, Rockefeller became the richest man in the world, as the
initial income of these individual enterprises proved to be much
bigger than that of a single larger company. Its successors such as
ExxonMobil , BP , and Chevron are still among the companies with the
largest income worldwide. By 1882, his top aide was John Dustin
Archbold . After 1896, Rockefeller disengaged from business to
concentrate on his philanthropy, leaving Archbold in control. Other
Standard Oil principals include
Henry Flagler , developer of
Florida East Coast Railway and resort cities, and Henry H. Rogers
, who built the
Virginian Railway .
* 1 Early years
* 2 1895–1913
* 2.1 In China
* 2.2 In the Middle East
Monopoly charges and anti-trust legislation
* 3 Breakup
* 4 Legacy and criticism of breakup
* 5 Successor companies
* 6 Rights to the name
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 8.1 Notes
* 8.2 Bibliography
* 9 External links
John D. Rockefeller c. 1872, shortly after founding Standard Oil
Standard Oil's pre-history began in 1863 as an
formed by industrialist
John D. Rockefeller , his brother William
Henry Flagler , chemist Samuel Andrews , silent partner
Stephen V. Harkness , and
Oliver Burr Jennings , who had married the
sister of William Rockefeller's wife. In 1870, Rockefeller abolished
the partnership and incorporated
Standard Oil in Ohio. Of the initial
John D. Rockefeller received 2,667; Harkness received
1,334; William Rockefeller, Flagler, and Andrews received 1,333 each;
Jennings received 1,000, and the firm of Rockefeller, Andrews ">
Standard Oil Articles of Incorporation signed by John D. Rockefeller,
Henry M. Flagler, Samuel Andrews,
Stephen V. Harkness and William
Rockefeller Share of the
Standard Oil Company, issued 1. May
1878 Share of the
Standard Oil Trust, issued 18. January 1883
In the early years,
John D. Rockefeller dominated the combine; he was
the single most important figure in shaping the new oil industry. :35
He quickly distributed power and the tasks of policy formation to a
system of committees, but always remained the largest shareholder .
Authority was centralized in the company's main office in Cleveland,
but decisions in the office were made in a cooperative way.
In response to state laws trying to limit the scale of companies,
Rockefeller and his associates developed innovative ways of
organizing, to effectively manage their fast growing enterprise. On
January 2, 1882, they combined their disparate companies, spread
across dozens of states, under a single group of trustees. By a secret
agreement, the existing 37 stockholders conveyed their shares "in
trust" to nine Trustees: John and William Rockefeller, Oliver H. Payne
Charles Pratt ,
Henry Flagler ,
John D. Archbold , William G. Warden
, Jabez Bostwick , and Benjamin Brewster . This organization proved
so successful that other giant enterprises adopted this "trust" form.
Standard Oil Refinery No. 1 in
Ohio , 1897
The company grew by increasing sales and through acquisitions. After
purchasing competing firms, Rockefeller shut down those he believed to
be inefficient and kept the others. In a seminal deal, in 1868, the
Lake Shore Railroad, a part of the
New York Central
New York Central , gave
Rockefeller's firm a going rate of one cent a gallon or forty-two
cents a barrel, an effective 71% discount from its listed rates in
return for a promise to ship at least 60 carloads of oil daily and to
handle load and unload on its own. Smaller companies decried such
deals as unfair because they were not producing enough oil to qualify
In 1872, Rockefeller joined the South Improvement Co. which would
have allowed him to receive rebates for shipping and receive drawbacks
on oil his competitors shipped. But when this deal became known,
competitors convinced the
Pennsylvania Legislature to revoke South
Improvement's charter. No oil was ever shipped under this arrangement.
Standard's actions and secret transport deals helped its kerosene
price to drop from 58 to 26 cents from 1865 to 1870. Competitors
disliked the company's business practices, but consumers liked the
lower prices. Standard Oil, being formed well before the discovery of
Spindletop oil field (in Texas, far from Standard Oil's base in
the Mid-West) and a demand for oil other than for heat and light, was
well placed to control the growth of the oil business. The company was
perceived to own and control all aspects of the trade.
Standard Oil of
Ohio moved its headquarters from Cleveland
to its permanent headquarters at
26 Broadway in
New York City
New York City .
Concurrently, the trustees of
Standard Oil of
Ohio chartered the
Standard Oil Co. of
New Jersey (SOCNJ) to take advantages of New
Jersey's more lenient corporate stock ownership laws.
Also in 1890, Congress passed the
Sherman Antitrust Act — a source
of American anti-monopoly laws. The law forbade every contract,
scheme, deal, or conspiracy to restrain trade, though the phrase
"restraint of trade" remained subjective. The
Standard Oil group
quickly attracted attention from antitrust authorities leading to a
lawsuit filed by
Ohio Attorney General
David K. Watson .
From 1882 to 1906, Standard paid out $548,436,000 in dividends at
65.4% payout ratio . The total net earnings from 1882 to 1906 amounted
to $838,783,800, exceeding the dividends by $290,347,800, which was
used for plant expansions.
In 1896, John Rockefeller retired from the
Standard Oil Co. of New
Jersey, the holding company of the group, but remained president and a
major shareholder. Vice-president
John Dustin Archbold took a large
part in the running of the firm. At the same time, state and federal
laws sought to counter this development with "antitrust " laws. In
US Justice Department sued the group under the federal
antitrust law and ordered its breakup into 34 companies.
Standard Oil's market position was initially established through an
emphasis on efficiency and responsibility. While most companies dumped
gasoline in rivers (this was before the automobile was popular),
Standard used it to fuel its machines. While other companies'
refineries piled mountains of heavy waste, Rockefeller found ways to
sell it. For example, Standard created the first synthetic competitor
for beeswax and bought the company that invented and produced Vaseline
Chesebrough Manufacturing Co. , which was a Standard company
only from 1908 until 1911.
One of the original "Muckrakers " was
Ida M. Tarbell , an American
author and journalist. Her father was an oil producer whose business
had failed due to Rockefeller's business dealings. After extensive
interviews with a sympathetic senior executive of Standard Oil, Henry
H. Rogers , Tarbell's investigations of
Standard Oil fueled growing
public attacks on
Standard Oil and on monopolies in general. Her work
was published in 19 parts in _McClure\'s _ magazine from November 1902
to October 1904, then in 1904 as the book _The History of the Standard
Oil Co _.
Standard Oil Trust was controlled by a small group of families.
Rockefeller stated in 1910: "I think it is true that the Pratt family,
Whitney family (which were one, as all the stock came from
Colonel Payne), the Harkness-Flagler family (which came into the
company together) and the
Rockefeller family controlled a majority of
the stock during all the history of the company up to the present
These families reinvested most of the dividends in other industries,
especially railroads. They also invested heavily in the gas and the
electric lighting business (including the giant Consolidated Gas Co.
New York City
New York City ). They made large purchases of stock in
US Steel ,
Amalgamated Copper , and even Corn Products Refining Co.
British petroleum entrepreneur in Mexico
Weetman Pearson , began
Standard Oil in 1912–13 to sell his "El Aguila" oil
company, since Pearson was no longer bound to promises to the Porfirio
Díaz regime (1876–1911) to not to sell to U.S. interests. However,
the deal fell through and the firm was sold to
Royal Dutch Shell .
Standard Oil's production increased so rapidly it soon exceeded US
demand and the company began viewing export markets. In the 1890s,
Standard Oil began marketing kerosene to China's large population of
close to 400 million as lamp fuel. For its Chinese trademark and
Standard Oil adopted the name _Mei Foo_ (Chinese : 美孚),
(which translates to American Trust). Mei Foo also became the name
of the tin lamp that
Standard Oil produced and gave away or sold
cheaply to Chinese farmers, encouraging them to switch from vegetable
oil to kerosene. Response was positive, sales boomed and China became
Standard Oil's largest market in Asia. Prior to Pearl Harbor, Stanvac
was the largest single US investment in SE Asia.
The North China Department of
Standard Oil Company of New
York) operated a subsidiary called
Socony River and Coastal Fleet,
North Coast Division, which became the North China Division of Stanvac
(Standard Vacuum Oil Company) after that company was formed in 1933.
To distribute its products,
Standard Oil constructed storage tanks,
canneries (bulk oil from large ocean tankers was re-packaged into
5-US-gallon (19 l; 4.2 imp gal) tins), warehouses and offices in key
Chinese cities. For inland distribution the company had motor tank
trucks and railway tank cars, and for river navigation it had a fleet
of low-draft steamers and other vessels.
Stanvac's North China Division, based in Shanghai, owned hundreds of
river going vessels, including motor barges, steamers, launches,
tugboats and tankers. Up to 13 tankers operated on the Yangtze River
, the largest of which were _Mei Ping_ (1,118 gross tonnage (GT) ),
_Mei Hsia_ (1,048 GT), and _Mei An_ (934 GT). All three were
destroyed in the 1937 USS _Panay_ incident . _Mei An_ was launched in
1901 and was the first vessel in the fleet. Other vessels included
_Mei Chuen_, _Mei Foo_, _Mei Hung_, _Mei Kiang_, _Mei Lu_, _Mei Tan_,
_Mei Su_, _Mei Xia_, _Mei Ying_, and _Mei Yun_. _Mei Hsia_, a tanker,
was specially designed for river duty and was built by New Engineering
and Shipbuilding Works of Shanghai, who also built the 500-ton launch
_Mei Foo_ in 1912. _Mei Hsia_ ("Beautiful Gorges") was launched in
1926 and carried 350 tons of bulk oil in three holds, plus a forward
cargo hold, and space between decks for carrying general cargo or
packed oil. She had a length of 206 feet (63 m), a beam of 32 feet
(9.8 m), depth of 10 feet 6 inches (3.2 m), and had a bullet-proof
wheelhouse. _Mei Ping_ ("Beautiful Tranquility"), launched in 1927,
was designed offshore, but assembled and finished in Shanghai. Its
oil-fuel burners came from the U.S. and water-tube boilers came from
IN THE MIDDLE EAST
Standard Oil Company and Socony-
Vacuum Oil Company became partners in
providing markets for the oil reserves in the Middle East. In 1906,
SOCONY (later Mobil) opened its first fuel terminals in Alexandria. It
explored in Palestine before the World War broke out, but ran into
conflict with the British government.
MONOPOLY CHARGES AND ANTI-TRUST LEGISLATION
Standard Oil Co. of
New Jersey v.
Standard Oil controlled 88 percent of the refined oil flows
in the United States. The state of
Ohio successfully sued Standard,
compelling the dissolution of the trust in 1892. But Standard simply
Standard Oil of
Ohio and kept control of it. Eventually, the
New Jersey changed its incorporation laws to allow a company
to hold shares in other companies in any state. So, in 1899, the
Standard Oil Trust, based at
26 Broadway in New York, was legally
reborn as a holding company , the _
Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey_
(SOCNJ), which held stock in 41 other companies, which controlled
other companies, which in turn controlled yet other companies.
Daniel Yergin in his Pulitzer Prize-winning _The Prize:
The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power _ (1990), this conglomerate
was seen by the public as all-pervasive, controlled by a select group
of directors, and completely unaccountable. :96–98 _ U.S.
Theodore Roosevelt depicted as the infant
Standard Oil in a 1906 Puck _ magazine cartoon
In 1904, Standard controlled 91 percent of production and 85 percent
of final sales. Most of its output was kerosene , of which 55 percent
was exported around the world. After 1900 it did not try to force
competitors out of business by underpricing them. The federal
Commissioner of Corporations studied Standard's operations from the
period of 1904 to 1906 and concluded that "beyond question... the
dominant position of the
Standard Oil Co. in the refining industry was
due to unfair practices—to abuse of the control of pipe-lines, to
railroad discriminations, and to unfair methods of competition in the
sale of the refined petroleum products". Due to competition from
other firms, their market share had gradually eroded to 70 percent by
1906 which was the year when the antitrust case was filed against
Standard, and down to 64 percent by 1911 when Standard was ordered
broken up and at least 147 refining companies were competing with
Standard including Gulf, Texaco, and Shell. It did not try to
monopolize the exploration and pumping of oil (its share in 1911 was
In 1909, the
US Department of Justice sued Standard under federal
anti-trust law, the
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, for sustaining a
monopoly and restraining interstate commerce by:
Rebates, preferences, and other discriminatory practices in favor of
the combination by railroad companies; restraint and monopolization by
control of pipe lines, and unfair practices against competing pipe
lines; contracts with competitors in restraint of trade; unfair
methods of competition, such as local price cutting at the points
where necessary to suppress competition; espionage of the business of
competitors, the operation of bogus independent companies, and payment
of rebates on oil, with the like intent.
The lawsuit argued that Standard's monopolistic practices had taken
place over the preceding four years:
The general result of the investigation has been to disclose the
existence of numerous and flagrant discriminations by the railroads in
behalf of the
Standard Oil Co. and its affiliated corporations. With
comparatively few exceptions, mainly of other large concerns in
California, the Standard has been the sole beneficiary of such
discriminations. In almost every section of the country that company
has been found to enjoy some unfair advantages over its competitors,
and some of these discriminations affect enormous areas.
The government identified four illegal patterns: 1) secret and
semi-secret railroad rates; (2) discriminations in the open
arrangement of rates; (3) discriminations in classification and rules
of shipment; (4) discriminations in the treatment of private tank
cars. The government alleged:
Almost everywhere the rates from the shipping points used
exclusively, or almost exclusively, by the Standard are relatively
lower than the rates from the shipping points of its competitors.
Rates have been made low to let the Standard into markets, or they
have been made high to keep its competitors out of markets. Trifling
differences in distances are made an excuse for large differences in
rates favorable to the
Standard Oil Co., while large differences in
distances are ignored where they are against the Standard. Sometimes
connecting roads prorate on oil—that is, make through rates which
are lower than the combination of local rates; sometimes they refuse
to prorate; but in either case the result of their policy is to favor
Standard Oil Co. Different methods are used in different places
and under different conditions, but the net result is that from Maine
to California the general arrangement of open rates on petroleum oil
is such as to give the Standard an unreasonable advantage over its
The government said that Standard raised prices to its monopolistic
customers but lowered them to hurt competitors, often disguising its
illegal actions by using bogus supposedly independent companies it
The evidence is, in fact, absolutely conclusive that the Standard Oil
Co. charges altogether excessive prices where it meets no competition,
and particularly where there is little likelihood of competitors
entering the field, and that, on the other hand, where competition is
active, it frequently cuts prices to a point which leaves even the
Standard little or no profit, and which more often leaves no profit to
the competitor, whose costs are ordinarily somewhat higher.
On May 15, 1911, the
US Supreme Court
US Supreme Court upheld the lower court judgment
and declared the
Standard Oil group to be an "unreasonable" monopoly
Sherman Antitrust Act , Section II. It ordered Standard to
break up into 90 independent companies with different boards of
directors, the biggest two of the companies were
Standard Oil of New
Jersey (which became
Exxon ) and
Standard Oil of New York (which
Standard's president, John D. Rockefeller, had long since retired
from any management role. But, as he owned a quarter of the shares of
the resultant companies, and those share values mostly doubled, he
emerged from the dissolution as the richest man in the world. The
dissolution had actually propelled Rockefeller's personal wealth.
Standard Oil Co. of
New Jersey v.
By 1911, with public outcry at a climax, the Supreme Court of the
United States ruled, in _
Standard Oil Co. of
New Jersey v. United
States _, that the
Standard Oil Trust must be dissolved under the
Sherman Antitrust Act and split into 34 companies. Two of these
companies were Jersey Standard ("
Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey"),
which eventually became
Exxon , and
Standard Oil Co. of New
York"), which eventually became
Over the next few decades, both companies grew significantly. Jersey
Standard, led by
Walter C. Teagle , became the largest oil producer in
the world. It acquired a 50 percent share in
Humble Oil it is now a
subsidiary of BP. Other Standard oil entities include "Standard Oil
of Indiana" which became
Amoco after other mergers and a name change
in the 1980s, and "
Standard Oil of California" which became the
Chevron Corp .
LEGACY AND CRITICISM OF BREAKUP
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1911 that antitrust law required
Standard Oil to be broken into smaller, independent companies. Among
the "baby Standards" that still exist are
ExxonMobil and Chevron .
Some have speculated that if not for that court ruling, Standard Oil
could have possibly been worth more than $1 trillion today. Whether
the breakup of
Standard Oil was beneficial is a matter of some
controversy. Some economists believe that
Standard Oil was not a
monopoly, and also argue that the intense free market competition
resulted in cheaper oil prices and more diverse petroleum products.
Critics claimed that success in meeting consumer needs was driving
other companies out of the market who were not as successful. An
example of this thinking was given in 1890 when Rep. William Mason,
arguing in favor of the Sherman
Antitrust Act, said: "trusts have made
products cheaper, have reduced prices; but if the price of oil, for
instance, were reduced to one cent a barrel, it would not right the
wrong done to people of this country by the _trusts_ which have
destroyed legitimate competition and driven honest men from legitimate
Sherman Antitrust Act prohibits the restraint of trade. Defenders
Standard Oil insist that the company did not restrain trade; they
were simply superior competitors. The federal courts ruled otherwise.
Some economic historians have observed that
Standard Oil was in the
process of losing its monopoly at the time of its breakup in 1911.
Although Standard had 90 percent of American refining capacity in
1880, by 1911 that had shrunk to between 60 and 65 percent, due to the
expansion in capacity by competitors. :79 Numerous regional
competitors (such as
Pure Oil in the East,
Gulf Oil in the
Gulf Coast, Cities Service and Sun in the Midcontinent, Union in
California, and Shell overseas) had organized themselves into
competitive vertically integrated oil companies, the industry
structure pioneered years earlier by Standard itself. In addition,
demand for petroleum products was increasing more rapidly than the
ability of Standard to expand. The result was that although in 1911
Standard still controlled most production in the older regions of the
Appalachian Basin (78 percent share, down from 92 percent in 1880),
Lima-Indiana (90 percent, down from 95 percent in 1906), and the
Illinois Basin (83 percent, down from 100 percent in 1906), its share
was much lower in the rapidly expanding new regions that would
dominate U.S. oil production in the 20th century. In 1911 Standard
controlled only 44 percent of production in the Midcontinent, 29
percent in California, and 10 percent on the Gulf Coast.
Some analysts argue that the breakup was beneficial to consumers in
the long run, and no one has ever proposed that
Standard Oil be
reassembled in pre-1911 form.
ExxonMobil , however, does represent a
substantial part of the original company.
Since the breakup of Standard Oil, several companies, such as General
Microsoft , have come under antitrust investigation for
being inherently too large for market competition; however, most of
them remained together. The only company since the breakup of
Standard Oil that was divided into parts like
Standard Oil was
Standard Oil Co. Inc
The "Seven Sisters"
Ohio Oil Company
Standard Oil Company
Standard Oil of
Standard Oil of New York
Standard Oil of California
Standard Oil of Indiana _renamed_
Standard Oil of Kentucky
Vacuum Oil Company
Standard Oil spin-offs:
Standard Oil of Iowa – pre-1911 – bought out by Chevron.
Standard Oil of Minnesota – pre-1911 – bought out by Amoco.
Standard Oil of Illinois - pre-1911 - bought out by Amoco.
Standard Oil of Kansas – refining only, eventually bought out by
Standard Oil of Missouri – pre-1911 – dissolved.
Standard Oil of Louisiana – originally owned by
Standard Oil of
New Jersey (now by Exxon).
Standard Oil of Brazil – originally owned by
Standard Oil of New
Jersey (now by Exxon).
Other companies divested in the 1911 breakup:
* Anglo-American Oil Co. – acquired by Jersey Standard in 1930,
Esso UK .
Buckeye Pipe Line Co.
* Borne-Scrymser Co. (chemicals)
Chesebrough Manufacturing (acquired by
* Colonial Oil
* Crescent Pipeline Co.
* Cumberland Pipe Line Co. (acquired by Ashland )
* Eureka Pipe Line Co.
* Galena-Signal Oil Co.
* Indiana Pipe Line Co.
* National Transit Co.
* New York Transit Co.
* Northern Pipe Line Co.
* Prairie Oil the name was used to capitalize on the Standard Oil
brand in the 1930s.
Standard Oil of Connecticut is a fuel oil marketer
not related to the Rockefeller companies.
RIGHTS TO THE NAME
This map shows by state which company has the rights to the
Standard Oil name.
ExxonMobil has full international rights and
continues to use the
Esso name overseas.
Kentucky is held by Chevron ,
however its status is up in the air after Chevron withdrew retail
Kentucky in July 2010.
Of the 34 "Baby Standards", 11 were given rights to the Standard Oil
name, based on the state they were in.
Conoco and Atlantic elected to
use their respective names instead of the Standard name, and their
rights would be claimed by other companies.
By the 1980s, most companies were using their individual brand names
instead of the Standard name, with
Amoco being the last one to have
widespread use of the "Standard" name, as it gave Midwestern owners
the option of using the
Amoco name or Standard.
Three supermajor companies now own the rights to the Standard name in
the United States:
ExxonMobil , Chevron Corp. , and BP . BP acquired
its rights through acquiring
Standard Oil of
Amoco , and has
a small handful of stations in the Midwestern
United States using the
Standard name. Likewise, BP continues to sell marine fuel under the
Sohio brand at various marinas throughout Ohio.
ExxonMobil keeps the
Esso trademark alive at stations that sell diesel fuel by selling
Esso Diesel" displayed on the pumps.
ExxonMobil has full
international rights to the Standard name, and continues to use the
Esso name overseas and in Canada. Chevron has one station in each
state it owns the rights to branded as Standard. Some of its
Standard-branded stations have a mix of some signs that say Standard
and some signs that say Chevron. Over time they have changed which
station in a given state is the Standard station.
Standard Oil stations: _This transport-related list is
incomplete; you can help by expanding it._
2200 West Dimond Blvd, Anchorage, AK 99515-1456, 907-349-1746
10444 N 32nd Street, Phoenix, AZ 85028-3825, 602-971-9210
1501 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94109-4605, 415-441-3518
1025 N Highland Ave NE, Atlanta, GA 30306-3550, 404-872-3717
3200 W State St, Boise, ID 83703-5878, 208-342-2708
Chevron withdrew retail sales from
Kentucky in July 2010, so now
the status of its naming rights is up in the air.
3201 W Tropicana Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89103-5630, 702-736-0578
4401 San Mateo Blvd NE, Albuquerque, NM 87109-2058, 505-884-3663
10950 SE Oak Street, Milwaukie, OR 97222-6695, 503-786-9892
5595 S Redwood Road, Salt Lake City, UT 84123-5320, 801-261-8657
3725 150th Ave SE, Bellevue, WA 98006-1660, 425-643-5154
Standard Oil stations:
604 Bessemer Super Hwy, Birmingham, AL 35228-2117
7400 NW 36th Street, Miami, FL 33166-6707
2520 N Four Lane Hwy, Atlanta, GA
86-038 Farrington Hwy, Waianae, HI 96792-3039
480 Connector Rd (@ I-75), Georgetown, KY 40324-9729
800 Clay Street, Vicksburg, MS 39183-2936
1000 Rio Grande Blvd NW, Albuquerque, NM 87104-2032
6350 Camp Bowie, Fort Worth, TX 76116-5424
One of 15 Chevron stations branded as "Standard" to protect Chevron's
trademark; this one is in Las Vegas, Nevada .
A combination gasoline/diesel pump at an
Exxon in Zelienople,
Exxon gasoline and "
BP station with "torch and oval" Standard sign in
Durand, Michigan .
BP continues to sell marine fuel under the
Sohio brand at various
Ohio waterways and in
Ohio state parks in order to protect
its rights in the
Standard Oil names. The Anderson Ferry
Marina near Cincinnati,
Ohio is pictured.
* History of the
United States (1865-1918)
Gasoline Station (other)
Wamsutta Oil Refinery
* ^ "John D. and Standard Oil". Bowling Green State University.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "The
Standard Oil Company;
Ohio Charter No. 3675". Ohio
Secretary of State. 1870-01-10.
* ^ "Rockefellers Timeline". PBS. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
* ^ WARDEN WINTER HOME - Florida Historical Markers on
* ^ Jacob Vandergrift…Transportation Pioneer Oil150.com
* ^ The Project Gutenberg eBook of Random Reminiscences, by John D.
* ^ "
Mobil - Our history".
Mobil Corp. Retrieved
* ^ Dies, Edward (1969). _Behind the Wall Street Curtain_. Ayer. p.
* ^ Grayson, Leslie E. (1987). _Who and How in Planning for Large
Companies: Generalizations from the Experiences of Oil Companies_. p.
213. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
Daniel Yergin (1991). _The Prize: The Epic Quest
for Oil, Money, and Power _. New York:
Simon & Schuster . p. 910. ISBN
* ^ Hidy, Ralph W. and Muriel E. Hidy. _Pioneering in Big Business,
1882–1911: History of
Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey)_ (1955).
* ^ David O. Whitten and Bessie Emrick Whitten, _Handbook of
American Business History: Manufacturing_ (Greenwood Publishing Group,
* ^ Josephson, Matthew (1962). _The Robber Barons_. Harcourt Trade.
* ^ Jones, p 76
* ^ Eliot Jones, _The Trust Problem in the United States_ (1921) p
Standard Oil controlled by a small group of families—see Ron
Chernow, _Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr._, London: Warner
Books, 1998, (p.291)
* ^ Jones, Eliot. _The Trust Problem in the United States_ pp.
89–90 (1922) (hereinafter _Jones_).
* ^ Arthur Schmidt, "Weetman Dickinson Pearson, (Lord Cowdray)," in
_Encyclopedia of Mexico_, vol. 2, 1068. Chicago: Fitzroy and Dearborn
* ^ Crow, Carl (2007). _Foreign Devils in the Flowery Kingdom_ (2nd
ed.). Hong Kong:Earnshaw Books. ISBN 978-988-99633-3-0 . pp. 41–42
* ^ Cochran, S., Encountering Chinese Networks: Western, Japanese,
and Chinese Corporations in China, 1880-1937, University of California
Press, 2000, p. 38.
* ^ Anderson, Irvine H. Jr., The Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. and United
States East Asian Policy, 1933-1941, Princeton University Press, 1975,
* ^ Anderson p. 203.
* ^ The Mei Foo Shield, A monthly publication of the North China
Standard Oil Co. of New York for its Far Eastern Staff.
* ^ Cochran p.31
* ^ Cochran p.32
* ^ Anderson p. 106
* ^ Mender, Peter (2010). _Thirty Years a Mariner in the Far East
1907–1937, The Memoirs of Peter Mender, a
Standard Oil Ship Captain
on China's Yangtze River_. Bangor, ME: Booklocker.
* ^ The Mei Foo Shield, May 1926, November 1927
Mobil Mariner, May 1958
* ^ John A. DeNovo (1963). _American Interests and Policies in the
Middle East: 1900-1939_. U of Minnesota Press. pp. 169–75.
* ^ Jones pp 58–59, 64.
* ^ Jones. pg 58
* ^ Jones. pp. 65–66.
* ^ Rosenbaum, David Ira. Market dominance: how firms gain, hold,
or lose it and the impact on economic performance. Greenwood
Publishing Group, 1998. p. 33
* ^ Armentano, Dominick. Antitrust: The Case for Repeal. Ludwig von
Mises Institute. 1999. p. 57.
* ^ Manns, Leslie D., "Dominance in the Oil Industry: Standard Oil
from 1865 to 1911" in David I. Rosenbaum ed., _Market Dominance: How
Firms Gain, Hold, or Lose it and the Impact on Economic Performance_,
p. 11 (Praeger 1998).
* ^ Jones, p. 73.
* ^ Jones, p 75–76.
* ^ Jones, p. 80.
* ^ See generally _
Standard Oil Co. of
New Jersey v. United
States_, 221 U.S. 1 (1911).
* ^ Rockefeller the richest man after the dissolution of 1911—see
Yergin, op. cit., (p.113)
* ^ "The Sherman Anti-Trust Act and Standard Oil" (PDF). University
of Houston . January 9, 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "A Guide to the
ExxonMobil Historical Collection".
Texas at Austin . Retrieved January 9, 2014.
* ^ The Investing Secrets of the Richest Man the World Has Ever
* ^ http://www.polyconomics.com/searchbase/06-12-98.html
* ^ Congressional Record, 51st Congress, 1st session, House, June
20, 1890, p. 4100.
* ^ Harold F. Williamsson and others, (1963) _The American
Petroleum Industry, 1899-1959_, Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern Univ.
* ^ David I. Rosenbaum, _Market Dominance: How Firms Gain, Hold, or
Lose it and the Impact on Economic Performance_, New York: Praeger
Publishers, 1998, (pp.31–33)
* ^ "
Microsoft hit by record EU fine". _CNN_. March 25, 2004.
Archived from the original on April 13, 2006. Retrieved August 14,
* ^ "Commission Decision of 24.03.2004 relating to a proceeding
under Article 82 of the EC Treaty (Case COMP/C-3/37.792 Microsoft)"
(PDF). Commission of the European Communities. April 21, 2004.
Retrieved August 5, 2005.
* ^ Pollack, Andrew (September 22, 1995). "AT&T Move Is a Reversal
Of Course Set in 1980\'s". _The New York Times_.
* ^ "Ashland Oil & Refining Company - Lehman Brothers Collection".
* ^ Droz, Robert V. "
Standard Oil Today". _US Highways from US 1 to
US 830_. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Google Maps".
* ^ "Chevron Website".
* ^ _A_ _B_
* ^ "Eastern Withdrawal for Chevron". Archived from the original on
July 8, 2011.
* Bringhurst, Bruce. _
Antitrust and the Oil Monopoly: The Standard
Oil Cases, 1890–1911_. New York: Greenwood Press, 1979.
* Chernow, Ron. _Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr._
London: Warner Books, 1998.
* Cochran, S., _Encountering Chinese Networks: Western, Japanese,
and Chinese Corporations in China, 1880-1937_, University of
California Press, 2000.
* Droz, R.V. Whatever Happened to Standard Oil?, 2004. Retrieved
June 25, 2005.
* Folsom, Jr., Burton W. _
John D. Rockefeller and the Oil Industry_
from _The Myth of the Robber Barons_. New York: Young America, 2003.
* Giddens, Paul H. _
Standard Oil Co. (Companies and men)_. New York:
Ayer Co. Publishing, 1976.
* Henderson, Wayne. _Standard Oil: The First 125 Years_. New York:
Motorbooks International, 1996.
* Hidy, Ralph W. and Muriel E. Hidy. _History of
Standard Oil Co.
New Jersey : Pioneering in Big Business 1882–1911)_. (Harper,
1956); 869pp; a standard scholarly study.
* Jones; Eliot. _The Trust Problem in the United States_ 1922.
Chapter 5; online free; another online edition
* Knowlton, Evelyn H. and George S. Gibb. _History of Standard Oil
Co.: Resurgent Years 1911–1927_. New York: Harper & Row, 1956.
* Latham, Earl ed. _John D. Rockefeller: Robber Baron or Industrial
Statesman?_, 1949. Primary and secondary sources.
* Manns, Leslie D. "Dominance in the Oil Industry:
Standard Oil from
1865 to 1911" in David I. Rosenbaum ed, _Market Dominance: How Firms
Gain, Hold, or Lose it and the Impact on Economic Performance_.
Praeger, 1998. online edition
* Montague, Gilbert Holland. _The Rise And Progress of the Standard
Oil Co_. (1902) online edition
* Montague, Gilbert Holland. "The Rise and Supremacy of the Standard
Oil Co.," _Quarterly Journal of Economics_, Vol. 16, No. 2 (February,
1902), pp. 265–2