The Info List - Stadiums

A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia)[1] is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.[2] Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event at the ancient Greek Olympic festival was the race that comprised one length of the stade at Olympia, where the word "stadium" originated.[3] In modern times, a stadium is officially a stadium when at least 50% of the actual capacity is an actual building, like concrete stands or seats. If the majority of the capacity is formed by grasshills, the sports venue is not officially considered a stadium.[citation needed] Most of the stadiums with a capacity of at least 10,000 are used for association football, or soccer, the most popular sport in the world. Other popular stadium sports include gridiron football, baseball, ice hockey, basketball, cricket, rugby union, rugby league, Australian football, Gaelic football, rugby sevens, field lacrosse, arena football, box lacrosse, futsal, minifootball, bandy, athletics, volleyball, handball, hurling, gymnastics, ski jumping, motorsports (formula 1, NASCAR, IndyCar, motorcycle road racing, motorcycle speedway, Monster Jam), wrestling, boxing, mixed martial arts, sumo, netball, tennis, table tennis, badminton, cycling, ice skating, golf, swimming, field hockey, Kabaddi, bullfighting, box lacrosse, international rules football, equestrianism, polo, horse racing and weightlifting. A large amount of large sports venues are also used for concerts. Basketball
is the most popular arena (or indoor stadium) sport in the world. Large race circuits and large horse racing tracks are not stadiums, but sports venues, because the entire playing surface can't be seen from the stands. For the difference, compare List of stadiums by capacity with List of sports venues by capacity.


1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Modern stadiums

3 The ancient stadium

3.1 Examples of ancient stadiums

4 The modern stadium

4.1 Types 4.2 Design issues

4.2.1 Lighting

4.3 Spectator areas and seating

4.3.1 Safety and security

4.4 Political and economic issues

4.4.1 Corporate naming

4.5 Music venues

5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further reading 8 External links


The Stadium
in Olympia

"Stadium" is the Latin
form of the Greek word "stadion" (στάδιον), a measure of length equalling the length of 600 human feet.[4] As feet are of variable length the exact length of a stadion depends on the exact length adopted for 1 foot at a given place and time. Although in modern terms 1 stadion = 600 ft (180 m), in a given historical context it may actually signify a length up to 15% larger or smaller.[3] The equivalent Roman measure, the stadium, had a similar length – about 185 m (607 ft) – but instead of being defined in feet was defined using the Roman standard passus to be a distance of 125 passūs (double-paces). The English use of stadium comes from the tiered infrastructure surrounding a Roman track of such length. Most dictionaries provide for both stadiums and stadia as valid English plurals, although etymological purists sometimes apply stadia only to measures of length in excess of 1 stadium.[citation needed] History[edit] The oldest known stadium is the one in Olympia, in the western Peloponnese, Greece, where the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
of antiquity were held from 776 BC. Initially 'the Games' consisted of a single event, a sprint along the length of the stadium. The stadion, a measure of length, may be related to the "Stadium", but the track at the Stadium at Olympia is longer than the conventional stadion. Greek and Roman stadiums have been found in numerous ancient cities, perhaps the most famous being the Stadium
of Domitian, in Rome. The excavated and refurbished ancient Panathenaic stadium
Panathenaic stadium
hosted an early version of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in 1870,[5] 1875, 1896 and 1906. The excavation and refurbishment of the stadium was part of the legacy of the Greek national benefactor Evangelos Zappas, and it was the first ancient stadium to be used in modern times. Modern stadiums[edit]

Chelsea's Stamford Bridge
stadium in 1909.

The first stadiums to be built in the modern era were basic facilities, designed for the single purpose of fitting as many spectators in as possible. With tremendous growth in the popularity of organised sport in the late Victorian era, especially football in the United Kingdom and baseball in the United States, the first such structures were built.[6] One such early stadium was the Lansdowne Road
Stadium, the brainchild of Henry Dunlop, who organised the first All Ireland Athletics Championships. Banned from locating sporting events at Trinity College, Dunlop built the stadium in 1872. "I laid down a cinder running path of a quarter-mile, laid down the present Lansdowne Tennis Club ground with my own theodolite, started a Lansdowne archery club, a Lansdowne cricket club, and last, but not least, the Lansdowne Rugby Football Club – colours red, black and yellow." Some 300 cartloads of soil from a trench beneath the railway were used to raise the ground, allowing Dunlop to use his engineering expertise to create a pitch envied around Ireland. Other early stadiums from this period in the UK include the Stamford Bridge
stadium (opened in 1877 for the London Athletic Club) and Anfield
stadium (1884 as a venue for Everton F.C.). In the U.S., many professional baseball teams built large stadiums mainly out of wood, with the first such venue being the South End Grounds in Boston, opened in 1871 for the team then known as the Boston
Beaneaters (now the Atlanta Braves). However, many of these parks caught fire, and even those that did not burn proved inadequate for a growing game. All of the 19th-century wooden parks were replaced, some after only a few years, and none survive today. Goodison Park
Goodison Park
was the first purpose-built football stadium in the world. Walton-based building firm Kelly brothers were instructed to erect two uncovered stands that could each accommodate 4,000 spectators. A third covered stand accommodating 3,000 spectators was also requested.[7] Everton officials were impressed with the builder's workmanship and agreed two further contracts: exterior hoardings were constructed at a cost of £150 and 12 turnstiles were installed at a cost of £7 each.[8] The stadium was officially opened on 24 August 1892 by Lord Kinnaird and Frederick Wall of the Football Association. No football was played; instead the 12,000 crowd watched a short athletics event followed by music and a fireworks display.[7] Upon its completion the stadium was the first joint purpose-built football stadium in the world.[9]

The White City Stadium
White City Stadium
during the 1908 Summer Olympics.

The architect Archibald Leitch
Archibald Leitch
brought his experience with the construction of industrial buildings to bear on the design of functional stadiums up and down the country. His work encompassed the first 40 years of the 20th century. One of his most notable designs was Old Trafford
Old Trafford
in Manchester. The ground was originally designed with a capacity of 100,000 spectators and featured seating in the south stand under cover, while the remaining three stands were left as terraces and uncovered.[10] It was the first stadium to feature continuous seating along the contours of the stadium.[6] These early venues, originally designed to host football matches, were adopted for use by the Olympic Games, the first one being held in 1896 in Athens, Greece. The White City Stadium, built for the 1908 Summer Olympics in London is often cited as the first modern seater stadium, at least in the UK. Designed by the engineer J.J. Webster and completed in 10 months by George Wimpey,[11] on the site of the Franco-British Exhibition, this stadium with a seating capacity of 68,000 was opened by King Edward VII
Edward VII
on 27 April 1908.[12] Upon completion, the stadium had a running track 24 ft wide (7.3 m) and three laps to the mile (536 m); outside there was a 35-foot-wide (11 m), 660-yard (600 m) cycle track. The infield included a swimming and diving pool. The London Highbury Stadium, built in 1913, was the first stadium in the UK to feature a two-tiered seating arrangement when it was redesigned in the Art Deco style in 1936.[6] During these decades, parallel stadium developments were taking place in the U.S. The Baker Bowl, a baseball park in Philadelphia
that opened in its original form in 1887 but was completely rebuilt in 1895, broke new ground in stadium construction in two major ways. The stadium's second incarnation featured the world's first cantilevered second deck (tier) in a sports venue, and was also the first baseball park to use steel and brick for the majority of its construction. Another influential venue was Boston's Harvard Stadium, built in 1903 by Harvard University
Harvard University
for its American football
American football
and track and field teams. It was the world's first stadium to use concrete-and-steel construction. In 1909, concrete-and-steel construction came to baseball with the opening of venues in each of Pennsylvania's two largest cities— Shibe Park
Shibe Park
in Philadelphia
and, a few months later, Forbes Field
Forbes Field
in Pittsburgh. The latter was the world's first three-tiered sporting venue. The opening of these parks marked the start of the "jewel box" era of park construction. The largest stadium crowd ever was 199,854 people watching the final match of the 1950 World Cup at Rio de Janeiro's Maracanã on 16 July 1950.[13] The ancient stadium[edit] Stadiums in ancient Greece
and Rome were built for different purposes, and at first only the Greeks built structures called "stadium"; Romans built structures called "Circus." Greek stadia were for foot races, whereas the Roman circus was for horse races. Both, however, had similar shapes and bowl-like areas around them for spectators. The Greeks also developed the theatre, with its seating arrangements foreshadowing those of modern stadiums. The Romans copied the theatre, then expanded it to accommodate larger crowds and more elaborate settings. The Romans also developed the double-sized round theatre called amphitheatre, seating crowds in the tens of thousands for gladiatorial combats and beast shows. The Greek stadium and theatre and the Roman circus and amphitheatre are all ancestral to the modern stadium.[14][15] Examples of ancient stadiums[edit]

Name Country Earliest date Track length Track width

at Olympia Greece 776 BC 212.54 m (697.3 ft) 28.5 m (94 ft)

at Delphi Greece 500 BC 177 m (581 ft) 25.5 m (84 ft)

of Domitian Italy 80 AD 200 m (660 ft) – 250 m (820 ft) (estimated)

at Aphrodisias Turkey

225 m (738 ft) (approx.) 30 m (98 ft) (approx.)

The modern stadium[edit]

Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
in London, England

The Veltins-Arena
in Gelsenkirchen, Germany is an example of a stadium with a retractable roof and a retractable pitch

Journalist Mario Filho Stadium, popularly known as Maracanã

Types[edit] Domed stadiums are distinguished from conventional stadiums by their enclosing roofs. Many of these are not actually domes in the pure architectural sense, some being better described as vaults, some having truss-supported roofs and others having more exotic designs such as a tensegrity structure. But, in the context of sports stadiums, the term "dome" has become standard for all covered stadiums,[16] particularly because the first such enclosed stadium, the Houston Astrodome, was built with an actual dome-shaped roof. Some stadiums have partial roofs, and a few have even been designed to have moveable fields as part of the infrastructure. The Mercedes-Benz Superdome in New Orleans
New Orleans
is a true dome structure made of a lamellar multi-ringed frame and has a diameter of 680 feet (210 m). It is the largest fixed domed structure in the world.[17] Even though enclosed, dome stadiums are called stadiums because they are large enough for, and designed for, what are generally considered to be outdoor sports such as athletics, American football, association football, rugby, and baseball. Those designed for what are usually indoor sports like basketball, ice hockey and volleyball are generally called arenas. Exceptions include the basketball arena at Duke University, which is called Cameron Indoor Stadium; Red Bull Arena, which is home of the New York Red Bulls
New York Red Bulls
of MLS; U Arena
near Paris, home to the rugby union club Racing 92; and the now-demolished Chicago Stadium, former home of the Chicago Blackhawks
Chicago Blackhawks
of the NHL
and Chicago Bulls of the NBA. Design issues[edit] See also: Multi-purpose stadium
Multi-purpose stadium
§ Criticisms Different sports require fields of different size and shape. Some stadiums are designed primarily for a single sport while others can accommodate different events, particularly ones with retractable seating. Stadiums built specifically for association football are quite common in Europe; however, Gaelic games
Gaelic games
stadiums (such as the incomplete Croke Park) would be most common in Ireland, while ones built specifically for baseball or American football
American football
are common in the United States. The most common multiple use design combines a football pitch with a running track, a combination which generally works fairly well, although certain compromises must be made. The major drawback is that the stands are necessarily set back a good distance from the pitch, especially at the ends of the pitch. In the case of some smaller stadiums, there are not stands at the ends. When there are stands all the way around, the stadium takes on an oval shape. When one end is open, the stadium has a horseshoe shape. All three configurations (open, oval and horseshoe) are common, especially in the case of American college football stadiums. Rectangular stadiums are more common in Europe, especially for football where many stadiums have four often distinct and very different stands on the four sides of the stadium. These are often all of different sizes and designs and have been erected at different periods in the stadium's history. The vastly differing character of European football stadiums has led to the growing hobby of ground hopping where spectators make a journey to visit the stadium for itself rather than for the event held there. In recent years the trend of building completely new oval stadiums in Europe has led to traditionalists criticising the designs as bland and lacking in the character of the old stadiums they replace. In North America, where baseball and American football
American football
are the two most popular outdoor spectator sports, a number of football/baseball multi-use stadiums were built, especially during the 1960s, and some of them were successful. However, since the requirements for baseball and football are significantly different, the trend has been toward the construction of single-purpose stadiums, beginning with Kansas City in 1972–1973 and accelerating in the 1990s. In several cases, an American football stadium has been constructed adjacent to a baseball park, to allow for the sharing of mutual parking lots and other amenities. With the rise of MLS, the construction of soccer-specific stadiums has also increased since the late 1990s to better fit the needs of that sport. In many cases, earlier baseball stadiums were constructed to fit into a particular land area or city block. This resulted in asymmetrical dimensions for many baseball fields. Yankee Stadium, for example, was built on a triangular city block in The Bronx, New York City. This resulted in a large left field dimension but a small right field dimension. Before more modern football stadiums were built in the United States, many baseball parks, including Fenway Park, the Polo Grounds, Wrigley Field, Comiskey Park, Tiger Stadium, Griffith Stadium, Milwaukee County Stadium, Shibe Park, Forbes Field, Yankee Stadium, and Sportsman's Park
Sportsman's Park
were used by the National Football League
National Football League
or the American Football League. (To a certain extent, this continues in lower football leagues as well, with TD Ameritrade Park
TD Ameritrade Park
being used as the home stadium of the United Football League's Omaha Nighthawks.) Along with today's single use stadiums is the trend for retro style ballparks closer to downtown areas. Oriole Park at Camden Yards
Oriole Park at Camden Yards
was the first such ballpark for Major League Baseball
to be built, using early-20th-century styling with 21st-century amenities. There is a solar-powered stadium in Taiwan that produces as much energy as it needs to function.[18] Stadium
designers often study acoustics to increase noise caused by fans' voices, aiming to create a lively atmosphere.[19] Lighting[edit] Until the advent of floodlights, most games played on large areas had to rely on natural lighting. Bramall Lane
Bramall Lane
was reportedly the first floodlit stadium. Floodlighting in association football dates as far back as 1878, when there were floodlit experimental matches at Bramall Lane, Sheffield
during the dark winter afternoons. With no national grid, lights were powered by batteries and dynamoes, and were unreliable. Since the development of electrical grids, lighting has been an important element in stadium design, allowing games to be played after sundown, and in covered, or partly covered stadiums that allow less natural light, but provide more shelter for the public. Spectator areas and seating[edit]

Camp Nou
Camp Nou
in Barcelona, Spain is the largest stadium in Europe.

An "all-seater" stadium has seats for all spectators. Other stadiums are designed so that all or some spectators stand to view the event. The term "all-seater" is not common in the U.S., as very few American stadiums have sizeable standing-only sections. Poor stadium design has contributed to disasters, such as the Hillsborough disaster
Hillsborough disaster
and the Heysel Stadium
disaster. Since these, all Premier League, UEFA European Championship and FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
qualifying matches require all spectators to be seated (though not necessarily in an all-seater stadium, if terraces are left empty). The spectator areas of a stadium may be referred to as bleachers, especially in the U.S., or as terraces, especially in the United Kingdom, but also in some American baseball parks, as an alternative to the term tier. Originally set out for standing room only, they are now usually equipped with seating. Either way, the term originates from the step-like rows which resemble agricultural terraces. Related, but not precisely the same, is the use of the word terrace to describe a sloping portion of the outfield in a baseball park, possibly, but not necessarily for seating, but for practical or decorative purposes. The most famous of these was at Crosley Field
Crosley Field
in Cincinnati, Ohio. Many stadiums make luxury suites or boxes available to patrons at high prices. These suites can accommodate fewer than 10 spectators or upwards of 30 depending on the venue. Luxury suites at events such as the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Safety and security[edit] Due to the number of people congregating in stadiums and the frequency of events, many notable accidents have occurred in the past, causing death, pain and horror. For example, the Hillsborough disaster
Hillsborough disaster
was a human crush at Hillsborough football stadium in Sheffield, England on 15 April 1989. The resulting 96 fatalities and 766 injuries makes this the worst disaster in British sporting history. See also: Category: Stadium
disasters Much effort has been spent to avoid the recurrence of such events, both in design and legislation. Especially where there is a perceived risk of terrorism or violence attention remains high to prevent human death and keep stadiums as places where families can enjoy a public event together. In Europe and South America, during the twentieth century, it was common for violent bands of supporters to fight inside or close to soccer stadiums. In the United Kingdom they are known as hooligans. Structural features that increase safety include separate entry and exit accesses for each spectator area, especially separating accesses for home and visitor supporters, dividing walls, glass parapets, vibration attenuation and sprinkler systems. Security features that have been adopted include armed surveillance, Identity document
Identity document
checks, video surveillance, metal detectors and security searches to enforce rules that forbid spectators to carry dangerous or potentially dangerous items. Political and economic issues[edit]

Empire Field
Empire Field
was a stadium made with temporary structures built in 2010 and demolished in 2011.

Modern stadiums, especially the largest among them, are megaprojects that can only be afforded by the largest corporations, wealthiest individuals, or government. Sports fans have a deep emotional attachment to their teams. In North America, with its closed-league "franchise" system, there are fewer teams than cities which would like them. This creates tremendous bargaining power for the owners of teams, whereby owners can threaten to relocate teams to other cities unless governments subsidize the construction of new facilities.[20] In Europe and Latin
America, where there are multiple association football clubs in any given city, and several leagues in each country, no such monopoly power exists, and stadiums are built primarily with private money. Outside professional sports, governments are also involved through the intense competition for the right to host major sporting events, primarily the Summer Olympics
Summer Olympics
and the FIFA
World Cup (of association football), during which cities often pledge to build new stadiums on order to satisfy the International Olympic Committee (IOC) or FIFA. Corporate naming[edit] See also: Naming rights
Naming rights
and List of sports venues with sole naming rights

PGE Arena
in Gdańsk, Poland
is an example of corporate naming.

In recent decades, to help take the burden of the massive expense of building and maintaining a stadium, many American and European sports teams have sold the rights to the name of the facility. This trend, which began in the 1970s, but accelerated greatly in the 1990s, has led to sponsors' names being affixed to both established stadiums and new ones. In some cases, the corporate name replaces (with varying degrees of success) the name by which the venue has been known for many years. But many of the more recently built stadiums, like the Volkswagen Arena
in Wolfsburg, Germany, have never been known by a non-corporate name. The sponsorship phenomenon has since spread worldwide. There remain a few municipally owned stadiums, which are often known by a name that is significant to their area (for example, Minneapolis' Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome). In recent years, some government-owned stadiums have also been subject to naming-rights agreements, with some or all of the revenue often going to the team(s) that play there. One consequence of corporate naming has been an increase in stadium name changes, when the namesake corporation changes its name, or if it is the naming agreement simply expires. Phoenix's Chase Field, for example, was previously known as Bank One Ballpark, but was renamed to reflect the takeover of the latter corporation. San Francisco's historic Candlestick Park
Candlestick Park
was renamed as 3Com
Park for several years, but the name was dropped when the sponsorship agreement expired, and it was another two years before the new name of Monster Cable Products' Monster Park was applied. Local opposition to the corporate naming of that particular stadium led San Francisco's city council to permanently restore the Candlestick Park
Candlestick Park
name once the Monster contract expired. More recently, in Ireland, there has been huge opposition to the renaming of Dublin's historic Lansdowne Road
Lansdowne Road
as the Aviva Stadium. Lansdowne was redeveloped as the Aviva, opening in May 2010. On the other hand, Los Angeles' Great Western Forum, one of the earliest examples of corporate renaming, retained its name for many years, even after the namesake bank no longer existed, the corporate name being dropped only after the building later changed ownership. This practice has typically been less common in countries outside the United States. A notable exception is the Nippon Professional Baseball league of Japan, in which many of the teams are themselves named after their parent corporations. Also, many newer European football stadiums, such as the Macron and Emirates Stadiums in England and Signal Iduna Park and Allianz Arena
Allianz Arena
in Germany have been corporately named. This new trend in corporate naming (or renaming) is distinguishable from names of some older venues, such as Crosley Field, Wrigley Field, and the first and second Busch Stadiums, in that the parks were named by and for the club's owner, which also happened to be the name of the company owned by those clubowners. (The current Busch Stadium
Busch Stadium
received its name via a modern naming rights agreement.) Sky Dome
in Toronto, Ontario, Canada was renamed Rogers Centre
Rogers Centre
in 2005, removing any reference that it is a domed stadium. During the 2006 FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
in Germany, some stadiums were temporarily renamed because FIFA
prohibits sponsorship of stadiums. For example, the Allianz Arena
Allianz Arena
in Munich was called the FIFA
World Cup Stadium, Munich during the tournament. Likewise, the same stadium will be known as the "München Arena" during the European Competitions. Similar rules affect the Imtech Arena
and Veltins-Arena. This rule applies even if the stadium sponsor is an official FIFA
sponsor—the Johannesburg stadium then commercially known as "Coca-Cola Park", bearing the name of one of FIFA's major sponsors, was known by its historic name of Ellis Park Stadium
Ellis Park Stadium
during the 2010 FIFA
World Cup. Corporate names are also temporarily replaced during the Olympics. Music venues[edit] Main article: Stadium

A Queen concert in Drammen, Norway in April 1982, showing the scale and lighting of an arena rock concert

Although concerts such as for classical music had been presented there for decades, from the 1960s stadiums began to be used as live venues for popular music, giving rise to the term "arena rock" or "stadium rock", particularly for forms of hard rock and progressive rock. The origins of stadium rock are sometimes dated to when The Beatles
The Beatles
played Shea Stadium
Shea Stadium
in New York in 1965. Also important was the use of large stadiums for American tours by bands in the later 1960s, such as The Rolling Stones, Grand Funk Railroad
Grand Funk Railroad
and Led Zeppelin. The tendency developed in the mid-1970s as the increased power of amplification and sound systems allowed the use of larger and larger venues.[21] Smoke, fireworks and sophisticated lighting shows became staples of arena rock performances.[22] Key acts from this era included Journey, REO Speedwagon, Boston, Foreigner, Styx,[23] Kiss, Peter Frampton[24] and Queen.[25][26] In the 1980s arena rock became dominated by glam metal bands, following the lead of Aerosmith[27] and including Mötley Crüe, Quiet Riot, W.A.S.P. and Ratt.[28] Since the 1980s, rock, pop and folk stars, including the Grateful Dead, Madonna, Britney Spears, Beyoncé, Lepa Brena, Taylor Swift, have undertaken large-scale stadium based concert tours.[29][30][31][32][33] See also[edit]

portal Sports portal

Arena Amphitheatre List of indoor arenas List of sports attendance figures Lists of stadiums List of stadiums by capacity Olympic Stadium Stad, Stead (as in Homestead), Stadt Sport venue Sports complex Multi-purpose stadium Modular stadium Jumbotron


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plural form, but both are used in English. Dictionary.com ^ Nussli Group
Nussli Group
" Stadium
Projects" ^ a b A Brief History of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
by David C. Young, p. 20 ^ Στάδιον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ The Modern Olympic Games, A Struggle for Revival by David C. Young, Chapters 4 & 13 ^ a b c " Stadium
History".  ^ a b Corbett, James. School of Science. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-3431-9.  ^ "The Move to Goodison". Everton Collection. Retrieved 5 April 2010.  ^ "History of Goodison Park". ToffeeWeb. Retrieved 3 April 2010.  ^ Inglis, Simon (1996) [1985]. Football Grounds of Britain (3rd ed.). London: CollinsWillow. pp. 234–235. ISBN 0-00-218426-5.  ^ White, Valerie (1980). Wimpey: The first hundred years. George Wimpey. p. 5.  ^ Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1 (1): 16–32. Retrieved 24 March 2007.  ^ Glenday, Craig (2013). GUINNESS WORLD RECORDS BOOK. p. 142. ISBN 9781908843159.  ^ Cameron, Alan (1976). Circus Factions: Blues and Greens at Rome and Byzantium. Oxford University Press.  ^ Beare, W. (1950). The Roman Stage: A Short History of Latin
Drama in the Time of the Republic. Methuen.  ^ "Dome", Merriam-Webster ^ Parry, Haydn. " Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLVII: New Orleans' pride restored after Katrina". BBC
Sport. BBC. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ Inhabitat (20 May 2009). "Taiwan's solar stadium 100% powered by the sun". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 September 2017.  ^ Vennard, Martin (13 April 2013). "How do you give stadiums atmosphere?". BBC
News. Retrieved 2 September 2017.  ^ Lambert, Craig. "The Dow of Professional Sports" Harvard Magazine ^ S. Waksman, This Ain't the Summer of Love: Conflict and Crossover in Heavy Metal and Punk (University of California Press, 2009), ISBN 0-520-25310-8, pp. 21–31. ^ R. Shuker, Popular Music: the Key Concepts (London: Routledge, 2nd edn., 2002), 0415284252, p. 158. ^ " Arena
rock". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2011.  ^ J. Shepherd, ed., Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, Volume 1 (Continuum, 2003), ISBN 0-8264-6321-5, p. 423. ^ P. Buckley, The Rough Guide to Rock (London: Rough Guides, 3rd edn., 2003), ISBN 1-84353-105-4, p. 835. ^ Thrills, Adrian (11 March 2011) "We STILL rock you: Re-releases chart Queen's rise to power" Daily Mail. Retrieved 16 June 2011. ^ D. L. Joyner, American Popular Music (McGraw-Hill, 3rd edn., 2008), ISBN 0-07-352657-6, p. 261. ^ "Hair metal", AllMusic. Retrieved 6 July 2010. ^ Menn, D.; Staff, H.L.C. (1992). Secrets from the Masters. Hal Leonard. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-61774-463-1. Retrieved 12 February 2015.  ^ Jackson, B. (2006). Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
Gear: The Band's Instruments, Sound Systems, and Recording Sessions from 1965 to 1995. Music Series. Backbeat Books. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-87930-893-3. Retrieved 12 February 2015.  ^ Izundu, Chi (9 September 2012). "Lady Gaga's Born This Way Ball Tour starts in the UK". BBC. Retrieved 10 February 2015.  ^ "Taylor Swift". Gillette Stadium. Retrieved 10 February 2015.  ^ Vanhorn, Terri (15 December 1999). " Britney Spears
Britney Spears
To Tour U.S. Arenas With LFO". MTV. Retrieved 10 February 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

John, Geraint; Rod Sheard; Ben Vickery (2007). Stadia: A Design and Development Guide (4th ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Architectural Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-6844-6.  Lisle, Benjamin D. Modern Coliseum: Stadiums and American Culture (U of Pennsylvania
Press, 2017). 321 pp Serby, Myron W. (1930). The Stadium; A Treatise on the Design of Stadiums and Their Equipment. New York, Cleveland: American Institute of Steel, inc.  (worldcat) (search)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stadiums.

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