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Srivijaya
Srivijaya
(also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese: ᮞᮢᮤᮝᮤᮏᮚ, Thai: ศรีวิชัย RTGS: Siwichai, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i Chinese: 三佛齊)[3]:131 was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.[4] Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism
Buddhism
from the 8th to the 12th century. Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was the first unified kingdom to dominate much of Malay archipelago.[5] The rise of the Srivijayan Empire
Empire
is seen to run parallel to the end of the Malay sea-faring period. Due to its location, this once powerful state developed complex technology utilizing maritime resources. In addition, its economy became progressively reliant on the booming trade in the region, thus transforming it into a prestige goods based economy.[6] In Sanskrit, śrī means "fortunate", "prosperous", or "happy" and vijaya means "victorious" or "excellence".[7] The earliest reference to it dates from the 7th century. A Tang Chinese monk, Yijing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in 671 for six months.[8][9] The earliest known inscription in which the name Srivijaya
Srivijaya
appears also dates from the 7th century in the Kedukan Bukit inscription found near Palembang, Sumatra, dated 16 June 682.[10] Between the late 7th and early 11th century, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
rose to become a hegemon in Southeast Asia. It was involved in close interactions, often rivalries, with the neighbouring Java, Kambuja and Champa. Srivijaya's main foreign interest was nurturing lucrative trade agreements with China
China
which lasted from the Tang to the Song dynasty. Srivijaya
Srivijaya
had religious, cultural and trade links with the Buddhist Pala of Bengal, as well as with the Islamic Caliphate
Caliphate
in the Middle East. The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the rival Javanese Singhasari
Singhasari
and Majapahit
Majapahit
empires.[4] After Srivijaya
Srivijaya
fell, it was largely forgotten. It was not until 1918 that French historian George Cœdès, of École française d'Extrême-Orient, formally postulated its existence.[7]

Contents

1 Historiography 2 Capital 3 History

3.1 Formation and growth

3.1.1 Siddhayatra 3.1.2 Regional conquests

3.2 Golden age

3.2.1 Conquest of Malay Peninsula 3.2.2 Srivijayan rule in Central Java 3.2.3 Return to Palembang 3.2.4 Srivijayan exploration 3.2.5 War against Java

3.3 Decline

3.3.1 Chola
Chola
invasion 3.3.2 Return 3.3.3 Javanese pressure 3.3.4 Last revival efforts

4 Government and economy

4.1 Political administration 4.2 Economy and commerce 4.3 Thalassocratic empire

5 Culture and society

5.1 Art and culture 5.2 Religion

6 Relations with regional powers 7 Legacy 8 List of kings 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Historiography[edit]

Talang Tuwo inscription, discovered in Bukit Seguntang
Bukit Seguntang
area, tell the establishment of sacred Śrīksetra park.

Little physical evidence of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
remains.[11] There had been no continuous knowledge of the history of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
even in Indonesia; its forgotten past has been resurrected by foreign scholars. Contemporary Indonesians, even those from the area of Palembang (around which the kingdom was based), had not heard of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
until the 1920s when the French scholar, George Cœdès, published his discoveries and interpretations in the Dutch- and Indonesian-language newspapers.[12] Cœdès noted that the Chinese references to "Sanfoqi", previously read as "Sribhoja", and the inscriptions in Old Malay refer to the same empire.[13] The Srivijayan historiography was acquired, composed and established from two main sources: the Chinese historical accounts and the Southeast Asian stone inscriptions that have been discovered and deciphered in the region. The Buddhist pilgrim Yijing's account is especially important on describing Srivijaya, when he visited the kingdom in 671 for six months. The 7th-century siddhayatra inscriptions discovered in Palembang
Palembang
and Bangka island are also vital primary historical sources. Also, regional accounts that some might be almost tales and legends, such as the Legend of the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Javaka and the Khmer King also provides a glimpse of the kingdom. Besides, some Indian and Arabic accounts also describes vaguely about the riches and fabulous fortune of the king of Zabag. The historical records of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
were reconstructed from a number of stone inscriptions, most of them written in Old Malay, such as the Kedukan Bukit, Talang Tuwo, Telaga Batu and Kota Kapur inscriptions.[3]:82–83 Srivijaya
Srivijaya
had become a symbol of early Sumatran importance as a great empire to balance Java's Majapahit
Majapahit
in the east. In the 20th century, both empires were referred to by nationalistic intellectuals to argue for an Indonesian identity within an Indonesian state that had existed prior to the colonial state of the Dutch East Indies.[12] Srivijaya, and by extension Sumatra, had been known by different names to different peoples. The Chinese called it Sanfoqi or Che-li-fo-che (Shilifoshi), and there was an even older kingdom of Kantoli, which could be considered the predecessor of Srivijaya.[14][15] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali
Pali
texts referred to it as Yavades and Javadeh, respectively.[14] The Arabs called it Zabag or Sribuza and the Khmers called it Melayu.[14] While the Javanese called them Suvarnabhumi, Suvarnadvipa or Malayu. This is another reason why the discovery of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was so difficult.[14] While some of these names are strongly reminiscent of the name of "Java", there is a distinct possibility that they may have referred to Sumatra
Sumatra
instead.[16] Capital[edit]

Srivijaya Archaeological Park
Srivijaya Archaeological Park
(green) located Southwest from the centre of Palembang. The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.

According to the Kedukan Bukit inscription, dated 605 Saka (683), Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was first established in the vicinity of today's Palembang, on the banks of Musi River. It mentions that Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa came from Minanga Tamwan. The exact location of Minanga Tamwan is still a subject of discussion. The Palembang
Palembang
theory as the place where Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was first established was presented by Cœdes and supported by Pierre-Yves Manguin. Soekmono, on the other hand, argues that Palembang
Palembang
was not the capital of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and suggests that the Kampar River
Kampar River
system in Riau
Riau
where the Muara Takus
Muara Takus
temple is located as Minanga Tamwan.[17] Palembang
Palembang
left little archaeological traces of ancient urban settlement. This is probably because of the nature of Palembang environment — a low lying plain which frequently flooded by Musi River. Expert suggests that the ancient Palembang
Palembang
settlement was formed as a collection of floating houses made from thatched materials, such as wood, bamboo and straw roof. The 13th century Chinese account confirmed this; in his book Chu-Fan-Chi, Chau-Ju-kua mentioned that "The residents Sanfo-tsi (Srivijaya) live scattered outside the city on the water, within rafts lined with reeds." It was probably only Kadatuan
Kadatuan
(king's court) and religious structures were built on land, while the people live in floating houses along Musi River.[18] Palembang
Palembang
and its relevance to the early Malaysian state suffered a great deal of controversy in terms of its evidence build up through the archaeological record. Strong historical evidence found in Chinese sources, speaking of city like settlements as early as 700 AD, and later Arab
Arab
travelers, who visited the region during the 10th and 11th centuries, held written proof, naming the kingdom of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in their context. As far as early state-like polities in Malaysia, the geographical location of modern Palembang
Palembang
was a possible candidate for the 1st millennium kingdom settlement like Srivijaya
Srivijaya
as it is the best described and most secure in historical context, its prestige was apparent in wealth and in urban characteristics, and the most unique, which no other 1st millennium kingdom held, was its location in junction to three major rivers, the Musi, the Komering, and the Ogan. The historical evidence was contrasted in 1975 with publications by Bennet Bronson and Jan Wisseman. Findings at certain major excavation sites, such as Geding Suro, Penyaringan Air Berish, Sarang Waty, and Bukit Seguntang, conducted in the region played major roles in the negative evidence of the 1st millennium kingdom in the same region. It was noted that the region contained no locatable settlements earlier than the middle of the second millennium. Lack of evidence of southern settlements in the archaeological record come from the disinterest in the archeologist and the unclear physical visibility of the settlement themselves. Archeology of the 1920’s and 30’s focused more on art and epigraphy found in the regions. Some northern urban settlements were sited due to some overlap in fitting the sinocentic model of city-state urban centers. An approach to differentualize between urban settlements in the southern regions from the northern ones of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
was initiated by a proposition for an alternative model. Excavations showed failed signs of a complex urban center under the lens of a sinocentric model, leading to parameters of a new proposed model. Parameters for such a model of a city-like settlement included isolation in relevance to its hinterland. No hinterland creates for low archaeological visibility. The settlement must also have access to both easy transportation and major interregional trade routes, crucial in a region with few resources. Access to the former and later play a major role in a creation of extreme economic surplus in the absence of an exploited hinterland. The urban center must be able to organize politically without the need of ceremonial foci such as temples, monuments and inscriptions. Lastly, habitations must be impermanent, being highly probable in the region Palemabang and of southern Southeast Asia. Such a model was proposed to challenge city concepts of ancient urban centers in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and basic postulates themselves such as regions found in the South, like Palembang, based their achievements in correlation with urbanization.[19] Due to the contradicting pattern found in southern regions, like Palembang, in 1977 Bennet Bronson developed a speculative model for a better understanding of the Sumatran coastal region, such as insular and peninsular Malaysia, the Philippines, and western Indonesia. Its main focus being the relationship of political, economical and geographical systems. The general political and economical pattern of the region seems irrelevant to other parts of the world of their time, but in correlation with their maritime trade network it produced high levels of socio-economic complexity. He concluded, from his earlier publications in 1974 that state development in this region developed much differently than the rest of early Southeast Asia. Bronson’s model was based on the dendritic patterns of a drainage basin where its opening leads out to sea. Being that historical evidence places the capital in Palembang, and in junction of three rivers, the Musi, the Komering, and the Ogan, such model can be applied. In order for the system to function appropriately several constraints are required. Inability for terrestrial transportation results in movements of all good through water routes, lining up economical patterns with the dendritic patterns formed by the streams. The second being the overseas center is economically superior to the ports found at the mouth of the rivers, having a higher population and a more productive and technologically advanced economy. Lastly, constraints on the land work against and do not developments of urban settlements.[20]

Floating houses in Musi River bank near Palembang
Palembang
in 1917. Srivijayan capital was probably formed from a collection of floating houses like this.

An aerial photograph taken in 1984 near Palembang
Palembang
(in what is now Sriwijaya Kingdom Archaeological Park) revealed the remnants of ancient man-made canals, moats, ponds, and artificial islands, suggesting the location of Srivijaya's urban centre. Several artefacts such as fragments of inscriptions, Buddhist statues, beads, pottery and Chinese ceramics were found, confirming that the area had, at one time, dense human habitation.[21] By 1993, Pierre-Yves Manguin had shown that the centre of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was along the Musi River between Bukit Seguntang
Bukit Seguntang
and Sabokingking (situated in what is now Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia).[7] Palembang
Palembang
is called in Chinese: 巨港; pinyin: Jù gǎng; literally: "Giant Harbour", this is probably a testament of its history as once a great port. However, in 2013, archaeological research led by the University of Indonesia
Indonesia
discovered several religious and habitation sites at Muaro Jambi, suggesting that the initial centre of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was located in Muaro Jambi
Jambi
Regency, Jambi
Jambi
on the Batang Hari River, rather than on the originally-proposed Musi river.[22] The archaeological site includes eight excavated temple sanctuaries and covers about 12 square kilometers, stretches 7.5 kilometers along the Batang Hari River, 80 menapos or mounds of temple ruins, are not yet restored.[23][24] The Muaro Jambi
Jambi
archaeological site was Mahayana- Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhist in nature, which suggests that the site served as the Buddhist learning center, connected to the 10th century famous Buddhist scholar Suvarṇadvipi Dharmakīrti. Chinese sources also mentioned that Srivijaya
Srivijaya
hosts thousands of Buddhist monks. Another theory suggests that Dapunta Hyang came from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, and that the Chaiya District
Chaiya District
in Surat Thani Province, Thailand, was the centre of Srivijaya.[25] The Srivijayan Period is referred to the time when Srivijaya
Srivijaya
ruled over present day southern Thailand. In the region of Chaiya, there is clear evidence of Srivijayan influence seen in artwork inspired by Mahayana Buddhism. Because of the large amount of remains, such as the Ligor
Ligor
stele, found in this region, some scholars attempted to prove Chaiya
Chaiya
as the capital rather than Palembang.[26] This period was also a time for art. The Buddhist art
Buddhist art
of the Srivijayan Kingdom was believed to have borrow from Indian styles like that of the Dvaravati
Dvaravati
school of art.[27] The city of Chaiya's name may be derived from the Malay name "Cahaya" which means "light" or "radiance". However, some scholars believe that Chaiya
Chaiya
probably comes from Sri Vijaya. It was a regional capital in the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
empire. Some Thai historians argue it was the capital of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
itself,[28] but this is generally discounted.

By late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Srivijaya.

In the second half of the eighth century, the capital of Srivijayan Mandala
Mandala
seems to be relocated and reestablished in Central Java, in the splendid court of Medang
Medang
Mataram located somewhere in fertile Kedu and Kewu Plain, in the same location of the majestic Borobudur, Manjusrigrha and Prambanan
Prambanan
monuments. This unique period is known as the Srivijayan episode in Central Java, when the monarch of Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Srivijaya. By that time, Srivijayan Mandala
Mandala
seems to be consists of the federation or an alliance of city-states, spanned from Java
Java
to Sumatra
Sumatra
and Malay Peninsula, connected with trade connection cemented with political allegiance. By that time Srivijayan trading centers remains in Palembang, and to further extent also includes ports of Jambi, Kedah
Kedah
and Chaiya; while its political, religious and ceremonial center was established in Central Java. History[edit] Formation and growth[edit] Siddhayatra[edit]

The Kedukan Bukit inscription
Kedukan Bukit inscription
displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia.

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Around the year 500, the roots of the Srivijayan empire began to develop around present-day Palembang, Sumatra. The Kedukan Bukit inscription (683), discovered on the banks of the Tatang River, near Karanganyar site, mentioned that the empire of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was founded by Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa and his retinue. He had embarked on a sacred siddhayatra[29] journey, and led 20,000 troops and 312 people in boats with 1312 foot soldiers from Minanga Tamwan to Jambi
Jambi
and Palembang. From the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
inscriptions, it is notable that Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa launched a maritime conquest in 684 with 20,000 men in the siddhayatra journey to acquire wealth, power, and 'magical powers'.[30] Under the leadership of Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa, the Melayu Kingdom
Melayu Kingdom
became the first kingdom to be integrated into Srivijaya. This possibly occurred in the 680s. Melayu, also known as Jambi, was rich in gold and held in high esteem at the time. Srivijaya recognised that the submission of Melayu would increase its own prestige.[31] The empire was organised in three main zones: the estuarine capital region centred on Palembang, the Musi River basin which served as hinterland, and rival estuarine areas capable of forming rival power centres. The areas upstream of the Musi River were rich in various commodities valuable to Chinese traders.[32] The capital was administered directly by the ruler while the hinterland remained under its own local datus or tribal chiefs, who were organised into a network of alliances with the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
maharaja or king. Force was the dominant element in the empire's relations with rival river systems such as the Batang Hari River, centred in Jambi. The Telaga Batu inscription, discovered in Sabokingking, eastern Palembang, is also a siddhayatra inscription. It is highly possible that this 7th century inscription was used in some kind of oath allegiance ritual. The top of the stone is adorned with seven nāga heads, and on the lower portion, there is some kind of water spout to channel the liquid that was likely poured over the stone during a ceremonial allegiance ritual. The ritual demonstrate the use of curse in sumpah (allegiance) ritual for those who commit treason against Kadatuan
Kadatuan
Srivijaya. The Talang Tuwo inscription, is also a siddhayatra inscription. Discovered in Bukit Seguntang, western Palembang, this inscription tells about the establishment of the bountiful Śrīksetra garden endowed by King Jayanasa of Srivijaya, for the well being of all creatures.[3]:82–83 It is highly possible that the currently Bukit Seguntang site was the location of Srivijaya's Śrīksetra garden. Regional conquests[edit] According to the Kota Kapur inscription
Kota Kapur inscription
discovered on Bangka Island, the empire conquered most of southern Sumatra
Sumatra
and the neighbouring island of Bangka, as far as Palas Pasemah in Lampung. Also, according to the inscriptions, Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa launched a military campaign against Java
Java
in the late 7th century, a period which coincided with the decline of Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
in West Java
Java
and the Kalingga
Kalingga
in Central Java. The empire thus grew to control the trade on the Strait of Malacca, the Sunda Strait, the South China
China
Sea, the Java Sea, and the Karimata Strait. Chinese records dating to the late 7th century mention two Sumatran kingdoms as well as three other kingdoms on Java
Java
as being part of Srivijaya. By the end of the 8th century, many western Javanese kingdoms, such as Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
and Kalingga, were within the Srivijayan sphere of influence. Golden age[edit]

The golden Malayu-Srivijayan Avalokiteśvara, Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia.

The 7th century Sojomerto inscription mentioned that an Old Malay-speaking Shivaist family led by Dapunta Selendra, has established themselves in Batang area, northern coast of Central Java. He was possibly the progenitor of Sailendra
Sailendra
family. By early 8th century, an influential Buddhist family related to Srivijaya
Srivijaya
dominated Central Java.[33] The family was the Sailendras.[34] The Sailendras were of Javanese origin.[35] The ruling lineage of Srivijaya intermarried with the Sailendras of Central Java. Conquest of Malay Peninsula[edit]

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Malay polities in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Malay Peninsula. By the turn of the 8th century the states in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
were fell under Srivijayan domination.

During the same century, Langkasuka
Langkasuka
on the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
became part of Srivijaya.[36] Soon after this, Pan Pan and Tambralinga, which were located north of Langkasuka, came under Srivijayan influence. These kingdoms on the peninsula were major trading nations that transported goods across the peninsula's isthmus. The Ligor inscription in Vat Sema Muang, mentioned that Maharaja
Maharaja
of Srivijaya, Dharmasetu ordered the construction of three sanctuaries dedicated to Bodhisattvas Padmapani, Vajrapani
Vajrapani
and Buddha
Buddha
located in Southern Thailand
Thailand
Malay Peninsula.[37] The inscription further stated that the Dharmasetu was the head of the Sailendras of Java. This is the first instance of relationship known existed between Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and the Sailendra. With the expansion into Java
Java
and the Malay Peninsula, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
controlled two major trade choke points in Southeast Asia; Malacca and Sunda straits. Some Srivijayan temple ruins are observable in Thailand
Thailand
and Cambodia. At some point in the late 7th century, Cham ports in eastern Indochina started to attract traders. This diverted the flow of trade from Srivijaya. In an effort to divert the flow, the Srivijayan Maharaja Dharmasetu, launched various raids against the coastal cities of Indochina. The city of Indrapura by the Mekong
Mekong
was temporarily controlled from Palembang
Palembang
in the early 8th century.[34] The Srivijayans continued to dominate areas around present-day Cambodia until the Khmer King Jayavarman II, the founder of the Khmer Empire dynasty, severed the Srivijayan link later in the same century.[38] Srivijayan rule in Central Java[edit] Main articles: Sailendra
Sailendra
and Medang
Medang
Kingdom The Sailendras of Java
Java
established and nurtured a dynastic alliance with the Sumatran Srivijayan lineage, and then further established their rule and authority in Medang
Medang
Mataram Kingdom of Central Java. In Java, Dharanindra's successor was Samaragrawira (r. 800—819), mentioned in Nalanda inscription
Nalanda inscription
(dated 860) as the father of Balaputradewa, and the son of Śailendravamsatilaka (the jewel of the Śailendra family) with stylised name Śrīviravairimathana (the slayer of a heroic enemy), which refers to Dharanindra.[39]:92 Unlike his predecessor, the expansive and warlike Dharanindra, Samaragrawira seems to have been a pacifist, enjoying a peaceful prosperity of interior Java
Java
in Kedu Plain
Kedu Plain
and being more interested on completing the Borobudur
Borobudur
project. He appointed Khmer Prince Jayavarman as the governor of Indrapura in the Mekong
Mekong
delta under Sailendran rule. This decision was later proven to be a mistake, as Jayavarman later revolted, moved his capital further inland north from Tonle Sap
Tonle Sap
to Mahendraparvata, severed the link to Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and proclaimed Cambodian independence from Java
Java
in 802. Samaragrawira was mentioned as the king of Java
Java
that married Tārā, daughter of Dharmasetu.[39]:108 He was mentioned as his other name Rakai Warak in Mantyasih inscription. Earlier historians, such as N. J. Krom and Cœdes, tend to equate Samaragrawira and Samaratungga
Samaratungga
as the same person.[39]:92 However, later historians such as Slamet Muljana equate Samaratungga
Samaratungga
with Rakai Garung, mentioned in Mantyasih inscription as fifth monarch of Mataram kingdom. This would mean that Samaratungga
Samaratungga
was the successor of Samaragrawira. Dewi Tara, the daughter of Dharmasetu, married Samaratunga, a member of the Sailendra
Sailendra
family who later assumed throne of Srivijaya, around 792.[40] By 8th century, the Srivijayan court was virtually located in Java, as the Sailendras monarch rose to become the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Srivijaya.

The construction of the Borobudur
Borobudur
completed under the reign of Samaratunga
Samaratunga
of Sailendra
Sailendra
dynasty.

After Dharmasetu, Samaratungga
Samaratungga
became the next Maharaja
Maharaja
of Srivijaya. He reigned as ruler from 792 to 835. Unlike the expansionist Dharmasetu, Samaratungga
Samaratungga
did not indulge in military expansion but preferred to strengthen the Srivijayan hold of Java. He personally oversaw the construction of the grand monument of Borobudur; a massive stone mandala, which was completed in 825, during his reign.[41] According to Cœdès, "in the second half of the ninth century Java and Sumatra
Sumatra
were united under the rule of a Sailendra
Sailendra
reigning in Java... its center at Palembang."[3]:92 Samaratungga
Samaratungga
just like Samaragrawira, seems to be deeply influenced by peaceful Mahayana Buddhist beliefs and strived to become a peaceful and a benevolent ruler. His successor was Princess Pramodhawardhani who was betrothed to Shivaite Rakai Pikatan, son of the influential Rakai Patapan, a landlord in Central Java. The political move that seems as an effort to secure peace and Sailendran rule on Java
Java
by reconciling the Mahayana Buddhist with Shivaist Hindus. Return to Palembang[edit] Prince Balaputra, however, opposed the rule of Pikatan and Pramodhawardhani in Central Java. The relations between Balaputra and Pramodhawardhani is interpreted differently by some historians. Older theory according to Bosch and De Casparis holds that Balaputra was the son of Samaratungga, which means he was the younger brother of Pramodhawardhani. Later historians such as Muljana on the other hand, argued that Balaputra was the son of Samaragrawira and the younger brother of Samaratungga, which means he was the uncle of Pramodhawardhani.[42] It is not known whether Balaputra was expelled from Central Java because of succession dispute with Pikatan, or was he already ruled in Suvarnadvipa (Sumatra). Either ways, it seems that Balaputra eventually ruled the Sumatran branch of Sailendra
Sailendra
dynasty and enthroned in Srivijayan capital of Palembang. Historians argued that this was because Balaputra's mother — Tara, the queen consort of King Samaragrawira was the princess of Srivijaya, this rendered Balaputra as the heir of Srivijayan throne. Balaputra the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
later stated his claim as the rightful heir of Sailendra dynasty from Java, as proclaimed in Nalanda inscription
Nalanda inscription
dated 860.[39]:108 After trade disruption at Canton between 820 and 850, the ruler of Jambi
Jambi
(Melayu Kingdom) was able to assert enough independence to send missions to China
China
in 853 and 871.[citation needed] The Melayu kingdom's independence coincided with the troubled times when the Sailendran Balaputradewa, was expelled from Java
Java
and, later, he seized the throne of Srivijaya. The new maharaja was able to dispatch a tributary mission to China
China
by 902. Two years after that, the expiring Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
conferred a title on a Srivijayan envoy. In the first half of the 10th century, between the fall of Tang Dynasty and the rise of Song, there was brisk trading between the overseas world with the Fujian
Fujian
kingdom of Min and the rich Guangdong kingdom of Nan Han. Srivijaya
Srivijaya
undoubtedly benefited from this. Sometime around 903, the Muslim
Muslim
writer Ibn Rustah was so impressed with the wealth of the Srivijayan ruler that he declared that one would not hear of a king who was richer, stronger or who had more revenue. The main urban centres of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
were then at Palembang (especially the Karanganyar site near Bukit Seguntang
Bukit Seguntang
area), Muara Jambi
Jambi
and Kedah. Srivijayan exploration[edit] The core of the Srivijayan realm was mainly concentrated in and around the straits of Malacca and Sunda; in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
and Western Java. However, between the 9th and the 12th centuries, the influence of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
seems to be extended far beyond their core realm. Srivijayan navigators, sailors and traders seems to be engaged in extensive trade and exploration, which reached coastal Borneo, the Philippines
Philippines
archipelago, Eastern Indonesia, coastal Indochina, Bay of Bengal
Bengal
and Indian Ocean, as far as Madagascar.[43] The migration to Madagascar
Madagascar
accelerated in the 9th century when Srivijaya
Srivijaya
controlled much of the maritime trade in the Indian Ocean.[44] The migration to Madagascar
Madagascar
was estimated to have taken place 1,200 years ago around 830 CE. According to an extensive new mitochondrial DNA study, native Malagasy people today can likely trace their heritage back to the 30 founding mothers who sailed from Indonesia
Indonesia
1,200 years ago.[45] Malagasy contains loan words from Sanskrit, with all the local linguistic modifications via Javanese or Malay, hint that Madagascar
Madagascar
may have been colonised by settlers from the Srivijaya.[46] At that time, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was expanding its maritime trade network.[47] The influence of the empire reached Manila
Manila
by the 10th century. A kingdom under its sphere of influence had already been established there.[48][49] The discovery of golden Tara statue in Agusan del Sur, also golden Kinnara
Kinnara
from Butuan, Northeastern Mindanao, in the Philippines
Philippines
suggests the ancient link between ancient Philippines
Philippines
and the Srivijayan empire.[50] Tara and Kinnara
Kinnara
are important figures or deities in Mahayana Buddhist beliefs. The Mahayana- Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhist religious commonality is interesting, it is possible that ancient Philippines
Philippines
acquired their Mahayana- Vajrayana
Vajrayana
beliefs from Srivijayan influence in Sumatra.[51] By the 12th century, the kingdom included parts of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Western Java, Borneo
Borneo
and the Philippines, most notably the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
and the Visayas
Visayas
islands (it is believed by some historians that the name 'Visayas' is derived from the empire).[52][43] War against Java[edit]

Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa of Java
Java
launched a naval attack against Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in Sumatra.

In the 10th century, the rivalry between Sumatran Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and the Javanese Medang
Medang
kingdom became more intense and hostile. The animosity was probably caused by Srivijaya's effort to reclaim the Sailendra lands in Java
Java
or by Medang's aspiration to challenge Srivijaya domination in the region. In East Java, the Anjukladang inscription dated from 937 mentioned about infiltration attack from Malayu — which refer to a Srivijayan attack upon Medang Kingdom
Medang Kingdom
of East Java. The villagers of Anjuk Ladang was awarded for their service and merit on assisting the king's army — under the leadership of Mpu Sindok, on repelling invading Malayu (Sumatra) forces, subsequently a jayastambha (victory monument) was erected in their honor. In 990, King Dharmawangsa of Java
Java
launched a naval invasion against Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and attempted to capture the capital Palembang. The news of Javanese invasion of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was recorded in Chinese Song period sources. In 988, a Srivijayan envoy was sent to Chinese court in Guangzhou. After sojourned for about two years in China, the envoy learned that his country has been attacked by She-po (Java) thus made him unable to return home. In 992 the envoy from She-po (Java) arrived in Chinese court and explaining that their country has involved in continuous war with San-fo-qi (Srivijaya). In 999 the Srivijayan envoy sailed from China
China
to Champa
Champa
in an attempt to return home, however he received no news about the condition of his country. The Srivijayan envoy then sailed back to China
China
and appealed to the Chinese Emperor for the protection of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
against Javanese invaders.[53]:229 Dharmawangsa's invasion led the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Srivijaya, Sri Cudamani Warmadewa to seek protection from China. Srivijayan Maharaja, Sri Cudamani Warmadewa was proven as an able and astute ruler, with shrewd diplomatic skills. In the midst of crisis brought by Javanese invasion, he secured Chinese political support by appeasing the Chinese Emperor. In 1003, a Song historical record reported that the envoy of San-fo-qi was dispatched by the king Shi-li-zhu-luo-wu-ni-fo-ma-tiao-hua (Sri Cudamani Warmadewa). The Srivijayan envoy told Chinese court that in their country a Buddhist temple had been erected to pray for the long life of Chinese Emperor, thus asked the emperor to give the name and the bell for this temple which was built in his honor. Rejoiced, the Chinese Emperor named the temple Ch'eng-t'en-wan-shou ('ten thousand years of receiving blessing from heaven, which is China) and a bell was immediately casted and sent to Srivijaya
Srivijaya
to be installed in the temple.[53]:6 In 1006, Srivijaya's alliance proved its resilience by successfully repelling the Javanese invasion. The Javanese invasion is ultimately unsuccessful. This attack has opened the eyes of Srivijayan Maharaja of how dangerous Javanese Medang Kingdom
Medang Kingdom
could be, and further contemplate, patiently laid a plan and effort to destroy his Javanese nemesis. In retaliation, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
assisted Haji (king) Wurawari of Lwaram to revolt, which led to the attack and destruction of the Medang
Medang
palace. This sudden and unexpected attack took place during the wedding ceremony of Dharmawangsa's daughter, which rendered the court unprepared and shocked. With the death of Dharmawangsa and the fall of the Medang
Medang
capital, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
contributed to the collapse of Medang kingdom, leaving Eastern Java
Java
in further unrest, violence and, ultimately, desolation for several years to come.[3]:130,132,141,144 Decline[edit]

A Siamese painting depicting the Chola
Chola
raid on Kedah.

Chola
Chola
invasion[edit] See also: Chola
Chola
invasion of Srivijaya The contributory factors in the decline of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
are foreign piracy and raids that disrupted the trade and security in the region. Attracted to the wealth of Srivijaya, Rajendra Chola, the Chola
Chola
king from Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
in South India, launched naval raids on ports of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and conquered Kadaram (modern Kedah) from Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in 1025.[3]:142–143 The Cholas are known to have benefitted from both piracy and foreign trade. At times, the Chola
Chola
seafaring led to outright plunder and conquest as far as Southeast Asia.[54] An inscription of King Rajendra states that he had captured the King of Kadaram, Sangrama Vijayatunggavarman, and plundered a large amount of treasures including the Vidhyadara-torana which was the jewelled 'war gate' of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
adorned with great splendour.[53]:1 With the Maharaja
Maharaja
Sangrama Vijayottunggavarman imprisoned and most of its cities destroyed, the leaderless Srivijaya
Srivijaya
mandala entered a period of chaos and confusion. The invasion marked the end of the Sailendra
Sailendra
dynasty rule of Srivijaya. According to the 15th-century Malay annals Sejarah Melayu, Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
I after the successful naval raid in 1025 married Onang Kiu, the daughter of Vijayottunggavarman.[55][56] This invasion forced Srivijaya
Srivijaya
to make peace with Javanese kingdom of Kahuripan. The peace deal was brokered by the exiled daughter of Vijayottunggavarman, who managed to escape the destruction of Palembang, and came to the court of King Airlangga in East Java. She also became the queen consort of Airlangga
Airlangga
named Dharmaprasadottungadevi and in 1035, Airlangga
Airlangga
constructed a Buddhist monastery named Srivijayasrama dedicated to his queen consort.[57]:163 The Cholas continued a series of raids and conquests of parts of Sumatra
Sumatra
and Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
for the next 20 years. The expedition of Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
I had such a lasting impression on the Malay people
Malay people
of the period that his name is even mentioned (in the corrupted form as Raja Chulan) in the medieval Malay chronicle, the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals).[55][58][59][60] Even today the Chola
Chola
rule is remembered in Malaysia
Malaysia
as many Malaysian princes have names ending with Cholan or Chulan, one such was the Raja of Perak
Perak
called Raja Chulan.[61][62] This event marked the demise of the Empire
Empire
and a sharp turn for the control of the trade route. For the next century, Tamil trading companies from southern India
India
dominated the Straits region, although the domination was weaker than the control of the Srivijayan Empire.[63]

Ruins of the Wat Kaew in Chaiya, dating from Srivijayan times

King Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
overseas expeditions against Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was a unique event in India's history and its otherwise peaceful relations with the states of Southeast Asia. The reasons of the naval expeditions are uncertain as the sources are silent about its exact causes. Nilakanta Sastri suggests that the attacks were probably caused by Srivijaya's attempts to throw obstacles in the way of the Chola
Chola
trade with the East or, more probably, a simple desire on the part of King Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
to extend his military victories to the countries that were well known so as to add lustre to his crown.[53] It gravely weakened the Srivijayan hegemony and enabled the formation of regional kingdoms like Kediri, which were based on intensive agriculture rather than coastal and long-distance trade. With the passing of time, the regional trading center shifted from the old Srivijayan capital of Palembang
Palembang
to another trade centre on the island of Sumatra, Jambi, which was the centre of Malayu.[63] Although the Cholas did not established a direct rule over Srivijayan court, Chola
Chola
nobles were accepted graciously in Srivijayan court. In 1067, a Chola
Chola
prince named Divakara or Devakala was sent as a Srivijayan ambassador to the Imperial Court of China. The prince who was the nephew of Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
later was enthroned in 1070 as Kulothunga Chola
Chola
I. The humiliating defeat of Srivijayan Mandala against foreign invasion, has exposed the weaknesses and vurnerability of Srivijayan allegiance and alliance model. Among the disillusioned regional polities that jump out of the wagon, Kedah
Kedah
was the first that rebelled against the central Srivijayan authority. As the response, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
asked the Chola's help to punish and suppress Kedah rebellion. In 1068, Virarajendra Chola
Chola
launched a naval raid to help Srivijaya
Srivijaya
reclaim Kedah.[64] Virarajendra reinstated the Kedah
Kedah
king at the request of the Srivijayan Maharaja
Maharaja
and Kedah
Kedah
accepted the Srivijayan sovereignty.[57][64] After this the Chola
Chola
ruler Kulothunga Chola
Chola
I became the ruler of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
which is mentioned in the Song chronicles.[65][66] This peculiar event and the strange dynamic between Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and its former nemesis, the Cholas, has confused the Chinese court, that in their report mistakenly thought that the Chola was the vassal of Srivijaya. Return[edit] Further information: Melayu Kingdom
Melayu Kingdom
and Dharmasraya

Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at the Muaro Jambi
Jambi
Temple Compounds of the Melayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban centre.

Between 1079 and 1088, Chinese records show that Srivijaya
Srivijaya
sent ambassadors from Jambi
Jambi
and Palembang.[67] In 1079 in particular, an ambassador from Jambi
Jambi
and Palembang
Palembang
each visited China. Jambi
Jambi
sent two more ambassadors to China
China
in 1082 and 1088.[67] That would suggest that the centre of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
frequently shifted between the two major cities during that period.[67] The Chola
Chola
expeditions as well as the changing trade routes weakened Palembang, allowing Jambi
Jambi
to take the leadership of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
from the 11th century onwards.[68] By the 12th century, a new dynasty called Mauli rose as the paramount of Srivijaya. The earliest reference to the new dynasty was found in Grahi
Grahi
inscription dated 1183 discovered in Chaiya
Chaiya
(Grahi), Southern Thailand
Thailand
Malay Peninsula. The inscription bears the order of Maharaja Srimat Trailokyaraja Maulibhusana Warmadewa to the bhupati (regent) of Grahi
Grahi
named Mahasenapati Galanai to make a statue of Buddha
Buddha
weight 1 bhara 2 tula with the value of 10 gold tamlin. The artist that responsible for the creation of the statue is Mraten Sri Nano. According to the Chinese Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
book Zhu Fan Zhi,[69] written around 1225 by Zhao Rugua, the two most powerful and richest kingdoms in the Southeast Asian archipelago were Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and Java
Java
(Kediri), with the western part (Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, and western Java/Sunda) under Srivijaya's rule and the eastern part was under Kediri's domination. It says that the people in Java
Java
followed two kinds of religions, namely Buddhism
Buddhism
and the religion of Brahmins (Hinduism), while the people of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
followed Buddhism. The book describes the people of Java
Java
as being brave, short-tempered and willing to fight. It also notes that their favourite pastimes were cockfighting and pig fighting. The coin used as the currency then were made from a mixture of copper, silver, and tin.

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Zhu fan zhi also states that Java
Java
was ruled by a maharaja and included the following "dependencies": Pai-hua-yuan (Pacitan), Ma-tung (Medang), Ta-pen (Tumapel, now Malang), Hi-ning (Dieng), Jung-ya-lu (Hujung Galuh, now Surabaya), Tung-ki (Jenggi, West Papua), Ta-kang (Sumba), Huang-ma-chu (Southwest Papua), Ma-li (Bali), Kulun (Gurun, identified as Gorong or Sorong in West Papua or an island in Nusa Tenggara), Tan-jung-wu-lo (Tanjungpura in Borneo), Ti-wu (Timor), Pingya-i (Banggai in Sulawesi), and Wu-nu-ku (Maluku).[3]:186–187 Additionally, Zhao Rugua
Zhao Rugua
said that Srivijaya
Srivijaya
"was still a great power at the beginning of the thirteenth century" with 15 colonies:[70] Pong-fong (Pahang), Tong-ya-nong (Terengganu), Ling-ya-si-kia (Langkasuka), Kilan-tan (Kelantan), Fo-lo-an (Dungun, eastern part of Malay Peninsula, a town within state of Terengganu), Ji-lo-t'ing (Cherating), Ts'ien-mai (Semawe, Malay Peninsula), Pa-t'a (Sungai Paka, located in Terengganu
Terengganu
of Malay Peninsula), Tan-ma-ling (Tambralinga, Ligor
Ligor
or Nakhon Si Thammarat, South Thailand), Kia-lo-hi (Grahi, (Krabi) northern part of Malay peninsula), Pa-lin-fong (Palembang), Sin-t'o (Sunda), Lan-wu-li ( Lamuri
Lamuri
at Aceh), Kien-pi (Jambi) and Si-lan ( Cambodia
Cambodia
or Ceylon
Ceylon
(?)).[3]:183–184[71][72] Srivijaya
Srivijaya
remained a formidable sea power until the 13th century.[4] According to Cœdès, at the end of the 13th century, the empire "had ceased to exist... caused by the simultaneous pressure on its two flanks of Siam and Java."[3]:204,243 Javanese pressure[edit] Main article: Pamalayu expedition By the 13th century, Singhasari
Singhasari
empire, the successor state of Kediri in Java, rose as a regional hegemon in maritime Southeast Asia. In the year 1275, the ambitious and able king Kertanegara, the fifth monarch of Singhasari
Singhasari
who had been reigning since 1254, launched a naval campaign northward towards the remains of the Srivijayan mandala.[3]:198 The strongest of these Malay kingdoms was Jambi, which captured the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
capital in 1088, then the Dharmasraya kingdom, and the Temasek
Temasek
kingdom of Singapore, and then remaining territories. In 1288, Kertanegara's forces conquered much of Melayu states includes Palembang, Jambi
Jambi
as well as much of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
during the Pamalayu expedition. The Padang Roco Inscription
Padang Roco Inscription
was discovered in 1911 near the source of Batang Hari river, Padangroco.[73] The inscription which was dated 1208 Saka (1286), tell that under the order of king Kertanegara
Kertanegara
of Singhasari, a statue of Amoghapasa Lokeshvara
Lokeshvara
was transported from Bhumijawa (Java) to Suvarnabhumi
Suvarnabhumi
(Sumatra) to be erected at Dharmasraya. This gift has made the people of Suvarnabhumi rejoiced, especially their king Tribhuwanaraja Mauliwarmmadewa.

Statue of Amoghapasa on top of inscription (1286) sent by Kertanegara of Singhasari
Singhasari
to be erected in Suvarnabhumi
Suvarnabhumi
Dharmasraya.

In the year 1293, the Majapahit
Majapahit
empire, the successor state of Singhasari, ruled much of Sumatra. Prince Adityawarman
Adityawarman
was given the power over Sumatera
Sumatera
in 1347 by Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, the third monarch of Majapahit. A rebellion broke out in 1377 and was quashed by Majapahit
Majapahit
but it left the area of southern Sumatera
Sumatera
in chaos and desolation. In the following years, sedimentation on the Musi river estuary cut the kingdom's capital off from direct sea access. This strategic disadvantage crippled the trade in the kingdom's capital. As the decline continued, Islam
Islam
made its way to the Aceh
Aceh
region of Sumatra, spreading through contacts with Arab
Arab
and Indian traders. By the late 13th century, the kingdom of Pasai, in northern Sumatra, converted to Islam. At the same time, Srivijayan lands in Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
(now Southern Thailand) was briefly a tributary state of the Khmer empire and later the Sukhothai kingdom[citation needed]. The last inscription, on which a crown prince, Ananggavarman, son of Adityawarman, is mentioned, dates from 1374. Last revival efforts[edit] Further information: Sang Sapurba and Kingdom of Singapura After decades of Javanese domination, there were several last efforts made by Sumatran rulers to revive the old prestige and fortune of Malay-Srivijayan Mandala. Several attempts to revive Srivijaya
Srivijaya
were made by the fleeing princes of Srivijaya.[citation needed] According to the Malay Annals, a new ruler named Sang Sapurba was promoted as the new paramount of Srivijayan mandala. It was said that after his accession to Seguntang Hill with his two younger brothers, Sang Sapurba enters into a sacred covenant with Demang Lebar Daun the native ruler of Palembang.[74] The newly installed sovereign afterwards descended from the hill of Seguntang into the great plain of Musi river, where he married Wan Sendari, the daughter of the local chief, Demang Lebar Daun. Sang Sapurba was said to have reigned in Minangkabau lands. In 1324, a prince of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
origin, Sri Maharaja
Maharaja
Sang Utama Parameswara Batara Sri Tribuwana (Sang Nila Utama) founded the ancient Kingdom of Singapura
Kingdom of Singapura
(Temasek). Tradition mentioned that he is related to Sang Sapurba. He maintained control over Temasek
Temasek
for 48 years. He was recognised as ruler over Temasek
Temasek
by an envoy of the Chinese Emperor sometime around 1366. He was succeeded by his son Paduka Sri Pekerma Wira Diraja (1372–1386) and grandson, Paduka Seri Rana Wira Kerma (1386–1399). In 1401, the last ruler, Paduka Sri Maharaja Parameswara was expelled from Temasek
Temasek
by the forces from Majapahit
Majapahit
or Ayutthaya. He later headed north and founded Sultanate of Malacca
Sultanate of Malacca
in 1402.[75] The Sultanate of Malacca
Sultanate of Malacca
succeeded Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Empire
Empire
as a Malay political entity of the archipelago.[76][77] Government and economy[edit] Political administration[edit]

Telaga Batu inscription
Telaga Batu inscription
adorned with seven nāga heads on top, and a waterspout on the lower part to channel the water probably poured during ceremonial allegiance ritual.

The 7th century Telaga Batu inscription, discovered in Sabokingking, Palembang, testifies to the complexity and stratified titles of the Srivijayan state officials. These titles are mentioned: rājaputra (princes, lit: sons of king), kumārāmātya (ministers), bhūpati (regional rulers), senāpati (generals), nāyaka (local community leaders), pratyaya (nobles), hāji pratyaya (lesser kings), dandanayaka (judges), tuhā an vatak (workers inspectors), vuruh (workers), addhyāksi nījavarna (lower supervisors), vāsīkarana (blacksmiths/weapon makers), cātabhata (soldiers), adhikarana (officials), kāyastha (store workers), sthāpaka (artisans), puhāvam (ship captains), vaniyāga (traders), marsī hāji (king's servants), hulun hāji (king's slaves).[78] During its formation, the empire was organised in three main zones — the estuarine capital region centred on Palembang, the Musi River basin which served as hinterland and source of valuable goods, and rival estuarine areas capable of forming rival power centres. These rival estuarine areas, through raids and conquests, were held under Srivijayan power, such as the Batanghari estuarine (Malayu in Jambi). Several strategic ports also included places like Bangka Island
Bangka Island
(Kota Kapur), ports and kingdoms in Java
Java
(highly possible Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
and Kalingga), Kedah
Kedah
and Chaiya
Chaiya
in Malay peninsula, and Lamuri
Lamuri
and Pannai in northern Sumatra. There are also reports mentioning the Java-Srivijayan raids on Southern Cambodia
Cambodia
( Mekong
Mekong
estuarine) and ports of Champa. After its expansion to the neighbouring states, the Srivijayan empire was formed as a collection of several Kadatuans (local principalities), which swore allegiance to the central ruling powerful Kadatuan
Kadatuan
ruled by the Srivijayan Maharaja. The political relations and system relating to its realms is described as a mandala model, typical of that of classical Southeast Asian Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms. It could be described as federation of kingdoms or vassalised polity under a centre of domination, namely the central Kadatuan
Kadatuan
Srivijaya. The polity was defined by its centre rather than its boundaries and it could be composed of numerous other tributary polities without undergoing further administrative integration.[79] The relations between the central kadatuan and its member (subscribers) kadatuans were dynamic. As such, the status would shift over generations. Minor trading ports throughout the region were controlled by local vassal rulers in place on behalf of the king. They also presided over harvesting resources from their respective regions for export. A portion of their revenue was required to be paid to the king.[80] They were not allowed to infringe upon international trade relations, but the temptation of keeping more money to themselves eventually led foreign traders and local rulers to conduct illicit trading relations of their own.[81] Other sources claim that the Champa
Champa
invasion had weakened the central government significantly, forcing vassals to keep the international trade revenue for themselves.[80] In addition to coercive methods through raids and conquests and being bound by pasumpahan (oath of allegiance), the royalties of each kadatuan often formed alliances through dynastic marriages. For example, a previously suzerained kadatuan over time might rise in prestige and power, so that eventually its ruler could lay claim to be the maharaja of the central kadatuan. The relationship between Srivijayan in Sumatra
Sumatra
(descendants of Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa) and Sailendras in Java
Java
exemplified this political dynamic. Economy and commerce[edit]

Buddhist expansion from northern India
India
to the rest of Asia, Srivijaya once served as a centre of Buddhist learning and expansion. This expansion followed trade routes of Silk Road inland and maritime route.

The main interest of Srivijayan foreign economic relation was to secure a highly lucrative trade agreement to serve a large Chinese market, that span from Tang to Song dynasty
Song dynasty
era. In order to participate in this trade agreement, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
involved in tributary relation with China, in which they sent numbers of envoys and embassies to secure the Chinese court's favour. The port of Srivijaya served as an important entrepôt in which valuable commodities from the region and beyond are collected, traded and shipped. Rice, cotton, indigo and silver from Java; aloes, resin, camphor, ivory and rhino's tusks, tin and gold from Sumatra; rattan, rare timber, gems and precious stones from Borneo; exotic birds and rare animals, iron, sappan, sandalwood and rare spices from Eastern Indonesian archipelago; various spices of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and India; also Chinese ceramics, lacquerware, brocade, fabrics, silks and Chinese artworks are among valuable commodities being traded in Srivijayan port. What goods were actually native to Srivijaya
Srivijaya
is currently being disputed due to the volume of cargo that regularly passed through the region from India, China, and Arabia. Foreign traders stopped to trade their cargo in Srivijaya
Srivijaya
with other merchants from Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and beyond. It was an easy location for traders from different regions to meet as opposed to visiting each other directly. This system of trade has led researchers to conjecture that the actual native products of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
were far less than what was originally recorded by Chinese and Arabic traders of the time. It may be that cargo sourced from foreign regions accumulated in Srivijaya. The accumulation of particular foreign goods that were easily accessible and in large supply might have given the impression they were products of Srivijaya. This could also work in the opposite direction with some native Srivijayan goods being mistaken as foreign commodities.[82][80] In the world of commerce, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
rose rapidly to be a far-flung empire controlling the two passages between India
India
and China, namely the Sunda Strait
Sunda Strait
from Palembang
Palembang
and the Malacca Strait
Malacca Strait
from Kedah. Arab
Arab
accounts state that the empire of the Srivijayan Maharaja
Maharaja
was so vast that the swiftest vessel would not have been able to travel round all its islands within two years. The islands the accounts referred to produced camphor, aloes, sandal-wood, spices like cloves, nutmegs, cardamom and cubebs, as well as ivory, gold and tin, all of which equalled the wealth of the Maharaja
Maharaja
to any king in India.[83] The Srivijayan government centralized the sourcing and trading of native and foreign goods in “warehouses” which streamlined the trade process by making a variety of products easily accessible in one area. Ceramics were a major trade commodity between Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and China
China
with shard artifacts found along the coast of Sumatra
Sumatra
and Java. It is assumed that China
China
and Srivijaya
Srivijaya
may have had an exclusive ceramics trade relationship because particular ceramic shards can only be found at their point of origin, Guangzhou, or in Indonesia, but nowhere else along the trade route.[82] When trying to prove this theory, there has been some discrepancies with the dating of said artifacts. Ceramic sherds found around the Geding Suro temple complex have been revealed to be much more recent than previously assumed. A statuette found in the same area did align with Srivijayan chronology, but it has been suggested that this is merely coincidence and the product was actually brought to the region recently.[19] Other than fostering the lucrative trade relations with India
India
and China, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
also established commerce links with Arabia. In a highly plausible account, a messenger was sent by Maharaja
Maharaja
Sri Indravarman to deliver a letter to Caliph
Caliph
Umar ibn AbdulAziz
Umar ibn AbdulAziz
of Ummayad
Ummayad
in 718. The messenger later returned to Srivijaya
Srivijaya
with a Zanji (a black female slave from Zanj), a gift from the Caliph
Caliph
to the Maharaja. Later, a Chinese chronicle made a mention of Shih-li-t-'o-pa-mo (Sri Indravarman) and how the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Shih-li-fo-shih had sent the Chinese Emperor a ts'engchi (Chinese spelling of the Arabic Zanji) as a gift in 724.[84] Arab
Arab
writers of the 9th and 10th century, in their writings, considered the king of Al-Hind ( India
India
and to some extent might include Southeast Asia) as one of the 4 great kings in the world.[85][86] The reference to the kings of Al-Hind might have also included the kings of Southeast Asia; Sumatra, Java, Burma and Cambodia. They are, invariably, depicted by the Arabs writers as extremely powerful and being equipped with vast armies of men, horses and having tens of thousands of elephants.[85][86] They were also said to be in possession of vast treasures of gold and silver.[85][86] Trading records from the 9th and 10th centuries mention Srivijaya, but do not expand upon regions further east thus indicating that Arabic traders were not engaging with other regions in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
thus serving as further evidence of Srivijaya’s important role as a link between the two regions.[82] The currency of the empire were gold and silver coins embossed with the image of the sandalwood flower (of which Srivijaya
Srivijaya
had a trade monopoly on) and the word “vara,” or “glory,” in Sanskrit.[80][87] Other items could be used to barter with, such as porcelain, silk, sugar, iron, rice, dried galangal, rhubarb, and camphor.[80] According to Chinese records, gold was a large part of Srivijaya. These texts describe that the empire, also referred to as “Jinzhou” which translates to “Gold Coast”, used gold vessel in ritual offering and that, as a vassal to China, brought “golden lotus bowls” as luxurious gifts to the Emperor during the Song Dynasty.[88] Some Arabic records that the profits acquired from trade ports and levies was converted into gold and was hidden by the King in the royal pond.[6] Thalassocratic empire[edit]

Expansion of Srivijayan empire, started in Palembang
Palembang
in the 7th century, expanding throughout Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Cambodia, and receded as Malayu Dharmasraya in the 13th century.

The Srivijayan empire was a coastal trading centre and was a thalassocracy. As such, its influence did not extend far beyond the coastal areas of the islands of Southeast Asia. Srivijaya
Srivijaya
benefited from the lucrative maritime trade between China and India
India
as well as trading in products such as Maluku spices within the Malay Archipelago. Serving as Southeast Asia's main entrepôt and gaining trade patronage by the Chinese court, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was constantly managing its trade networks and, yet, always wary of potential rival ports of its neighbouring kingdoms. A majority of the revenue from international trade was used to finance the military which was charged with the responsibility of protecting the ports. Some records even describe the use of iron chains to prevent pirate attacks.[80] The necessity to maintain its trade monopoly had led the empire to launch naval military expeditions against rival ports in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and to absorb them into Srivijaya's sphere of influence. The port of Malayu in Jambi, Kota Kapur in Bangka island, Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
and the port of Sunda in West Java, Kalingga
Kalingga
in Central Java, the port of Kedah
Kedah
and Chaiya
Chaiya
in Malay peninsula are among the regional ports that were absorbed within Srivijayan sphere of influence. A series of Javan- Srivijaya
Srivijaya
raids on the ports of Champa
Champa
and Cambodia
Cambodia
was also part of its effort to maintain its monopoly in the region by sacking its rival ports.

The image of a Borobudur
Borobudur
ship on bas relief

The maritime prowess was recorded in a Borobudur
Borobudur
bas relief of Borobudur
Borobudur
ship, the 8th century wooden double outrigger vehicles of Maritime Southeast Asia. The function of an outrigger is to stabilise the ship. The single or double outrigger canoe is the typical feature of the seafaring Austronesians vessels and the most likely type of vessel used for the voyages and explorations across Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Indian Ocean. The ships depicted at Borobudur
Borobudur
most likely were the type of vessels used for inter-insular trades and naval campaigns by Sailendra
Sailendra
and Srivijaya. The Srivijayan empire exercised its influence mainly around the coastal areas of Southeast Asia, with the exception of contributing to the population of Madagascar
Madagascar
3,300 miles (8,000 kilometres) to the west.[44] The migration to Madagascar
Madagascar
was estimated to have taken place 1,200 years ago around 830.[45] Culture and society[edit] Srivijaya-Palembang’s significance both as a center for trade and for the practice of Vajrayana Buddhism
Vajrayana Buddhism
has been established by Arab and Chinese historical records over several centuries. Srivijaya' own historical documents, inscriptions in Old Malay, are limited to the second half of the 7th century. The inscriptions uncover the hierarchical leadership system, in which the king is served by many other high-status officials.[89] A complex, stratified, cosmopolitan and prosperous society with refined tastes in art, literature and culture, with complex set of rituals, influenced by Mahayana Buddhist faith; blossomed in the ancient Srivijayan society. Their complex social order can be seen through studies on the inscriptions, foreign accounts, as well as rich portrayal in bas-reliefs of temples from this period. Their accomplished artistry was evidenced from a number of Srivijayan Art Mahayana Buddhist statues discovered in the region. The kingdom had developed a complex society; which characterised by heterogeneity of their society, inequality of social stratification, and the formation of national administrative institution in their kingdom. Some forms of metallurgy were used as jewelry, currency (coins), as status symbols -- for decorative purposes. [90] Art and culture[edit]

Srivijayan Art

A 2.77 metres tall statue of Buddha
Buddha
in Amaravati style, from Bukit Seguntang, Palembang, c. 7th-8th century.

Avalokiteshvara
Avalokiteshvara
Bingin Jungut, Musi Rawas, South Sumatra. Srivijayan art (c. 8th-9th century CE) resemble Central Java
Java
Sailendran art.

A bronze Maitreya
Maitreya
statue from Komering, South Sumatra, 9th century Srivijayan art.

The bronze torso statue of the bodhisattva Padmapani, 8th century CE Srivijayan art, Chaiya, Surat Thani, Southern Thailand. The statue demonstrate the Central Java
Java
(Sailendra) art influence.

Trade allowed the spread of art to proliferate. Some art was heavily influenced by Buddhism, further spreading religion and ideologies through the trade of art. The Buddhist art
Buddhist art
and architecture of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was influenced by the Indian art of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
and Pala Empire. This is evident in the Indian Amaravati style Buddha statue located in Palembang. This statue, dating back to the 7th and 8th centuries, exists as proof of the spread of art, culture, and ideology through the medium of trade.[91][80] According to various historical sources, a complex and cosmopolitan society with a refined culture, deeply influenced by Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism, flourished in the Srivijayan capital. The 7th century Talang Tuwo inscription
Talang Tuwo inscription
described Buddhist rituals and blessings at the auspicious event of establishing public park. This inscription allowed historians to understand the practices being held at the time, as well as their importance to the function of Srivijayan society. Talang Tuwo serves as one of the world’s oldest inscriptions that talks about the environment, highlighting the centrality of nature in Buddhist religion and further, Srivijayan society. The Kota Kapur Inscription
Kota Kapur Inscription
mentions Srivijaya
Srivijaya
military dominance against Java. These inscriptions were in the Old Malay
Old Malay
language, the language used by Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and also the ancestor of Malay and Indonesian language. Since the 7th century, the Old Malay language
Malay language
has been used in Nusantara
Nusantara
(Malay-Indonesian archipelago), marked by these Srivijayan inscriptions and other inscriptions using old Malay language
Malay language
in the coastal areas of the archipelago, such as those discovered in Java. The trade contact carried by the traders at the time was the main vehicle to spread Malay language, since it was the language used amongst the traders. By then, Malay language
Malay language
become lingua franca and was spoken widely by most people in the archipelago.[92][93][80] However, despite its economic, cultural and military prowess, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
left few archaeological remains in their heartlands in Sumatra, in contrast with Srivijayan episode in Central Java
Java
during the leadership of Sailendras that produced numerous monuments; such as the Kalasan, Sewu
Sewu
and Borobudur
Borobudur
mandala. The Buddhist temples dated from Srivijayan era in Sumatra
Sumatra
are Muaro Jambi, Muara Takus
Muara Takus
and Biaro Bahal. Some Buddhist sculptures, such as Buddha
Buddha
Vairocana, Boddhisattva Avalokiteshvara
Avalokiteshvara
and Maitreya, were discovered in numerous sites in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Malay Peninsula. These archaeological findings such as stone statue of Buddha
Buddha
discovered in Bukit Seguntang, Palembang,[94] Avalokiteshvara
Avalokiteshvara
from Bingin Jungut in Musi Rawas, bronze Maitreya statue of Komering, all discovered in South Sumatra. In Jambi, golden statue of Avalokiteshvara
Avalokiteshvara
were discovered in Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian.[95] In Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
the bronze statue of Avalokiteshvara
Avalokiteshvara
of Bidor
Bidor
discovered in Perak
Perak
Malaysia,[96] and Avalokiteshvara
Avalokiteshvara
of Chaiya
Chaiya
in Southern Thailand.[97] All of these statues demonstrated the same elegance and common style identified as "Srivijayan art" that reflects close resemblance — probably inspired — by both Indian Amaravati style and Javanese Sailendra
Sailendra
art (c. 8th to 9th century).[98] The difference in material, yet overarching theme of Buddhism
Buddhism
found across the region supports the spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
through trade. Although each country put their own spin on an idea, it is evident how trade played a huge role in spreading ideas throughout Southeast Asia, especially in Srivijaya. The commonality of Srivijayan art exists in Southeast Asian sites, proving their influence on art and architecture across the region. Without trade, Srivijayan art could not have proliferated, and cross-cultural exchanges of language and style could not have been achieved. After the bronze and iron age, an influx of bronze tools and jewelry spread throughout the region. The different styles of bangles and beads represent the different regions of origin and their own specific materials and techniques used . Chinese artworks were one of the main items traded in the region, spreading art styles enveloped in ceramics, pottery, fabrics, silk, and artworks.[80] Religion[edit]

"...Many kings and chieftains in the islands of the Southern Ocean admire and believe (Buddhism), and their hearts are set on accumulating good actions. In the fortified city of Bhoga [Palembang, Srivijaya's capital] Buddhist priests number more than 1,000, whose minds are bent on learning and good practices. They investigate and study all the subjects that exist just as in the Middle Kingdom (Madhya-desa, India) ; the rules and ceremonies are not at all different. If a Chinese priest wishes to go to the West in order to hear (lectures) and read (the original), he had better stay here one or two years and practise the proper rules and then proceed to Central India."

— from I-tsing's A Record of Buddhist Practices Sent Home from the Southern Sea.[99]

Remnants of Buddhist shrines (stupas) near Palembang
Palembang
and in neighboring areas aid researchers in their understanding of the Buddhism
Buddhism
within this society. Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and its kings were instrumental in the spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
as they established it in places they conquered like Java, Malaya, and other lands.[100] People making pilgrimages were encouraged to spend time with the monks in the capital city of Palembang
Palembang
on their journey to India.[100] Other than Palembang, in Srivijayan realm of Sumatra, three archaeological sites are notable for their Buddhist temple density. They are Muaro Jambi
Jambi
by the bank of Batang Hari River
Batang Hari River
in Jambi province; Muara Takus
Muara Takus
stupas in Kampar River
Kampar River
valley of Riau
Riau
province; and Biaro Bahal temple
Bahal temple
compound in Barumun and Pannai
Pannai
river valleys, North Sumatra
Sumatra
province. It is highly possible that these Buddhist sites served as sangha community; the monastic Buddhist learning centers of the region, which attracts students and scholars from all over Asia.

Candi Tinggi, one of the temple within Muaro Jambi
Jambi
temple compound.

250 years before I Ching, scholar and traveler, Fa Xian, did not notice the heavy hand of Buddhism
Buddhism
within the Srivijayan region. Fa Xian, however, did witness the maritime competition over the region and observed the rise of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
as a Thalassocracy.[88] I-Tsing stayed in Srivijaya
Srivijaya
for six months and studied Sanskrit. According to I-Tsing, within Palembang
Palembang
there were more than 1000 monks studying for themselves and training traveling scholars who were going from India to China
China
and vice versa. These travelers were primarily situated in Palembang
Palembang
for long periods of time due to waiting for Monsoon winds to help further their journey.[101] A stronghold of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
attracted pilgrims and scholars from other parts of Asia. These included the Chinese monk I Ching, who made several lengthy visits to Sumatra
Sumatra
on his way to study at Nalanda University
Nalanda University
in India
India
in 671 and 695, and the 11th century Bengali Buddhist scholar Atisha, who played a major role in the development of Vajrayana Buddhism
Vajrayana Buddhism
in Tibet. I Ching, also known as Yijing, and other monks of his time practised a pure version of Buddhism
Buddhism
although the religion allowed for culture changes to be made.[102] He is also given credit for translating Buddhist text which has the most instructions on the discipline of the religion.[103] I Ching reports that the kingdom was home to more than a thousand Buddhist scholars; it was in Srivijaya
Srivijaya
that he wrote his memoir of Buddhism
Buddhism
during his own lifetime. Travellers to these islands mentioned that gold coins were in use in the coastal areas but not inland. A notable Srivijayan and revered Buddhist scholar is Dharmakirti
Dharmakirti
who taught Buddhist philosophy in Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and Nalanda. The language diction of many inscriptions found near where Srivijaya
Srivijaya
once reigned incorporated Indian Tantric conceptions. This evidence makes it clear the relationship of the ruler and the concept of bodhisattva—one who was to become a Buddha. This is the first evidence seen in the archaeological record of a Southeast Asian ruler (or king) regarded as a religious leader/figure. One thing researchers have found Srivijaya
Srivijaya
to be lacking is an emphasis in art and architecture. While neighboring regions have evidence of intricate architecture, such as the Borobudur
Borobudur
temple built in 750-850 AD under the Saliendra Dynasty, Palembang
Palembang
lacks Buddhist stupas or sculpture.[104] Though this does not accurately reflect Buddhist influence. Relations with regional powers[edit]

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History of Singapore

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Srivijaya 650–1377

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Kingdom of Singapura 1299–1398

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Anti-National Service Riots 1954

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Operation Coldstore 1963

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ASEAN Declaration (ASEAN) 1967

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Although historical records and archaeological evidence are scarce, it appears that by the 7th century, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
had established suzerainty over large areas of Sumatra, western Java
Java
and much of the Malay Peninsula. The oldest accounts of the empire come from Arabic and Chinese traders who noted in their travel logs the importance of the empire in regional trade.[105] Its location was instrumental in developing itself as a major connecting port between China
China
and the Middle East
Middle East
and Southeast Asia. Control of the Malacca and Sunda Straits meant it controlled both the spice route traffic and local trade, charging a toll on passing ships. Serving as an entrepôt for Chinese, Malay, and Indian markets, the port of Palembang, accessible from the coast by way of a river, accumulated great wealth. Instead of traveling the entire distance from the Middle East
Middle East
to China, which would have taken about a year with the assistance of monsoon winds, it was easier to stop somewhere in the middle, Srivijaya. It took about half a year from either direction to reach Srivijaya
Srivijaya
which was a far more effective and efficient use of manpower and resources. A round trip from one end to Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and back would take the same amount of time to go the entire distance one way. This theory has been supported by evidence found in two local shipwrecks. One off the coast of Belitung, an island east of Sumatra, and another near Cirebon, a coastal city on the nearby island of Java. Both ships carried a variety of foreign cargo and, in the case of the Belitung wreck, had foreign origins.[82] The Melayu Kingdom
Melayu Kingdom
was the first rival power centre absorbed into the empire, and thus began the domination of the region through trade and conquest in the 7th through the 9th centuries. The Melayu Kingdom's gold mines up in the Batang Hari River
Batang Hari River
hinterland were a crucial economic resource and may be the origin of the word Suvarnadvipa, the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name for Sumatra. Srivijaya
Srivijaya
helped spread the Malay culture throughout Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, and western Borneo. Its influence waned in the 11th century. It was then in frequent conflict with, and ultimately subjugated by, the Javanese kingdoms of Singhasari
Singhasari
and, later, Majapahit.[106] This was not the first time the Srivijayans had a conflict with the Javanese. According to historian Paul Michel Munoz, the Javanese Sanjaya dynasty
Sanjaya dynasty
was a strong rival of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in the 8th century when the Srivijayan capital was located in Java. The seat of the empire moved to Muaro Jambi
Jambi
in the last centuries of Srivijaya's existence.[citation needed] The Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
might also have been a tributary state in its early stages. The Khmer king, Jayavarman II, was mentioned to have spent years in the court of Sailendra
Sailendra
in Java
Java
before returning to Cambodia to rule around 790. Influenced by the Javanese culture of the Sailendran-Srivijayan mandala (and likely eager to emulate the Javanese model in his court), he proclaimed Cambodian independence from Java
Java
and ruled as devaraja, establishing Khmer empire and starting the Angkor
Angkor
era.[107] Some historians claim that Chaiya
Chaiya
in Surat Thani Province
Surat Thani Province
in southern Thailand
Thailand
was, at least temporarily, the capital of Srivijaya, but this claim is widely disputed. However, Chaiya
Chaiya
was probably a regional centre of the kingdom. The temple of Borom That in Chaiya
Chaiya
contains a reconstructed pagoda in Srivijaya
Srivijaya
style.[71]

Pagoda
Pagoda
in Srivijaya
Srivijaya
style in Chaiya, Thailand

Wat Phra Boromathat Chaiya
Chaiya
is highlighted by the pagoda in Srivijaya style, elaborately restored, and dating back to the 7th century. The Buddha
Buddha
relics are enshrined in the chedi or stupa. In the surrounding chapels are several Buddha
Buddha
statues in Srivijaya
Srivijaya
style, as it was labelled by Damrong Rajanubhab
Damrong Rajanubhab
in his Collected Inscriptions of Siam, which is now attributed to Wat Hua Wiang in Chaiya. Dated to the year 697 of the Mahasakkarat era (775), the inscriptions on a bai sema tells about the King of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
having erected three stupas at that site; which are possibly the ones at Wat Phra Borom That. However, it is also possible that the three stupas referred to are located at Wat Hua Wiang (Hua Wiang temple), Wat Lhong (Lhong temple) and Wat Kaew (Kaew temple) which are also found in Chaiya. After the fall of the Srivijaya, the area was divided into the cities (mueang) Chaiya, Thatong (now Kanchanadit) and Khirirat Nikhom. Srivijaya
Srivijaya
also maintained close relations with the Pala Empire
Pala Empire
in Bengal. The Nalanda
Nalanda
inscription, dated 860, records that Maharaja Balaputra dedicated a monastery at the Nalanda
Nalanda
university in the Pala territory.[3]:109 The relation between Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and the Chola
Chola
dynasty of southern India
India
was initially friendly during the reign of Raja Raja Chola
Chola
I. In 1006, a Srivijayan Maharaja
Maharaja
from the Sailendra
Sailendra
dynasty, king Maravijayattungavarman, constructed the Chudamani Vihara
Chudamani Vihara
in the port town of Nagapattinam.[108] However, during the reign of Rajendra Chola
Chola
I the relationship deteriorated as the Chola
Chola
Dynasty started to attack Srivijayan cities.[109] The reason for this sudden change in the relationship with the Chola kingdom is not really known. However, as some historians suggest, it would seem that the Khmer king, Suryavarman I of the Khmer Empire, had requested aid from Emperor Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
I of the Chola
Chola
dynasty against Tambralinga.[110] After learning of Suryavarman's alliance with Rajendra Chola, the Tambralinga
Tambralinga
kingdom requested aid from the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
king, Sangrama Vijayatungavarman.[110][111] This eventually led to the Chola
Chola
Empire
Empire
coming into conflict with the Srivijiya Empire. The conflict ended with a victory for the Chola
Chola
and heavy losses for Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and the capture of Sangramavijayottungavarman in the Chola
Chola
raid in 1025.[3]:142–143[110][111] During the reign of Kulothunga Chola
Chola
I, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
had sent an embassy to the Chola Dynasty.[55][112] Legacy[edit]

The gilded costume of South Sumatran Gending Sriwijaya
Gending Sriwijaya
dance invoked the splendour of the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Empire.

Although Srivijaya
Srivijaya
left few archaeological remains and was almost forgotten in the collective memory of the Malay people, the rediscovery of this ancient maritime empire by Cœdès in the 1920s raised the notion that it was possible for a widespread political entity to have thrived in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
in the past. The most important legacy of Srivijayan empire was probably its language. For centuries, Srivijaya, through its expansion, economic power and military prowess, was responsible for the widespread of Old Malay throughout the Malay-Indonesian archipelago. It was the working language of traders and it was used in various ports, and marketplaces in the region.[113] The language of Srivijayan had probably paved the way for the prominence of the present-day Malay and Indonesian language, now the official language of Malaysia, Brunei
Brunei
and Singapore and the unifying language of modern Indonesia. According to the Malay Annals, the founder of Malacca Sultanate Parameswara claimed to be a member of the Palembang
Palembang
Srivijaya
Srivijaya
lineage. That shows that even in the 15th century, the prestige of Srivijaya still remained and was used as a source for political legitimacy in the region. Modern Indonesian nationalists have also invoked the name of Srivijaya, along with Majapahit, as a source of pride in Indonesia's past greatness.[114] Srivijaya
Srivijaya
has become the focus of national pride and regional identity, especially for the people of Palembang, South Sumatra
Sumatra
province, and the Malay people
Malay people
as a whole.[5] For the people of Palembang, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
has also become a source of artistic inspiration for Gending Sriwijaya
Gending Sriwijaya
song and traditional dance.

The Sriwijaya Museum in Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Archaeological Park

The same situation also happened in southern Thailand, where Sevichai (Thai: Srivijaya) dance was recreated in accordance with the art and culture of ancient Srivijaya. Today, the Srivijayan legacy is also celebrated and identified with Malay minority of Southern Thailand. In Thailand, the Srivijayan art was associated with Javanese art and architecture, which probably demonstrate the Sailendra
Sailendra
influences over Java, Sumatra
Sumatra
and the Peninsula. The examples of Srivijayan style temples are Phra Borom Mathat at Chaiya
Chaiya
constructed in Javanese style made of brick and mortar (c. 9th – 10th century), Wat Kaew Pagoda
Pagoda
at Chaiya, also of Javanese form and Wat Long Pagoda. The original Wat Mahathat at Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
(a Srivijayan city) was subsequently encased by a larger Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
styled building.[115] In Indonesia, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
is a street name in many cities and has become synonymous with Palembang
Palembang
and South Sumatra. Srivijaya
Srivijaya
University, established in 1960 in Palembang, was named after Srivijaya. Kodam Sriwijaya (a military commando area unit), PT Pupuk Sriwijaya (a fertiliser company), Sriwijaya Post (a Palembang-based newspaper), Sriwijaya Air
Sriwijaya Air
(an airline), Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium, and Sriwijaya F.C. ( Palembang
Palembang
football club) were also all named to honour this ancient maritime empire. On 11 November 2011, during the opening ceremony of 2011 Southeast Asian Games
2011 Southeast Asian Games
in Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium, Palembang, a colossal dance performance titled " Srivijaya
Srivijaya
the Golden Peninsula" was performed featuring Palembang
Palembang
traditional dances and also an actual sized replica of an ancient ship to describe the glory of the maritime empire.[116][117] In popular culture, Srivijaya
Srivijaya
has become the sources on inspiration for numbers of fictional feature films, novels and comic books. The 2013 film Gending Sriwijaya
Gending Sriwijaya
for example, took place three centuries after the fall of Srivijaya, telling the story about the court intrigue amidst the effort to revive the fallen empire.[118] List of kings[edit]

Date Name Capital Stone inscription or embassies to China
China
and events

683 Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa Srivijaya Kedukan Bukit (682), Talang Tuwo (684), and Kota Kapur inscriptions Malayu conquest, Central Java
Java
conquest[3]:82–83

702 Indravarman Che-li-to-le-pa-mo

Srivijaya Shih-li-fo-shih

Embassies 702, 716, 724 to China[3]:83–84 Embassies to Caliph
Caliph
Muawiyah I and Caliph
Caliph
Umar bin Abdul Aziz

728 Rudra vikraman Lieou-t'eng-wei-kong

Srivijaya Shih-li-fo-shih

Embassie 728, 742 to China[3]:84

No information for the period 742–775

775 Dharmasetu or Vishnu Java Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
(Ligor),[3]:84 Vat Sema Muang

775 Dharanindra Java Ligor, started to build Borobudur
Borobudur
in 770, conquered South Cambodia

782 Samaragrawira Java Ligor, Arabian text (790), continued the construction of Borobudur

792 Samaratungga Java Karangtengah inscription (824), 802 lost Cambodia, 825 completion of Borobudur

835 Balaputradewa Srivijaya San-fo-ts'i

Lost Central Java, moved to Srivijaya Nalanda inscription
Nalanda inscription
(860)

No information for the period 835–960

960 Sri Udayadityavarman Si-li-Hu-ta-hsia-li-tan Shih-li Wu-yeh

Srivijaya San-fo-ts'i

Chinese Embassies 960, 962[3]:131

980 Haji Hsia-ch'ih

Srivijaya San-fo-ts'i

Chinese Embassies 980, 983[3]:132

988 Sri Cudamani Warmadewa Se-li-chu-la-wu-ni-fu-ma-tian-hwa

Srivijaya San-fo-ts'i

Chinese Embassies 988,992,1003,1004[3]:132,141 Javanese King Dharmawangsa attack of Srivijaya, building of temple for Chinese Emperor, Tanjore Inscription or Leiden Inscription (1044), building of temple at Nagapattinam
Nagapattinam
with revenue from Rajaraja Chola
Chola
I

1006, 1008 Sri Maravijayottungavarman Se-li-ma-la-pi

Srivijaya San-fo-ts'i

Constructed the Chudamani Vihara
Chudamani Vihara
in Nagapattinam, India
India
in 1006.[108] Chinese Embassies 1008,1016[3]:141–142

1017 Sumatrabhumi Srivijaya San-fo-ts'i

Embassy 1017

1025 Sangrama Vijayatunggavarman[3]:142 Srivijaya San-fo-ts'i

Chola
Chola
invasion of Srivijaya, captured by Rajendra Chola Chola
Chola
Inscription on the temple of Rajaraja, Tanjore

1028 Sri Deva Palembang Pa-lin-fong

Chinese Embassy 1028[3]:143 Building of Tien Ching temple, Kuang Cho (Kanton) for Chinese Emperor

1078 Kulothunga Chola
Chola
I Ti-hua-ka-lo

Palembang Pa-lin-fong

Embassy 1077[3]:148

No information for the period 1080–1155

1156 Rajaraja Chola
Chola
II Palembang Pa-lin-fong

Larger Leyden Plates

1183 Srimat Trailokyaraja Maulibhusana Warmadewa Jambi, Dharmasraya Kingdom Bronze Buddha
Buddha
Chaiya
Chaiya
1183[3]:179

No information for the period 1183–1275

1286 Srimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauli Warmadewa Jambi, Dharmasraya Kingdom Padang Roco inscription
Padang Roco inscription
1286, Pamalayu expedition 1275–1293

[71][119] References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

D. G. E. Hall, A History of South-east Asia. London: Macmillan, 1955. D. R. SarDesai. Southeast Asia: Past and Present. Boulder: Westview Press, 1997. Lynda Norene Shaffer. Maritime Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
to 1500. London: ME Sharpe Armonk, 1996. Stuart-Fox, Martin. A Short History of China
China
and Southeast Asia: Tribute, Trade, and Influence. London: Allen and Unwin, 2003. Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.  Muljana, Slamet (2006). Sriwijaya. Yogyakarta: LKiS. ISBN 979-8451-62-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sri Vijaya.

Britannica Encyclopedia: Srivijaya
Srivijaya
empire Articles about Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Kingdom in Southeast Asian Archaeology.com Timeline of Indonesia
Indonesia
from prehistory to present: click on the period for info Melayu online: Çriwijaya Kingdom Candi Muaro Jambi Śrīvijaya―towards ChaiyaーThe History of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
- Takahashi Suzuki Chaiya
Chaiya
National Museum

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Geography

Indosphere

Greater India

Indian settlement in the Philippines

Cainta
Cainta
historic settlement of Indians

Religion

Religion
Religion
in pre-colonial Philippines
Philippines
had Indianized Hindu and Buddhist influence Buddhism
Buddhism
in Southeast Asia

Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Philippines

Hinduism
Hinduism
in Southeast Asia

Aswang
Aswang
(Asura) Diwata Hinduism
Hinduism
in the Philippines Philippine mythology Deities of Philippine mythology Philippine folk literature Nanak Darbar Indian Sikh Temple, Iloilo

Politics

India– Philippines
Philippines
relations Tourism in the Philippines

Visa requirements for Indian citizens

Tourism in India

Visa requirements for Filipino citizens Filipinos in India

Language

Indianized ancient Filipino script Indian loanwords in various Filipino languages Influence of Indian languages on Tagalog language Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language loanwords in Tagalog language Tamil language loanwords in Tagalog language Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language loanwords in Cebuano language Sampaguita Filipino national flower is named from Indian sanskrit Champaka

Economy

Maritime Southeast Asia Murrah buffalo
Murrah buffalo
from Haryana imported to Philippine

from Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar, Haryana, India
India
to Philippine Carabao Center
Philippine Carabao Center
in Nueva Ecija

Business process outsourcing to India Business process outsourcing in the Philippines Indian Companies

Culture

Pre-Spanish Indian traditions of Philippines

Filipino pre-colonial styles and titles National Assembly of the Philippines
Philippines
Hall has the statue of ancient Hindu saint Manu behind the president's seat Kudyapi
Kudyapi
guitar influenced by the Indian classical music Filipino martial arts
Filipino martial arts
inspired by the Indian martial arts Alim and Hudhud of Ifugao based on Indian Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharta Hudhud - the Ifugao epic based on the Indian epic Mahabharta Biag ni Lam-ang
Biag ni Lam-ang
Ilocano epic based on the Indian Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharta Ibalong epic of Bicol based on Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharta Darangen epic of Maranao people based on Indian epics Ramayana Pangalay
Pangalay
or Daling Daling (fingernail dance of Sulu and Sabah)

Cuisine

People

People

Indian Filipino List of Filipino-Indian people Indian surnames in Philippines Ethnic groups in the Philippines

Foreign citizens residing in Philippines Indian people

Dr. Leticia Ramos-Shahani
Leticia Ramos-Shahani
- sister of former President Fidel Ramos is married to an Indian Dang Cecilio (Binibining Pilipinas 1979) Janina San Miguel
Janina San Miguel
(Binibining Pilipinas 2008) Venus Raj
Venus Raj
(Binibining Pilipinas 2010) Parul Shah (Binibining Pilipinas Tourism 2014) Ramon Bagatsing
Ramon Bagatsing
( Manila
Manila
mayor) Raymond Bagatsing (actor) Cassandra Ponti (actress) Chanda Romero (actress) Dawn Zulueta (actress) Gardo Versoza (actress) Melanie Marquez (director) Pepe Diokno
Pepe Diokno
(producer) Sharmaine Arnaiz (actress) Zia Marquez (actress) Jose Diokno
Jose Diokno
(politician) Dr. Juan R. Francisco (Indologist) Dr. Josephine Acosta Pasricha (Indologist)

Category

v t e

Empires

Ancient

Akkadian Egyptian Assyrian Babylonian Carthaginian Chinese

Qin Han Jin Northern Wei Tang

Hellenistic

Macedonian Seleucid

Hittite Indian

Nanda Maurya Satavahana Shunga Gupta Harsha

Iranian

Elamite Median Achaemenid Parthian Sasanian

Kushan Mongol

Xianbei Xiongnu

Roman

Western Eastern

Teotihuacan

Post-classical

Arab

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Fatimid Córdoba

Aragonese Angevin Aztec Benin Bornu Bruneian Bulgarian

First Second

Byzantine

Nicaea Trebizond

Carolingian Chinese

Sui Tang Song Yuan

Ethiopian

Zagwe Solomonic

Georgian Hunnic Inca Indian

Chola Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Eastern Ganga dynasty Delhi Vijayanagara

Iranian

Samanid

Kanem Khmer Latin Majapahit Malaccan Mali Mongol

Yuan Golden Horde Chagatai Khanate Ilkhanate

Moroccan

Idrisid Almoravid Almohad Marinid

North Sea Oyo Roman Serbian Somali

Ajuran Ifatite Adalite Mogadishan Warsangali

Songhai Srivijaya Tibetan Turko-Persian

Ghaznavid Great Seljuk Khwarezmian Timurid

Vietnamese

Ly Tran Le

Wagadou

Modern

Ashanti Austrian Austro-Hungarian Brazilian Central African Chinese

Ming Qing China Manchukuo

Ethiopian French

First Second

German

First/Old Reich Second Reich Third Reich

Haitian

First Second

Indian

Maratha Sikh Mughal British Raj

Iranian

Safavid Afsharid

Japanese Johor Korean Mexican

First Second

Moroccan

Saadi Alaouite

Russian USSR Somali

Gobroon Majeerteen Hobyo Dervish

Swedish Tongan Turkish

Ottoman Karaman Ramazan

Vietnamese

Tay Son Nguyen Vietnam

Colonial

American Belgian British

English

Danish Dutch French German Italian Japanese Omani Norwegian Portuguese Spanish Swedish

Lists

Empires

largest

ancient great powers medieval great powers m

.