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The Cathedral
Cathedral
of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, (Italian: Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano) - also known as the Papal
Papal
Archbasilica of St. John [in] Lateran, St. John Lateran, or the Lateran Basilica
Basilica
- is the cathedral church of Rome, Italy
Italy
and therefore houses the cathedra, or ecclesiastical seat, of the Bishop of Rome
Rome
(Pope). It is the oldest and highest ranking of the four papal major basilicas, giving it the unique title of "archbasilica". Because it is the oldest public church in the city of Rome, and houses the cathedra of the Roman bishop,[2][3] it has the title of ecumenical mother church of the Catholic
Catholic
faithful. The current archpriest is Angelo De Donatis, Vicar General for the Diocese
Diocese
of Rome.[4] The President of the French Republic, currently Emmanuel Macron, is ex officio the "first and only honorary canon" of the archbasilica, a title that the heads of state of France
France
have possessed since King Henry IV. The large Latin inscription on the façade reads: Clemens XII Pont Max Anno V Christo Salvatori In Hon SS Ioan Bapt et Evang; which is a highly abbreviated inscription which translates to: " Pope
Pope
Clement XII, in the fifth year [of his Pontificate, dedicated this building] to Christ the Savior, in honor of Saints John the Baptist and [John] the Evangelist".[5] The inscription indicates, along with its full title (see below), that the archbasilica was originally dedicated to Christ the Savior and, centuries later, co-dedicated to St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. As the Cathedral
Cathedral
of the Pope
Pope
qua Bishop of Rome, it ranks superior to all other churches of the Roman Catholic Church, including St. Peter's Basilica, and therefore it alone is titled "Archbasilica" among all other basilicas. The archbasilica is sited in the City of Rome, outside and distanced from Vatican City
Vatican City
proper, which is approximately 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to its northwest, although the archbasilica and its adjoining edifices have extraterritorial status from Italy
Italy
as one of the properties of the Holy See, subject to the sovereignty of the latter, pursuant to the Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
of 1929 with Italy
Italy
under Benito Mussolini.[1]

Contents

1 Name 2 Lateran Palace 3 The Middle Ages

3.1 Lateran fires

4 Reconstruction 5 World War II 6 Architectural history 7 Statues of the Apostles 8 Papal
Papal
tombs 9 Lateran cloister 10 Lateran baptistery 11 Holy Stairs 12 Feast of the Dedication
Dedication
of the Archbasilica 13 Archpriests 14 Gallery 15 See also 16 Notes and references 17 External links

Name[edit]

Next to the formal entrance is the archbasilica's claim to be the head, or Mother Church, of the entire world. Note the laurel wreath and the Papal
Papal
tiara.

The archbasilica's Latin name is Archibasilica Sanctissimi Salvatoris ac Sancti Ioannis Baptistae et Ioannis Evangelistae ad Lateranum,[6] which in English is the Archbasilica of the Most Holy Savior and Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist at the Lateran, and in Italian Arcibasilica [Papale] del Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano.[4] Lateran Palace[edit] Main article: Lateran Palace The archbasilica stands over the remains of the Castra Nova equitum singularium, the "New Fort of the Roman imperial cavalry bodyguards". The fort was established by Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
in AD 193. Following the victory of Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
over Maxentius
Maxentius
(for whom the Equites singulares augusti, the emperor's mounted bodyguards had fought) at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, the guard was abolished and the fort demolished. Substantial remains of the fort lie directly beneath the nave. The remainder of the site was occupied during the early Roman Empire by the palace of the gens Laterani. Sextius Lateranus was the first plebeian to attain the rank of consul, and the Laterani served as administrators for several emperors. One of the Laterani, Consul-designate Plautius Lateranus, became famous for being accused by Nero
Nero
of conspiracy against the Emperor. The accusation resulted in the confiscation and redistribution of his properties. The Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
fell into the hands of the Emperor when Constantine I married his second wife Fausta, sister of Maxentius. Known by that time as the "Domus Faustae" or "House of Fausta," the Lateran Palace was eventually given to the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome
Rome
by Constantine I. The actual date of the donation is unknown, but scholars speculate that it was during the pontificate of Pope
Pope
Miltiades, in time to host a synod of bishops in 313 that was convened to challenge the Donatist schism, declaring Donatism
Donatism
to be heresy. The palace basilica was converted and extended, becoming the residence of Pope
Pope
St. Silvester I, eventually becoming the Cathedral
Cathedral
of Rome, the seat of the Popes qua the Bishops of Rome.[7] The Middle Ages[edit]

The papal cathedra, the presence of which renders the archbasilica the cathedral of Rome, is located in its apse. The decorations are in cosmatesque style.

The high altar and the 14th-century Gothic ciborium. The relic of the original wooden altar used by St. Peter
St. Peter
comprises the high altar. Above the ciborium are the appearances of Sts. Peter and Paul.[8]

Pope
Pope
Sylvester I
Sylvester I
presided over the official dedication of the archbasilica and the adjacent Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
in 324, declaring both to be a "Domus Dei" ("House of God"). The papal cathedra was placed in its interior, rendering it the cathedral of the Pope
Pope
qua Bishop
Bishop
of Rome. On the archbasilica's front wall between the main portals is a plaque inscribed with the words "Sacrosancta Lateranensis ecclesia omnium urbis et orbis ecclesiarum mater et caput", which translate to "Most Holy Lateran Church, of all the churches in the City and the world, the mother and head"; a visible indication of the archbasilica's claim to be the "mother church" of all the world. The archbasilica and Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
were re-dedicated twice. Pope Sergius III dedicated them to St. John the Baptist
St. John the Baptist
in the 10th century in honor of the newly consecrated baptistry of the archbasilica. Pope Lucius II dedicated them to St. John the Evangelist
St. John the Evangelist
in the 12th century. Thus, St. John the Baptist
St. John the Baptist
and St. John the Evangelist
St. John the Evangelist
are co-patrons of the archbasilica, while the primary Patron is Christ the Savior, as the inscription in the entrance indicates and as is traditional for patriarchal cathedrals. Consequently, the archbasilica remains dedicated to the Savior, and its titular feast is the Feast of the Transfiguration. The archbasilica became the most important shrine of the two St. Johns, albeit infrequently jointly venerated. In later years, a Benedictine
Benedictine
monastery was established in the Lateran Palace, and was devoted to serving the archbasilica and the two saints. Every pope, beginning with Pope
Pope
Miltiades, occupied the Lateran Palace until the reign of the French Pope
Pope
Clement V, who in 1309 transferred the seat of the Papacy to Avignon, a Papal
Papal
fiefdom that was an enclave in France. The Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
has also been the site of five ecumenical councils (see Lateran Councils). Lateran fires[edit] During the time the papacy was seated in Avignon, France, the Lateran Palace
Palace
and the archbasilica deteriorated. Two fires ravaged them in 1307 and 1361. After both fires the pope sent money from Avignon
Avignon
to pay for their reconstruction and maintenance. Nonetheless, the archbasilica and Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
lost their former splendor. When the papacy returned from Avignon
Avignon
and the pope again resided in Rome, the archbasilica and the Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
were deemed inadequate considering their accumulated damage. The popes resided at the Basilica
Basilica
di Santa Maria in Trastevere
Santa Maria in Trastevere
and later at the Basilica
Basilica
di Santa Maria Maggiore. Eventually, the Palace
Palace
of the Vatican was built adjacent to the Basilica
Basilica
of St. Peter, which existed since the time of Emperor Constantine I, and the popes began to reside there. It has remained the official residence of the pope (though Pope
Pope
Francis unofficially resides elsewhere in the Vatican City). Reconstruction[edit] There were several attempts at reconstruction of the archbasilica before a definitive program of Pope
Pope
Sixtus V. Sixtus V hired his favorite architect, Domenico Fontana, to supervise much of the project. The original Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
was demolished and replaced with a new edifice. On the square in front of the Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
is the largest standing obelisk in the world, known as the Lateran Obelisk. It weighs an estimated 455 tons. It was commissioned by the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III
Thutmose III
and erected by Thutmose IV before the great Karnak
Karnak
temple of Thebes, Egypt. Intended by Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
to be shipped to Constantinople, the very preoccupied Constantius II
Constantius II
had it shipped instead to Rome, where it was erected in the Circus Maximus in AD 357. At some time it broke and was buried under the Circus. In the 16th century it was discovered and excavated, and Sixtus V had it re-erected on a new pedestal on 3 August 1588 at its present site.[9][10][11] Further renovation of the interior of the archbasilica, ensued under the direction of Francesco Borromini, commissioned by Pope
Pope
Innocent X. The twelve niches created by his architectural scheme were eventually filled in 1718 with statues of the Apostles, sculpted by the most prominent Roman Rococo
Rococo
sculptors.

Main body of the basilica, after the radical transformation by Francesco Borromini.

The vision of Pope
Pope
Clement XII
Clement XII
for reconstruction was an ambitious one in which he launched a competition to design a new façade. More than 23 architects competed, mostly working in the then-current Baroque idiom. The putatively impartial jury was chaired by Sebastiano Conca, president of the Roman Academy of Saint Luke. The winner of the competition was Alessandro Galilei. The façade as it appears today was completed in 1735. It reads in Latin: Clemens XII Pont Max Anno V Christo Salvatori In Hon SS Ioan Bapt et Evang; this highly abbreviated inscription is expanded thus: Clemens XII, Pont[ifex] Max[imus], [in] Anno V, [dedicavit hoc aedificium] Christo Salvatori, in hon[orem] [sanctorum] Ioan[is] Bapt[tistae] et Evang[elistae]. This translates as " Pope
Pope
Clement XII, in the fifth year of his reign, dedicated this building to Christ the Savior, in honor of Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist".[5] Galilei's façade removed all vestiges of traditional, ancient, basilical architecture and imparted a neo-classical facade.

Nave

Ceiling

The Lateran Obelisk
Obelisk
in its third location, in front of the Lateran Palace.

The Loggia delle Benedizioni, on the rear left side. Annexed, on the left, is the Lateran Palace.

World War II[edit] During the Second World War, the Lateran and its related buildings were used under Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
as a safe haven from the Nazis and Italian Fascists for numbers of Jews and other refugees. Among those who found shelter there were Meuccio Ruini, Alcide De Gasperi, Pietro Nenni and others. The Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul and the sixty orphan refugees they cared for were ordered to leave their convent on the Via Carlo Emanuele. The Sisters of Maria Bambina, who staffed the kitchen at the Pontifical Major Roman Seminary
Pontifical Major Roman Seminary
at the Lateran offered a wing of their convent. The grounds also housed Italian soldiers.[12] Vincenzo Fagiolo and Pietro Palazzini, vice-rector of the seminary, were recognized by Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
for their efforts to assist Jews.[13][14] Architectural history[edit] An apse lined with mosaics and open to the air still preserves the memory of one of the most famous halls of the ancient palace, the "Triclinium" of Pope
Pope
Leo III, which was the state banqueting hall. The existing structure is not ancient, but some portions of the original mosaics may have been preserved in the tripartite mosaic of its niche. In the center Christ gives to the Apostles
Apostles
their mission; on the left He gives the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven to Pope
Pope
St. Sylvester
St. Sylvester
and the Labarum
Labarum
to Emperor Constantine I; and on the right St. Peter
St. Peter
gives the Papal
Papal
stole to Pope
Pope
Leo III and the standard to Charlemagne.

Holy Door
Holy Door
at the Lateran Papal
Papal
Basilica

Some few remains of the original buildings may still be traced in the city walls outside the Gate of St. John, and a large wall decorated with paintings was uncovered in the 18th century within the archbasilica behind the Lancellotti Chapel. A few traces of older buildings were also revealed during the excavations of 1880, when the work of extending the apse was in progress, but nothing of importance was published. A great many donations from the Popes and other benefactors to the archbasilica are recorded in the Liber Pontificalis, and its splendor at an early period was such that it became known as the "Basilica Aurea", or "Golden Basilica". This splendor drew upon it the attack of the Vandals, who stripped it of all its treasures. Pope
Pope
Leo I restored it around AD 460, and it was again restored by Pope
Pope
Hadrian. In 897, it was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake: ab altari usque ad portas cecidit ("it collapsed from the altar to the doors"). The damage was so extensive that it was difficult to trace the lines of the old building, but these were mostly respected and the new building was of the same dimensions as the old. This second basilica stood for 400 years before it burned in 1308. It was rebuilt by Pope Clement V and Pope
Pope
John XXII. It burned once more in 1360, and was rebuilt by Pope
Pope
Urban V. Through vicissitudes the archbasilica retained its ancient form, being divided by rows of columns into aisles, and having in front a peristyle surrounded by colonnades with a fountain in the middle, the conventional Late Antique format that was also followed by the old St. Peter's Basilica. The façade had three windows and was embellished with a mosaic representing Christ as the Savior of the world. The porticoes were frescoed, probably not earlier than the 12th century, commemorating the Roman fleet under Vespasian, the taking of Jerusalem, the Baptism of Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
and his "Donation" of the Papal
Papal
States to the Catholic
Catholic
Church. Inside the archbasilica the columns no doubt ran, as in all other basilicas of the same date, the whole length of the church, from east to west. In one of the rebuildings, probably that which was carried out by Pope Clement V, a transverse nave was introduced, imitated no doubt from the one which had been added, long before this, to the Basilica
Basilica
of Saint Paul Outside the Walls. Probably at this time the archbasilica was enlarged. Some portions of the older buildings survive. Among them the pavement of medieval Cosmatesque
Cosmatesque
work, and the statues of St. Peter
St. Peter
and St. Paul, now in the cloister. The graceful ciborium over the high altar, which looks out of place in its present surroundings, dates from 1369. The stercoraria, or throne of red marble on which the Popes sat, is now in the Vatican Museums. It owes its unsavory name to the anthem sung at previous Papal
Papal
coronations, "De stercore erigens pauperem" ("lifting up the poor out of the dunghill", from Psalm 112). From the 5th century, there were seven oratories surrounding the archbasilica. These before long were incorporated into the church. The devotion of visiting these oratories, which was maintained through the Mediaeval Ages, gave rise to the similar devotion of the seven altars, still common in many churches of Rome
Rome
and elsewhere. Of the façade by Alessandro Galilei
Alessandro Galilei
(1735), the cliché assessment has ever been that it is the façade of a palace, not of a church. Galilei's front, which is a screen across the older front creating a narthex or vestibule, does express the nave and double aisles of the archbasilica, which required a central bay wider than the rest of the sequence. Galilei provided it, without abandoning the range of identical arch-headed openings, by extending the central window by flanking columns that support the arch, in the familiar Serlian motif. By bringing the central bay forward very slightly, and capping it with a pediment that breaks into the roof balustrade, Galilei provided an entrance doorway on a more than colossal scale, framed in the paired colossal Corinthian pilasters that tie together the façade in the manner introduced at Michelangelo's palace on the Campidoglio. Statues of the Apostles[edit] The twelve niches created in Francesco Borromini's architecture were left vacant for decades. When in 1702 Pope
Pope
Clement XI and Benedetto Cardinal Pamphili, archpriests of the archbasilica, announced their grand scheme for twelve larger-than-life sculptures of the Apostles
Apostles
to fill the niches, the commission was opened to all the premier sculptors of late Baroque
Baroque
Rome.[15] Each statue was to be sponsored by an illustrious prince with the Pope
Pope
himself sponsoring that of St. Peter and Cardinal Pamphili that of St. John the Evangelist. Most of the sculptors were given a sketch drawn by Pope
Pope
Clement's favorite painter, Carlo Maratta, to which they were to adhere, but with the notable exception being Pierre Le Gros the Younger, who successfully refused to sculpt to Maratta's design and consequently was not given a sketch.[16] The sculptors and their sculptures follow and are dated according to Conforti:

Pierre-Étienne Monnot

St. Paul
St. Paul
(1704–08) St. Peter
St. Peter
(1704–11)

Francesco Moratti

St. Simon (1704–09)

Lorenzo Ottoni

St. Jude Thaddeus (1704–09)

Giuseppe Mazzuoli

St. Philip (1705–11)

Pierre Le Gros

St. Thomas (1705–11) St. Bartholomew (c. 1705–12)

Angelo de' Rossi

St. James the Lesser (1705–11)

Camillo Rusconi

St. Andrew
St. Andrew
(1705–09) St. John (1705–11) St. Matthew (1711–15) St. James the Greater
James the Greater
(1715–18)

St. Peter by Monnot

St. Paul by Monnot

St. Bartholomew by Le Gros

St. James the Greater
James the Greater
by Rusconi

St. Simon by Moratti

St. Jude Thaddeaus by Ottoni

St. Philip by Mazzuoli

St. Thomas by Le Gros

St. James the Lesser by de' Rossi

St. Andrew by Rusconi

St. John by Rusconi

St. Matthew by Rusconi

Papal
Papal
tombs[edit] Main article: List of extant papal tombs

The Sarcophagus of Saint Helena, reused by Pope
Pope
Anastasius IV, the only tomb to survive the Lateran fires. It is currently in the Vatican Museums.

There are six extant papal tombs inside the archbasilica: Alexander III (right aisles), Pope
Pope
Sergius IV (right aisles), Pope
Pope
Clement XII Corsini (left aisle), Pope
Pope
Martin V
Martin V
(in front of the confessio); Pope Innocent III (right transept); and Pope
Pope
Leo XIII
Leo XIII
(left transept), by G. Tadolini (1907). The last of these, Pope
Pope
Leo XIII, was the last pope not to be entombed in St. Peter's Basilica. Twelve additional papal tombs were constructed in the archbasilica starting in the 10th century, but were destroyed during the two fires that ravaged it in 1308 and 1361. The remains of these charred tombs were gathered and reburied in a polyandrum. The popes whose tombs were destroyed are: Pope
Pope
John X (914–28), Pope
Pope
Agapetus II (946–55), Pope
Pope
John XII (955–64), Pope
Pope
Paschal II (1099–1118), Pope Callixtus II (1119–24), Pope
Pope
Honorius II (1124–30), Pope
Pope
Celestine II (1143–4), Pope
Pope
Lucius II (1144–5), Pope
Pope
Anastasius IV (1153–4), Pope
Pope
Clement III (1187–91), Pope
Pope
Celestine III (1191–8), and Pope
Pope
Innocent V (1276). Popes who reigned during this period, whose tombs are unknown, and who may have been buried in the archbasilica include Pope
Pope
John XVII (1003), Pope
Pope
John XVIII (1003–9), and Pope
Pope
Alexander II (1061–73). Pope
Pope
John X was the first pope buried within the walls of Rome, and was granted a prominent burial due to rumors that he was murdered by Theodora during a historical period known as the saeculum obscurum. Cardinals Vincenzo Santucci and Carlo Colonna are also buried in the archbasilica. Lateran cloister[edit] Between the archbasilica and the city wall there was in former times a great monastery, in which dwelt the community of monks whose duty it was to provide the services in the archbasilica. The only part of it which still survives is the 13th century cloister, surrounded by graceful, twisted columns of inlaid marble. They are of a style intermediate between the Romanesque proper and the Gothic, and are the work of Vassellectus
Vassellectus
and the Cosmati. Lateran baptistery[edit] Main article: Lateran Baptistery The octagonal Lateran baptistery stands somewhat apart from the archbasilica. It was founded by Pope
Pope
Sixtus III, perhaps on an earlier structure, for a legend arose that Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
was baptized there and enriched the edifice. The baptistery was for many generations the only baptistery in Rome, and its octagonal structure, centered upon the large basin for full immersions, provided a model for others throughout Italy, and even an iconic motif of illuminated manuscripts known as "the fountain of life". Holy Stairs[edit] Main article: Scala Sancta

The Scala Sancta

The Scala Sancta, or Holy Stairs, are white marble steps encased in wooden ones. According to Catholic
Catholic
Tradition, they form the staircase which once led to the praetorium of Pontius Pilate
Pontius Pilate
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and which, therefore, were sanctified by the footsteps of Jesus Christ during His Passion. The marble stairs are visible through openings in the wooden risers. Their translation from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to the Lateran Palace
Palace
in the 4th century is credited to St. Empress Helena, the mother of the then-Emperor Constantine I. In 1589, Pope
Pope
Sixtus V relocated the steps to their present location in front of the ancient palatine chapel named the Sancta Sanctorum. Ferraù Fenzoni
Ferraù Fenzoni
completed some of the frescoes on the walls. Feast of the Dedication
Dedication
of the Archbasilica[edit] In the liturgical calendar of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, 9 November is the feast of the Dedication
Dedication
of the (Arch) Basilica
Basilica
of the Lateran (Dedicatio Basilicae Lateranensis), and is referred to in older texts as the " Dedication
Dedication
of the Basilica
Basilica
of the Holy Savior".[citation needed] In view of its role as the mother church of the world, this liturgical day is celebrated worldwide as a "feast" and not a "memorial" as might be expected.[by whom?] Archpriests[edit] Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII instituted the office of Archpriest
Archpriest
of the Archbasilica circa 1299.[17] List of Archpriests of the Archbasilica:[18]

Gerardo Bianchi (c.1299–1302) Pietro Valeriano Duraguerra (1302) Matteo Rosso Orsini (1302–5) Pietro Colonna (1306–26) Bertrand de Montfavez (1326–42) Giovanni Colonna (1342–8) Pierre Roger de Beaufort (1348–70) Ange de Grimoard
Ange de Grimoard
(1371–88) Pietro Tomacelli (1388?–9) Francesco Carbone (1389–1405) Antonio Caetani (1405–12) Oddone Colonna (1412–7) Alamanno Adimari (1418–22) Guillaume Fillastre
Guillaume Fillastre
(1422–8) Alfonso Carillo de Albornoz (1428–34) Lucido Conti (1434–7) Angelotto Fosco (1437–44) António Martinez de Chaves
António Martinez de Chaves
(1444–7) Domenico Capranica
Domenico Capranica
(1447–58) Prospero Colonna (1458–63) Latino Orsini (1463–77) Giuliano della Rovere (1477–1503) Giovanni Colonna (1503–8) Alessandro Farnese (1508–34) Giovanni Domenico de Cupis
Giovanni Domenico de Cupis
(1534–53) Ranuccio Farnese (1553–65) Mark Sitticus von Hohenems
Mark Sitticus von Hohenems
(1565–88) Ascanio Colonna (1588–1608) Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese
Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese
(1608–20)

Giambattista Leni (1620–7) Francesco Barberini (1627–9) Girolamo Colonna (1629–66) Flavio Chigi (1666–93) Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni
Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni
(1693–8) Benedetto Pamphili (1699–1730) Pietro Ottoboni (1730–40) Neri Maria Corsini
Neri Maria Corsini
(1740–70) Mario Marefoschi Compagnoni (1771–80) Carlo Rezzonico (1781–99) Francesco Saverio de Zelada
Francesco Saverio de Zelada
(1800–1) Leonardo Antonelli
Leonardo Antonelli
(1801–11) Bartolomeo Pacca
Bartolomeo Pacca
(1830–44) Benedetto Barberini (28 April 1844 – 10 April 1863) Lodovico Altieri
Lodovico Altieri
(1863–7) Costantino Patrizi Naro
Costantino Patrizi Naro
(1867–76) Flavio Chigi (24 December 1876 – 1885) Raffaele Monaco La Valletta
Raffaele Monaco La Valletta
(1885–96) Francesco Satolli
Francesco Satolli
(16 December 1896 – 8 January 1910) Pietro Respighi (10 January 1910 – 22 March 1913) Domenico Ferrata
Domenico Ferrata
(7 April 1913 – 10 October 1914) Basilio Pompilj
Basilio Pompilj
(28 October 1914 – 5 May 1931) Francesco Marchetti-Selvaggiani
Francesco Marchetti-Selvaggiani
(26 May 1931 – 13 January 1951) Benedetto Aloisi Masella
Benedetto Aloisi Masella
(27 October 1954 – 30 August 1970) Angelo Dell'Acqua
Angelo Dell'Acqua
(7 November 1970 – 27 August 1972) Ugo Poletti (26 March 1973 – 17 January 1991) Camillo Ruini
Camillo Ruini
(1 July 1991 – 27 June 2008) Agostino Vallini
Agostino Vallini
(27 June 2008 – 26 May 2017) Angelo De Donatis
Angelo De Donatis
(26 May 2017 – )

Gallery[edit]

Alessandro Galilei
Alessandro Galilei
completed the late Baroque
Baroque
façade of the archbasilica in 1735 after winning a competition for the design.

Next to the main entrance is the inscription of the archbasilica's claim to being the mother church of the world.

Statue of St. John the Baptist.

The decorated ceiling.

Apse
Apse
depicting mosaics from the Triclinium
Triclinium
of Pope
Pope
Leo III in the ancient Lateran Palace.

The cloister of the attached monastery, with a cosmatesque decoration.

The cloister of the attached monastery.

Our Lady of Częstochowa
Our Lady of Częstochowa
depicted in the archbasilica.

See also[edit]

Early Christian art and architecture Index of Vatican City-related articles Colegio de San Juan de Letran, a Philippine school named after the archbasilica

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Notes and references[edit]

^ a b The archbasilica is within Italian territory and not the territory of the Vatican City
Vatican City
State. ( Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
of 1929, Article 15 (The Treaty of the Lateran by Benedict Williamson; London: Burns, Oates, and Washbourne Limited, 1929; pages 42–66)) However, the Holy See fully owns the archbasilica, and Italy
Italy
is legally obligated to recognize its full ownership thereof ( Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
of 1929, Article 13 (Ibidem)) and to concede to it "the immunity granted by International Law to the headquarters of the diplomatic agents of foreign States" ( Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
of 1929, Article 15 (Ibidem)). ^ " Papal
Papal
basilicas". vatican.va. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI's theological act of renouncing the title of "Patriarch of the West" had as a consequence that the "patriarchal basilicas" are now officially known as "papal basilicas. ^ a b " Basilica
Basilica
Papale" (in Italian). Vicariatus Urbis: Portal
Portal
of the Diocese
Diocese
of Rome. Retrieved 2013-11-07.  ^ a b Landsford, Tyler (2009). The Latin Inscriptions of Rome: A Walking Guide. JHU Press. p. 236. Retrieved 21 October 2014.  ^ Milioni, Albano (2007). L'Arcibasilica papale del Laterano nei secoli. Quasar. p. 142. Statuta Patriarchalis Archibasilicae Ss.mi Salvatoris ac SS. Ioannis Baptistae et Ioannis Evangelistae ad Lateranum Romanae Ecclesiae Cathedralis.  ^ "Arcibasilica Papale San Giovanni in Laterano – Cenni storici" (in Italian). Holy See. Retrieved 2013-11-07.  ^ Fr. Paolo O. Pirlo, SHMI (1997). " Dedication
Dedication
of St. John Lateran". My First Book of Saints. Sons of Holy Mary Immaculate - Quality Catholic
Catholic
Publications. pp. 265–266. ISBN 971-91595-4-5.  ^ Fanny Davenport and Rogers MacVeagh, Fountains of Papal
Papal
Rome (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915), pp. 156 et seq. ^ Lunde, Paul (March–April 1979). "A Forest of Obelisks". Saudi Aramco World. Houston, Texas: Aramco Services Company. pp. 28–32. Retrieved 2013-11-07.  ^ PBS:NOVA:A World of Obelisks-Rome ^ Marchione, Margherita. Yours Is a Precious Witness: Memoirs of Jews and Catholics in Wartime Italy, Paulist Press, 2001 ISBN 9780809140329 ^ "Palazzini", the righteous among the Nations, Yad Vashem ^ "Fagiolo", The Righteous Among the Nations, Yad Vashem ^ "The largest sculptural task in Rome
Rome
during the early eighteenth century," per Rudolph Wittkower, Art and Architecture in Italy, 1600–1750, Revised Edition, 1965, p. 290, provides that "the distribution for commissions is, at the same time, a good yardstick for measuring the reputation of contemporary sculptors." ^ Cf. Michael Conforti, The Lateran Apostles, unpublished Ph. D. thesis (Harvard University, 1977); Conforti published a short resume of his dissertation: Planning the Lateran Apostles, in Henry A. Millon (editor), Studies in Italian Art and Architecture 15th through 18th Centuries, (Rome, 1980) (Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome
Rome
35), pp. 243–60. ^ Moroni, Gaetano (1840–61). Dizionario di Erudizione Storico–Ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai Nostri Giorni (in Italian). 12. Venezia: Tipografia Emiliana. p. 31.  ^ Respective biographic entries in "Essay of a General List of Cardinals". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. .

Bibliography

 Barnes, Arthur S. (1913). "Saint John Lateran". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Claussen, Peter C.; Senekovic, Darko (2008). S. Giovanni in Laterano. Mit einem Beitrag von Darko Senekovic über S. Giovanni in Fonte, in Corpus Cosmatorum, Volume 2, 2. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 3-515-09073-8.  Krautheimer, Richard; Frazer, Alfred; Corbett, Spencer (1937–77). Corpus Basilicarum Christianarum Romae: The Early Christian Basilicas of Rome
Rome
(IV–IX Centuries). Vatican City: Pontificio Istituto di Archeologia Cristiana (Pontifical Institute of Christian Archaeology). OCLC 163156460.  Webb, Matilda (2001). The Churches and Catacombs of Early Christian Rome. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. p. 41. ISBN 1-902210-57-3.  Lenski, Noel (2006). The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 282. ISBN 0-521-52157-2.  Stato della Città del Vaticano (2009). "Arcibasilica Papale Di San Giovanni In Laterano" (in Italian). Holy See. Retrieved 24 October 2010. 

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High-resolution virtual tour of St. John Lateran, from the Vatican. Satellite Photo of St. John Lateran Constantine's obelisk San Giovanni in Laterano High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of Archbasilica of St. John Lateran Art Atlas

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