The Info List - St Paul's Cathedral

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St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop
of London
and the mother church of the Diocese
of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill
Ludgate Hill
at the highest point of the City of London
and is a Grade I listed building. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604.[1] The present cathedral, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque
English Baroque
style by Sir Christopher Wren. Its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London.[2][page needed] The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, has dominated the skyline for over 300 years.[3][page needed] At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London
from 1710 to 1967. The dome is among the highest in the world. St Paul's is the second-largest church building in area in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
after Liverpool Cathedral. St Paul's Cathedral
occupies a significant place in the national identity.[4][unreliable source] It is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz.[4] Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Admiral Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, Sir Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
and Baroness Thatcher; jubilee celebrations for Queen Victoria; peace services marking the end of the First and Second World Wars; the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer; the launch of the Festival of Britain; and the thanksgiving services for the Silver, Golden and Diamond Jubilees
and the 80th and 90th birthdays of Elizabeth II. St Paul's Cathedral
is a working church with hourly prayer and daily services. The tourist entry fee at the door is £18 for adults (March 2017, cheaper online), but no charge is made to worshippers.[5]


1 History

1.1 Pre-Norman cathedrals 1.2 Old St Paul's 1.3 Present St Paul's

1.3.1 Consecration

1.4 Since 1900

1.4.1 War damage 1.4.2 Restoration 1.4.3 Occupy London

2 Ministry and functions

2.1 Dean and chapter 2.2 Registrar 2.3 Minor Canons and Priest Vicar 2.4 Director of Music

2.4.1 Organ 2.4.2 Choir

3 Wren's cathedral

3.1 Development of the design 3.2 Final design 3.3 Structural engineering 3.4 Designers, builders and craftsmen

4 Description

4.1 Exterior

4.1.1 Dome 4.1.2 West front 4.1.3 Walls

4.2 Interior

4.2.1 Dome 4.2.2 Apse

4.3 Artworks, tombs and memorials 4.4 Clock and bells

5 Education, tourism and the arts

5.1 Interpretation Project

5.1.1 Charges for sightseers

5.2 St Paul's Cathedral
Arts Project 5.3 Depictions of St Paul's

5.3.1 Photography and film

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] Pre-Norman cathedrals[edit] A list of the 16 "archbishops" of London
was recorded by Jocelyne of Furness in the 12th century, claiming London's Christian community was founded in the 2nd century under the legendary King Lucius and his missionary saints Fagan, Deruvian, Elvanus and Medwin. None of that is considered credible by modern historians but, although the surviving text is problematic, either Bishop
Restitutus or Adelphius at the 314 Council of Arles seems to have come from Londinium.[a] The location of Londinium's original cathedral is unknown. Bede
records that in AD 604 St Augustine consecrated Mellitus
as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons
East Saxons
and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop.[6] It is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the later medieval and the present cathedrals. On the death of Sæberht in about 616, his pagan sons expelled Mellitus
from London, and the East Saxons
East Saxons
reverted to paganism. The fate of the first cathedral building is unknown. Christianity was restored among the East Saxons
East Saxons
in the late 7th century and it is presumed that either the Anglo-Saxon cathedral was restored or a new building erected as the seat of bishops such as Cedd, Wine and Earconwald, the last of whom was buried in the cathedral in 693. This building, or a successor, was destroyed by fire in 962, but rebuilt in the same year.[7][page needed] King Æthelred the Unready
Æthelred the Unready
was buried in the cathedral on his death in 1016; his tomb is lost. The cathedral was burnt, with much of the city, in a fire in 1087, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.[7][page needed] The present structure of St Peter upon Cornhill
St Peter upon Cornhill
was designed by Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
following the Great Fire of London
in 1666. It stands upon the highest point in the area of old Londinium, and medieval legends tie it to the city's earliest Christian community. In 1995, however, a large and ornate 5th-century building on Tower
Hill was excavated, which might have been the city's cathedral.[8][9] The Elizabethan antiquarian William Camden
William Camden
argued that a temple to the goddess Diana had stood during Roman times on the site occupied by the medieval St Paul's Cathedral.[10] Wren reported that he had found no trace of any such temple during the works to build the new cathedral after the Great Fire, and Camden's hypothesis is no longer accepted by modern archaeologists.[11] Old St Paul's[edit] Main article: Old St Paul's Cathedral The fourth St Paul's, generally referred to as Old St Paul's, was begun by the Normans
after the 1087 fire. A further fire in 1136 disrupted the work, and the new cathedral was not consecrated until 1240. During the period of construction, the style of architecture had changed from Romanesque to Gothic and this was reflected in the pointed arches and larger windows of the upper parts and East End of the building. The Gothic ribbed vault was constructed, like that of York Minster, of wood rather than stone, which affected the ultimate fate of the building.[citation needed]

Reconstructed image of Old St Paul's before 1561, with intact spire

An enlargement programme commenced in 1256. This 'New Work' was consecrated in 1300 but not complete until 1314. During the later Medieval period St Paul's was exceeded in length only by the Abbey Church of Cluny and in the height of its spire only by Lincoln Cathedral
and St. Mary's Church, Stralsund. Excavations by Francis Penrose in 1878 showed that it was 585 feet (178 m) long and 100 feet (30 m) wide (290 feet or 87 m across the transepts and crossing). The spire was about 489 feet (149 m) in height.[citation needed] By the 16th century the building was starting to decay. After the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
under Henry VIII and Edward VI, the Dissolution of the Monasteries and Chantries Acts
Chantries Acts
led to the destruction of interior ornamentation and the cloisters, charnels, crypts, chapels, shrines, chantries and other buildings in St Paul's Churchyard. Many of these former Catholic sites in the churchyard, having been seized by the Crown, were sold as shops and rental properties, especially to printers and booksellers, who were often Puritans. In 1561 the spire was destroyed by lightning, an event that was taken by both Protestants and Roman Catholics as a sign of God's displeasure at each other.[citation needed] In the 1630s a west front was added to the building by England's first classical architect, Inigo Jones. There was much defacing and mistreatment of the building by Parliamentarian forces during the Civil War, and the old documents and charters were dispersed and destroyed.[12][page needed] During the Commonwealth, those churchyard buildings that were razed supplied ready-dressed building material for construction projects, such as the Lord Protector's city palace, Somerset House. Crowds were drawn to the north-east corner of the churchyard, St Paul's Cross, where open-air preaching took place.[citation needed] In the Great Fire of London
of 1666, Old St Paul's was gutted.[13] While it might have been possible to reconstruct it, a decision was taken to build a new cathedral in a modern style. This course of action had been proposed even before the fire. Present St Paul's[edit]

Canaletto: The River Thames
River Thames
with St. Paul's Cathedral
on Lord Mayor's Day (1746; Lobkowicz Collections, Prague)

Boats on the River Thames
River Thames
and St Paul's Cathedral, 1850s

St Paul's Cathedral
in 1896

The task of designing a replacement structure was officially assigned to Sir Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
on 30 July 1669.[14] He had previously been put in charge of the rebuilding of churches to replace those lost in the Great Fire. More than 50 City churches are attributable to Wren. Concurrent with designing St Paul's, Wren was engaged in the production of his five Tracts on Architecture.[15][page needed] Wren had begun advising on the repair of the Old St Paul's in 1661, five years before the fire in 1666.[16] The proposed work included renovations to interior and exterior to complement the classical facade designed by Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones
in 1630.[17] Wren planned to replace the dilapidated tower with a dome, using the existing structure as a scaffold. He produced a drawing of the proposed dome which shows his idea that it should span nave and aisles at the crossing.[18] After the Fire, it was at first thought possible to retain a substantial part of the old cathedral, but ultimately the entire structure was demolished in the early 1670s. In July 1668 Dean William Sancroft
William Sancroft
wrote to Wren that he was charged by the Archbishop of Canterbury, in agreement with the Bishops of London
and Oxford, to design a new cathedral that was "handsome and noble to all the ends of it and to the reputation of the City and the nation".[19] The design process took several years, but a design was finally settled and attached to a royal warrant, with the proviso that Wren was permitted to make any further changes that he deemed necessary. The result was the present St Paul's Cathedral, still the second largest church in Britain, with a dome proclaimed as the finest in the world.[20] The building was financed by a tax on coal, and was completed within its architect's lifetime with many of the major contractors engaged for the duration. The "topping out" of the cathedral (when the final stone was placed on the lantern) took place on 26 October 1708, performed by Wren's son Christopher Jr and the son of one of the masons.[21] The cathedral was declared officially complete by Parliament on 25 December 1711 (Christmas Day).[22] In fact, construction continued for several years after that, with the statues on the roof added in the 1720s. In 1716 the total costs amounted to £1,095,556[23] (£150 million in 2016).[24] Consecration[edit] On 2 December 1697, only 32 years and 3 months after the Great Fire destroyed 'Old St Paul's', the new cathedral was consecrated for use. The Right Reverend Henry Compton, Bishop
of London, preached the sermon. It was based on the text of Psalm 122, "I was glad when they said unto me: Let us go into the house of the Lord." The first regular service was held on the following Sunday. Opinions of Wren's cathedral differed, with some loving it: "Without, within, below, above, the eye / Is filled with unrestrained delight",[25][page needed] while others hated it: "...There was an air of Popery about the gilded capitals, the heavy arches...They were unfamiliar, un-English...".[26] Since 1900[edit] War damage[edit]

The iconic St Paul's Survives
St Paul's Survives
taken on 29 December 1940 of St Paul's during the Blitz

The cathedral survived the Blitz although struck by bombs on 10 October 1940 and 17 April 1941. The first strike destroyed the high altar, while the second strike on the north transept left a hole in the floor above the crypt.[27][28][better source needed] The latter bomb is believed to have detonated in the upper interior above the north transept and the force was sufficient to shift the entire dome laterally by a small amount.[29][30] On 12 September 1940 a time-delayed bomb that had struck the cathedral was successfully defused and removed by a bomb disposal detachment of Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
under the command of Temporary Lieutenant Robert Davies. Had this bomb detonated, it would have totally destroyed the cathedral; it left a 100-foot (30 m) crater when later remotely detonated in a secure location.[31] As a result of this action, Davies and Sapper
George Cameron Wylie were each awarded the George Cross.[32] Davies' George Cross
George Cross
and other medals are on display at the Imperial War Museum, London. One of the best known images of London
during the war was a photograph of St Paul's taken on 29 December 1940 during the "Second Great Fire of London" by photographer Herbert Mason, from the roof of a building in Tudor Street showing the cathedral shrouded in smoke. Lisa Jardine of Queen Mary, University of London, has written:[27]

Wreathed in billowing smoke, amidst the chaos and destruction of war, the pale dome stands proud and glorious—indomitable. At the height of that air-raid, Sir Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
telephoned the Guildhall to insist that all fire-fighting resources be directed at St Paul's. The cathedral must be saved, he said, damage to the fabric would sap the morale of the country.

Restoration[edit] Extensive copper, lead and slate renovation work was carried out on the Dome in 1996 by John B. Chambers. A 15-year restoration project—one of the largest ever undertaken in the UK—was completed on 15 June 2011.[33] Occupy London[edit] In October 2011 an anti-capitalism Occupy London
encampment was established in front of the cathedral, after failing to gain access to the London
Stock Exchange at Paternoster Square
Paternoster Square
nearby. The cathedral's finances were affected by the ensuing closure. It was claimed that the cathedral was losing revenue of £20,000 per day.[34] Canon Chancellor Giles Fraser
Giles Fraser
resigned, asserting his view that "evicting the anti-capitalist activists would constitute violence in the name of the Church".[35] The Dean of St Paul's, the Right Revd Graeme Knowles, then resigned too.[36] The encampment was evicted at the end of February 2012, by court order and without violence, as a result of legal action by the City Corporation.[37] Ministry and functions[edit] St Paul's Cathedral
is a busy church with four or five services every day, including Matins, Eucharist
and Evening Prayer or Choral Evensong[38] In addition, the cathedral has many special services associated with the City of London, its corporation, guilds and institutions. The cathedral, as the largest church in London, also has a role in many state functions such as the service celebrating the Diamond Jubilee
Diamond Jubilee
of Queen Elizabeth II. The cathedral is generally open daily to tourists and has a regular programme of organ recitals and other performances.[39] The Bishop-designate of London
is Sarah Mullally, whose appointment was announced in December 2017.

St Paul's during a special service in 2008

Dean and chapter[edit] The cathedral chapter is currently composed of eight individuals: the dean, four residentiary canons, one ordained additional member of chapter and canon non-residentiary, and two lay canons. Each has a different responsibility in the running of the cathedral.[40] As of 6 January 2018:

Dean — David Ison
David Ison
(since 25 May 2012)[41] Chancellor — Mark Oakley
Mark Oakley
(Canon since June 2010; Chancellor since 11 January 2013). Previously Canon Treasurer, Oakley is in charge of the cathedral's educational outreach to schools and the public.[42] Precentor
— Michael Hampel (since 25 March 2011) is responsible for music and liturgy at the cathedral.[43] Pastor
— Tricia Hillas (since November 2013) oversees welfare and training with specific focus on marketing, enterprises, communications, HR and development.[44][45] Treasurer — Jonathan Brewster (since July 2017) is responsible for finance and for the cathedral building.[46] Additional member of chapter and canon non-residentiary — Sheila Watson (since January 2017).[47] Lay canon (finance) — Gavin Ralston (since February 2010) holds particular responsibility for finance. He is also Global Head of Product and international asset manager at Schroder Investment Management. Lay canon — Pim Baxter[48] (Pamela Jane Baxter; since March 2014). She is also Deputy Director at the National Portrait Gallery, with experience in opera, theatre and the visual arts.

Registrar[edit] The Registrar, Emma Davies (September 2015), is the cathedral's principal administrator and lay officer, and assists the cathedral chapter in its work, overseeing more than 150 full-time staff, together with volunteers.[49] She is a solicitor and was a senior civil servant prior to her appointment.[50][51] Minor Canons and Priest Vicar[edit] There are three full-time clergy working at St Paul's who are part of its ministry and mission team, but are not members of the cathedral chapter. Two are Minor Canons with particular areas of specialist responsibility, including ceremony, music, liturgy and daily services.

Succentor: Rosemary Morton (since December 2014) Sacrist: James Milne (since February 2015).

The Chaplain is responsible for the pastoral care of the cathedral, under the oversight of the Canon Pastor. The role of Chaplain is no longer that of a Minor Canon but is in the newly established category of Priest Vicar.[52][53][54]

Chaplain: Helen O'Sullivan (since November 2015)[55][56]

Director of Music[edit] The Director of Music is Andrew Carwood.[57] Carwood was appointed to succeed Malcolm Archer as Director of Music, taking up the post in September 2007.[58] He is the first non-organist to hold the post since the 12th century. See also: List of musicians at English cathedrals Organ[edit] The organ was commissioned from Bernard Smith in 1694. Lang 1956, p. 171 The current instrument is the third-largest [57] in Great Britain in terms of number of pipes (7,189), with 5 manuals, 189 ranks of pipes and 138 stops, enclosed in an impressive case designed in Wren's workshop and decorated by Grinling Gibbons.[59] Details of the organ from the National Pipe Organ Register Choir[edit] St Paul's Cathedral
has a choir, largely of men and boys, which sings regularly at services. The earliest records of the choir date from 1127. The present choir consist of up to 30 boy choristers, eight probationers and the Vicars Choral, 12 professional singers, historically men. In February 2017 the cathedral announced the appointment of the first female Vicar Choral, Carris Jones (a mezzo-soprano), to take up the role in September 2017.[60][61][62] During school terms the choir sings at Evensong five times per week, the service on Mondays being sung by a visiting choir (or occasionally said) and that on Thursdays being sung by the Vicars Choral without the boys. On Sundays the choir also sings at Matins and Eucharist.[57] Many distinguished musicians have been organists, choir masters and choristers at St Paul's Cathedral, including the composers John Redford, Thomas Morley, John Blow, Jeremiah Clarke and John Stainer, while well known performers have included Alfred Deller, John Shirley-Quirk and Anthony Way as well as the conductors Charles Groves and Paul Hillier
Paul Hillier
and the poet Walter de la Mare. Wren's cathedral[edit] Development of the design[edit]

"Sir Christopher Wren Said, "I am going to dine with some men. If anyone calls, Say I'm designing Saint Paul's."

A clerihew by Edmund Clerihew Bentley

In designing St Paul's, Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
had to meet many challenges. He had to create a fitting cathedral to replace Old St Paul's, as a place of worship and as a landmark within the City of London. He had to satisfy the requirements of the church and the tastes of a royal patron, as well as respecting the essentially mediaeval tradition of English church building which developed to accommodate the liturgy. Wren was familiar with contemporary Renaissance
and Baroque trends in Italian architecture and had visited France, where he studied the work of François Mansart. Wren's design developed through five general stages. The first survives only as a single drawing and part of a model. The scheme (usually called the First Model Design) appears to have consisted of a circular domed vestibule (possibly based on the Pantheon in Rome) and a rectangular church of basilica form. The plan may have been influenced by the Temple Church. It was rejected because it was not thought "stately enough"[63] Wren's second design was a Greek cross, which was thought by the clerics not to fulfil the requirements of Anglican liturgy.[64] Wren's third design is embodied in the "Great Model" of 1673. The model, made of oak and plaster, cost over £500 (approximately £32,000 today) and is over 13 feet (4 m) tall and 21 feet (6 m) long.[65] This design retained the form of the Greek Cross design but extended it with a nave. His critics, members of a committee commissioned to rebuild the church, and clergy, decried the design as too dissimilar to other English churches to suggest any continuity within the Church of England. Another problem was that the entire design would have to be completed all at once because of the eight central piers that supported the dome, instead of being completed in stages and opened for use before construction finished, as was customary. The Great Model was Wren's favourite design; he thought it a reflection of Renaissance
beauty.[66] After the Great Model, Wren resolved not to make further models and not publicly to expose his drawings, which he found to do nothing but "lose time, and subject [his] business many times, to incompetent judges".[64] The Great Model survives and is housed within the Cathedral
itself. Wren's fourth design is known as the Warrant design because it received a Royal warrant for the rebuilding. In this design Wren sought to reconcile Gothic, the predominant style of English churches, to a "better manner of architecture." It has the longitudinal Latin Cross plan of a mediaeval cathedral. It is of one and a half storeys and has classical porticos at the west and transept ends, influenced by Inigo Jones’s addition to Old St Paul's.[64] It is roofed at the crossing by a wide shallow dome supporting a drum with a second cupola from which rises a spire of seven diminishing stages. Vaughan Hart has suggested that influence may have been drawn from the oriental pagoda in the design of the spire. Not used at St Paul's, the concept was applied in the spire of St Bride's, Fleet Street.[15][page needed] This plan was rotated slightly on its site so that it aligned not with true east, but with sunrise on Easter of the year construction began. This small change in configuration was informed by Wren's knowledge of astronomy.[17]

The Greek Cross Design

The Warrant Design

St Paul's, as it was built

Final design[edit] The final design as built differs substantially from the official Warrant design. [67][page needed] Wren received permission from the king to make "ornamental changes" to the submitted design, and Wren took great advantage of this. Many of these changes were made over the course of the thirty years as the church was constructed, and the most significant was to the dome: "He raised another structure over the first cupola, a cone of brick, so as to support a stone lantern of an elegant figure... And he covered and hid out of sight the brick cone with another cupola of timber and lead; and between this and the cone are easy stairs that ascend to the lantern" (Christopher Wren, son of Sir Christopher Wren). The final design was strongly rooted in St. Peter's Basilica
in Rome. The saucer domes over the nave were inspired by François Mansart's Church of the Val-de-Grâce, which Wren had seen during a trip to Paris in 1665.[66] The date of the laying of the first stone of the cathedral is disputed. One contemporary account says it was on 21 June 1675, another on 25 June and a third on 28 June. There is, however, general agreement that it was laid in June 1675. Edward Strong later claimed it was laid by his elder brother, Thomas Strong, one of the two master stonemasons appointed by Wren at the beginning of the work.[68]

Structural engineering[edit]

Cross-section showing the brick cone between the inner and outer domes

William Dickinson's plan for the floor paving (1709–1710)

Wren's challenge was to construct a large cathedral on the relatively weak clay soil of London. St Paul's is unusual among cathedrals in that there is a crypt, the largest in Europe, under the entire building rather than just under the eastern end.[69] The crypt serves a structural purpose. Although it is extensive, half the space of the crypt is taken up by massive piers which spread the weight of the much slimmer piers of the church above. While the towers and domes of most cathedrals are supported on four piers, Wren designed the dome of St Paul's to be supported on eight, achieving a broader distribution of weight at the level of the foundations.[70] The foundations settled as the building progressed, and Wren made structural changes in response.[71] One of the design problems that confronted Wren was to create a landmark dome, tall enough to visually replace the lost tower of St Paul's, while at the same time appearing visually satisfying when viewed from inside the building. Wren planned a double-shelled dome, as at St Peter's Basilica.[72] His solution to the visual problem was to separate the heights of the inner and outer dome to a much greater extent than had been done by Michelangelo
at St Peter's, drafting both as catenary curves, rather than as hemispheres. Between the inner and outer domes, Wren inserted a brick cone which supports both the timbers of the outer, lead covered dome and the weight of the ornate stone lantern that rises above it. Both the cone and the inner dome are 18 inches thick and are supported by wrought iron chains at intervals in the brick cone and around the cornice of the peristyle of the inner dome to prevent spreading and cracking.[70][73] The Warrant Design showed external buttresses on the ground floor level.These were not a classical feature and were one of the first elements Wren changed. Instead he made the walls of the cathedral particularly thick to avoid the need for external buttresses altogether. The clerestorey and vault are reinforced with flying buttresses, which were added at a relatively late stage in the design to give extra strength.[74] These are concealed behind the screen wall of the upper storey which was added to keep the building's classical style intact, to add sufficient visual mass to balance the appearance of the dome and which, by its weight, counters the thrust of the buttresses on the lower walls.[70][72] Designers, builders and craftsmen[edit] During the extensive period of design and rationalisation Wren employed from 1684 Nicholas Hawksmoor
Nicholas Hawksmoor
as his principal assistant.[15][page needed] Between 1696 and 1711 William Dickinson was measuring clerk.[75] Joshua Marshall (until his early death in 1678) and Thomas and his brother Edward Strong were master masons, the latter two working on the construction for its entirety. John Langland was the master carpenter for over thirty years.[59] Grinling Gibbons
Grinling Gibbons
was the chief sculptor, working in both stone on the building itself, including the pediment of the north portal, and wood on the internal fittings.[59] The sculptor Caius Gabriel Cibber created the pediment of the south transept[76] while Francis Bird
Francis Bird
was responsible for the relief in the west pediment depicting the Conversion of St Paul, as well as the seven large statues on the west front.[77] The floor was paved by William Dickinson in black and white marble in 1709–10[78] Jean Tijou
Jean Tijou
was responsible for the decorative wrought ironwork of gates and balustrades.[59] The ball and cross on the dome were provided by an armorer, Andrew Niblett.[79] Description[edit]

Audio description of the cathedral by Sandy Nairne


St Paul's Cathedral
is built in a restrained Baroque style which represents Wren's rationalisation of the traditions of English medieval cathedrals with the inspiration of Palladio, the classical style of Inigo Jones, the baroque style of 17th century Rome, and the buildings by Mansart and others that he had seen in France.[2][page needed] It is particularly in its plan that St Paul's reveals medieval influences.[70] Like the great medieval cathedrals of York and Winchester, St Paul's is comparatively long for its width, and has strongly projecting transepts. It has much emphasis on its facade, which has been designed to define rather than conceal the form of the building behind it. In plan, the towers jut beyond the width of the aisles as they do at Wells Cathedral. Wren's uncle Matthew Wren
Matthew Wren
was the Bishop
of Ely, and through having worked for his uncle Wren was familiar with the unique octagonal lantern tower over the crossing of the Cathedral
in Ely which spans the aisles as well as the central nave, unlike the central towers and domes of most churches. Wren adapted this characteristic in designing the dome of St Paul's.[70] In section St Paul's also maintains a medieval form, having the aisles much lower than the nave, and a defined clerestory. Exterior[edit] The most notable exterior feature is the dome, which rises 365 feet (111 m) to the cross at its summit,[80] and dominates views of the City. The height of 365 feet is explained by Wren's interest in astronomy. Until the late 20th century St Paul's was the tallest building on the City skyline, designed to be seen surrounded by the delicate spires of Wren's other city churches. The dome is described by Sir Banister Fletcher
Sir Banister Fletcher
as "probably the finest in Europe", by Helen Gardner as "majestic", and by Sir Nikolaus Pevsner
Nikolaus Pevsner
as "one of the most perfect in the world". Sir John Summerson
John Summerson
said that Englishmen and "even some foreigners" consider it to be without equal.[81] Dome[edit]

The dome

Wren drew inspiration from Michelangelo's dome of St Peter's Basilica, and that of Mansart's Church of the Val-de-Grâce, which he had visited.[82] Unlike those of St Peter's and Val-de-Grâce, the dome of St Paul's rises in two clearly defined storeys of masonry, which, together with a lower unadorned footing, equal a height of about 95 feet. From the time of the Greek Cross Design it is clear that Wren favoured a continuous colonnade (peristyle) around the drum of the dome, rather than the arrangement of alternating windows and projecting columns that Michelangelo
had used and which had also been employed by Mansart.[83] Summerson suggests that he was influenced by Bramante's "Tempietto" in the courtyard of San Pietro in Montorio.[84] In the finished structure, Wren creates a diversity and appearance of strength by placing niches between the columns in every fourth opening.[84] The peristyle serves to buttress both the inner dome and the brick cone which rises internally to support the lantern. Above the peristyle rises the second stage surrounded by a balustraded balcony called the "Stone Gallery". This attic stage is ornamented with alternating pilasters and rectangular windows which are set just below the cornice, creating a sense of lightness. Above this attic rises the dome, covered with lead, and ribbed in accordance with the spacing of the pilasters. It is pierced by eight light wells just below the lantern, but these are barely visible. They allow light to penetrate through openings in the brick cone, which illuminates the interior apex of this shell, partly visible from within the cathedral through the ocular opening of the lower dome.[70] The lantern, like the visible masonry of the dome, rises in stages. The most unusual characteristic of this structure is that it is of square plan, rather than circular or octagonal. The tallest stage takes the form of a tempietto with four columned porticos facing the cardinal points. Its lowest level is surrounded by the "Golden Gallery" and its upper level supports a small dome from which rises a cross on a golden ball. The total weight of the lantern is about 850 tons.[20] West front[edit]

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St Pauls Cathedral
West Front Dome Street View

West Front

For the Renaissance
architect designing the west front of a large church or cathedral, the universal problem was how to use a facade to unite the high central nave with the lower aisles in a visually harmonious whole. Since Alberti's additions to Santa Maria Novella
Santa Maria Novella
in Florence, this was usually achieved by the simple expedient of linking the sides to the centre with large brackets. This is the solution that Wren saw employed by Mansart at Val-de-Grâce. Another feature employed by Mansart was a boldly projecting Classical portico with paired columns. Wren faced the additional challenge of incorporating towers into the design, as had been planned at St Peter's Basilica. At St Peter's, Carlo Maderno
Carlo Maderno
had solved this problem by constructing a narthex and stretching a huge screen facade across it, differentiated at the centre by a pediment. The towers at St Peter's were not built above the parapet. Wren's solution was to employ a Classical portico, as at Val-de-Grâce, but rising through two storeys, and supported on paired columns. The remarkable feature here is that the lower storey of this portico extends to the full width of the aisles, while the upper section defines the nave that lies behind it. The gaps between the upper stage of the portico and the towers on either side are bridged by a narrow section of wall with an arch-topped window. The towers stand outside the width of the aisles, but screen two chapels located immediately behind them. The lower parts of the towers continue the theme of the outer walls, but are differentiated from them in order to create an appearance of strength. The windows of the lower storey are smaller than those of the side walls and are deeply recessed, a visual indication of the thickness of the wall. The paired pilasters at each corner project boldly. Above the main cornice, which unites the towers with the portico and the outer walls, the details are boldly scaled, in order to read well from the street below and from a distance. The towers rise above the cornice from a square block plinth which is plain apart from large oculi, that on the south being filled by the clock, while that on the north is void. The towers are composed of two complementary elements, a central cylinder rising through the tiers in a series of stacked drums, and paired Corinthian columns at the corners, with buttresses above them, which serve to unify the drum shape with the square plinth on which it stands. The entablature above the columns breaks forward over them to express both elements, tying them together in a single horizontal band. The cap, an ogee-shaped dome, supports a gilded pineapple-shaped finial.[85] The transepts each have a semi-circular entrance portico. Wren was inspired in the design by studying engravings of Pietro da Cortona's Baroque facade of Santa Maria della Pace
Santa Maria della Pace
in Rome.[86][page needed] These projecting arcs echo the shape of the apse at the eastern end of the building. Walls[edit]

St Paul's from the south-east with the tower of the destroyed Church of St Augustine to the right.

The building is of two storeys of ashlar masonry, above a basement, and surrounded by a balustrade above the upper cornice. The balustrade was added, against Wren's wishes, in 1718.[86][page needed] The internal bays are marked externally by paired pilasters with Corinthian capitals at the lower level and Composite at the upper level. Where the building behind is of only one storey (at the aisles of both nave and choir) the upper storey of the exterior wall is sham.[20] It serves a dual purpose of supporting the buttresses of the vault, and providing a satisfying appearance when viewed rising above buildings of the height of the 17th century city. This appearance may still be seen from across the River Thames. Between the pilasters on both levels are windows. Those of the lower storey have semi-circular heads and are surrounded by continuous mouldings of a Roman style, rising to decorative keystones. Beneath each window is a floral swag by Grinling Gibbons, constituting the finest stone carving on the building and some of the greatest architectural sculpture in England. A frieze with similar swags runs in a band below the cornice, tying the arches of the windows and the capitals. The upper windows are of a restrained Classical form, with pediments set on columns, but are blind and contain niches. Beneath these niches, and in the basement level, are small windows with segmental tops, the glazing of which catches the light and visually links them to the large windows of the aisles. The height from ground level to the top of the parapet is approximately 110 feet. Interior[edit]

The nave, looking towards the choir

The choir, looking towards the nave

Internally, St Paul's has a nave and choir in each of its three bays. The entrance from the west portico is through a square domed narthex, flanked by chapels: the Chapel
of St Dunstan to the north and the Chapel
of the Order of St Michael and St George to the south.[70] The nave is 91 feet (28 m) in height and is separated from the aisles by an arcade of piers with attached Corinthian pilasters rising to an entablature. The bays, and therefore the vault compartments, are rectangular, but Wren roofed these spaces with saucer-shaped domes and surrounded the clerestory windows with lunettes.[70] The vaults of the choir are decorated with mosaics by Sir William Blake
William Blake
Richmond.[70] The dome and the apse of the choir are all approached through wide arches with coffered vaults which contrast with the smooth surface of the domes and punctuate the division between the main spaces. The transepts extend to the north and south of the dome and are called (in this instance) the North Choir and the South Choir. The choir holds the stalls for the clergy, cathedral officers and the choir, and the organ. These wooden fittings, including the pulpit and Bishop's throne, were designed in Wren's office and built by joiners. The carvings are the work of Grinling Gibbons
Grinling Gibbons
whom Summerson describes as having "astonishing facility", suggesting that Gibbons aim was to reproduce popular Dutch flower painting in wood.[59] Jean Tijou, a French metalworker, provided various wrought iron and gilt grilles, gates and balustrades of elaborate design, of which many pieces have now been combined into the gates near the sanctuary.[59] The cathedral is some 574 feet (175 m) in length (including the portico of the Great West Door), of which 223 feet (68 m) is the nave and 167 feet (51 m) is the choir. The width of the nave is 121 feet (37 m) and across the transepts is 246 feet (75 m).[87] The cathedral is slightly shorter but somewhat wider than Old St Paul's. Dome[edit]

The interior of the dome showing how Thornhill's painting continues an illusion of the real architectural features.

This view of an arch spanning the aisle shows how Wren succeeded in giving an impression of eight equal arches.

The main internal space of the cathedral is that under the central dome which extends the full width of the nave and aisles. The dome is supported on pendentives rising between eight arches spanning the nave, choir, transepts, and aisles. The eight piers that carry them are not evenly spaced. Wren has maintained an appearance of eight equal spans by inserting segmental arches to carry galleries across the ends of the aisles, and has extended the mouldings of the upper arch to appear equal to the wider arches.[72] Above the keystones of the arches, at 99 feet (30 m) above the floor and 112 feet (34 m) wide, runs a cornice which supports the Whispering Gallery so called because of its acoustic properties: a whisper or low murmur against its wall at any point is audible to a listener with an ear held to the wall at any other point around the gallery. It is reached by 259 steps from ground level. The dome is raised on a tall drum surrounded by pilasters and pierced with windows in groups of three, separated by eight gilded niches containing statues, and repeating the pattern of the peristyle on the exterior. the dome rises above a gilded cornice at 173 feet (53 m) to a height of 214 feet (65 m). Its painted decoration by Sir James Thornhill
Sir James Thornhill
shows eight scenes from the life of St Paul set in illusionistic architecture which continues the forms of the eight niches of the drum.[88] At the apex of the dome is an oculus inspired by that of the Pantheon in Rome. Through this hole can be seen the decorated inner surface of the cone which supports the lantern. This upper space is lit by the light wells in the outer dome and openings in the brick cone. Engravings of Thornhill's paintings were published in 1720.[89] Apse[edit]

The choir, looking east

The apse and high altar

The eastern apse extends the width of the choir and is the full height of the main arches across choir and nave. It is decorated with mosaics, in keeping with the choir vaults. The original reredos and high altar were destroyed by bombing in 1940. The present high altar and baldacchino are the work of W. Godfrey Allen and Stephen Dykes Bower.[69] The apse was dedicated in 1958 as the American Memorial Chapel.[90] It was paid for entirely by donations from British people.[91] The Roll of Honour contains the names of more than 28,000 Americans who gave their lives while on their way to, or stationed in, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
during the Second World War.[92] It is in front of the chapel's altar. The three windows of the apse date from 1960 and depict themes of service and sacrifice, while the insignia around the edges represent the American states and the US armed forces. The limewood panelling incorporates a rocket—a tribute to America's achievements in space.[93] Artworks, tombs and memorials[edit]

The south choir organ

St Paul's at the time of its completion, was adorned by sculpture in stone and wood, most notably that of Grinling Gibbons, by the paintings in the dome by Thornhill, and by Jean Tijou's elaborate metalwork. It has been further enhanced by Sir William Richmond's mosaics and the fittings by Dykes Bower and Godfrey Allen.[69] Other artworks in the cathedral include, in the south aisle, William Holman Hunt's copy of his painting The Light of the World, the original of which hangs in Keble College, Oxford. The St. Paul's version was completed with a significant input from Edward Robert Hughes
Edward Robert Hughes
as Hunt was now suffering from glaucoma. In the north choir aisle is a limestone sculpture of the Madonna and Child by Henry Moore, carved in 1943.[69] The crypt contains over 200 memorials and numerous burials. Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
was the first person to be interred, in 1723. On the wall above his tomb in the crypt is written in Latin: Lector, si monumentum requiris, circumspice ("Reader, if you seek his monument, look around you").

of Nelson in the crypt

The largest monument in the cathedral is that to the Duke of Wellington by Alfred Stevens. It stands on the north side of the nave and has on top a statue of Wellington astride his horse "Copenhagen". Although the equestrian figure was planned at the outset, objections to the notion of having a horse in the church prevented its installation until 1912. The horse and rider are by John Tweed. The Duke is buried in the crypt.[69]

A 1913 memorial by Max Gill
Max Gill
commemorating those who were buried or memorialised in Old St. Paul's Cathedral.

The tomb of Horatio, Lord Nelson is located in the crypt, next to that of Wellington.[94] The marble sarcophagus which holds his remains was made for Cardinal Wolsey
Cardinal Wolsey
but not used as the cardinal had fallen from favour.[95][69] At the eastern end of the crypt is the Chapel
of the Order of the British Empire, instigated in 1917, and designed by John Seely, Lord Mottistone.[69] There are many other memorials commemorating the British military, including several lists of servicemen who died in action, the most recent being the Gulf War. Also remembered are Florence Nightingale, J. M. W. Turner, Arthur Sullivan, Hubert Parry, Samuel Johnson, Lawrence of Arabia, William Blake and Sir Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
as well as clergy and residents of the local parish. There are lists of the Bishops and cathedral Deans for the last thousand years. One of the most remarkable sculptures is that of the Dean and poet, John Donne. Before his death, Donne posed for his own memorial statue and was depicted by Nicholas Stone
Nicholas Stone
as wrapped in a burial shroud, and standing on a funeral urn. The sculpture, carved around 1630, is the only one to have survived the conflagration of 1666 intact.[69] The treasury is also in the crypt but the cathedral has very few treasures as many have been lost, and on 22 December 1810 a major robbery took almost all of the remaining precious artefacts.[96] The funerals of many notable figures have occurred at the cathedral, including those of Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, Winston Churchill, George Mallory
George Mallory
and Margaret Thatcher.[97]

360° view of the interior near the High Altar.

Clock and bells[edit] A clock was installed in the south-west tower by Langley Bradley in 1709 but was worn out by the end of the 19th century.[98] The present mechanism was built in 1893 by Smith of Derby incorporating a design of escapement by Edmund Denison Beckett similar to that used by Edward Dent on Big Ben's mechanism in 1895. The clock mechanism is 19 feet (5.8 m) long and is the most recent of the clocks introduced to St Paul's Cathedral
over the centuries. Since 1969 the clock has been electrically wound with equipment designed and installed by Smith of Derby, relieving the clock custodian from the work of cranking up the heavy drive weights. The southwest tower also contains four bells, of which Great Paul, cast in 1881 by Taylor's bell foundry of Loughborough, at 16 1⁄2 long tons (16,800 kg) was the largest bell in the British Isles
British Isles
until the casting of the Olympic Bell
Olympic Bell
for the 2012 London
Olympics.[99] This bell has traditionally sounded at 1 pm each day. Great Paul has not been rung for several years because of a broken chiming mechanism.[100] The clock bells included Great Tom, which was moved from St Stephen's Chapel
at the Palace of Westminster and has been recast several times, the last time by Richard Phelps. It chimes the hour and is traditionally tolled on occasions of a death in the royal family, the Bishop
of London, or the Lord Mayor of London, although an exception was made at the death of the US president James Garfield.[101] It was last tolled for the death of Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, in 2002.[99] In 1717, Richard Phelps cast two more bells that were added as "quarter jacks" that ring on the quarter hour. Still in use today, the first weighs 13 long cwt (1,500 lb; 660 kg), is 41 inches (100 cm) in diameter and is tuned to A♭; the second weighs 35 long cwt (3,900 lb; 1,800 kg) and is 58 inches (150 cm) in diameter and is tuned to E♭. The northwest tower contains a ring of 12 bells by John Taylor & Co of Loughborough
hung for change ringing and the original service or "Communion" bell dating from 1700 and known as "the Banger" which is rung before 8 am services.[99]

The southwest tower

Details of the bells

Bell Weight Nominal Hz Note Diameter Date cast Founder

long measure lb kg in cm

1 8 long cwt 1 qr  4 lb 928 421 1,461.0 F 30.88 78.4 1878 John Taylor & Co

2 9 long cwt 0 qr 20 lb 1,028 466 1,270.0 E♭ 32.50 82.6 1878 John Taylor & Co

3 9 long cwt 3 qr 12 lb 1,104 501 1,199.0 D 34.00 86.4 1878 John Taylor & Co

4 11 long cwt 2 qr 22 lb 1,310 594 1,063.0 C 36.38 92.4 1878 John Taylor & Co

5 13 long cwt 1 qr  0 lb 1,484 673 954.0 B♭ 38.63 98.1 1878 John Taylor & Co

6 13 long cwt 2 qr 14 lb 1,526 692 884.0 A 39.63 100.7 1878 John Taylor & Co

7 16 long cwt 1 qr 18 lb 1,838 834 784.0 G 43.75 111.1 1878 John Taylor & Co

8 21 long cwt 3 qr 18 lb 2,454 1,113 705.0 F 47.63 121.0 1878 John Taylor & Co

9 27 long cwt 1 qr 22 lb 3,074 1,394 636.0 E♭ 52.50 133.4 1878 John Taylor & Co

10 29 long cwt 3 qr 21 lb 3,353 1,521 592.0 D 55.25 140.3 1878 John Taylor & Co

11 43 long cwt 2 qr  0 lb 4,872 2,210 525.0 C 61.25 155.6 1878 John Taylor & Co

12 61 long cwt 2 qr 12 lb 6,900 3,130 468.0 B♭ 69.00 175.3 1878 John Taylor & Co

Clock 12 long cwt 2 qr  9 lb 1,409 639


1707 Richard Phelps

Clock 24 long cwt 2 qr 26 lb 2,770 1,256


1707 Richard Phelps

Clock 102 long cwt 1 qr 22 lb 11,474 5,205

A♭ 82.88 210.5 1716 Richard Phelps

Bourdon 334 long cwt 2 qr 19 lb 37,483 17,002 317.1 E♭ 114.75 291.5 1881 John Taylor & Co

Communion 18 long cwt 2 qr 26 lb 2,098 952

E♭ 49.50 125.7 1700 Philip Wightman

Education, tourism and the arts[edit]

Gilt statue of Saint Paul at the top of St Paul's Cross
St Paul's Cross
in the cathedral precinct

Interpretation Project[edit] The Interpretation Project is a long term project concerned with bringing St Paul's to life for all its visitors. In 2010, the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's opened St Paul's Oculus, a 270° film experience that brings 1400 years of history to life.[102] Located in the former Treasury in the crypt, the film takes visitors on a journey through the history and daily life of St Paul's Cathedral. Oculus
was funded by American Express Company in partnership with the World Monuments Fund, J. P . Morgan, the Garfield Weston Trust for St Paul’s Cathedral, the City of London
Endowment Trust and AIG. In 2010, new touchscreen multimedia guides were also launched. These guides are included in the price of admission. Visitors can discover the cathedral’s history, architecture and daily life of a busy working church with these new multimedia guides. They are available in 12 different languages: English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Russian, Mandarin, Japanese, Korean and British Sign Language (BSL). The guides have fly-through videos of the dome galleries and zoomable close-ups of the ceiling mosaics, painting and photography. Interviews and commentary from experts include the Dean of St Paul’s, conservation team and the Director of Music. Archive film footage includes major services and events from the cathedral's history. Charges for sightseers[edit] St Paul's charges for the admission of those people who are sightseers, rather than worshippers; the charge is £18 (£16 when purchased online).[103] Outside service times, people seeking a quiet place to pray or worship are admitted to St Dunstan's Chapel
free of charge. On Sundays people are admitted only for services and concerts and there is no sightseeing. The charge to sightseers is made because St Paul's receives little regular or significant funding from the Crown, the Church of England
Church of England
or the state and relies on the income generated by tourism to allow the building to continue to function as a centre for Christian worship, as well as to cover general maintenance and repair work.[104][unreliable source] St Paul's Cathedral
Arts Project[edit] The St Paul’s Cathedral
Arts Project explores art and faith. Projects have included installations by Gerry Judah, Antony Gormley, Rebecca Horn, Yoko Ono
Yoko Ono
and Martin Firrell. In 2014, St Paul's commissioned Gerry Judah
Gerry Judah
to create an artwork in the nave to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the beginning of the First World War. Two spectacular sculptures consisting of three-dimensional white cruciforms reflect the meticulously maintained war graves of northern France and further afield. Each sculpture is also embellished with miniaturised destroyed residential blocks depicting war zones in the Middle East—Syria, Baghdad, Afghanistan—thus connecting 100 years of warfare.[105] Bill Viola
Bill Viola
has created two altarpieces for permanent display in St Paul's Cathedral. The project commenced production in mid-2009. Following the extensive programme of cleaning and repair of the interior of St Paul's, completed in 2005, Viola was commissioned to create two altarpieces on the themes of Mary and Martyrs. These two multi-screen video installations are permanently located at the end of the Quire aisles, flanking the High Altar of the cathedral and the American Memorial Chapel. Each work employs an arrangement of multiple plasma screen panels configured in a manner similar to historic altarpieces. In summer 2010, St Paul's chose two new works by the British artist Mark Alexander to be hung either side of the nave. Both entitled Red Mannheim, Alexander's large red silkscreens are inspired by the Mannheim
altarpiece (1739–41), which was damaged by bombing in the Second World War. The original sculpture depicts Christ on the cross, surrounded by a familiar retinue of mourners. Rendered in splendid giltwood, with Christ's wracked body sculpted in relief, and the flourishes of flora and incandescent rays from heaven, this masterpiece of the German Rococo is an object of ravishing beauty and intense piety. In March 2010, Flare II, a sculpture by Antony Gormley, was installed in the Geometric Staircase.[106] In 2007, the Dean and Chapter commissioned Martin Firrell
Martin Firrell
to create a major public artwork to mark the 300th anniversary of the topping-out of Wren's building. The Question Mark Inside consisted of digital text projections to the cathedral dome, West Front and inside onto the Whispering Gallery. The text was based on blog contributions by the general public as well as interviews conducted by the artist and on the artist's own views. The project presented a stream of possible answers to the question: 'What makes life meaningful and purposeful, and what does St Paul's mean in that contemporary context?' The Question Mark Inside opened on 8 November 2008 and ran for eight nights. Depictions of St Paul's[edit] St Paul's Cathedral
has been depicted many times in paintings, prints and drawings. Among the well-known artists to have painted it are Canaletto, Turner, Daubigny, Pissarro, Signac, Derain, Lloyd Rees,

Paintings and engravings of St Paul's

18th century engraving of St Paul's from the north-west by J. M. Mueller

19th century coloured engraving from the south-west by Thomas Hosmer Shepherd

Romantic 19th century engraving of St Paul's in the evening after rain by Edward Angelo Goodall

Oil painting, John O'Connor, Evening on Ludgate Hill
Ludgate Hill
(1887) St Paul's looms beyond St Martin's.

St Paul's from Richmond House by the Venetian painter Canaletto

St Paul's viewed from a loggia (c. 1748) by Antonio Joli
Antonio Joli
who also worked in Venice.

An Impressionist view of St Paul's from the River by Ernest Dade (before 1936)

St Paul's from Bankside, a watercolour by Frederick E. J. Goff (before 1931)

Photography and film[edit] St Paul's Cathedral
has been the subject of many photographs, most notably the iconic image of the dome surrounded by smoke during the Blitz.(see above) It has also been used in films and TV programmes (including The Famous Thames Television
Thames Television
Ident), either as the focus of the film, as in the episode of Climbing Great Buildings; as a feature of the film, as in Mary Poppins; or as an incidental location such as Wren's Geometric Staircase in the south-west tower which has appeared in several films including Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Films in which St Paul's has been depicted include:

St. Paul's Cathedral
(1942), a wartime documentary film for the British Council, the final part of which shows bomb damage in and around St Paul's.[107] Lawrence of Arabia
Lawrence of Arabia
(1962) shows the exterior of the building and the bust of T.E.Lawrence. Mary Poppins (1964) shows the steps and west front of the cathedral, the main setting for the song '"Feed the Birds'". St Paul's Cathedral
has appeared as a filming location twice in Doctor Who, in the 1968 serial The Invasion, and in the 2014 two-part story "Dark Water"/"Death in Heaven". In both, the Cybermen
are shown descending steps outside the Cathedral. St Paul's is seen briefly in the Goodies episode "Kitten Kong" (1971). During his rampage through London, Twinkle damages London
landmarks, including St Paul's Cathedral, the dome of which is knocked off. In the BBC educational programme "A Guide to Armageddon," (1982) a 1-megaton nuclear weapon is detonated over London, with St Paul's used as ground zero. The Madness of King George
The Madness of King George
(1994) shows the Geometric Staircase in the South West Bell Tower. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (2004) shows the Geometric Staircase in the south west bell tower, representing the staircase towards the Divination classroom. Industrial Revelations: Best of British Engineering — Buildings, with Rory McGrath
Rory McGrath
series 5, episode 1, 2008, focuses on St Paul's Cathedral. Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
(2009) shows the North side of the West Steps, and the Geometric Staircase in the South West Bell Tower. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (2009); the southern façade was briefly shown. Climbing Great Buildings (2010) Star Trek Into Darkness
Star Trek Into Darkness
(2013) depicts St Paul's in 23rd century London
along with other notable modern-day London
buildings.[b] Thor: The Dark World (2013) depicts St Paul's as one of several London landmarks that Thor
and his enemy, Malekith, fight over during an attack on the city. London
Has Fallen (2016) depicts the cathedral as the scheduled site of the British Prime Minister's funeral.

St Paul's in photography and film

An airship, Nulli Secundus, circling St Paul's on a flight from Farnborough to London

A member of the Royal Observer Corps
Royal Observer Corps
on watch during the Battle of Britain (1940)

The geometric staircase appears in several films including Sherlock Holmes (2009)

See also[edit]

portal London

Cyril Raikes
Cyril Raikes
(fire watching on the dome of the St Paul's Cathedral
in the Second World War) Category:Burials at St Paul's Cathedral List of cathedrals in the United Kingdom List of churches and cathedrals of London Paternoster Square St Paul's Cathedral
School Tall buildings in London The Light of the World (painting) Magnificat and Nunc dimittis for St Paul's Cathedral


^ "Nomina Episcoporum, cum Clericis Suis, Quinam, et ex Quibus Provinciis, ad Arelatensem Synodum Convenerint" ["The Names of the Bishops with Their Clerics who Came Together at the Synod of Arles and from which Province They Came"](from Labbé & Cossart 1671, col. 1429 included in Thackery 1843, pp. 272 ff.). ^ Advertising poster for Star Trek Into Darkness
Star Trek Into Darkness
(2013) — bottom right, the dome is visible to the left of and behind 30 St Mary Axe (the Gherkin)

^ Weinreb & Hibbert, p. 778. ^ a b Gardner, Kleiner & Mamiya 2004. ^ Betjeman 1970. ^ a b Pierce, Rebecca (2004), National Identity and the British Empire: the Image of Saint Paul’s Cathedral
(PDF), Master's Thesis, Marshall University  ^ "Sightseeing, Times & Prices". stpauls.co.uk. The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral. Retrieved 13 July 2017.  ^ Bede
1969, pp. 142–143. ^ a b Garmonsway 1953. ^ Denison 1995. ^ Sankey 1998, pp. 78–82. ^ Camden 1607, pp. 306–307. ^ Clark 1996, pp. 1–9. ^ Kelly 2004. ^ "404". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-11-08.  ^ Campbell 2007, p. 26. ^ a b c Hart 2002. ^ Campbell 2007, p. 10. ^ a b Lang 1956, pp. 47–63. ^ Summerson 1983, p. 204. ^ Summerson 1983, p. 223. ^ a b c Fletcher 1962, p. 913. ^ Keene, Burn & Saint 2004, p. 219. ^ Campbell 2007, p. 161. ^ Campbell 2007, p. 69. ^ UK Retail Price Index
Retail Price Index
inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 6 November 2017.  ^ Wright 1693. ^ Tinniswood 2001, p. 31. ^ a b Jardine 2006. ^ EI staff 1941 ^ The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral
2014. ^ Geffen 2014. ^ 1942531 Sapper
George Cameron Wylie. Bomb Disposal: Royal Engineers—George Cross, 33 Engineer regiment, Royal Engineers website, retrieved 28 January 2008  ^ "No. 34956". The London
Gazette (Supplement). 27 September 1940. pp. 5767–5768.  ^ BBC staff 2011. ^ Walker & Butt 2011. ^ Ward 2011. ^ Walker 2011. ^ BBC staff 2012. ^ "Worship - Choral Evensong". St Paul's Cathedral. Retrieved 12 October 2017.  ^ The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral
(2016), Home — St Paul's Cathedral, retrieved 18 February 2016  ^ The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral
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Mark Oakley
appointed Canon Chancellor of St Paul's, retrieved 18 February 2016  ^ St Paul's Cathedral
— Installation of Hampel as Precentor
Archived 31 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral
2016d. ^ The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral
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Governance, retrieved 18 February 2016  ^ "Emma Davies appointed Registrar of St Paul's Cathedral", Diocese
of London, retrieved 18 February 2016  ^ Senior civil servant appointed to top administrative role at St Paul's, retrieved 18 February 2016  ^ Stpauls.co.uk ^ St Paul's — Working Document: Constitution and Statutes Statute XIII, p. 18 (Accessed 6 January 2017) ^ The former College of Minor Canons
College of Minor Canons
and the former titles of Senior and Junior Cardinal were abolished in the Constitution and Statutes made by Instrument under the Common Seal of the Cathedral
Church of St Paul in London
on 1 February 2016 and coming into effect on that date. The consent of the Council was confirmed on 18 December 2015 under the hand of the Chairman. The Bishop
of London
gave his consent on 20 January 2016. A draft (only) of the amended measures appears in the working document referred to above. ^ Minor Canons, retrieved 18 February 2016  ^ New Chaplain for a ‘re-imagined’ role at St Paul’s Cathedral, retrieved 18 February 2016  ^ a b c " Cathedral
Choirs & Musicians". stpauls.co.uk. The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral. Retrieved 13 July 2017.  ^ "Appointment of new Director of Music". St Paul's Cathedral
website, news section. Dean and Chapter of St Paul's. 21 May 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-23.  ^ a b c d e f Summerson 1983, pp. 238–240. ^ Rudgard, Olivia (28 February 2017). "St Paul's Cathedral
appoints first female chorister in 1,000-year history". The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 July 2017.  ^ "St Paul's Cathedral
admits first woman to choir". BBC News. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.  ^ de la Ware, Tess (1 March 2017). "St Paul's appoints first full-time female chorister in 1,000-year history". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2017.  ^ Campbell 2007, pp. 27–28. ^ a b c Downes 1987, pp. 11–34. ^ Saunders 2001, p. 60. ^ a b Hart 1995, pp. 17–23. ^ Barker & Hyde 1982. ^ Campbell 2007, pp. 53–54. ^ a b c d e f g h Harris 1988, pp. 214–15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fletcher 1962, p. 906. ^ Campbell 2007, p. 56–59. ^ a b c Summerson 1983, p. 228. ^ Campbell 2007, p. 137. ^ Campbell 2007, pp. 105–114. ^ Tinniswood 2010, p. 203. ^ Lang 1956, p. 209. ^ Lang 1956, pp. 252, 230. ^ St Paul's website, Miscellaneous Drawings Archived 20 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ St Paul's Cathedral
website, Climb the Dome ^ Fletcher 1962, p. 912. ^ Fletcher 1962, p. 913; Gardner, Kleiner & Mamiya 2004, pp. 604–05;Pevsner 1964, pp. 324–26; Summerson 1983, p. 236. ^ Summerson 1983, p. 236. ^ Pevsner 1964, pp. 324–26. ^ a b Summerson 1983, p. 234. ^ https://www.stpauls.co.uk/history-collections/the-collections/architectural-archive/wren-office-drawings/6-the-western-towers-c16851710 ^ a b Leapman 1995. ^ St. Paul's Cathedral, The History Channel, archived from the original on 23 May 2008, retrieved 18 April 2008  ^ Lang 1956, p. 252. ^ Entered in the Entry Book at Stationers' Hall on 7 May 1720 by Thornhill. The Bodleian Library's deposit copy survives (Arch.Antiq.A.III.23). ^ St. Paul's Cathedral
American Memorial Chapel ^ Paul's Cathedral, St. (28 November 2006), Explore St. Paul's, explore-stpauls.net, retrieved 28 November 2006  ^ Roll of Honour, archived from the original on 6 August 2014, retrieved 26 October 2014  ^ St. Paul's Cathedral
(28 November 2006), St. Paul's Cathedral
Floor, stpauls.co.uk, archived from the original on 27 September 2006, retrieved 28 November 2006  ^ Holmes 2002, p. 297. ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 394 ^ MP staff 1810. ^ Quinn 2013. ^ "The New Clock of St Paul's". Nottingham Evening Post. England. 21 December 1893. Retrieved 4 December 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ a b c The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral
(2016), Home webpage, St Paul's Cathedral  ^ The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral
2016b, Bells. ^ Dunton 1896, pp. 25–26. ^ Oculus: an eye into St Paul's Archived 31 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sightseeing Times & Prices, St Paul's Cathedral, retrieved 27 April 2014  ^ Talbot, Hannah (8 July 2011), Comment on "Rip-Off London
— Pay £14.50 to get into a church!", Trip Advisor, retrieved 30 October 2011  ^ Giant white crosses remind St Paul's worshippers and visitors of the horrors of warfare, retrieved 18 February 2016  ^ 6 Unique Staircases in the UK You Wish You Could Walk Over, medium.com  ^ " British Council
British Council
Film Collection — St. Paul's Cathedral". film.britishcouncil.org. British Council. 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2016. 


Barker, Felix; Hyde, Ralph (1982), London
as it might have been, John Murray  BBC staff (15 June 2011), St Paul's Cathedral
completes £40m restoration project, BBC News, retrieved 23 November 2011  BBC staff (28 February 2012), St Paul's protest: Occupy London
camp evicted, BBC  Bede
(1969), Colgrave, Bertram; Mynors, R. A. B., eds., Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 142–143  Betjeman, John (1970), A Pictorial History of English Architecture, John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-2640-X  Camden, William (1607), Britannia (in Latin), London: G. Bishop
& J. Norton, pp. 306–7  Campbell, James W. P. (2007), Building St Paul's, London: Thames and Hudson, ISBN 978-0-500-34244-2  The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral
(4 March 2014), Cutting edge technology reveals historical secrets of St Paul's in new TV series, St Paul's Cathedral  The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral
(2016b), The Organs and Bells, St Paul's Cathedral, retrieved 18 February 2016  The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral
(2016c), Who are we?, St Paul's Cathedral  The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral
(2016d), Members of Chapter, St Paul's Cathedral, retrieved 18 February 2016  The Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral
(2016e), New Canon Pastor
appointed at St Paul's, St Paul's Cathedral, retrieved 18 February 2016  Clark, John (1996), "The Temple of Diana", in Bird, Joanna; et al., Interpreting Roman London, Oxbow Monograph, 58, Oxford: Oxbow, pp. 1–9  Denison, Simon (June 1995), "News: In Brief", British Archaeology, Council for British Archaeology, archived from the original on 13 May 2013, retrieved 30 March 2013  Downes, Kerry (1987), Sir Christopher Wren: the Design of St Paul's Cathedral, London: Trefoil Publications, pp. 11–34  Dunton, Larkin (1896), The World and Its People, Silver, Burdett, pp. 25–26  EI staff (19 April 1941), "St. Paul's Cathedral
in London
Hit by Bomb", The Evening Independent  Fletcher, Banister (1962), A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method (seventeenth edition), Athlone Press, University of London  Geffen, Anthony (producer) (8 July 2014), "Time Scanners: St. Paul's Cathedral", Scanners, Atlantic Productions  Hart, Vaughan (1995), St Paul's Cathedral, Christopher Wren, London: Phaidon Press Limited, pp. 17–23 . Hart, Vaughan (2002), Nicholas Hawksmoor: Rebuilding Ancient Wonders, Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-09699-6  Gardner, Helen; Kleiner, Fred S.; Mamiya, Christin J. (2004), Gardner's Art
through the Ages, Thomson Wadsworth, ISBN 0-15-505090-7  Garmonsway, G. N., trans. (1953), The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, London: Dent  Harris, Brian L. (1988), Harris's Guide to Churches and Cathedrals, Ebury Press, ISBN 0091912512  Keene, Derek; Burn, R. Arthur; Saint, Andrew, eds. (2004), St Paul's — The Cathedral
Church of London
604–2004, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-09276-8  Kelly, S.E., ed. (2004), Charters of St Paul's, London, Anglo-Saxon Charters, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-726299-6  Holmes, Richard (2002), Wellington: The Iron Duke, London: Harper Collins Publishers, ISBN 978-0-00-713750-3  Jardine, Lisa (15 May 2006), "Homage to Highbury", BBC News, retrieved 7 September 2010  Lang, Jane (1956), Rebuilding St Paul's after the Great Fire of London, Oxford: Oxford University Press  Leapman, Michael (1995), Eyewitness Travel Guide to Great Britain, Dorling Kindersley, ISBN 0751300055  MP staff (24 December 1810), "Robbery at St Paul's Cathedral", Morning Post, retrieved 11 July 2014  Pevsner, Nikolaus (1964), An Outline of European Architecture, Pelican Books  Quinn, Jennifer (8 April 2013), "Margaret Thatcher, former British prime minister known as 'The Iron Lady,' dies at 87", Toronto Star  Sankey, D. (1998), "Cathedrals, granaries and urban vitality in late Roman London", in Watson, Bruce, Roman London: Recent Archaeological Work, JRA Supplementary Series, 24, Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, pp. 78–82  Saunders, Ann (2001), St Paul's: The Story of the Cathedral, London: Collins and Brown Limited, p. 60  Summerson, John (1983), Architecture of Britain 1530–1830, The Pelican History of Art, Penguin Books, ISBN 0140560033  Thackery, Francis (1843), Researches into the Ecclesiastical and Political State of Ancient Britain under the Roman Emperors: with Observations upon the Principal Events and Characters Connected with the Christian Religion, during the First Five Centuries, London: T. Cadell, pp. 272 ff. 

Labbé, Philippe; Cossart, Gabriel, eds. (1671), "Ab Initiis Æræ Christianæ ad Annum CCCXXIV: From the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Year 324: col. 1429.", Sacrosancta Concilia ad Regiam Editionem Exacta: quae Nunc Quarta Parte Prodit Actior: The Sancrosanct Councils Exacted for the Royal Edition: which the Editors Now Produce in Four Parts& (in Latin), I, Paris: The Typographical Society for Ecclesiastical Books 

Tinniswood, Adrian (2001), His Invention so Fertile: A Life of Christopher Wren, London: Oxford Press, p. 31  Tinniswood, Adrian (2010), His Invention So Fertile, London: Random House, p. 203  Walker, Peter; Butt, Riazat (27 October 2011), "St Paul's may seek injunction to move Occupy London
activists", The Guardian, London  Walker, Peter (31 October 2011), " Dean of St Paul's
Dean of St Paul's
resigns over Occupy London
protest row", the Guardian  Ward, Victoria (28 October 2011), " Giles Fraser
Giles Fraser
resignation: 'I couldn't face Dale Farm on the steps of St Paul's'", Daily Telegraph, London  Weinreb, B.; Hibbert, C. (eds.), The London
Encyclopaedia, p. 778 [full citation needed] Wright, James (1693), The Choire, London 

Further reading[edit]

Atkinson, Frank (1985), St Paul's and the City, Park Lane
Park Lane
Press, London: Michael Joseph, ISBN 0-7181-2629-7  — With numerous photographic plates, both in colour, and black and white). Clifton-Taylor, Alec (1967), The Cathedrals of England, Thames and Hudson  Harvey, John (1961), English Cathedrals, Batsford  Hood, Frederic (1967), The Chapel
of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire  — With a foreword by Prince Phillip. It contains 65 pages of mainly colour plates on glossy paper relating to St Paul's Cathedral
and is a republished section of the book published by the Oxford University Press. Owen, James (2010), Danger UXB, Little, Brown, ISBN 978-1-4087-0255-0  — contains a chapter on St Paul's in wartime and the unexploded bomb which closed it Tatton-Brown, Tim; Crook, John (2002), The English Cathedral, New Holland Publishers, ISBN 1-84330-120-2  Burman, Peter (1987), St. Paul's Cathedral, Bell & Hyman, ISBN 978-0713526172 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to St. Paul's Cathedral.

"The Sound of Bells — Great Paul.", St Paul's Cathedral: Credits, retrieved 16 October 2014  St Paul's Cathedral
official website St. Paul's Cathedral
at Google Cultural Institute A Popular Description of St. Paul's Cathedral
By Maria Hackett, published 1828, 87 pages. Biographical Illustrations of St. Paul's Cathedral
By George Lewis Smyth, published 1843, 284 pages. St Paul's Cathedral
by Canaletto
(painting) Wren's various designs St Paul's Cathedral
Photo Gallery — 125 photos Old St Paul's Cathedral
by William Benham — eText from Project Gutenberg The 'Registrum Statutorum..' of St Paul's — collected charters and other documents from the earliest years until the nineteenth century. Published by the cathedral in 1873, Latin and English. BBC News account of the bombing Bells of St Paul's A history of the choristers of St Paul's Cathedral Mystery Worshipper Report at the Ship of Fools website Central London
live webcam showing St Paul's, Westminster and Big Ben The Chapel
of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
Order of the British Empire
— OBE Chapel St Paul's lithographs c. 1647–1817 The Jubilee Cope commissioned for the Bishop
of London
by St Paul’s Cathedral
in honour of the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II [1]&[2].

v t e

St Paul's Cathedral


High Medieval

Wulman Ranulf Flambard
Ranulf Flambard
(disputed) William de Mareni Ralph de Langford Hugh de Mareni Ralph de Diceto Alard de Burnham Gervase de Howbridge Robert de Watford Martin de Pattishall Geoffrey de Lucy William of Sainte-Mère-Église Henry de Cornhill Walter de Saleron Robert de Barton Peter de Newport Richard Talbot John de Ebulo Geoffrey de Fering John Chishull Hervey de Boreham Thomas Ingoldsthorpe Roger de La Legh William de Montfort Ralph Baldock

Late Medieval

Arnald Frangerius de Cantilupo John Sandale Richard Newport Roger Northburgh Vitalis de Testa John de Everdon Gilbert de Bruera Richard de Kilvington Walter de Alderbury Thomas Trilleck John de Appleby Thomas de Eure Thomas Stowe Thomas More Reginald Kentwood Thomas Lisieux Lawrence Booth William Say Roger Radclyffe Thomas Wynterbourne William Worsley

Early modern

Robert Sherborne John Colet Richard Pace Richard Sampson John Incent William May John Feckenham Henry Cole William May (again) Alexander Nowell John Overall Valentine Cary John Donne Thomas Winniffe Richard Steward Matthew Nicholas John Barwick William Sancroft Edward Stillingfleet John Tillotson William Sherlock Henry Godolphin Francis Hare Joseph Butler Thomas Secker John Hume Frederick Cornwallis Thomas Newton Thomas Thurlow

Late modern

George Pretyman Tomline William Van Mildert Charles Sumner Edward Copleston Henry Hart Milman Henry Longueville Mansel Richard William Church Robert Gregory William Inge Walter Matthews Martin Sullivan Alan Webster Eric Evans John Moses Graeme Knowles Michael Colclough
Michael Colclough
(acting) David Ison

Clergy (current)

Mark Oakley
Mark Oakley
(Canon Chancellor) Michael Hampel (Canon Precentor) Philippa Boardman (Canon Treasurer) Tricia Hillas (Canon Pastor) Rosemary Morton (Minor Canon, Succentor & Senior Cardinal) James Milne (Minor Canon, Sacrist & Junior Cardinal) Helen O'Sullivan (Priest Vicar & Chaplain)

Burials Christopher Wren College of Minor Canons Old St Paul's Cathedral

Paul's walk St Paul's Cross

St Paul's Cathedral
School St Paul's Survives Surveyor of the Fabric of St Paul's Cathedral

Category Commons

Links to related articles

v t e

History of London


Londinium Lundenwic City of London City of Westminster Middlesex County of London Greater London Timeline


Roman London Anglo-Saxon London Norman and Medieval London Tudor London Stuart London 18th-century London 19th-century London 1900–39 The Blitz 1945–2000 21st century


Peasants' Revolt Black Death Great Plague Great Fire 1854 cholera outbreak Great Stink Great Exhibition 1908 Franco-British Exhibition The Battle of Cable Street Festival of Britain Great Smog Swinging London London
Plan 1966 FIFA World Cup Final 7/7 bombings Olympic Games (1908 1948 2012) 2012 Summer Paralympics Grenfell Tower


Metropolitan Board of Works London
County Council Greater London
Council Greater London
Authority London
Assembly Mayor of London London


Bow Street Runners Metropolitan Police Service London
Ambulance Service London
Fire Brigade Port of London
Authority London
sewerage system London

City of London

City of London
Corporation Lord Mayor of the City of London Wards of the City of London Guildhall Livery Companies Lord Mayor's Show City of London
Police Bank of England


St Paul's Cathedral Tower
of London Palace of Whitehall Westminster Hall London
Bridge Tower
Bridge Westminster Abbey Big Ben The Monument Fortifications


v t e

Cathedrals of the Church of England

Province of Canterbury

Birmingham Bristol Canterbury Chelmsford Chichester Coventry Derby Ely Exeter Gibraltar Gloucester Guildford Hereford Leicester Lichfield Lincoln London, St Paul's Norwich Oxford, Christ Church Peterborough Portsmouth Rochester St Albans St Edmundsbury Salisbury Southwark Truro Wells Winchester Worcester

Province of York

Blackburn Bradford Carlisle Chester Durham Liverpool Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne Peel Ripon Sheffield Southwell Wakefield York

v t e

Churches in the City of London

Extant churches

All Hallows-by-the-Tower All Hallows-on-the-Wall City Temple Dutch Church, Austin Friars St Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe St Andrew, Holborn St Andrew Undershaft St Anne and St Agnes St Bartholomew-the-Great St Bartholomew-the-Less St Benet, Paul's Wharf St Botolph, Aldersgate St Botolph, Aldgate St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate St Bride, Fleet Street St Clement, Eastcheap St Dunstan-in-the-West St Edmund, King and Martyr St Ethelburga, Bishopsgate St Giles, Cripplegate St Helen, Bishopsgate St James, Garlickhythe St Katharine Cree St Lawrence Jewry St Magnus the Martyr St Margaret Lothbury St Margaret Pattens St Martin, Ludgate St Mary Abchurch St Mary Aldermary St Mary Moorfields St Mary Woolnoth St Mary-at-Hill St Mary-le-Bow St Michael, Cornhill St Michael, Paternoster Royal St Nicholas, Cole Abbey St Olave, Hart Street St Paul's Cathedral St Peter upon Cornhill St Sepulchre-without-Newgate St Stephen Walbrook St Vedast alias Foster Temple Church

Churches of which only the tower remains

All Hallows, Staining Christ Church, Greyfriars St Alban, Wood Street St Alphage London
Wall St Augustine, Watling Street St Dunstan-in-the-East St Martin Orgar St Mary Somerset St Olave, Old Jewry

Churches rebuilt after the Great Fire but since demolished

All Hallows Bread Street All Hallows Lombard Street All-Hallows-the-Great St Antholin, Budge Row St Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange St Benet Fink St Benet Gracechurch St Christopher le Stocks St Dionis Backchurch St George Botolph Lane St Katherine Coleman St Mary Aldermanbury St Mary Magdalen, Old Fish Street St Matthew Friday Street St Michael Bassishaw St Michael, Crooked Lane St Michael Queenhithe St Michael-le-Querne St Michael Wood Street St Mildred, Bread Street St Mildred, Poultry St Stephen Coleman Street St Swithin, London

Churches destroyed in the Great Fire and not rebuilt

All Hallows Honey Lane All-Hallows-the-Less Holy Trinity the Less St Andrew Hubbard St Ann Blackfriars St Benet Sherehog St Botolph Billingsgate St Faith
under St Paul's St Gabriel Fenchurch St Gregory by St Paul's St John the Baptist upon Walbrook St John the Evangelist Friday Street St John Zachary St Laurence Pountney St Leonard, Eastcheap St Leonard, Foster Lane St Margaret Moses St Margaret, New Fish Street St Martin Pomary St Martin Vintry St Mary Bothaw St Mary Colechurch St Mary Magdalen Milk Street St Mary Mounthaw St Mary Staining St Mary Woolchurch Haw St Michael-le-Querne St Nicholas Acons St Nicholas Olave St Olave, Silver Street St Pancras, Soper Lane St Peter, Paul's Wharf St Peter, Westcheap St Thomas the Apostle

Other former churches

College of Minor Canons Holy Trinity Gough Square Hospital of St Thomas of Acre Old St Paul's Cathedral St Audoen within Newgate St Augustine Papey St James Duke's Place St Martin Outwich St Mary Axe St Nicholas Shambles St Peter le Poer

v t e


Buildings and structures


Albert Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges Lambeth Bridge London
Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark Bridge Tower
Bridge Vauxhall Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster Bridge

Entertainment venues


Empire, Leicester Square BFI IMAX Odeon, Leicester Square

Football stadia

Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
(national stadium) Craven Cottage
Craven Cottage
(Fulham) The Den
The Den
(Millwall) Emirates Stadium
Emirates Stadium
(Arsenal) Loftus Road
Loftus Road
(Queens Park Rangers) London
Stadium (West Ham United) Selhurst Park
Selhurst Park
(Crystal Palace) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) The Valley (Charlton Athletic) White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
(Tottenham Hotspur)

Other major sports venues

All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club The Championship Course
The Championship Course
(rowing) Crystal Palace National Sports Centre Lord's
(cricket) Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park The Oval
The Oval
(cricket) Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium


Adelphi Apollo Victoria Coliseum Criterion Dominion Lyceum Old Vic Palladium Royal National Theatre Royal Opera House Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Theatre Royal Haymarket Vaudeville


Alexandra Palace Brixton Academy ExCeL Hammersmith Apollo O2 Arena Royal Albert Hall Royal Festival Hall Wembley Arena


10 Downing Street Admiralty Arch Bank of England City Hall County Hall Guildhall Horse Guards Mansion House National Archives Old Bailey Palace of Westminster Royal Courts of Justice Scotland Yard SIS Building

Museums and galleries

British Museum Cutty Sark Golden Hinde HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Madame Tussauds Museum of London National Gallery National Maritime Museum Natural History Museum Royal Academy of Arts Royal Observatory Science Museum Tate Britain Tate Modern Tower
of London Victoria and Albert Museum

Places of worship

All Hallows-by-the-Tower BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Bevis Marks Synagogue Methodist Central Hall Regent's Park
Regent's Park
Mosque St Martin-in-the-Fields St Mary-le-Bow St Paul's Cathedral Southwark Cathedral Westminster Abbey Westminster Cathedral



Fortnum & Mason Hamleys Harrods Liberty Peter Jones Selfridges

Shopping centres and markets

Borough Market Brent Cross Burlington Arcade Kensington Arcade Leadenhall Market The Mall Wood Green One New Change Petticoat Lane Market Royal Exchange Westfield London Westfield Stratford City

Royal buildings

Partly occupied by the Royal Family

Buckingham Palace Clarence House Kensington Palace St James's Palace


Banqueting House Hampton Court Palace Kew Palace The Queen's Gallery Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace


Broadgate Tower 1 Canada Square 8 Canada Square 25 Canada Square 1 Churchill Place 20 Fenchurch Street Heron Tower Leadenhall Building The Shard St George Wharf Tower 30 St Mary Axe Tower


Albert Memorial ArcelorMittal Orbit Big Ben Cleopatra's Needle Crystal Palace transmitting station London
Eye London
Wall Marble Arch The Monument Nelson's Column Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
("Eros") Thames Barrier Wellington Arch


City Airport Heathrow Airport Charing Cross station Clapham Junction station Euston station King's Cross station Liverpool Street station London
Bridge station Paddington station St Pancras station Stratford station Victoria station Waterloo station Victoria Coach Station Emirates Air Line cable car


Barbican Estate Battersea Power Station British Library BT Tower Kew Gardens Lambeth Palace Lloyd's building London
Zoo Oxo Tower St Bartholomew's Hospital Smithfield Market Somerset House


Royal Parks

Bushy Park Green Park Greenwich Park Hampton Court Park Hyde Park Kensington Gardens Regent's Park Richmond Park St. James's Park


Battersea Park Burgess Park Clapham Common College Green Epping Forest Finsbury Park Gunnersbury Park Hampstead Heath Holland Park Mitcham Common Osterley Park Trent Park Victoria Park Wandsworth Common Wimbledon Common

Squares and public spaces

Covent Garden Horse Guards Parade Leicester Square Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly
Circus Sloane Square Trafalgar Square


Aldwych Baker Street Bishopsgate Bond Street Carnaby Street Chancery Lane Charing Cross Road Cheapside Cornhill Denmark Street Fenchurch Street Fleet Street Haymarket Jermyn Street Kensington High Street King's Road Lombard Street The Mall Oxford Street Park Lane Piccadilly Portobello Road Regent Street Shaftesbury Avenue Sloane Street Strand Tottenham Court Road Victoria Embankment Whitehall

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 317281892 LCCN: n79086816 ISNI: 0000 0001 1540 7522 GND: 4223812-2 SUDOC: 084330716 NLA: 36254