HistoryHistorically, Staffordshire was divided into five hundred (division), hundreds: Cuttlestone, Offlow, Pirehill Hundred, Pirehill, Seisdon, and Totmonslow. The historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands (county), West Midlands. An administrative counties of England, administrative county of Staffordshire was set up in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888 covering the county, except the county boroughs of Wolverhampton, Walsall, and West Bromwich in the south (the area known as the Black Country), and Hanley, Staffordshire, Hanley in the north. The Act also saw the towns of Tamworth, Staffordshire, Tamworth (partly in Warwickshire) and (partly in Derbyshire) united entirely in Staffordshire. In 1553 Mary I of England, Queen Mary made a county corporate, meaning it was administered separately from the rest of Staffordshire. It remained so until 1888. Handsworth, West Midlands, Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, and thus associated with . Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, and was followed by Smethwick, another town in the Black Country in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, became the single county borough of . A significant boundary change occurred in 1926 when the east of Sedgley was transferred to to allow the construction of the new Priory Estate on land purchased by Dudley County Borough council. A major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England (1958–1967), Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs. The County Borough of Warley was formed by the merger of the county borough of Smethwick and municipal borough of Rowley Regis with the Worcestershire borough of Oldbury, West Midlands, Oldbury: the resulting county borough was associated with Worcestershire. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley, historically a exclave, detached part of Worcestershire, expanded and became associated with Staffordshire instead. This reorganisation led to the administrative county of Staffordshire having a thin protrusion passing between the county boroughs (to the east) and Shropshire, to the west, to form a short border with Worcestershire. Under the Local Government Act 1972, on 1 April 1974 the county boroughs of the Black Country and the Aldridge-Brownhills Urban District of Staffordshire became, along with Birmingham, Solihull, and Coventry and other districts, a new metropolitan county of West Midlands. County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a non-metropolitan district in Staffordshire, and Burton forming an unparished area in the district of East Staffordshire. On 1 April 1997, under a recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England (1992), Banham Commission, Stoke-on-Trent became a unitary authority independent of Staffordshire once more. In July 2009 the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever found in Britain was discovered in a field near Lichfield. The artefacts, known as The Staffordshire Hoard, have tentatively been dated to the 7th or 8th centuries, placing the origin of the items in the time of the Kingdom of Mercia.
EconomyThis is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Staffordshire at current basic price
EducationStaffordshire has a completely comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11–16 or 18, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13–18. Resources are shared where appropriate. There are two universities in the county, Keele University west of Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire University, which has campuses in Stoke-on-Trent, Stafford, and Shrewsbury.
SportThe modern county of Staffordshire currently has three professional football clubs – Stoke City F.C., Stoke City and Port Vale F.C., Port Vale, both from Stoke-on-Trent, and Burton Albion F.C., Burton Albion, who play in . Stoke City, one of the oldest professional football clubs in existence, were founded in 1863 and played at the Victoria Ground for 119 years from 1878 until their relocation to the Britannia Stadium (now named the Bet365 Stadium) in 1997. They were among the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888. By the late 1930s, they were established Football League First Division, First Division members and boasted arguably the finest footballer in England at the time in right-winger Stanley Matthews, who had two spells with the club between 1930 and his retirement in 1965 at the age of 50. In 1972, the club finally won a major trophy when they lifted the Football League Cup, but after relegation from the First Division in 1985 they would not experience top flight football for 23 years. After spending some two decades bouncing between the second and third tiers of the English league, they finally reclaimed their top flight status in 2008 by securing promotion to the Premier League. Stoke City reached their first FA Cup final in 2011 FA Cup Final, 2011, but lost to Manchester City F.C., Manchester City. Port Vale, who like Stoke City play in Stoke-on-Trent, were formed in 1876 and became members of the Football League in 1892. After more than 70 years at various stadiums around the city, the club moved to its present home, Vale Park, in 1950. In early 1936, they had eliminated First Division champions Sunderland A.F.C., Sunderland from the FA Cup. Another FA Cup success came in February 1988 when they eliminated seven-time winners Tottenham Hotspur F.C., Tottenham Hotspur from the 1987-88 FA Cup, competition. Promotion to the Football League Second Division, Second Division for the first time since the 1960s was secured in 1989, and Vale would spend nine of the next 11 years at this level. However, the club has been less successful since the turn of the 21st century, and suffered relegation to Football League Two, League Two – the fourth tier of the English league – in 2008. The club has seen an upturn in its fortunes as the club was promoted to League One in the 2012–13 season. In the 2016–17 EFL League One, 2016-17 season Port Vale were relegated back to League Two. West Bromwich Albion F.C., West Bromwich Albion, Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C., Wolverhampton Wanderers and Walsall F.C., Walsall are also notable clubs based in the historic county boundaries. The county's other professional football team is Burton Albion F.C., Burton Albion, based in , who currently play in EFL League One, League One. The county has a number of non-league football clubs, including Tamworth F.C., Tamworth, Stafford Rangers F.C., Stafford Rangers, Hednesford Town F.C., Hednesford Town and Leek Town F.C., Leek Town. In cricket, Staffordshire is one of the nineteen Minor counties of English and Welsh cricket. It is represented in Minor counties cricket by Staffordshire County Cricket Club who have played in the Minor Counties Championship since 1895, a competition which it has won outright eleven times, making it the most successful Minor counties team. Famous international cricketers produced by the county include Sydney Barnes, Bob Taylor (cricketer), Bob Taylor and Dominic Cork, all of whom went on to represent England cricket team, England.
GeographyIn the north and in the south, the county is hilly, with wild moorlands and uplands of the Peak District in the far north, and Cannock Chase an area of natural beauty in the south. In the middle regions, the landscape is low and undulating. Throughout the entire county there are vast and important coal field, coalfields. In the southern part, there are also rich iron ore deposits. The largest river is the River Trent, Trent. The soil is chiefly clay and agriculture was not highly developed until the mechanisation of farms. Staffordshire is home to the highest village in Britain, Flash, Staffordshire, Flash. The village, in the Staffordshire Moorlands, stands at 1519 ft (463 m) above sea level. This record was confirmed in 2007 by the Ordnance Survey after Wanlockhead in Scotland also claimed the record. The BBC's ''The One Show'' investigated the case in a bid to settle the argument and Flash was confirmed as the higher of the two. The highest point in Staffordshire is Cheeks Hill, Cheeks Point.
Green beltStaffordshire contains sectors of three Green belt (United Kingdom), green belt areas, two of which surround the large conurbations of The Potteries Urban Area, Stoke-on-Trent and the West Midlands conurbation, West Midlands, and were first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of belt.
DemographicsAccording to the 2001 United Kingdom census, 2001 Census the population of the Non-metropolitan Staffordshire is 806,744 and the population of Stoke-on-Trent was 240,636 making a total population of 1,047,380. In non-metropolitan Staffordshire, White British is the largest ethnicity, making up 96% of the population. This is followed by Irish, making up 0.6%. Non-White citizens make up 2% of the population. 94% of the population was born in England, and those born in Scotland and Wales together make up 1% of the total population.
GovernmentStaffordshire County Council is the top-tier local government in England, local council for the non-metropolitan county. For Eurostat purposes, it is a NUTS of the United Kingdom, NUTS 3 region (code UKG22). Staffordshire operates a cabinet-style council. There are 62 councillors for Staffordshire. The Full Council elects a cabinet of 10 councillors, including the council leader, from the majority party. Each cabinet member has their own portfolio about which they make the "day to day" decisions.
Latest Council election results
Historic towns/citiesSome settlements which were historically part of the county now fall under the West Midlands county:
Staffordshire Bull TerriersThe Staffordshire Bull Terrier was bred for hunting purposes in this county and should not be confused with the considerably larger American Staffordshire Terrier, American Pit Bull Terrier, and (English) Bull Terrier.
Church of EnglandThe only cathedral in the county is Lichfield Cathedral in the city of Lichfield. The Diocese of Lichfield covers the whole county with the exception of Stapenhill and Amington, the north of the nearby county of and the Black Country area of the West Midlands (county), West Midlands. The county is covered by the archdeaconries of Stoke-upon-Trent and . The current Bishop of Lichfield is Michael Ipgrave and the current Bishop of Stafford Geoff Annas. There are 298 Church of England churches in the county.
Roman Catholic ChurchStaffordshire is part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Birmingham. The current archbishop is Bernard Longley.
MethodismPrimitive Methodism was founded in Staffordshire by Hugh Bourne, a native of Stoke-on-Trent, at a public gathering in the village of Mow Cop. He originally followed the John Wesley, Wesleyan form of Methodism but in 1801 he reformed the Methodist service by conducting it outside. By 1811 with his brother he founded the first chapel in the Tunstall, Staffordshire, Tunstall area of Stoke-on-Trent.
JudaismThe most popular synagogue in the county is on London Road in Newcastle-Under-Lyme, which opened in 2006 and replaced the former Birch Terrace synagogue in Hanley. According to the 2001 census there were 407 Jews in the non-metropolitan area of Staffordshire, and 83 in Stoke-on-Trent.
IslamThere are 15 mosques in Stoke-on-Trent, 5 in Burton-upon-Trent and 1 in both Stafford and Lichfield. A new mosque is under construction in the Hanley area of Stoke-on-Trent and will be the first purpose-built mosque in the area. At the 2001 census there were 7,658 Muslims in Stoke-on-Trent and 6,081 in the rest of Staffordshire, with a total of 13,739 making up 1.3% of the population. 62.9% (3823) of the Muslims in the rest of Staffordshire are from the town of Burton-upon-Trent.
CanalsStaffordshire has an extensive network of canals including the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, Caldon Canal, Coventry Canal, Shropshire Union Canal, Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal and Trent and Mersey Canal.
RailwaysThe county is traversed primarily by the West Coast Main Line.
RoadsThe county has relatively good links to the national roads network. Several major roads intersect the county, making it a popular location for commuters working in Birmingham. The M42 motorway, M42 junction 10 is in Tamworth and the motorway heads southwest towards Birmingham. The M6 motorway, M6 runs north through the county and junctions 10A-16 are in the county. The M6 Toll, the UK's first toll road, toll motorway, runs through the county with junctions in Weeford near Lichfield, Cannock and joins the M6 heading north towards Stafford. The A5 road (Great Britain), A5 and A34 road (Great Britain), A34 run through the county. The former has been significantly widened to a dual carriageway at several sections, although much of it remains single carriageway.
AirThere are currently no airports with scheduled flights in the county with the nearest ones being Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, East Midlands Airport, East Midlands and Manchester Airport, Manchester depending on the location there is however Wolverhampton Airport in Bobbington and Tatenhill Airfield near Burton-upon-Trent both of which are small airports catering for General Aviation.
NewspapersDaily Newspapers in Staffordshire are The Sentinel (Staffordshire), The Sentinel covering Stoke-on-Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme and the Staffordshire Moorlands, Burton Mail which covers the town of Burton-upon-Trent and the Express & Star which has several editions covering Tamworth, Lichfield, Cannock Chase and .
RadioThe local BBC radio stations covering Staffordshire are BBC Radio Stoke covering Mid and North Staffordshire, BBC WM covering the south of the county and BBC Radio Derby covering East Staffordshire. The local commercial radio stations are Signal 1 and Greatest Hits Radio Staffordshire & Cheshire which cover North and Mid Staffordshire, and Capital Mid-Counties, which covers Burton-upon-Trent, Burton, Lichfield and Tamworth. Further stations which cover parts of Staffordshire include Heart West Midlands, Heart, Smooth West Midlands, Smooth, and Greatest Hits Radio West Midlands, Greatest Hits Radio which cover the southern parts of the county. Free Radio Birmingham covers Lichfield and Tamworth, and Free Radio Shropshire & Black Country, Free Radio Black Country covers the Cannock area. United Christian Broadcasters, which has facilities in Burslem and Hanchurch, has been involved in radio broadcasting since 1987. Today it is broadcast nationally in the UK through DAB digital radio. ;Community radio Staffordshire is served by a number of community radio stations. In North Staffordshire, there are four community radio stations – Moorlands Radio in Leek, 6 Towns Radio, based in Burslem, The Hitmix, based in Newcastle-under-Lyme and Cross Rhythms City Radio based in Hanley, Staffordshire, Hanley In there are two community radio stations – Windmill Broadcasting, the UK's only radio station based in a Windmill, in the Broad Eye Windmill, and Stafford FM, which broadcasts to the town on 107.3 FM. In Cannock and Rugeley, there is Cannock Chase Radio, which broadcasts on 89.6 and 94.0 FM, and in Tamworth, Staffordshire, Tamworth, there is Radio Tamworth, which broadcasts on 106.8 FM.
TelevisionStaffordshire is predominantly covered by the ITV Central and BBC West Midlands television regions both of which have their studios in Birmingham. The far north of the county, around Biddulph, is served by ITV Granada and BBC North West from MediaCityUK in City of Salford, Salford.
Places of interest
See also*Lord Lieutenant of Staffordshire *High Sheriff of Staffordshire *Staffordshire (UK Parliament constituency), List of MPs for Staffordshire *Samuel Hieronymus Grimm *The Stafford knot *Tamworth (pig), Tamworth Pig *Healthcare in Staffordshire *Staffordshire Police *Staffordshire Police and Crime Commissioner
External links* *