HOME
The Info List - Sri Lankan Civil War


--- Advertisement ---



Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
victory

Rebel group Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
militarily defeated Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
reestablishes control over entire island

Territorial changes Government regains total control of former LTTE-controlled areas in the North and East of the country.

Belligerents

Sri Lanka

Indian Peace Keeping Force (1987–1990) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

Commanders and leaders

J. R. Jayawardene
J. R. Jayawardene
(1983–1989) Ranasinghe Premadasa † (1989–1993) D. B. Wijetunga (1993–1994) Chandrika Kumaratunga
Chandrika Kumaratunga
(1994–2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa
Mahinda Rajapaksa
(2005–2009)

R. Venkataraman
R. Venkataraman
(1987–1989) Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
(1987–1989) † V. Prabhakaran † (1983–2009) Balraj Karuna Amman (1983–2004) KP Mahattaya   Pottu Amman Shankar † Soosai †

Strength

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Armed Forces: 95,000 (2001) 118,000 (2002) 158,000 (2003) 151,000 (2004) 111,000 (2005) 150,900 (2006)[2] 210,000 (2008)[2]

Indian Peace Keeping Force: 100,000 (peak) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (excluding Auxiliary forces): 6,000 (2001) 7,000 (2003) 18,000 (2004)[2][3] 11,000 (2005) 8,000 (2006) 7,000 (2007)[2][4] (including Auxiliary forces): 25,000 (2006) 30,000 (2008)[5]

Casualties and losses

23,327+ killed 60,000+ wounded (Sri Lankan military and police)[6][7][8]

1,200 killed (Indian Peace Keeping Force)[9] 27,000+ killed[10][11][12][13] 11,644 captured[14]

100,000+ killed overall (estimate)[15] 800,000 displaced at peak in 2001[16]

16 May 2009: Sri Lankan Government declared a military defeat of LTTE.[17] 17 May 2009: LTTE
LTTE
admit defeat by Sri Lankan Government.[18] 19 May 2009: President Mahinda Rajapaksa
Mahinda Rajapaksa
officially declares end of civil war in parliament.

v t e

Eelam
Eelam
War I

Kokkilai Vadamarachchi

v t e

Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War

Poomalai Pawan Trishul Viraat Checkmate Jaffna
Jaffna
University Helidrop

v t e

Eelam
Eelam
War II

Kokavil Sea Breeze Thrividha Balaya Balavegaya Sathbala Balavegaya II Welioya Elephant Pass Pooneryn

v t e

Eelam
Eelam
War III

Jaffna
Jaffna
(1995) Riviresa Mullaitivu
Mullaitivu
(1996) Sath Jaya Edibala Vavunathivu Jayasikurui (Thandikulam–Omanthai, Battle of Kanakarayankulam (1997)) Rivi bala Kilinochchi
Kilinochchi
(1998) Rana Gosa Oddusuddan Kinihira A-9 highway 2nd Elephant Pass Rivikirana Bandaranaike

v t e

Eelam
Eelam
War IV

Eastern Theater of Eelam
Eelam
War IV Sampur December 2006 Definite Victory

Vakarai Thoppigala

Northern Theater of Eelam
Eelam
War IV Jaffna Silavathurai 2008-2009 offensive

Welioya Vavuniya Kallarawa Madhu Adampan Vidattaltivu Kilinochchi Paranthan Mullaitivu Chalai Puthukkudiyirippu Vellamullivaikkal

Other 1st Point Pedro Galle 2nd Point Pedro Palali raid Colombo
Colombo
raids Anuradhapura Delft Coast of Jaffna

v t e

Sri Lankan Civil War

Main topics

Eelam
Eelam
War I Indian intervention Eelam
Eelam
War II Eelam
Eelam
War III Eelam
Eelam
War IV Battles and operations Bombings and terrorist attacks Other military attacks

Mass graves

Chemmani Duraiappa Mirusuvil Sooriyakanda

Massacres

Black July 1985 Valvettiturai Kumudini Akkaraipattu Prawn farm Eastern University 1990 Batticaloa 1991 Kokkadichcholai Jaffna
Jaffna
lagoon Navaly Nagerkovil-Allaipiddy Vankalai Muttur Kent and Dollar Farm Anuradhapura Aranthalawa Kattankudi mosque Palliyagodella Kallarawa October 1995 Gonagala Kebithigollewa Jaffna
Jaffna
Hospital 1989 Valvettiturai

The Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War
was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka. Beginning on 23 July 1983, there was an intermittent insurgency against the government by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Eelam
(the LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers), which fought to create an independent Tamil state called Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
in the north and the east of the island. After a 26-year military campaign, the Sri Lankan military defeated the Tamil Tigers in May 2009, bringing the civil war to an end.[1] For over 25 years, the war caused significant hardships for the population, environment and the economy of the country, with an initial estimated 80,000–100,000 people killed during its course.[15] In 2013, the UN panel estimated additional deaths during the last phase of the war: "Around 40,000 died while other independent reports estimated the number of civilians dead to exceed 100,000."[19] During the early part of the conflict, the Sri Lankan forces attempted to retake the areas captured by the LTTE. The tactics employed by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
against the actions of Government forces resulted in their listing as a terrorist organisation in 32 countries, including the United States, India, Canada and the member nations of the European Union.[20] The Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
forces have also been accused of human rights abuses, systematic impunity for serious human rights violations, lack of respect for habeas corpus in arbitrary detentions, and forced disappearances.[21] After two decades of fighting and four failed tries at peace talks, including the unsuccessful deployment of the Indian Army, the Indian Peace Keeping Force from 1987 to 1990, a lasting negotiated settlement to the conflict appeared possible when a cease-fire was declared in December 2001, and a ceasefire agreement signed with international mediation in 2002.[22] However, limited hostilities renewed in late 2005 and the conflict began to escalate until the government launched a number of major military offensives against the LTTE
LTTE
beginning in July 2006, driving the LTTE
LTTE
out of the entire Eastern province of the island. The LTTE
LTTE
then declared they would "resume their freedom struggle to achieve statehood".[23][24] In 2007, the government shifted its offensive to the north of the country, and formally announced its withdrawal from the ceasefire agreement on 2 January 2008, alleging that the LTTE
LTTE
violated the agreement over 10,000 times.[25] Since then, aided by the destruction of a number of large arms smuggling vessels that belonged to the LTTE,[26] and an international crackdown on the funding for the Tamil Tigers, the government took control of the entire area previously controlled by the Tamil Tigers, including their de facto capital Kilinochchi, main military base Mullaitivu
Mullaitivu
and the entire A9 highway,[27] leading the LTTE
LTTE
to finally admit defeat on 17 May 2009.[28] Following the LTTE's defeat, pro- LTTE
LTTE
Tamil National Alliance dropped its demand for a separate state, in favour of a federal solution.[29][30] In May 2010, Mahinda Rajapaksa, the then president of Sri Lanka, appointed the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC) to assess the conflict between the time of the ceasefire agreement in 2002 and the defeat of the LTTE
LTTE
in 2009.[31]

Contents

1 Origin and evolution 2 Outbreak of civil war 3 Indian involvement

3.1 Rajiv Gandhi's assassination

4 Eelam War II
Eelam War II
(1990–1995) 5 Eelam
Eelam
War III

5.1 Early peace efforts

6 2002 Peace Process

6.1 Beginning of the cease-fire 6.2 Signing of Memorandum of Understanding 6.3 Political changes in the South 6.4 Split of the LTTE 6.5 Tsunami and aftermath

7 Resumption of hostilities

7.1 Talks and further violence 7.2 Mavil Aru water dispute 7.3 LTTE
LTTE
offensives in Muttur and Jaffna 7.4 Fall of Sampur 7.5 LTTE
LTTE
retaliation and further peace talks 7.6 Government offensive in the East

8 Government offensive in the North

8.1 Abrogation of ceasefire agreement 8.2 Significant military gains by the government 8.3 Fall of Kilinochchi
Kilinochchi
and subsequent events 8.4 Fighting in the 'No-Fire Zone'

9 End of the war

9.1 16 May: Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
declares victory 9.2 17 May: Tigers admit defeat 9.3 18 May: First claim of Prabhakaran's death 9.4 19 May: President addresses the Parliament and Prabhakaran is dead 9.5 Reaction

10 Combat after 18 May 2009 11 Cost of war

11.1 Casualties 11.2 Economic cost

12 Aftermath

12.1 A political solution 12.2 Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission 12.3 Humanitarian Impact 12.4 Detainees 12.5 Land mines 12.6 Protests 12.7 War crimes
War crimes
investigations

13 Alleged war crimes 14 Transitional Justice and steps for non-recurrence 15 Allegations of Genocide 16 See also 17 References 18 Bibliography 19 External links

Origin and evolution[edit] Main article: Origins of the Sri Lankan civil war The origins of the Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War
lie in the continuous political rancor between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Tamils.[32] The roots of the modern conflict lie in the British colonial rule when the country was known as Ceylon. There was initially little tension among Sri Lanka's two largest ethnic groups, the Sinhalese and the Tamils, when Ponnambalam Arunachalam, a Tamil, was appointed representative of the Sinhalese as well the Tamils in the national legislative council. In 1919 major Sinhalese and Tamil political organizations united to form the Ceylon National Congress, under the leadership of Arunachalam, to press the colonial government for more constitutional reforms. However, British Gov. William Manning actively encouraged the concept of "communal representation" and created the Colombo
Colombo
town seat in 1920, which dangled between the Tamils and the Sinhalese.[33] After their election to the State Council in 1936, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party (LSSP) members N.M. Perera
N.M. Perera
and Philip Gunawardena demanded the replacement of English as the official language by Sinhala and Tamil. In November 1936 a motion that "in the Municipal and Police Courts of the Island the proceedings should be in the vernacular" and that "entries in police stations should be recorded in the language in which they are originally stated" were passed by the State Council and referred to the Legal Secretary. However, in 1944 J.R. Jayawardene
J.R. Jayawardene
moved in the State Council that Sinhala should replace English as the official language. In 1948, immediately after independence, a controversial law was passed by the Ceylon Parliament called the Ceylon Citizenship Act, which deliberately discriminated against the Indian Tamil ethnic minority by making it virtually impossible for them to obtain citizenship in the country.[34] Approximately over 700,000 Indian Tamils were made stateless. Over the next three decades more than 300,000 Indian Tamils were deported back to India.[35] It wasn't until 2003–55 years after independence—that all Indian Tamils living in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
were granted citizenship, but by this time they only made up 5% of the island's population. In 1956 Prime Minister S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike
S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike
passed the "Sinhala Only Act", which replaced English with Sinhala as the only official language of the country. This was seen as a deliberate attempt to discourage the Sri Lankan Tamils
Sri Lankan Tamils
from working in the Ceylon Civil Service and other public services. The Tamil-speaking minorities of Ceylon (Sri Lankan Tamils, Indian Tamils and Sri Lankan Moors) viewed the Act as linguistic, cultural and economic discrimination against them.[36] Many Tamil-speaking civil servants/public servants were forced to resign because they weren't fluent in Sinhala.[37] This was a prelude to the 1956 Gal Oya riots
Gal Oya riots
and the 1958 widespread riots in which thousands of Tamil civilians perished. The civil war was a direct result of the escalation of the confrontational politics that followed.[38] In the late 1960s documents relating to a separate Tamil state of "Tamil Eelam" began to circulate. At this time Anton Balasingham, an employee of the British High Commission
High Commission
in Colombo, began to participate in separatist activities. He later migrated to Britain, where he became the chief theoretician of the LTTE. In the late 1960s several Tamil youth, among them Velupillai Prabhakaran, also became involved in these activities. They carried out several hit-and-run operations against pro-government Tamil politicians, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
police and the civil administration. During the 1970s[39] the Policy of standardization was initiated. Under the policy, students were admitted to university in proportion to the number of applicants who sat for the examination in their language. Officially the policy was designed to increase the representation of students from rural areas. In practice the policy reduced the numbers of Sri Lankan Tamil
Sri Lankan Tamil
students who had previously, based on their examination scores alone, gained admission in a higher proportion than their participation in the examination. They were now required to gain higher marks than Sinhalese students to gain admission to universities.[36][40] For instance, the qualifying mark for admission to the medical faculties was 250 out of 400 for Tamil students, but only 229 for Sinhalese.[41] The number of Sri Lankan Tamil students entering universities fell dramatically. The policy was abandoned in 1977.[42] Other forms of official discrimination against the Sri Lankan Tamils included the state-sponsored colonization of traditional Tamil areas by Sinhalese peasants, the banning of the import of Tamil-language media and the preference given by the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka to Buddhism, the main religion followed by the Sinhalese.[36][40] Prabhakaran—together with Chetti Thanabalasingam, a well known criminal from Kalviyankadu, Jaffna—formed the Tamil New Tigers (TNT) in 1972.[43] This was formed around an ideology that looked back to the 1st Millennium Chola Empire—the Tiger was the emblem of that empire. A further movement, the Eelam
Eelam
Revolutionary Organisation of Students (EROS), formed in Manchester
Manchester
and London; it became the backbone of the Eelamist movement in the diaspora, arranging passports and employment for immigrants and levying a heavy tax on them. It became the basis of the Eelamist logistical organization, later taken over entirely by the LTTE. The formation of the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) with the Vaddukkodei (Vattukottai) resolution of 1976 led to a hardening of attitudes. The resolution called for the creation of a secular, socialist state of Tamil Eelam, based on the right of self-determination.[44] The TULF clandestinely supported the armed actions of the young militants who were dubbed "our boys". TULF leader Appapillai Amirthalingam even provided letters of reference to the LTTE
LTTE
and to other Tamil insurgent groups to raise funds.[43] Amirthalingam introduced Prabhakaran to N.S. Krishnan, who later became the first international representative of LTTE. It was Krishnan who introduced Prabhakaran to Anton Balasingham, who later became the chief political strategist and chief negotiator of LTTE. The "boys" were the product of the post-war population explosion. Many partially educated, unemployed Tamil youth fell for revolutionary solutions to their problems. The leftist parties had remained "non-communal" for a long time, but the Federal Party (as well as its offshoot, the TULF), deeply conservative and dominated by Vellalar
Vellalar
casteism, did not attempt to form a national alliance with the leftists in their fight for language rights. Following the sweeping electoral victory of the United National Party (UNP) in July 1977, the TULF became the leading opposition party, with around one-sixth of the total electoral vote winning on a party platform of secession from Sri Lanka. After the 1977 riots the J.R. Jayewardene government made one concession to the Tamil population; it lifted the policy of standardization for university admission that had driven many Tamil youths into militancy. The concession was regarded by the militants as too little too late, and violent attacks continued. By this time TULF started losing its grip over the militant groups. LTTE
LTTE
ordered civilians to boycott the local government elections of 1983 in which even TULF contested. Voter turnout was as low as 10%. Thereafter, Tamil political parties were unable to represent the interests of the Tamil community.[43] Outbreak of civil war[edit] Main articles: Four Four Bravo and Eelam
Eelam
War I Supported by the ongoing politics of conflict in Sri Lanka, politicised Tamil youth in the north and east started to form militant groups. These groups developed independently of the Colombo
Colombo
Tamil leadership, and in the end rejected and annihilated them. The most prominent of these groups was the TNT, which changed its name to the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, or the LTTE, in 1976. The LTTE initially carried out a campaign of violence against the state, particularly targeting policemen and also moderate Tamil politicians who attempted a dialogue with the government. Their first major operation was the assassination of the mayor of Jaffna, Alfred Duraiappah, in 1975 by Prabhakaran.[45] In May 1981 the burning of the Jaffna
Jaffna
library by politicians from the ruling party using police and paramilitary forces resulted in the destruction of more than 90,000 books, including "palm leaf scrolls" of immense historical value. This violent example of ethnic biblioclasm was a major turning point in convincing the Tamil people that the government could not protect them or their cultural heritage and persuaded many of them to back a separate state. The LTTE's modus operandi of the early war was based on assassinations, whereas the mode of operation for the UNP was through a series of checkpoints set up around the city. The assassination in 1977 of a Tamil Member of Parliament, M. Canagaratnam, was carried out personally by Prabhakaran, the leader of the LTTE.[46] In July 1983 the LTTE
LTTE
launched a deadly ambush on Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
army patrol Four Four Bravo outside the town of Thirunelveli, killing an officer and 12 soldiers.[47] Using nationalistic sentiments to their advantage, the Jayawardena organized massacres and pogroms in Colombo[2], the capital, and elsewhere (see Black July). Between 400–3,000 Tamils were estimated to have been killed,[48] and many more fled Sinhalese-majority areas. This is considered the beginning of the civil war. Apart from the LTTE, there initially was a plethora of militant groups (see list). The LTTE's position, adopted from that of the PLO, was that there should be only one. Initially, the LTTE
LTTE
gained prominence due to devastating attacks such as the Kent and Dollar Farm massacres of 1984, where hundreds of men, women and children were attacked during the night as they slept and were hacked to death with fatal blows to the head from axes; and the Anuradhapura massacre
Anuradhapura massacre
of 1985, where the LTTE
LTTE
indiscriminately opened fire, killing and wounding 146 civilians within Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Buddhist shrine. The Anuradhapura massacre was apparently answered by government forces with the Kumudini boat massacre
Kumudini boat massacre
in which over 23 Tamil civilians died. Over time the LTTE
LTTE
merged with or largely exterminated almost all the other militant Tamil groups. As a result, many Tamil splinter groups ended up working with the Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
as paramilitaries or denounced violence and joined mainstream politics; some legitimate Tamil-oriented political parties remained, all opposed to LTTE's vision of an independent state. Peace talks between the LTTE
LTTE
and the government began in Thimphu
Thimphu
in 1985, but they soon failed and the war continued. In 1986 many civilians were massacred as part of this conflict. In 1987 government troops pushed LTTE
LTTE
fighters to the northern city of Jaffna. In April 1987 the conflict exploded with ferocity, as both government forces and LTTE
LTTE
fighters engaged in a series of bloody operations. The Sri Lankan military launched an offensive, called "Operation Liberation" or Vadamarachchi Operation, during May–June 1987 to regain control of the territory in the Jaffna
Jaffna
peninsula from the LTTE. This marked the Sri Lankan military's first conventional warfare on Sri Lankan soil since independence. The offensive was successful, and LTTE
LTTE
leader Prabhakaran and Sea Tiger
Sea Tiger
leader Thillaiyampalam Sivanesan alias Soosai
Soosai
narrowly escaped from advancing troops at Valvettithurai. Key military personnel involved in the operation were Lt Col. Vipul Boteju, Lt. Col. Sarath Jayawardane, Col. Vijaya Wimalaratne
Vijaya Wimalaratne
and Brig. Gen. Denzil Kobbekaduwa. In July 1987 the LTTE
LTTE
carried out their first suicide attack. Capt. Miller of the Black Tigers
Black Tigers
drove a small truck carrying explosives through the wall of a fortified Sri Lankan army camp, reportedly killing 40 soldiers. The LTTE
LTTE
carried out over 378 suicide attacks, one of the largest suicide campaigns in the world, and the suicide attack became a trademark of the LTTE
LTTE
and a characteristic of the civil war.[5][49] Indian involvement[edit]

Sri Lanka

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Sri Lanka

Government

Constitution Human rights

Executive

President (List)

Maithripala Sirisena

Prime Minister (List)

Ranil Wickremesinghe

Cabinet

15th cabinet

Ministries

Legislature

Parliament

Speaker Deputy Speaker Leader of the House Leader of the Opposition

Judiciary

Constitutional Council Supreme Court

Chief Justice (K. Sripavan)

Court of Appeal High Courts District Courts Magistrate's Courts Primary Courts Labour Tribunal

Elections

Elections Political parties Last election Next election

Administrative geography

Provinces Districts Municipalities Wards Grama Niladhari divisions

Foreign policy

Foreign relations

Related issues

Civil War Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Portal

Other countries Atlas

v t e

See also: Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War and Research and Analysis Wing India
India
became involved in the conflict in the 1980s for a number of reasons, including its leaders' desire to project India
India
as the regional power in the area and worries about India's own Tamils seeking independence. Involvement was particularly strong in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, where ethnic kinship led to strong support for the independence of Sri Lankan Tamils. Throughout the conflict the Indian central and state governments supported both sides in different ways. From August 1983 until May 1987 the Indian government, through its intelligence agency Research and Analysis Wing
Research and Analysis Wing
(RAW), provided arms, training and monetary support to six Sri Lankan Tamil
Sri Lankan Tamil
militant groups including LTTE, Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
Liberation Organization (TELO), People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
(PLOTE), Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students (EROS) Eelam
Eelam
People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF) and Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
Liberation Army (TELA).[50] LTTE's rise is widely attributed to the initial backing it received from RAW. It is believed that by supporting different militant groups, the Indian government hoped to keep the Tamil independence movement divided and be able to exert overt control over it.[51] India
India
became more actively involved in the late 1980s, and on 5 June 1987 the Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
airdropped food parcels to Jaffna
Jaffna
while it was under siege by Sri Lankan forces. At a time when the Sri Lankan government stated it was close to defeating the LTTE, India
India
dropped 25 tons of food and medicine by parachute into areas held by the LTTE
LTTE
in a direct move of support to the rebels.[52] Negotiations were held, and the Indo- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Peace Accord was signed on 29 July 1987 by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
and Sri Lankan President Jayewardene. Under this accord the Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, including devolution of power to the provinces, a merger—subject to later referendum—of the northern and eastern provinces into a single province, and official status for the Tamil language
Tamil language
(this was enacted as the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka). India
India
agreed to establish order in the north and east through the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) and to cease assisting Tamil insurgents. Militant groups including the LTTE, although initially reluctant, agreed to surrender their arms to the IPKF, which initially oversaw a cease-fire and a modest disarmament of the militant groups. The signing of the Indo-Lanka Accord, so soon after J.R. Jayawardene's declaration that he would fight the Indians to the last bullet, led to unrest in the south. The arrival of the IPKF to take control of most areas in the north of the country enabled the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
government to shift its forces to the south (in Indian aircraft) to quell the protests. This led to an uprising by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna
Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna
in the south, which was put down bloodily over the next two years. While most Tamil militant groups laid down their weapons and agreed to seek a peaceful solution to the conflict, the LTTE
LTTE
refused to disarm its fighters.[53] Keen to ensure the success of the accord, the IPKF then tried to demobilize the LTTE
LTTE
by force and ended up in full-scale conflict with them. The three-year-long conflict was also marked by the IPKF being accused of committing various abuses by many human rights groups as well as some within the Indian media. The IPKF also soon met stiff opposition from the Tamils.[54][55] Simultaneously, nationalist sentiment led many Sinhalese to oppose the continued Indian presence in Sri Lanka. These led to the Sri Lankan government's call for India
India
to quit the island, and the government allegedly entered into a secret deal with the LTTE
LTTE
that culminated in a cease-fire. However, the LTTE
LTTE
and IPKF continued to have frequent clashes. In April 1989 the Ranasinghe Premadasa
Ranasinghe Premadasa
government ordered the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
army to clandestinely hand over arms consignments to the LTTE
LTTE
to fight the IPKF and its proxy Tamil National Army (TNA).[56][57] Although casualties among the IPKF mounted, and calls for the withdrawal of the IPKF from both sides of the Sri Lankan conflict grew, Gandhi refused to remove the IPKF from Sri Lanka. However, following his defeat in Indian parliamentary elections in December 1989, new Prime Minister V.P. Singh
V.P. Singh
ordered the withdrawal of the IPKF, and their last ship left Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
on 24 March 1990. The 32-month presence of the IPKF in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
resulted in the deaths of 1200 Indian soldiers and over 5000 Sri Lankans. The cost for the Indian government was estimated at over ₹10.3 billion.[58] Rajiv Gandhi's assassination[edit] Main article: Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi Support for the LTTE
LTTE
in India
India
dropped considerably in 1991, after the assassination of ex-Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
by a female suicide bomber, Thenmozhi Rajaratnam. The Indian press subsequently reported that Prabhakaran decided to eliminate Gandhi, as he considered the ex-Prime Minister to be against the Tamil liberation struggle and feared that he might re-induct the IPKF, which Prabhakaran termed the "satanic force", if he won the 1991 Indian general election.[59] In 1998 a court in India
India
presided over by Special
Special
Judge V. Navaneetham found the LTTE
LTTE
and its leader Velupillai Prabhakaran
Velupillai Prabhakaran
responsible for the assassination.[60] In a 2006 interview, LTTE
LTTE
ideologue Anton Balasingham expressed regret over the assassination, although he stopped short of outright acceptance of responsibility.[61][62] India remained an outside observer of the conflict after the assassination. Eelam War II
Eelam War II
(1990–1995)[edit]

Improvised armored bulldozer used by the LTTE
LTTE
in the First Battle of Elephant Pass
Elephant Pass
(1991), one of the major battles. This bulldozer was destroyed by Cpl. Gamini Kularatne. Today it stands on display as a war memorial.

Main article: Eelam
Eelam
War II The violence continued unabated despite the steps taken to appease Tamil sentiments, such as the 13th Amendment (enacted in November 1987). Meanwhile, the Chief Minister of the then North and East Provincial Council, Vartharaja Perumal, put forward a 19-point demand to resolve the ethnic crisis. He threatened if these demands were not met that the Provincial Council would go ahead with a unilateral declaration of independence of the northern and eastern provinces, as in the case of Rhodesia.[63][64] President Premadasa moved to quickly dissolve the Council (March 1990). At the same time LTTE
LTTE
used terror tactics to scare Sinhalese and Muslim farmers away from the north and east of the island, and swiftly took control of a significant portion of the territory. When the Indian Peace-Keeping Force withdrew in 1989–90, the LTTE
LTTE
established many government-like functions in the areas under its control. A tentative cease-fire held in 1990 as the LTTE
LTTE
occupied itself with destroying rival Tamil groups while the government cracked down on the JVP uprising. When both major combatants had established their power bases, they turned on each other and the cease-fire broke down.The government launched an offensive to try to retake Jaffna. This phase of the war soon acquired the name Eelam
Eelam
War II, and featured unprecedented brutality. On 11 June 1990 the LTTE
LTTE
massacred 600 policemen in the Eastern Province after they had surrendered on promises of safe-conduct. The government placed an embargo on food and medicine entering the Jaffna
Jaffna
peninsula and the air force relentlessly bombed LTTE
LTTE
targets in the area. The LTTE
LTTE
responded by attacking Sinhalese and Muslim villages and massacring civilians. One of the largest civilian massacres of the war occurred when the LTTE
LTTE
massacred 166 Muslim civilians at Palliyagodella. The government trained and armed Home Guard Muslim units, then took revenge on Tamil villages. There was also a significant massacre of Tamil civilians attributed[by whom?] to government forces, especially in the Eastern Province. Notable international jurist Neelan Thiruchelvam, in a speech at the ICES-Colombo, indicated that the appropriate investigations into massacres and disappearances of civilians including many children in the Sathurukondan, Eastern University, Mylanthanai and the mass murder and burial of school children at Sooriyakanda were hampered by the adoption of emergency regulations which contributed to a climate of impunity.[65] Along roadsides in the north and east, burning bodies became a common sight. Throughout the country, government death squads hunted down, kidnapped or killed Sinhalese or Tamil youth suspected of sympathizing with the JVP or the LTTE, respectively.[66] In October 1990 the LTTE
LTTE
expelled all the Muslims residing in Northern province. A total of 72,000 Muslims were forced to leave their homes, taking nothing but the clothes on their backs.[67] The largest battle of the war took place in July 1991, when 5,000 LTTE fighters surrounded the army's Elephant Pass
Elephant Pass
base, which controlled access to the Jaffna
Jaffna
Peninsula. More than 2,000 died on both sides in the month-long siege, before 10,000 government troops arrived to relieve the base.[68] In February 1992 another series of government offensives failed to capture Jaffna. Lt. Gen. Denzil Kobbekaduwa together with Maj. Gen. Vijaya Wimalaratne
Vijaya Wimalaratne
and Rear Adm. Mohan Jayamaha, died on 8 August 1992 at Araly (Aeraella) point Jaffna
Jaffna
due to a land mine blast. Their deaths badly affected military morale. The LTTE, for its part, scored a major victory when one of its suicide bombers killed Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa
Ranasinghe Premadasa
in May 1993. In November 1993 the LTTE
LTTE
defeated the army in the Battle of Pooneryn. This attack left 532 Sri Lankan soldiers and 135 sailors either dead or missing in action.[5] Eelam
Eelam
War III[edit] Main article: Eelam
Eelam
War III In the 1994 parliamentary elections the UNP was defeated and, amidst great hope, the People's Alliance, headed by Chandrika Kumaratunga, came to power on a peace platform. During the Presidential election campaign an LTTE
LTTE
bomb attack was carried out during a rally held at Thotalanga, Grandpass, eliminated the entire top brass of UNP leadership, including its presidential candidate, Gamini Dissanayake. Kumaratunga became the president with a 62% majority. A cease-fire was agreed to in January 1995, but the ensuing negotiations proved fruitless. The LTTE
LTTE
broke the cease-fire and blew up two Sri Lanka Navy gunboats known as SLNS "Sooraya" and "Ranasuru" on 19 April, thereby beginning the next phase of the war, dubbed Eelam
Eelam
War III.[69] The new government then pursued a policy of "war for peace". Determined to retake the key rebel stronghold of Jaffna, which was occupied by 2,000 rebels,[70] it poured troops into the peninsula. In one particular incident in August 1995, Air Force jets bombed St. Peter's church at Navali (Naavaella), killing at least 65 refugees and wounding 150 others.[71] In another instance in the same year, over 40 people were massacred in Nagerkovil and more civilian massacres followed in subsequent years, such as the Kumarapuram massacre, Tampalakamam massacre, Puthukkudiyiruppu massacre, etc., all of them carried out by government forces.[72] Government troops initially cut off the peninsula from the rest of the island,[70] and then, after seven weeks of heavy fighting, succeeded in bringing Jaffna
Jaffna
under government control for the first time in nearly a decade. In a high-profile ceremony, Sri Lankan Defense Minister Anuruddha Ratwatte raised the national flag inside the Jaffna
Jaffna
Fort on 5 December 1995. The government estimated that approximately 2500 soldiers and rebels were killed in the offensive, and an estimated 7,000 wounded.[73] Many civilians were killed in this conflict, such as the Navaly church bombing in which over 125 civilians died. The LTTE
LTTE
and more than 350,000 civilians, compelled by LTTE
LTTE
pressure to leave Jaffna,[74] fled to the Vanni region
Vanni region
in the interior. Most of the refugees returned later the next year. The LTTE
LTTE
responded by launching Operation Unceasing Waves and decisively won the Battle of Mullaitivu
Mullaitivu
on 18 July 1996, leaving 1,173 army troops dead.[5] The government launched another offensive in August 1996. Another 200,000 civilians fled the violence.[74] The town of Kilinochchi
Kilinochchi
was taken on 29 September. On 13 May 1997, 20,000 government troops tried to open a supply line through the LTTE-controlled Vanni, but failed. As violence continued in the North, LTTE
LTTE
suicide and time bombs were exploded numerous times in populated city areas and public transport in the south of the country, killing hundreds of civilians. In January 1996 the LTTE
LTTE
carried out one of its deadliest suicide bomb attacks at the Central Bank in Colombo, killing 90 and injuring 1,400. In October 1997 it bombed the Sri Lankan World Trade Centre and, in January 1998, detonated a truck bomb in Kandy, damaging the Temple of the Tooth, one of the holiest Buddhist shrines in the world. In response to this bombing, the Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
outlawed the LTTE
LTTE
and with some success pressed other governments around the world to do the same, significantly interfering with the group's fund-raising activities. In January 1997 heavy fighting around Paranthan
Paranthan
and the Elephant Pass complex took the lives of 223 Army troops.[5] On 27 September 1998 the LTTE
LTTE
launched Operation Unceasing Waves II and, after heavy fighting, captured Kilinochchi, winning the Battle of Kilinochchi. Clashes around the Kilinochchi
Kilinochchi
forward defense line claimed the lives of 1206 soldiers that year.[5] In March 1999, in Operation Rana Gosa, the government tried invading the Vanni from the south.The army made some gains, taking control of Oddusuddan (Oththan-thuduva) and Madhu, but could not dislodge the LTTE
LTTE
from the region. In September 1999 the LTTE
LTTE
massacred 50 Sinhalese civilians at Gonagala. The LTTE
LTTE
returned to the offensive with Operation Unceasing Waves III on 2 November 1999. Nearly all the Vanni rapidly fell back into LTTE hands. The group launched 17 successful attacks in the region, culminating in the overrunning of the Paranthan
Paranthan
(Puranthaenna) Chemicals Factory base and the Kurrakkan Kaddukulam (kurakkan-kaela vaeva) base.[75] The death toll amounted to 516 soldiers dead and over 4,000 injured.[5] The rebels also advanced north towards Elephant Pass and Jaffna. The LTTE
LTTE
was successful in cutting all land and sea supply lines of the Sri Lankan armed forces to the south, west and north of the town of Kilinochchi. In December 1999 the LTTE
LTTE
attempted to assassinate President Chandrika Kumaratunga
Chandrika Kumaratunga
in a suicide attack at a pre-election rally. She lost her right-eye, among other injuries, but was able to defeat opposition leader Ranil Wickremesinghe
Ranil Wickremesinghe
in the Presidential election and was re-elected to her second term in office.[76] On 22 April 2000 the Elephant Pass
Elephant Pass
military complex, which had separated the Jaffna
Jaffna
peninsula from the Vanni mainland for 17 years, fell into the hands of the LTTE, leaving 1,008 soldiers dead.[5][77][78] The army then launched Operation Agni Kheela to take back the southern Jaffna
Jaffna
Peninsula, but sustained losses. Early peace efforts[edit] Exhaustion with the war was building as casualties mounted and there appeared to be no end in sight. By mid-2000 human rights groups estimated that more than one million people in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
were internally displaced persons, living in camps, homeless and struggling for survival. As a result, a significant peace movement developed in the late 1990s, with many organizations holding peace camps, conferences, trainings and peace meditations, and many other efforts to bridge the two sides at all levels. As early as February 2000 Norway was asked to mediate by both sides, and initial international diplomatic moves began to find a negotiated settlement to the conflict.[79] Hopes for peace gained ground as the LTTE
LTTE
declared a unilateral cease-fire in December 2000, but they cancelled it on 24 April 2001 and launched another offensive against the government. After securing a vast area formerly controlled by the military, the LTTE
LTTE
further advanced northwards. This advancement posed a serious threat to the Elephant Pass
Elephant Pass
military complex that housed 17,000 Sri Lankan troops.[80] In July 2001 the LTTE
LTTE
carried out a devastating suicide attack on Bandaranaike International Airport, destroying eight of the air force's planes (two IAI Kfirs, one Mil-17, one Mil-24, three K-8 trainers, one MiG-27) and four Sri Lankan Airlines
Sri Lankan Airlines
planes (two Airbus A330s, one A340 and one A320), dampening the economy and causing tourism—a vital foreign exchange earner for the government—to plummet. The impact of the attack was such that that year the Sri Lankan economy recorded a negative growth for the first and only time since its independence.[81] 2002 Peace Process[edit] Beginning of the cease-fire[edit] Towards the end of 2001 however, the LTTE
LTTE
began to declare their willingness to explore measures for a peaceful settlement to the conflict. One reason for this action may have been the fear of international pressure and the direct US support of the Sri Lankan government as part of the "war on Terror".[82] On the other hand, the covert operations of the Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (LRRP) of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
army had a profound impact on the Tiger command structure.[83] During this period, Vaithilingam Sornalingam alias Shankar, who had been considered the right-hand man of LTTE
LTTE
leader Prabhakaran, and several other high-profile leaders were hunted down and killed by LRRP units.[84] In the south the government was facing increasing criticism over its "war for peace" strategy, with peace nowhere in sight and the economy in tatters. After losing a no-confidence motion, President Kumaratunga was forced to dissolve parliament and call for fresh elections. The elections, held on 5 December 2001, saw a sweeping victory for the United National Front, led by Ranil Wickremasinghe, who campaigned on a pro-peace platform and pledged to find a negotiated settlement to the conflict. On 19 December, amidst efforts by Norway to bring the government and the Tamil Tigers to the negotiating table, the LTTE
LTTE
announced a 30-day cease-fire with the Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
and pledged to halt all attacks against government forces.[85] The new government welcomed the move, and reciprocated it two days later, announcing a month-long cease-fire and agreeing to lift a long-standing economic embargo on rebel-held territory.[82] The cease-fire was by no means acceptable to everyone. Buddhist monks started burning Norwegian flags and agitated against the cease-fire and eventually went to form a political party, Jathika Hela Urumaya, with extremist views. Signing of Memorandum of Understanding[edit]

Peace talks between Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
and LTTE[5]

Session Period Location

1 16–18 September 2002 Sattahip Naval Base, Phuket, Thailand

2 31 October 2002 – 3 November 2002 Rose Garden hotel, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

3 2–5 December 2002 Radisson SAS Plaza Hotel, Oslo, Norway

4 6–9 January 2003 Rose Garden hotel, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

5 7–8 February 2003 Norwegian Embassy, Berlin, Germany

6 18–21 March 2003 Hakorn Prince Hotel, Kanagawa, Japan

The two sides formalized a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on 22 February 2002, and signed a permanent cease-fire agreement (CFA). Norway was named mediator, and it was decided that they, together with the other Nordic countries, monitor the cease-fire through a committee of experts named the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Monitoring Mission.[86] In August the government agreed to lift the ban on the LTTE
LTTE
and paved the way for the resumption of direct negotiations with them.[87]

LTTE
LTTE
Sea Tiger
Sea Tiger
boat patrolling during the peace

Following the signing of the ceasefire agreement, commercial air flights to Jaffna
Jaffna
began and the LTTE
LTTE
opened the key A9 highway, which linked the government-controlled area in the south with Jaffna
Jaffna
and ran through LTTE
LTTE
territory, allowing civilian traffic through the Vanni region for the first time in many years (but only after paying a tax to the LTTE). Many foreign countries also offered substantial financial support if peace was achieved and optimism grew that an end to the decades-long conflict was in sight. The much-anticipated peace talks began in Phuket, Thailand, and further rounds followed in Thailand, Norway, Germany and Japan.[88] During the talks both sides agreed to the principle of a federal solution and the Tigers dropped their long-standing demand for a separate state. This was a major compromise on the part of the LTTE, which had always insisted on an independent Tamil state. This also represented a compromise on the part of the government, which had seldom agreed to more than minimal devolution. Both sides also exchanged prisoners of war for the first time.[89] Political changes in the South[edit] Following the elections of 2001, for the first time in Sri Lanka's history the President and Prime Minister were of two different parties. This co-habitation was uneasy, especially since Prime Minister Wickremasinghe and the UNP favored a federal solution to the conflict, while hard-line elements within President Kumaratunga's party and other Sinhala nationalist groups allied to her opposed one, as they did not trust the LTTE, which continued to levy taxes, strengthen itself by smuggling in arms and ammunition, recruit child soldiers and engage in killings of members of rival Tamil groups and government intelligence agents following the Millennium City incident. During this time the LTTE
LTTE
also succeeded in setting up a series of vital bases around the Trincomalee Harbour
Trincomalee Harbour
(i.e., Manirasakulam camp) and the Eastern Province. The talks broke down on 21 April 2003 when the Tamil Tigers announced they were suspending any further talks due to their "displeasure" at the handling of some "critical issues". Among the reasons the Tigers gave were their exclusion from reconstruction talks in Washington, DC, on 14 April and a more general insinuation that they were not receiving the full economic rewards of peace. They cited the failure, as they saw it, of peace dividends to transfer to security withdrawals on the ground and the disparity, as they saw it, between the relative calm of the government-held northeast and continuing violence in Tiger-held areas. However, the LTTE
LTTE
maintained it was committed to a settlement to the two-decade conflict, but stated that progress had to be made on the ground before the settlement proceeded.[90] On 31 October the LTTE
LTTE
issued its own peace proposal, calling for an Interim Self Governing Authority (ISGA). The ISGA would be fully controlled by the LTTE
LTTE
and would have broad powers in the north and east (see the full text of the proposals) This provoked a strong backlash among the hard-line elements in the south, who accused Prime Minister Wickremasinghe of handing the north and east to the LTTE. Under pressure from within her own party to take action, Kumaratunga declared a state of emergency and took three key government ministries, the Ministry of Mass Media, the Interior Ministry and the crucial Defense Ministry.[91] She then formed an alliance with the JVP, called the United People's Freedom Alliance, opposed to the ISGA and advocating a harder line on the LTTE, and called for fresh elections. The elections, held on 8 April 2004, resulted in victory for the UPFA with Mahinda Rajapakse
Mahinda Rajapakse
appointed as Prime Minister. Split of the LTTE[edit] Meanwhile, in March 2004 there had been a major split between the northern and eastern wings of the LTTE. Vinayagamoorthy Muralitharan alias Col. Karuna, the Eastern commander of the LTTE
LTTE
and one of Prabhakaran's trusted lieutenants, pulled 5,000 eastern cadres out of the LTTE, claiming insufficient resources and power were being given to Tamils of the eastern part of the island. It was the biggest expression of dissension in the history of the LTTE
LTTE
and a clash within the LTTE
LTTE
seemed imminent. After the parliamentary elections, brief fighting south of Trincomalee
Trincomalee
led to a rapid retreat and capitulation of Karuna's group, their leaders eventually going into hiding including Karuna himself, who was helped to escape by Seyed Ali Zahir Moulana, a politician from the ruling party. However, the "Karuna faction" maintained a significant presence in the east and continued to launch attacks against the LTTE.[92] The LTTE
LTTE
accused the army of covertly backing the breakaway group, which subsequently formed a political party named the TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP) and hope to contest in future elections. The cease-fire largely held through all this turmoil, with over 3000 infractions by the LTTE
LTTE
and some 300 by the SLA recorded by the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission (SLMM) by 2005.[93] The situation was further complicated by allegations that both sides were carrying out covert operations against each other. The government claimed that the LTTE was killing political opponents, recruiting children, importing arms and killing government security and intelligence officers. The rebels accused the government of supporting paramilitary groups against them, especially the Karuna group. Tsunami and aftermath[edit] On 26 December 2004, the Indian Ocean tsunami
Indian Ocean tsunami
struck Sri Lanka, killing more than 35,000 people and leaving many more homeless. A great deal of aid arrived from around the world, but there was immediate disagreement over how it should be distributed to the Tamil regions under LTTE
LTTE
control. By 24 June the government and LTTE
LTTE
agreed on the Post-Tsunami Operational Management Structure (P-TOMS), but it received sharp criticism from the JVP, who left the government in protest. The legality of P-TOMS was also challenged in the courts. President Kumaratunga eventually had to scrap P-TOMS, which led to widespread criticism that sufficient aid was not reaching the north and east of the country. However, immediately following the tsunami there was a marked decrease in violence in the north.[citation needed] Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar, a Tamil who was highly respected by foreign diplomats and who had been sharply critical of the LTTE, was assassinated at his home on 12 August 2005, allegedly by an LTTE
LTTE
sniper.[94] His assassination led to the marginalization of the LTTE
LTTE
from the international community, and is generally considered to be the moment when the LTTE
LTTE
lost much of its sympathy in the eyes of foreign nations. Hence the silence of the international community when the Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
took military action against the LTTE
LTTE
in 2006, when the latter closed the Mavil aru sluice.[further explanation needed] Further political change occurred when the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka declared President Kumaratunga's second and final term over and ordered her to hold fresh presidential elections. The main candidates for the election, which was held in November, were UNF candidate former Prime Minister Ranil Wickremasinghe, who advocated the reopening of talks with the LTTE, and the UPFA candidate Prime Minister Rajapaksa, who called for a tougher line against the LTTE
LTTE
and a renegotiation of the cease-fire. The LTTE
LTTE
openly called for a boycott of the election by Tamils. Many of them were expected to vote for Wickremasinghe, and the loss of their votes proved fatal to his chances, as Rajapakse achieved a narrow victory. Following the election, LTTE
LTTE
leader Velupillai Prabhakaran
Velupillai Prabhakaran
stated in his annual address that the Tigers would "renew their struggle" in 2006 if the government did not take serious moves toward peace. Resumption of hostilities[edit]

Red area shows the approximate areas of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
controlled by the LTTE
LTTE
and the Government, as of December 2005.

Main article: Eelam
Eelam
War IV Beginning in December 2005, there was increased guerrilla activity to the northeast, including Claymore mine
Claymore mine
attacks which killed 150 government troops,[95] clashes between the Sea Tigers
Sea Tigers
and the Sri Lanka navy and the killings of sympathizers on both sides including Taraki Sivaram, a pro- LTTE
LTTE
journalist, and Joseph Pararajasingham, a pro- LTTE
LTTE
MP, both killed allegedly by the government of Sri Lanka. At the beginning of 2006 the focus of the civil war turned to civilian targets, with commuter bus and train bombings carried out in most parts of the country, including a series of attacks against commuters in and around Colombo.[96] Talks and further violence[edit] In light of this violence, the co-chairs of the Tokyo Donor conference called on both parties to return to the negotiating table. US State Department officials gave warnings to the Tigers, stating that a return to hostilities would mean that the Tigers would face a "more capable and more determined" Sri Lankan military.[97] While the talks were going on there was violence directed towards civilians, such as the killings of five Tamil students on 2 January 2006.[98][99] In a last-minute effort to salvage an agreement between the parties, Norwegian special envoy Erik Solheim
Erik Solheim
and LTTE
LTTE
theoretician Anton Balasingham arrived on the island. The parties strongly disagreed on the location of the talks; however, continued efforts produced a breakthrough when both parties agreed on 7 February 2006 that new talks could be held in Geneva, Switzerland, on 22 and 23 February. During the weeks after the talks there was a significant decrease in violence. However, the LTTE
LTTE
resumed attacks against the military in April. In light of this violence, the LTTE
LTTE
called for a postponement of the Geneva
Geneva
talks until 24–25 April, and the government initially agreed to this. Following negotiations, both the government and the rebels agreed to have a civilian vessel transport regional LTTE
LTTE
leaders with international truce monitors on 16 April, which involved crossing government-controlled territory. However, the climate shifted drastically when the Tigers cancelled the meeting, claiming not to have agreed to a naval escort. According to the SLMM, the Tamil rebels had previously agreed to the escort.[100] On 20 April 2006 the LTTE
LTTE
officially pulled out of peace talks indefinitely. While they stated that transportation issues had prevented them from meeting their regional leaders, some analysts and the international community were strongly skeptical, seeing the transportation issue as a delaying tactic by the LTTE
LTTE
to avoid attending peace talks in Geneva.[101] Violence continued to spiral and on 23 April 2006, six Sinhalese rice farmers were massacred in their paddy fields by suspected LTTE
LTTE
cadres,[102] and on 13 May 2006 13 Tamil civilians were killed in the islet of Kayts.[103] International condemnation against the LTTE
LTTE
skyrocketed following the attempted assassination of the commander of the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army, Lt. Gen. Sarath Fonseka, by a female LTTE
LTTE
Black Tiger suicide bomber named Anoja Kugenthirasah, who concealed the explosives by appearing to be pregnant and blew herself up at army headquarters in Colombo. For the first time since the 2001 cease-fire, the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Air Force carried out aerial assaults on rebel positions in the northeastern part of the island in retaliation for the attack.[104] This attack, along with the assassination of Lakshman Kadiragamar a year earlier and an unsuccessful attack against a naval vessel carrying 710 unarmed security force personnel on holiday, marked a turning point, as the European Union
European Union
decided to proscribe the LTTE
LTTE
as a terrorist organisation on 19 May 2006. It resulted in the freezing of LTTE
LTTE
assets in its 27 member nations. In a statement, the European Parliament said that the LTTE
LTTE
did not represent all the Tamils and called on it to "allow for political pluralism and alternate democratic voices in the northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka".[105] As the north and east of the country continued to be rocked by attacks, new talks were scheduled in Oslo, Norway, between 8–9 June. Delegations from both sides arrived in Oslo, but the talks were cancelled when the LTTE
LTTE
refused to meet directly with the government delegation, claiming its fighters were not allowed safe passage to travel to the talks. Norwegian mediator Erik Solheim
Erik Solheim
told journalists that the LTTE
LTTE
should take direct responsibility for the collapse of the talks.[106] Further violence followed, including the Vankalai massacre. The Sri Lankan army and Tamil Tiger
Tamil Tiger
rebels blamed each other for the killings.[107][108] There was also the Kebithigollewa massacre in which the LTTE
LTTE
attacked a bus, killing at least 64 Sinhalese civilians and prompting more air strikes by the Air Force,[109] and the assassination of Sri Lanka's third highest-ranking army officer and Deputy Chief of Staff General Parami Kulatunga
Parami Kulatunga
on 26 June by an LTTE suicide bomber.[110] These events led the SLMM to question whether a cease-fire could still be said to exist.[111] Mavil Aru water dispute[edit] A new crisis leading to the first large-scale fighting since signing of the cease-fire occurred when the LTTE
LTTE
closed the sluice gates of the Mavil Aru reservoir on 21 July. Mavil Aru was the waterway that provided water to some regions of eastern Sri Lanka, like Trincomalee. After the cease-fire in 2002, the conflict over Mavil Aru was one of the biggest military confrontations between the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Armed Forces and the LTTE. Its relevance is for geo-strategic reasons: within the Mavil Aru area, Sinhala, Muslim and Tamil populations live side by side. It is also the entrance to Koddiyar Bay, the inlet for Trincomalee
Trincomalee
port and naval base, so the LTTE
LTTE
presence in the area seriously threatened the Sri Lankan security forices' presence and domination. Closure of Mavil Aru affected the water supply to 15,000 families in government-controlled areas.[112] After the initial negotiations and efforts by the SLMM to open the gates failed, the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
military initiated an operation to achieve the re-opening of the sluice gates. President Rajapaksa said that the supply of water was a non-negotiable fundamental human right. Additionally, a government spokesman said that "utilities could not be used as bargaining tools" by the rebels.[112] The government deployed its army and air force for the offensive, attacking not only the region of Mavil Aru but also the LTTE
LTTE
positions in Batticaloa, and Vavuniya. Air Force planes attacked LTTE
LTTE
positions on 26 July, and ground troops began an operation to open the gate.[113] The sluice gates were eventually reopened on 8 August, with conflicting reports as to who actually opened them. Initially, the SLMM claimed that they managed to persuade the LTTE
LTTE
to lift the waterway blockade conditionally.[114] The LTTE
LTTE
claimed that it opened the sluice gates "on humanitarian grounds", although this was disputed by military correspondents, who stated the water began flowing immediately after security forces carried out a precise bombing of the Mavil Aru anicut.[115] Eventually, following heavy fighting, government troops gained full control of the Mavil Aru reservoir on 15 August.[114] The consequences of the "Operation Watershed" were about 150 civilians killed and more than 50,000 refugees from Mutur and the villages nearby. It was the precedent of the Eelam
Eelam
War IV.[113] LTTE
LTTE
offensives in Muttur and Jaffna[edit] As fierce fighting was ongoing in the vicinity of Mavil Aru, violence spread to Trincomalee, where the LTTE
LTTE
launched an attack on a crucial Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Navy base,[116] and to the strategic government-controlled coastal town of Muttur in early August, resulting in the deaths of at least 30 civilians and displacing 25,000 residents of the area.[117] The clashes erupted on 2 August 2006 when the LTTE
LTTE
launched a heavy artillery attack on Muttur[118] and then moved in, gaining control of some parts of the town.[119] The military retaliated, and re-established full control over the town by 5 August, killing over 150 LTTE
LTTE
fighters in heavy clashes.[118] Soon afterwards, 17 persons working for the International French charity Action Against Hunger
Action Against Hunger
(ACF) in Muthur, were massacred. They were found lying face down on the floor of their office, shot to death, still wearing their clearly marked T-shirts indicating they were international humanitarian workers. The murders prompted widespread international condemnation.[120] The SLMM claimed that the government was behind the attack,[121] but the government denied the allegation calling it "pathetic and biased", and stated that the SLMM had "no right to make such a statement because they are not professionals in autopsy or post-mortem."[122] Meanwhile, in the north of the country, some of the bloodiest fighting since 2001 took place after the LTTE
LTTE
launched massive attacks on Sri Lanka Army defense lines on the Jaffna
Jaffna
peninsula on 11 August. The LTTE
LTTE
used a force of 400–500 fighters in the attacks, which consisted of land and amphibious assaults, and also fired a barrage of artillery at government positions, including the key military airbase at Palaly.[116][123] The LTTE
LTTE
is estimated to have lost over 200 fighters in the operation, while 90 Sri Lankan soldiers and sailors were also killed.[124] As ground battles were ongoing in the north and the east of the country, the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Air Force carried out an air strike against a facility in the rebel-held Mullaitivu
Mullaitivu
area, killing a number of Tamil girls. Although the LTTE
LTTE
claimed 61 girls were killed, the SLMM stated they were able to count just 19 bodies.[125] The government stated that it was an LTTE
LTTE
training facility and that the children were LTTE child soldiers,[126] although the LTTE
LTTE
claimed the victims were schoolgirls attending a course on first aid at an orphanage. On the same day a convoy carrying the Pakistani High Commissioner
High Commissioner
to Sri Lanka, Bashir Wali Mohamed, was attacked when a claymore antipersonnel mine concealed within an auto rickshaw blew up as it passed by. The High Commissioner
High Commissioner
escaped unhurt, but seven people were killed and 17 injured in the blast.[127] The High Commissioner
High Commissioner
claimed that India
India
was believed to have carried it out,[128] in order to intimidate Pakistan, which is one of the main suppliers of military equipment to the Sri Lankan government.[128] Pakistan had promised one shipload of equipment every 10 days in coming months. Fall of Sampur[edit] Since the resumption of violence, concerns were mounting among the military establishment that the strategically crucial[129] Sri Lanka Navy base in Trincomalee
Trincomalee
was under severe threat from LTTE
LTTE
gun positions located in and around Sampur, which lies across the Koddiyar Bay from Trincomalee.[130] Artillery fired from LTTE
LTTE
bases in the area could potentially cripple the naval base, bringing it to a complete standstill and cutting the only military supply chain to Jaffna. All movements of naval vessels were also under the constant surveillance of the LTTE.[131] These fears were backed up by a US military advisory team which visited the island in 2005. Following clashes in Mavil Aru and Muttur, the LTTE
LTTE
had intensified attacks targeting the naval base in Trincomalee,[130] and in a speech on 21 August Sri Lankan president Mahinda Rajapakse
Mahinda Rajapakse
made clear the government intentions were to neutralize the LTTE
LTTE
threat from Sampur.[130] On 28 August the military launched an assault to retake the LTTE
LTTE
camps in Sampur and the adjoining Kaddaiparichchan and Thoppur areas. This led the LTTE
LTTE
to declare that if the offensive continued, the cease-fire would be officially over. After steady progress, security forces led by Brigade Commander Sarath Wijesinghe[132] recaptured Sampur from the LTTE
LTTE
on 4 September and began to establish military bases there,[133] as the LTTE
LTTE
admitted defeat and stated their fighters "withdrew" from the strategically important town.[134] It marked the first significant territorial change of hands since the signing of the cease-fire agreement in 2002.[135] The Sri Lankan military estimated that 33 of its personnel were killed in the offensive, along with over 200 LTTE
LTTE
fighters.[132] LTTE
LTTE
retaliation and further peace talks[edit] The LTTE
LTTE
struck back in October. First, they killed nearly 130 soldiers in a fierce battle at Muhamalai, the crossing-point between government- and LTTE-controlled area in the north of the country.[136] Just days later, a suspected LTTE
LTTE
suicide bomber struck a naval convoy in Habarana, in the center of the country, killing about 100 sailors who were returning home on leave.[137] It was the deadliest suicide attack in the history of the conflict.[138] Two days later LTTE
LTTE
Sea Tiger
Sea Tiger
forces launched an attack against the Dakshina naval base in the southern port city of Galle. It was the farthest south any major LTTE
LTTE
attack had taken place, and involved 15 LTTE
LTTE
fighters who arrived in five suicide boats. The attack was repulsed by the government, and the damage to the naval base was minimal. All 15 LTTE
LTTE
fighters were believed to have died in the attack, along with one Navy sailor.[139] Despite these incidents, both parties agreed to unconditionally attend peace talks in Geneva
Geneva
on 28–29 October.[140] However, the peace talks broke down due to disagreements over the reopening of the key A9 highway, which is the link between Jaffna
Jaffna
and government-controlled areas in the south. While the LTTE
LTTE
wanted the highway, which was closed following fierce battles in August, to be reopened, the government refused, stating the LTTE
LTTE
would use it to collect taxes from people passing through and would use it to launch further offensives against government troops.[141] Following the dawn of the new year, suspected LTTE
LTTE
fighters carried out two bus bombings in the south of the country, killing 21 civilians. News reports stated that the attacks bore all the hallmarks of an LTTE
LTTE
attack.[142] The Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
condemned the attacks and blamed the LTTE
LTTE
for carrying them out, although the LTTE denied any involvement.[143] Government offensive in the East[edit] Main article: Eastern Theater of Eelam
Eelam
War IV See also: Operation Definite Victory In December 2006 Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
officials announced their plans to drive the LTTE
LTTE
out of the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka, and then use the full strength of the military to defeat the LTTE
LTTE
in the north of the country. The government stated that LTTE
LTTE
was firing artillery towards civilian settlements in the east and were using 35,000 people as human shields.[144] These claims were later backed up by civilians in the area, who told reporters that they were held by force by the Tamil Tigers.[145] On 7 November 2006, amidst conflicting claims, over 45 Tamil civilians were killed in what is known as the Vaharai bombing. Subsequently, the army began an offensive against the LTTE
LTTE
on 8 December 2006, in the Batticoloa district with the objective of taking Vakarai, the principal stronghold of the LTTE
LTTE
in the east; the operation was temporarily aborted after a week of fighting due to the large number of civilians in the area and the difficulty in conducting combat operations due to the ongoing monsoon rain.[146] Over the next few weeks an estimated 20,000 civilians fled from Vakarai
Vakarai
to government-controlled areas, fearing the imminent assault. The army launched a new offensive in mid-January, and Vakarai
Vakarai
fell to the advancing troops on 19 January. While the offensive in the East was ongoing, the LTTE
LTTE
and others accused the government of murdering 15 civilians in the Padahuthurai bombing
Padahuthurai bombing
on 2 January, when the air force bombed what they claimed to be an LTTE
LTTE
naval base in Illuppaikadavai in northern Sri Lanka.[147][148] The loss of Vakarai
Vakarai
had been predicted to cut off supply routes of the northern Tigers to their cadres in the east, thus weakening the Tigers' already diminishing grip on the east.[149][150] As the military offensive was ongoing, the LTTE
LTTE
continued to carry out attacks against civilians in government-held territory. On 1 April 2007 the military accused the LTTE
LTTE
of killing six Sinhalese tsunami aid workers in the eastern district of Batticaloa.[151][152] The next day suspected LTTE
LTTE
fighters set off a bomb aboard a civilian bus in Ampara, which killed 17 people, including three children.[153][154] Troops mostly operating in small groups of Special
Special
Forces and Commando units began a new operation in February[155] to clear the last remaining LTTE
LTTE
fighters from the Eastern Province. As part of the operation, troops captured the key LTTE
LTTE
base in Kokkadicholai
Kokkadicholai
on 28 March,[156] and the strategic A5 highway on 12 April, bringing the entire highway under government control for the first time in 15 years.[157] This meant the LTTE's presence in the rast was reduced to a 140-square-kilometer pocket of jungle in the Thoppigala area northwest of Batticaloa.[155] After the three-month-long Battle of Thoppigala, the army captured the Thoppigala peak on 11 July 2007, ending the LTTE's military capability in the Eastern Province and concluding Eelam War IV
Eelam War IV
in the Eastern theatre.[158] Government offensive in the North[edit] Main article: 2008–2009 SLA Northern offensive Sporadic fighting in the North had been going on for months, but the intensity of the clashes increased after September 2007. During clashes in the Forward Defence Lines, separating their forces, both sides exchanged heavy artillery fire, after which military incursions followed.[159] By December 2007, the LTTE
LTTE
defences at Uyilankulama, Parappakandal and Thampanai were lost to advancing troops of the Sri Lanka Army.[160] In an interview with the Sunday Observer the Army Commander Lt. Gen. Sarath Fonseka
Sarath Fonseka
said that the Army had occupied the LTTE's Forward Defence Lines and surrounded the Wanni LTTE
LTTE
bases from all directions. He also said that there were around 3,000 Tigers remaining and that the military intended to annihilate them within the first six months of the next year.[161] A day later there were less optimistic statements by Army, Air Force and Navy Commanders. The Army was to face an estimated 5,000 Tiger cadres in the Wanni. The Commander of the Army intended to shift the current battles in the Forward Defence Lines to a decisive phase in August 2008. In the Commanders' view, it was quite possible to defeat the LTTE
LTTE
in 2008.[162] The military of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
claimed that the leader of the LTTE, Velupillai Prabhakaran, was seriously injured during air strikes carried out by the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Air Force on a bunker complex in Jayanthinagar on 26 November 2007.[163] Earlier, on 2 November 2007, S. P. Thamilselvan, the head of the LTTE
LTTE
political wing, was killed during another government air raid.[164] The Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Air Force openly vowed to destroy the entire leadership of the LTTE.[162] On 5 January 2008, Colonel
Colonel
Charles, Head of LTTE
LTTE
Military Intelligence, was killed in a claymore mine ambush by a Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (Sri Lanka) (LRRP).[165][166] Abrogation of ceasefire agreement[edit] Defense secretary Gotabhaya Rajapaksa
Gotabhaya Rajapaksa
urged the government to abandon the ceasefire agreement in December 2007,[167] and on 2 January 2008, the Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
officially did so.[168] Between February 2002 to May 2007, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Monitoring Mission had documented 3,830 ceasefire violations by the LTTE
LTTE
versus 351 by the security forces.[5] From May 2007, the SLMM ceased making determinations on ceasefire violations. Thus the government stated there was no need for a ceasefire any more. Several donor countries expressed their disappointment at the Sri Lankan government's withdrawal.[169][170] The LTTE
LTTE
formally responded that since the government had unilaterally withdrawn from the ceasefire agreement without any justification and that they were prepared to continue to honour the agreement, the international community ought to immediately remove the bans it had placed on the LTTE.[171][172] The government then attempted to open a third front along the Muhamalai Forward Defence Line. After an initial setback on 23 April,[173] the Sri Lankan Army advanced rapidly, capturing the town of Adampan on 9 May,[174] Mannar "Rice Bowl" which consists of the island's most fertile paddy fields on 30 June,[175] Vidattaltivu
Vidattaltivu
on 16 July,[176] and Iluppaikkadavai on 20 July.[177] On 21 July 2008, the LTTE
LTTE
announced that it would be declaring a unilateral ceasefire from 28 July to 4 August, to coincide with the 15th summit of the heads of state of SAARC
SAARC
to be held in Colombo.[178] However, the government of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
dismissed the LTTE's offer as needless and treacherous.[179] Significant military gains by the government[edit] On 2 August 2008, Vellankulam town, the LTTE's last stronghold in Mannar District, fell to the advancing SLA troops, completing the eight-month effort to recapture the district.[180] The Army followed this up by taking control of Mallavi
Mallavi
on 2 September, following weeks of heavy military confrontation.[181] The LTTE
LTTE
countered with a surprise attack on the Vavuniya
Vavuniya
air base on 9 September, in which both sides claimed victory.[182][183][184] From Mannar, the Army had entered Kilinochchi
Kilinochchi
District, the last stronghold of the LTTE, at the end of July,[185] with the intention of taking Kilinochchi
Kilinochchi
before the end of the year. On 3 October 2008, a UN aid convoy managed to unload all its cargo in Kilinochchi
Kilinochchi
District and described Kilinochchi
Kilinochchi
town as having been nearly abandoned,[186] but the LTTE
LTTE
were able to kill retired Major General Janaka Perera
Janaka Perera
along with 26 other victims in a suicide blast on 6 October.[187] On 17 October 2008, SLA troops cut off the Mannar-Poonaryn A32 highway north of Nachchikuda, the main remaining Sea Tiger
Sea Tiger
stronghold on the northwestern coast of the island, thus effectively encircling it.[188] They began their assault on 28 October and captured it the next day.[189][190] After that the Army Task Force 1 continued their advance towards Pooneryn
Pooneryn
and captured Kiranchchi, Palavi, Veravil, Valaipadu and Devil's Point.[191][192] On 15 November 2008, troops of the Army Task Force 1 entered the strategically important Tiger stronghold of Pooneryn.[193][194] Simultaneously, the newly created Army Task Force 3 was introduced into the area of Mankulam with the objective of engaging the LTTE
LTTE
cadres in a new battlefront towards the east of the Jaffna– Kandy
Kandy
A9 highway.[195] SLA troops captured Mankulam and the surrounding area on 17 November 2008.[196] Meanwhile, the situation of more than 200,000 civilians who had been displaced in the latest round of fighting was turning into a humanitarian disaster; however, due to a number of reasons including doubts regarding the sincerity of the LTTE's negotiations, neither Western governments nor India
India
intervened to broker a new ceasefire.[197] Fall of Kilinochchi
Kilinochchi
and subsequent events[edit] Main article: Battle of Kilinochchi
Kilinochchi
(2008–2009) The Sri Lankan Army began the attack on Kilinochchi
Kilinochchi
on 23 November 2008. Troops were attacking rebels' defences from three directions.[198] However, the LTTE
LTTE
offered a stiff resistance, and the prolonged attack resulted in heavy casualties on both sides.[199]

Civilians being displaced as a result of the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army's military offensive. January 2009.

Not until 1 January 2009 were SLA troops able to capture Paranthan, located to the north of Kilinochchi
Kilinochchi
along the A-9 route. This isolated the southern periphery of the Elephant Pass
Elephant Pass
LTTE
LTTE
foothold and also exposed the LTTE's main fortification at Kilinochchi.[200] This made the capture of Kilinochchi, which the rebels had used for over a decade as their de facto administrative capital, far simpler, and they were able to accomplish this on 2 January. The loss of Killinochchi caused a substantial dent in the LTTE's image as a capable, ruthless terrorist group,[201] and observers forecast the LTTE
LTTE
was likely to collapse before long under unbearable military pressure on multiple fronts.[202] The Tigers quickly abandoned their positions on the Jaffna
Jaffna
peninsula to make a last stand in the jungles of Mullaitivu, their last main base.[203] The entire Jaffna
Jaffna
peninsula was captured by the Sri Lanka Army by 14 January 2009.[204] However, they were unable to hold out for long, and on 25 January, SLA troops captured Mullaitivu.[205][206] The last Sea Tiger
Sea Tiger
base in Chalai was next to fall on 5 February, reducing the territory under rebel control to less than some 200 km2.[207] This stage of the war was marked by increased brutality against civilians and rapidly mounting civilian casualties. On 19 February 2009, Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
issued a report accusing the Sri Lankan army of "slaughtering" the civilians during indiscriminate artillery attacks (including repeated shelling of hospitals) and calling on the Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
to end its policy of "detaining displaced persons" in military-controlled internment camps. Human Rights Watch also urged the Tamil Tigers to permit trapped civilians to leave the war zone and to "stop shooting at those who try to flee".[208] The UN was also concerned over the condition of internally displaced persons and estimated that some 200,000 people were being squeezed into a narrow 14 square kilometre patch of land on the coast in Vanni, which the government had declared the 'no-fire zone'.[209] On 20 February 2009, two LTTE
LTTE
planes on a suicide mission carried out a kamikaze style air attack on the Sri Lankan capital Colombo, killing 2 and wounding 45, but both planes were shot down by the Sri Lankan Air Force before they could damage the intended targets which were the Army Headquarters and the main Air Force base.[210][211] By late March, the Tamil Tigers controlled only one square kilometre outside the no-fire zone, down from about 15,000 km2 a mere three years ago. Political pressure was placed on President Rajapaksa to find a political solution to the conflict and he called for a meeting with Tamil National Alliance, but they refused until the government resolved the humanitarian crisis faced by civilians trapped in the fighting. The Battle of Aanandapuram, which was described by military analyst/journalist D. B. S. Jeyaraj as the "defining moment" of the 3 decade war, was fought on 5 April. This battle saw the demise of most of the battle-hardened ground commanders of the LTTE, including Velayuthapillai Baheerathakumar alias Theepan, the overall commander of the LTTE
LTTE
northern front fighting formations. SLA soldiers numbering more than 50,000 from 5 divisions participated in the battle encircling the LTTE
LTTE
cadres inside a small littoral strip of territory located between the Paranthan- Mullaitivu
Mullaitivu
A35 highway, Nanthikadal and Chalai Lagoons on one side and the Indian ocean on the other. Rebel casualties amounted to 625.[212] Fighting in the 'No-Fire Zone'[edit] SLA troops were able to push the Tamil Tigers into the no-fire zone set up for civilians.[213][214] The LTTE
LTTE
then built a 3-kilometre (2 mi) long bund in the no-fire zone, trapping over 30,000 civilians, but the SLA was able to destroy this.[215][216] On 21 April, Sri Lankan troops launched an assault, targeting LTTE leader, Vellupillai Prabhakaran. At the same time, a mass Tamil exodus from the 'no-fire zone' was underway.[217][218] The next day, two senior LTTE
LTTE
members ( LTTE
LTTE
media co-ordinator Velayuthan Thayanithi, alias Daya Master, and a top interpreter Kumar Pancharathnam, alias George)[219] surrendered to the advancing Sri Lankan army. This came as "a rude shock" and a major setback for the rebel leadership.[220] When asked why they had surrendered, both men stressed that rebels were shooting at the civilians and preventing them from escaping from the 'no-fire zone' to safety in government-controlled areas. They also alleged that the LTTE
LTTE
were still abducting and conscripting children as young as 14 years old, and would fire at anyone who tried to resist.[221][222] By 25 April, the area under the LTTE
LTTE
was reduced to 10 km2. While the Tamil exodus from the 'no-fire zone' continued, the UN estimated that around 6,500 civilians may have been killed and another 14,000 wounded between January 2009 and April 2009.[223][224] The BBC reported that the land recaptured by the army from the rebels was totally depopulated and utterly devastated.[225] As fighting continued, a group of independent United Nations experts called on the Human Rights Council
Human Rights Council
to urgently set up an international inquiry to address the "critical" situation in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
amid fighting between the Army and Tamil rebels. According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), over 196,000 people fled the conflict zone, a shrinking pocket of land on the north-east coastline, where clashes continued between government troops and the LTTE, while at least 50,000 people were still trapped there.[226] A UN spokesman in Colombo, Gordon Weiss, said more than 100 children died during the "large-scale killing of civilians" and described the situation in northern Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
as a "bloodbath".[227] UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
Ban Ki-moon
said he was appalled at the killing of hundreds of Sri Lankan civilians caught in the middle of hostilities between the army and separatist Tamil rebels over the weekend. He voiced deep concern over the continued use of heavy weapons in the conflict zone, but also stressed that the "reckless disrespect shown by the LTTE
LTTE
for the safety of civilians has led to thousands of people remaining trapped in the area".[228] On 16 May 2009, Sri Lankan troops broke through LTTE
LTTE
defences and captured the last section of coastline held by Tamil Tiger
Tamil Tiger
rebels. The army reported it was set to "clear" remaining rebel-held land within days.[229][230] Later the military claimed, allegedly citing intercepted LTTE
LTTE
communication, that rebels were preparing for a mass suicide after being effectively cut off from escape routes.[231] Some rebels were reported to have blown themselves up.[232] End of the war[edit] 16 May: Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
declares victory[edit] Addressing the G11 summit in Jordan, President Mahinda Rajapaksa stated "my government, with the total commitment of our armed forces, has in an unprecedented humanitarian operation finally defeated the LTTE
LTTE
militarily".[17] Sri Lankan Commander of the Army Sarath Fonseka also declared victory over LTTE.[233] Sri Lankan troops raced to clear the last LTTE
LTTE
pockets of resistance. As the last LTTE
LTTE
strongpoints crumbled, Sri Lankan troops killed 70 rebels attempting to escape by boat.[234] The whereabouts of LTTE
LTTE
leader Vellupillai Prabhakaran
Vellupillai Prabhakaran
and other major rebel leaders were not certain. 17 May: Tigers admit defeat[edit] The LTTE
LTTE
finally admitted defeat on 17 May 2009, with the rebels' chief of international relations, Selvarasa Pathmanathan, stating on the website that "This battle has reached its bitter end ... We have decided to silence our guns. Our only regrets are for the lives lost and that we could not hold out for longer".[18][28] 18 May: First claim of Prabhakaran's death[edit] The Sri Lankan armed forces claimed that the leader of the LTTE, Velupillai Prabhakaran, was killed in the morning of 18 May 2009 while he was trying to flee the conflict zone in an ambulance. The announcement on state television came shortly after the military said it had surrounded Prabhakaran in a tiny patch of jungle in the north-east. The Daily Telegraph wrote that, according to Sri Lankan TV, Prabhakaran was "... killed in a rocket-propelled grenade attack as he tried to escape the war zone in an Ambulance with his closest aides. Colonel
Colonel
Soosai, the leader of his "Sea Tigers" navy, and Pottu Amman, his intelligence chief were also killed in the attack."[235] The head of the Sri Lankan army, General Sarath Fonseka, said the military had defeated the rebels and "liberated the entire country". Military spokesman Brigadier
Brigadier
Udaya Nanayakkara
Udaya Nanayakkara
stated 250 Tamil Tigers, who were hiding and fighting from within the no fire zone,[236] were killed overnight.[237] 19 May: President addresses the Parliament and Prabhakaran is dead[edit] At 9:00 am on 19 May 2009 President Mahinda Rajapaksa
Mahinda Rajapaksa
delivered a victory address to the Parliament and declared that Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
is liberated from terrorism.[238][239] Around 9:30 am troops attached to Task Force VIII of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army, reported to its commander, Colonel
Colonel
G.V. Ravipriya that a body similar to Velupillai Prabhakaran has been found among the mangroves in Nandikadal lagoon.[240] It was identified by the officer. At 12:15 pm Army Commander Sarath Fonseka
Sarath Fonseka
officially announced Prabhakaran's death, through the State television ITN. At around 1:00 pm his body was shown in Swarnavahini for the first time.[241] Prabakaran's identity was confirmed by Karuna Amman, his former confidant, and through DNA testing against his son's genetic material who had been killed earlier by the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Military.[242] However, LTTE
LTTE
Chief of international relations, Selvarasa Pathmanathan
Selvarasa Pathmanathan
on the same day claimed that "Our beloved leader is alive and safe."[243] On 24 May 2009, he admitted the death of Prabhakaran, retracting the previous statement.[244] Reaction[edit] Main article: Reactions to the end of the Sri Lankan Civil War The general public of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
took to streets to celebrate the end of the decades long war. Streets were filled with joyous scenes of jubilation.[245][246] Opposition leader Ranil Wickremasinghe, through a telephone call, congratulated President Rajapaksa and the state security forces for their victory over the LTTE.[247] Religious leaders too hailed the end of the bloodshed.[248] International response to the end of the fighting was also positive and welcoming, while some countries expressed concern over the civilian casualties and the humanitarian impact. United Nations Secretary General
United Nations Secretary General
Ban Ki-moon said, "I am relieved by the conclusion of the military operation, but I am deeply troubled by the loss of so many civilian lives. The task now facing the people of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
is immense and requires all hands. It is most important that every effort be undertaken to begin a process of healing and national reconciliation".[249] Time magazine named the end of the Sri Lankan Civil War as one of the top 10 news stories of 2009.[250] Combat after 18 May 2009[edit]

19 May 2009 – 3 LTTE
LTTE
cadre killed by the Sri Lankan Army at Kachikudichchiaru, Ampara.[251] 20 May 2009 – 5 LTTE
LTTE
cadre killed by the Sri Lankan Army near Periyapillumalai area.[251] 21 May 2009 – 10 LTTE
LTTE
cadre killed by the Sri Lankan Army in the Kadawana jungle area.[252] 27 May 2009 – 11 LTTE
LTTE
cadre killed by the Sri Lankan Army at Kalavanchchikudi in the Batticaloa
Batticaloa
area. Five T-56 assault rifles, twenty claymore mines (15 kg each), two hand grenades, three anti-personnel mines and medical items were reported recovered by military sources.[253] 5 June 2009 – Special
Special
Task Force (STF) personnel while conducting search and clear operation in Darampalawa area in Ampara
Ampara
confronted a group of LTTE
LTTE
cadre and recovered two bodies along with numerous military items.[254] 5 August 2009 – Selvarasa Pathmanathan, the new leader of LTTE
LTTE
was arrested by a Sri Lankan military intelligence unit, with the collaboration of local authorities, in the Tune Hotel, Downtown Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and brought back to Sri Lanka.[255]

Cost of war[edit]

Shelter built from tarp and sticks. Pictured are displaced persons from the civil war in Sri Lanka

Casualties[edit] Main article: Casualties of the Sri Lankan Civil War The Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War
was very costly, killing more 100,000 civilians and over 50,000 fighters from both sides of the conflict. The "Tamil Centre for Human Rights" recorded that from 1983 to 2004, 47,556 Tamil civilians were murdered by both the Sri Lankan government and IPKF forces. Another organization called NESOHR published that from the beginning of the war to the 2002 ceasefire, 4000 to 5000 Tamil civilians were killed in large scale massacres, with a total civilian death of around 40,000. Civilian casualties that occurred on 2009 is of major controversy, as there were no organizations to record the events during the final months of the war. The Sri Lankan government revealed that 9,000 people were killed in the final months of the war, but it did not differentiate between LTTE
LTTE
cadres and civilians. The UN, based on credible witness evidence from aid agencies and civilians evacuated from the Safe Zone by sea, estimated that 6,500 civilians were killed and another 14,000 injured between mid-January 2009, when the Safe Zone was first declared, and mid-April 2009. There are no official casualty figures after this period but estimates of the death toll for the final four months of the civil war (mid-January to mid-May) range from 15,000 to 20,000. A US State Department report has suggested that the actual casualty figures were probably much higher than the UN's estimates and that significant numbers of casualties weren't recorded. A former UN official has claimed that up to 40,000 civilians may have been killed in the final stages of the civil war. Most of the details pertaining to the civilian casualties were reported by four doctors who worked in the no-fire zone. In a joint press conference after the war in July 2009 while still in CID custody, they recanted their initial reports, stating that the casualty figures were exaggerated and were handed to them by the LTTE.[256] However, a leaked US diplomatic cable contains dispatches stating that the doctors upon their release in August 2009 are to have stated to US embassy personnel that they were heavily coached for the press conference and that they had not lied when giving their original statements.[257] A US State Department
US State Department
report has suggested that the actual casualty figures were probably much higher than the UN estimates and that significant numbers of casualties were not recorded.[258] Gordon Weiss, a former UN official has claimed that up to 40,000 civilians may have been killed in the final stages of the war.[259] U.N Secretary General's experts panel report had said that as many as 40,000 Tamil civilians could have been killed in the final phases of the Sri Lankan civil war.[260] On the contrary, Rajiva Wijesinha the permanent secretary to the Sri Lanka's Ministry of Disaster Management and Human Rights, in June 2009 said that altogether 3,000 to 5,000 civilians may have been killed during the period.[261] In November 2011, a Sri Lankan international terrorism expert, Rohan Gunaratna, estimated the number of civilian casualties to be 1,400 (1200 killed by army cross-fire and 200 by LTTE). His estimate is in part based on information obtained from captured LTTE
LTTE
cadres to which he had been granted access and from coroners working in and around the no-fire zone.[262][263] In February 2012, the Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
released an official estimate of civilian deaths in Northern Province, concluding that 8,649 people have died due to extraordinary circumstances (reasons other than ageing, diseases, natural disasters etc.), in 2009.[264] It also listed 2,635 people as untraceable. However the report did not differentiate civilians from the slain LTTE
LTTE
cadres. Several human rights groups have even claimed that the death toll in the last months of the war could be 70,000. The Sri Lankan government has denied all claims of causing mass casualties against Tamils, arguing that it was "taking care not to harm civilians". Instead, it has blamed the LTTE
LTTE
for the high casualty numbers, stating that they used the civilians as human shields. Both the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE
LTTE
have been accused by the U.N for war crimes during the last phase of the war. While the majority of civilian deaths were that of the Tamil minority, Both Sinhalese and Moor civilians died in the war. The LTTE
LTTE
were estimated to be responsible for 3,700 to 4,100 civilian deaths in over 200 separate attacks.[265] In response to these civilian deaths, LTTE leader Prabhakaran denied allegations of killing civilians, claiming to condemn such acts of violence; and claimed that LTTE
LTTE
had instead attacked armed home guards who were "death-squads let loose on Tamil civilians" and Sinhalese settlers who were "brought to the Tamil areas to forcibly occupy the land. Around 27,000+ LTTE
LTTE
cadres, 23,790+ Sri Lankan Army personnel, 1000+ Sri Lankan police, 1500 Indian soldiers were said to have died in the conflict. In 2008, the LTTE
LTTE
revealed that 22,390 fighters have lost their lives in the armed struggle since 27 November 1982, although it stopped keeping record in 2009. Minister of Defence Gotabhaya Rajapaksa said on an interview with state television that 23,790 Sri Lankan military personnel were killed since 1981 (it was not specified if police or other non armed forces personnel were included in this particular figure). The Uppsala Conflict Data Program, a university-based data collection program considered to be "one of the most accurate and well-used data-sources on global armed conflicts" provides free data to the public and has divided Sri Lanka's conflicts into groups based on the actors involved. It collectively reported that between 1990 and 2009 between 59,193-75,601 people were killed in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
during various three types of organized armed conflict: "State-based" conflicts, those that involved the Government of Sri Lanka against rebel groups( LTTE
LTTE
and the JVP), "Non-state" conflicts, those conflicts that did not involve the government of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(e.g. LTTE
LTTE
vs. LTTE-Karuna Faction, and LTTE
LTTE
vs. PLOTE), as well as "One-sided" violence, that involved deliberate attacks against civilians perpetrated by either LTTE
LTTE
or the Government of Sri Lanka. Economic cost[edit] The total economic cost of the 26-year war is estimated at US$200 billion.[266] This is approximately 5 times the GDP of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in 2009. Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
had spent US$5.5 billion only on Eelam
Eelam
War IV, which saw the end of LTTE. The government had spent US$2.25 billion to develop the Northern Province under the "Uthuru Wasanthaya" program after the end of war.[14] Measuring the opportunity cost of war, a report by Strategic Foresight Group states that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) remained stagnant during periods of civil war and that net FDI increased during periods of ceasefire.[267] Aftermath[edit] A political solution[edit] After the complete military defeat of the LTTE, President Mahinda Rajapaksa announced that the government is committed to a political solution, and for this purpose action would be taken based on the 13th Amendment to the Constitution.[268] Pro- LTTE
LTTE
political party Tamil National Alliance (TNA), also the largest political group representing Sri Lankan Tamil
Sri Lankan Tamil
community, dropped its demand for a separate state, in favour of a federal solution.[29][30] There are ongoing bilateral talks between President Rajapaksa's UPFA government and the TNA, on a viable political solution and devolution of power.[269] However, in an interview to Headlines Today, television channel from India, Gotabaya Rajapaksa, Defence Secretary of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and brother of President Mahinda Rajapaksa
Mahinda Rajapaksa
binned "the political solution talk", asserting, among other things, that it was "simply irrelevant" because "we have ended this terrorism" in Sri Lanka.[270][271] Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission[edit] Main article: Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission Following the end of the war in May 2009, amid mounting international pressure for an inquiry into the final stages of the war, President Rajapaksa appointed the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC) to look back at the Sri Lankan Civil War, and to provide recommendations for an era of healing and peace building. The commission concluded that the Sri Lankan military didn't deliberately target civilians in the No Fire Zones.[272] The commission acknowledged that hospitals had been shelled, resulting in "considerable civilian casualties", but it did not say who was responsible for the shelling. The commission blamed Sinhalese and Tamil politicians for causing the civil war: the Sinhalese politicians failed to offer a solution acceptable to the Tamil people
Tamil people
and the Tamil politicians fanned militant separatism. However the commission has been heavily criticised by human rights groups and UN Secretary-General's Panel of Experts on Accountability
Accountability
due its limited mandate, alleged lack of independence and its failure to meet minimum international standards or offer protection to witnesses.[273] Humanitarian Impact[edit] Main article: Sri Lankan IDP camps Towards the end of the war, as Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
forces advanced deeper into Tamil Tiger
Tamil Tiger
controlled areas, international concern grew for the fate of the 350,000 civilians trapped.[274] On 21 January 2009, the Sri Lankan military declared a 32 square kilometres (12.4 mi) Safe Zone located northwest of Puthukkudiviruppu, between the A35 Highway and the Chalai Lagoon. Sri Lankan Air Force aircraft dropped leaflets urging civilians to relocate to the safe zone and wait until the army could move them into safer locations. The Sri Lankan military promised not to fire into the area.[275] However, only small numbers of civilians actually crossed into the Safe Zone, and the Sri Lankan government, the United Nations, and human rights organisations accused the LTTE
LTTE
of preventing civilians from leaving. The fighting eventually caused civilians to flee the safe zone to a narrow strip of land between Nanthi Kadal and the Indian Ocean. The Sri Lankan military declared a new 10-square-kilometre (3.9 sq mi) Safe Zone northwest of Mullaitivu
Mullaitivu
on 12 February. Over the next three months, the Sri Lankan military repeatedly attacked the Safe Zone with aircraft and artillery to destroy the last remnants of the Tamil Tigers trapped there. The Sri Lankan government claimed that it was trying to hit Tamil Tiger positions, and claimed that these raids started on 15 February and ended on 19 April, the day before the Army breached Tamil Tiger defences, and civilians started to pour out.[276] However, these attacks caused heavy damage.[277] Thousands of civilians were killed or injured, and the Tamil Tigers reportedly held many as human shields.[278] The final stages of the war created 300,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) who were transferred to camps in Vavuniya
Vavuniya
District and detained there against their will.[279] The camps were surrounded by barbed wire. This, together with the conditions inside the camps, attracted much criticism from inside and outside Sri Lanka.[280] After the end of the civil war President Rajapaksa gave assurances to foreign diplomats that the bulk of the IDPs would be resettled in accordance with the 180-day plan.[281][282] By January 2012, almost all the IDPs had been resettled, except 6,554 from the Divisional Secretariats of Mullaitivu
Mullaitivu
district, where the de-mining work was yet to be finished.[283] Since 1983, the civil war caused mass outflow of Tamil civilians from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to South India. After the end of the war, nearly 5,000 of them returned to the country. As of July 2012, 68,152 Sri Lankans were living in South India
India
as refugees.[284] Detainees[edit] The continuous defeats of the LTTE
LTTE
had made its cadres abandon the outfit in large numbers. With the end of the hostilities, 11,664 LTTE members, including over 500 child soldiers surrendered to the Sri Lankan military. Among them were 1,601 females. Government took action to rehabilitate these cadres under a "National Action Plan for the Re-integration of Ex-combatants". They were divided into 3 categories; hardcore, non-combatants, and those who were forcefully recruited (including child soldiers). 24 rehabilitation centres were set up in Jaffna, Batticaloa
Batticaloa
and Vavuniya. Among the apprehended cadres, there had been about 700 hardcore members. Some of these cadres were integrated into State Intelligence Services to tackle the internal and external networks of LTTE.[285] By January 2012, government had released more than 11,000 cadres, and only 4 rehabilitation centres and 550 detainees remained.[286] Land mines[edit] The end of the war left past conflict zones of 2,061sq.km heavily contaminated with approximately 1.6 million land mines. By January 2012, deminers employed by the Sri Lankan army and 8 foreign funded agencies had cleared 1,934sq.km leaving about 127sq.km yet to be cleared.[287] Since the end of the war, more than 5,000 Tamil youths have been gathering at selected police stations in Eastern Province to join the police force as the government has called for interviews. The Sri Lankan government had planned to recruit 2,000 new police officers to the department, especially for the services in the northern region of the country.[288] Protests[edit] Main article: 2009 Tamil diaspora
Tamil diaspora
protests

Canadian Tamils block University Avenue, Toronto
Toronto
demonstrating against the Sri Lankan forces.

Tamil diaspora
Tamil diaspora
communities around the world protested the civilian casualties in Northern Province, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the war in general. Active protests occurred in the major and/or capital cities of India,[289] United Kingdom,[290] Canada,[291] Australia, Norway, Switzerland, Denmark, Germany and the United States. The collective objective of the protests was to persuade world national leaders to stop the civil war and bring a permanent ceasefire with an internationally coordinated diplomatic strategy. War crimes
War crimes
investigations[edit] In March 2014, the United Nations Human Rights Commission
United Nations Human Rights Commission
drafted a resolution on "Promoting reconciliation, accountability and human rights in Sri Lanka" and requested its High Commissioner
High Commissioner
Ms. Navi Pillay to undertake a comprehensive investigation into alleged serious violations and human rights abuses that have taken place during the war. Subsequently, the Human Rights Commissioner directed the setting up of OHCHR Investigation in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(OISL).[292] The Sri Lankan state which is accused of perpetuating war crimes, has reportedly refused to cooperate with the inquiry.[293] In August 2014, the state rejected entry visas for investigating U.N. officials. Two months later, in October, Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
banned all foreigners from visiting the former war zone altogether.[294] Alleged war crimes[edit] Main article: Alleged war crimes during the Sri Lankan Civil War Allegations of war crimes have been made against the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Tamil Eelam
(Tamil Tigers) and the Sri Lankan military with much attention given to the final months of the Civil War in 2009. The alleged war crimes include attacks on civilians and civilian buildings by both sides; executions of combatants and prisoners by both sides; enforced disappearances by the Sri Lankan military and paramilitary groups backed by them; acute shortages of food, medicine, and clean water for civilians trapped in the war zone; and child recruitment and attacks on targeting civilian including suicide bombings[295][296][297][298][299][300] and attacks on civilian aircraft by the Tamil Tigers.[301][302][303][304] Video footage showing uniformed men speaking Sinhalese and summarily executing eight bound and blindfolded men was broadcast in August 2009 by UK's Channel 4
Channel 4
in a program called "Sri Lanka's Killing Fields". This video was subsequently authenticated by the UN.[305] Reports commissioned by the Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
claim the UN authentication was biased and the video was fabricated.[306] A panel of experts appointed by UN Secretary-General (UNSG) Ban Ki-moon to advise him on the issue of accountability with regard to any alleged violations of international human rights and humanitarian law during the final stages of the conflict in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
found "credible allegations" which according to them, if proven, indicated that war crimes and crimes against humanity were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the Tamil Tigers.[307][308][309] The panel has called on the UNSG to conduct an independent international inquiry into the alleged violations of international law.[310] The Sri Lankan government has denied that its forces committed any war crimes and has strongly opposed any international investigation. It has condemned the UN report as "fundamentally flawed in many respects" and "based on patently biased material which is presented without any verification".[311] The Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission, a formal commission of inquiry was appointed by the Sri Lankan President, to review the conflict from 1983 to 2009 and its report was tabled in the parliament.[312] On 27 July 2012, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
brought out a road map fixing time lines for investigating alleged war crimes by its army during the final stages of the war with the LTTE
LTTE
in 2009. The cabinet has approved the action plan for the implementation of the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation.[313] The UN High Commissioner
High Commissioner
for Human Rights said in September 2013 that there had been no comprehensive Sri Lankan effort to properly and independently investigate allegations of war crimes. The High Commissioner said she would recommend the Human Rights Council
Human Rights Council
to set up its own probe if Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
does not show more "credible" progress by March 2014.[314] On 27 March 2014 the United Nations Human Rights Council
Human Rights Council
voted for a resolution paving the way for an inquiry into rights abuses at the end of Sri Lanka's civil war. The United States and the United Kingdom were among the countries which sponsored the resolution, which for the first time called for an international probe.[315] The new government of President Maithripala Sirisena
Maithripala Sirisena
has requested the international community for support on a domestic probe into war crimes.[316] As of March 2015, the UN have expressed their support for this.[317] The Tamil National alliance has asked for an international investigation into the alleged human rights abuses during the Sri Lankan civil war and has refused a domestic probe.[318][319] A group of the TNA led by Wigneshwaran has asked for an investigation into the alleged genocide claims but the TNA as a whole was divided on the issue and MP Senathirajah said that the action was unauthorized by the party.[320] The Tamil National Alliance has welcomed a domestic investigation with a hybrid court and R. Sampanthan
R. Sampanthan
praised several new initiatives from the new government and said "The government is adopting the correct position," and asked the government to honor to there commitments but some members such as Ananthi Sasitharan had a less optimistic view.[321][322][323] Transitional Justice and steps for non-recurrence[edit] In 2015 the Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
decided to create a truth commission based on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa to probe allegations during the war.[324] According to Foreign Minister Mangala Samaraweera
Mangala Samaraweera
a new constitution is expected solve issues related to the war and ensure non-recurrence. However the government criticized both Sinhala and Tamil extremists for obstrusting transitional justice.[325] Allegations of Genocide[edit] The first international voice to support the genocide against the Government of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
under international law is raised by Human Rights Watch and it has advocated and published the details in December 2009. Leading American expert in international law, Professor Francis A. Boyle hold an emergency meeting with U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon to urge to stop Tamil genocide by providing the evidence of crimes against humanity, genocide against Tamils and the international community's failure to stop the slaughter of Tamil civilians in Sri Lanka.[326][327] In January 2010, the Permanent People's Tribunal on Sri Lankan held its sessions in Dublin, Ireland. There were four findings:

That the Sri Lankan Government and its military are guilty of War Crimes; That the Sri Lankan Government and its military are guilty of crimes against humanity; That the charge of genocide requires further investigation; That the international community, particularly the UK and USA, share responsibility for the breakdown of the peace process.(2)

It also found that member states of the United Nations had not "complied with their moral obligation to seek justice for the violations of human rights committed during the last period of the war".[328] In 22 September 2010, the UNROW Human Rights Impact Litigation Clinic, has advocated and litigated on behalf of victims of the armed conflict in Sri Lanka. UNROW Human Rights Impact Litigation Clinic released a report calling for the establishment of a new international tribunal to prosecute those most responsible for the crimes committed during the conflict. UNROW Human Rights Impact Litigation Clinic also submitted evidence of human rights violations committed during the armed conflict to the United Nations Panel of Experts on Sri Lanka, which U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon appointed in 2010.[329] In November,03 2012, panel of 11 member International Experts, consisting of experts in genocide studies, former UN officials, experts in international law and renowned peace and human rights activists to be convened as Judges appointed by Permanent People's Tribunal to investigate and examine reports submitted by many specialised working groups on the accusation of the crime of Genocide against the Government of Sri Lanka.[328][330] In 27 March 2013, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Assembly has passed resolution to called on the Indian Government to stop considering Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
as a 'friendly country' and impose economic sanctions, as well as calling for an international inquiry in "genocide and war crimes" against Sri Lankan Tamils.[331] In 10 December 2013, Permanent People's Tribunal unanimously ruled Sri Lanka guilty of the crime of genocide against the Tamil people, while the US and UK were found to be guilty of complicity to this crime.[332][333][334][335] In January, 2015, UNROW Human Rights Impact Litigation Clinic filed a paper on "The Legal Case of the Tamil Genocide" based on the evidence, nature and extent of the violence committed by Government Forces against Tamils.[329] In 12 April 2015, the Northern Provincial Council
Northern Provincial Council
of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
passed a resolution calling the UN to investigate the genocide and direct appropriate measures at the International Court of Justice stating that the Tamils had no faith in the domestic commission.[336][337][338] In September 2017 current president Maithripala Sirisena
Maithripala Sirisena
refused to let several human rights groups take Jagath Jayasuriya
Jagath Jayasuriya
to court for war crimes. He reportedly said "I stated very clearly that I will not allow anyone in the world to touch Jagath Jayasuriya
Jagath Jayasuriya
or any other military chief or any war hero in this country," in reference to the lawsuit. His comments are seen as an attempt to pander to the majority ethnic Sinhalese, most of whom oppose legal action against military personnel accused of crimes during the civil war.[339] See also[edit]

List of civil wars Post– World War II
World War II
air-to-air combat losses Mailapitiya National War Memorial Pakistan's military assistance to Sri Lanka

References[edit]

^ a b " LTTE
LTTE
defeated; Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
liberated from terror". Ministry of Defence. 18 May 2009. Archived from the original on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2009.  ^ a b c d International Institute for Strategic Studies, Armed Conflicts Database. Archived 11 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "iiss1" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ [1]. ^ Opposition leader rebutts [sic] Sri Lankan government
Sri Lankan government
claims Archived 26 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Humanitarian Operation – Factual Analysis, July 2006 – May 2009" (PDF). Ministry of Defence (Sri Lanka). 1 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016.  ^ "Psychological Management of Combat Stress—A Study Based on Sri Lankan Combatants" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2006. Retrieved 20 April 2008.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Assessment 2007". Satp.org. Retrieved 17 May 2009.  ^ "Sri Lankan army deaths revealed". BBC
BBC
News. 22 May 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2010.  ^ Nakkawita, Wijitha (3 June 2009). " LTTE
LTTE
killing spree". Daily News. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Database – Casualties of Terrorist violence in Sri Lanka". Satp.org. Retrieved 30 May 2009.  ^ Eelam
Eelam
War IV: Imminent End. ^ Tamils mark 25-years of Tiger sacrifice Tamilnet . ^ 4073 LTTE
LTTE
cadres killed in ongoing battle. ^ a b "Sri Lankan experience proves nothing is impossible". The Sunday Observer. 5 June 2011. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.  ^ a b "Up to 100,000 killed in Sri Lanka's civil war: UN". ABC Australia. 20 May 2009.  ^ "UNHCR Overview: IDPs in Sri Lanka".  ^ a b "Sri Lankan President Declares Military Defeat of Rebels". Voice of America. 16 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ a b Bosleigh, Robert; Page, Jeremy (18 May 2009). "Tamil Tigers admit defeat after battle reaches 'bitter end'". The Times. London. Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ Mahr, Krista. " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to Start Tally of Civil-War Dead" – via world.time.com.  ^ See here for related references. ^ " International Commission of Jurists
International Commission of Jurists
Submission to the Universal Periodic Review of Sri Lanka" (PDF). International Commission of Jurists. April 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 November 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.  ^ "Ceasefire raises Sri Lankan peace hopes". The Guardian. London. 22 February 2002. Retrieved 9 April 2010.  ^ "Sri Lanka's war seen far from over". Amal Jayasinghe. Agence France-Presse. 14 July 2007.  ^ "Sri Lankan Government Finds Support From Buddhist Monks". The New York Times. 26 February 2007.  ^ "Government takes policy decision to abrogate failed CFA". Ministry of Defence. 2 January 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2008.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Navy destroys the 10th LTTE
LTTE
arms ship 1700 km off Dondra". Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Navy. 8 October 2007. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007.  ^ Sri Lankan Forces Capture Last Major Rebel Base in Northeast Archived 13 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Bloomberg. ^ a b From correspondents in Colombo
Colombo
(17 May 2009). "Tamil Tigers admit defeat in civil war after 37-year battle". News.com.au. Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009.  ^ a b Haviland, Charles (13 March 2010). " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Tamil party drops statehood demand". BBC. Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ a b Burke, Jason (14 March 2010). " Sri Lankan Tamils
Sri Lankan Tamils
drop demand for separate independent homeland". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ Perera, Amrith Rohan. "Report of the Commission of Inquiry on the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation".  ^ James, Paul (2015). "Despite the Terrors of Typologies: The Importance of Understanding Categories of Difference and Identity". Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies. 17 (2): 174–195.  ^ " Sri Lankan Tamil
Sri Lankan Tamil
Struggle – Chapter 18: The First Sinhalese- Tamil Rift". T. Sabaratnam. Ilankai Tamil Sangam. Retrieved 19 January 2012.  ^ "Welcome to UTHR, Sri Lanka". Retrieved 23 October 2014.  ^ "Ethnic Conflict of Sri Lanka: Time Line – From Independence
Independence
to 1999". International Centre for Ethnic Studies. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2009.  ^ a b c McConnell, Deirdre (7 April 2009). "Background to brutality". Red Pepper. Retrieved 11 October 2009.  ^ Raychaudhuri, Sumana (6 February 2009). "Will Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Drive the Tigers to Extinction?". The Nation. Retrieved 11 October 2009.  ^ University of Edinburgh. "Staff profile : Jonathan Spencer". Retrieved 20 August 2011.  ^ Encyclopedia of Diasporas. Retrieved 23 October 2014.  ^ a b R.L. Pereira (October 1983). "Sri Lanka's pogrom". Issue 128. New Internationalist. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2009.  ^ "Sri Lanka: Tamils squeezed out of higher education". Retrieved 23 October 2014.  ^ Wickremasinghe, Nira (2006). Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in the Modern Age: A History of Contested Identities. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-3016-4.  ^ a b c Rohan Gunaratna (December 1998). "International and Regional Implications of the Sri Lankan Tamil
Sri Lankan Tamil
Insurgency". Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.  ^ "Vaddukkodei resolution". Retrieved 19 January 2012.  ^ Hoffman, Bruce (2006). Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-231-12699-1.  ^ Narayan Swamy, "Inside an Elusive Mind-Prabhakaran" Konark Publishers, New Delhi, 2003. ^ "Whirlpool of Violence, Sri Lanka: The Untold Story". Asia Times. 2002.  ^ Harrison, Frances (23 July 2003). "Twenty years on – riots that led to war". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ "Speaking truth to power:the human rights situation in Sri Lanka" (PDF). Paxchristi. Retrieved 26 March 2006.  ^ "Circumstances which led to the arming and training of SLT militants". Jain Commission. Tamil nation. Retrieved 19 January 2012.  ^ "Who's behind the LTTE
LTTE
split?", Asia Times Online  ^ Weisman, Steven R (5 June 1987). " India
India
airlifts aid to Tamil rebels". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 April 2010.  ^ "Tamil rebels abduct 2 rivals, Sri Lankan military says". Associated Press. 12 December 2006.  ^ Balasingham, Adele. (2003) The Will to Freedom – An Inside View of Tamil Resistance. Fairmax Publishing, 2nd ed. ISBN 1-903679-03-6. ^ NorthEast Secretariat report on Human rights 1974–2004 (see Further Reading section). ^ "Chapter 55: Assassination of Athulathmudali". Asia Times. Retrieved 28 July 2011.  ^ Dissanayaka, T.D.S.A.: "War or Peace in Sri Lanka, Volume II", p. 332. Swastika, 1998. ^ John Richardson (2005). Paradise poisoned:learning about conflict, terrorism, and development from Sri Lanka's civil wars. p. 562. ISBN 955-580-094-4. Retrieved 19 January 2012.  ^ "Prabhakaran had Rajiv killed for being 'anti-Tamil'". Rediff. 31 August 2006.  ^ "26 sentenced to death for Rajiv Gandhi's assassination". Rediff. 31 August 2006.  ^ " Tamil Tiger
Tamil Tiger
'regret' over Gandhi". BBC
BBC
News. 27 June 2006. Retrieved 10 May 2007.  ^ "We killed Rajiv, confesses LTTE". The Times of India. 28 June 2006. Retrieved 10 May 2007.  ^ "18th amendment stumbling block to devolution – Vartharaja Perumal". Lakbima News. 2010. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2012.  ^ "The return of the exile". Front Line. 1999. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2012.  ^ Speech by Neelan Tiruchelvam at the Debate on the Emergency. ^ "Sri Lanka". Human Rights Watch. 1990. Retrieved 7 August 2006.  ^ "Fifteenth Anniversary of Muslim Expulsion From Jaffna, DBS Jeyaraj". Retrieved 23 October 2014.  ^ "Sri Lanka". Human Rights Watch. 1992. Retrieved 7 August 2006.  ^ "SRI LANKA Human Rights Developments". Retrieved 23 October 2014.  ^ a b " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Says It Has Sealed Rebel Stronghold". The New York Times. 24 November 1995. Retrieved 9 March 2007.  ^ "Sri Lanka: displaced civilians killed in air strike". International Committee of the Red Cross. 11 July 1995. Retrieved 7 August 2006.  ^ "Amnesty.org". Retrieved 13 October 2013. [dead link] ^ "Sri Lankan army hails capture of Jaffna". CNN. 5 December 1995. Archived from the original on 6 February 2005. Retrieved 9 March 2007.  ^ a b "Sri Lanka". Human Rights Watch. 1997. Retrieved 7 August 2006.  ^ "Sixth anniversary of Unceasing Waves-III commemorated". Tamilnet. 3 November 2005. Retrieved 9 February 2009.  ^ "Chandrikare-elected President". The Tribune. India. 23 December 1999. Retrieved 7 August 2006.  ^ "Military debacle at Elephant Pass
Elephant Pass
set to trigger political crisis in Sri Lanka". World Socialist Web Site. 25 April 2000. Retrieved 7 August 2006.  ^ "Tigers seize Elephant Pass". Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Monitor. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2006.  ^ "Norway role in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
peace plan". Susannah Price. BBC
BBC
News. 1 February 2000. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ "Another LTTE
LTTE
offensive". Frontline. 15–28 April 2000. Archived from the original on 26 May 2006. Retrieved 7 August 2006.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Economy". Retrieved 19 January 2012.  ^ a b " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
enters truce with rebels". BBC
BBC
News. 21 December 2001. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ Jayatilleka, Dayan (21 December 2011). "LLRC Report: Reason, reform, roadmap". Groundviews. Retrieved 31 December 2011.  ^ D. B. S. Jeyaraj (11 March 2008). "LRRP infiltration demolishes impregnable Tiger terrain myth". TransCurrents. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2012.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
rebels announce truce". BBC
BBC
News. 19 December 2001. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
seals truce deal". BBC
BBC
News. 22 February 2002. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ " Colombo
Colombo
lifts ban on Tamil Tigers". BBC
BBC
News. 26 August 2002. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ "Upbeat opening for Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
talks". BBC
BBC
News. 16 September 2002. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ BBC
BBC
News, " Timeline: Sri Lanka". ^ "Tamil Tigers call off peace talks". BBC
BBC
News. 21 April 2003. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
thrown into political crisis". BBC
BBC
News. 4 November 2003. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Says Rebels Took Losses in Raids". The New York Times. 31 December 2006.  ^ Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
peace secretariat report, 2005. ^ "Senior Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
minister killed". BBC
BBC
News. 13 August 2005. Retrieved 13 August 2005.  ^ "How President decided on retaliation". The Sunday Times. 30 April 2006.  ^ Harrison, Frances (6 June 2008). "Sri Lanka's war turns on civilians". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ Huggler, Justin (13 January 2006). " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
bomb attack fuels fear of return to civil war". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2010.  ^ "Is the State complacent?". The Nation. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2007.  ^ "'Murder of five Tamil youths highlights need to end impunity' – Govt must protect witnesses to Trinco killings – Human Rights Watch". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 30 January 2007.  ^ "Tamil Tigers harden talks stance". BBC
BBC
News. 17 April 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ "EU ban on LTTE
LTTE
urged". BBC
BBC
News. 23 April 2006.  ^ " LTTE
LTTE
carnage at Gomarankadawala:Its significance". Sunday Obsrver. 30 April 2006. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ Luthra, Dumeetha (20 May 2006). " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
villagers flee massacre". BBC. Retrieved 16 August 2007.  ^ "Bomb targets Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
army chief". BBC
BBC
News. 25 April 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ " European Union
European Union
bans LTTE". Amit Baruah. Chennai, India. 31 May 2006.  ^ "Collapse of talks". Saroj Pathirana. BBC
BBC
News. 9 June 2006.  ^ "People terrorized after massacre of Tamil family". AsiaSat News. 13 June 2006. Retrieved 22 January 2012.  ^ "Country of origin information report– Sri Lanka". Archived from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2012.  ^ United States International Information Programs", United States Condemns Terrorist Attack on Sri Lankan Bus. Archived 2 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
general killed in blast". BBC
BBC
News. 26 June 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ "Press releases". Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Monitoring Mission. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2006.  ^ a b " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
forces attack reservoir". BBC
BBC
News. 6 August 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ a b "Sri Lanka: Mavil Aru Operation and After – An Analysis". southasiaanalysis.org. 12 August 2006. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2012.  ^ a b "Operation Liberation". The Nation. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ The Sunday Times Situation Report, Eelam
Eelam
war IV rages on several fronts. ^ a b Hariharan, R. (15 August 2006). " LTTE
LTTE
strikes back – Update No. 98". southasiaanalysis.org. Archived from the original on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ "Civilians die in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
clash". BBC
BBC
News. 3 August 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ a b "152 LTTE
LTTE
rebels killed in Sri Lanka". The Times of India. 4 August 2006.  ^ "34 killed as LTTE
LTTE
`overruns' Muttur town". B. Muralidhar Reddy. Chennai, India. 4 August 2006.  ^ "15 NGO workers killed". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 8 August 2006. Retrieved 30 January 2007.  ^ "Military 'killed Lanka aid staff'". BBC. 30 August 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
forces attack reservoir". BBC
BBC
News. 6 August 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ "Lanka rebels destroy northern defenses, advance". One India. 12 August 2006.  ^ "Fighting rages in northern Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in fourth week of hostilities". USA Today. 15 August 2006.  ^ Reddy, B. Muralidhar (15 August 2006). " Suicide attack
Suicide attack
in Colombo". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ "UNICEF: Children are victims of the conflict in Sri Lanka". UNICEF. 15 August 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ "Seven killed in Colombo
Colombo
explosion". BBC. 14 August 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ a b Sudha Ramachandran (22 September 2006). "The Pakistani muscle behind Colombo". Asia Times.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
army battles rebels in northeast". Peter Apps. Reuters. 12 September 2006. Archived from the original on 3 September 2006.  ^ a b c "Sri Lankan army captures Sampur". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 5 September 2006.  ^ Hariharan, R. (8 September 2006). "Sri Lanka: LTTE's moment of truth at Sampur – Update 101". southasiaanalysis.org. Archived from the original on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ a b "Fierce battles continue in Jaffna". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 12 September 2006.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army captures Sampur". Bloomberg. 4 September 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.  ^ " LTTE
LTTE
admits defeat in Sampoor". BBC. 4 September 2006.  ^ "Sri Lankan military captures key rebel territory, Tigers vow to keep fighting". International Herald Tribune. 3 September 2006. Archived from the original on 29 June 2008.  ^ Athas, Iqbal (15 October 2006). "Muhamalai debacle: The shocking story". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ Luthra, Dumeetha (16 October 2006). "Analysis: Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
military setbacks". BBC. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ "Bloody Day in Sri Lanka: 103 Dead". Zaman Daily. 17 October 2006. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011.  ^ " LTTE
LTTE
attack on Galle
Galle
repulsed". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 19 October 2006.  ^ Hariharan, R. (10 October 2006). "Sri Lanka: Contradictions of a military agenda – Update 104". southasiaanalysis.org. Archived from the original on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ "Sri Lankan peace talks end in deadlock over road blockade". International Herald tribune. 28 October 2006. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009.  ^ "Fear and loathing in south Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
after bus bombs". Buddhika Weerasinghe. Reuters. 8 January 2007.  ^ Media Center for National Security, The Government Condemns LTTE Terror Attacks on Civilians Archived 23 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
military vows to drive Tigers from east coast". Reuters. 14 December 2006.  ^ "Fleeing Tamil refugees describe being held by separatists as Sri Lanka shelled camps". International Herald Tribune. 18 December 2006. Archived from the original on 5 February 2008.  ^ "Flight to Vaharai". UTHR. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ "Sri Lanka: Mystery shrouds over the killing of civilians in Mannar". Asian Tribune. 3 January 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ "Press release on 29 April 2006 SUBJECT: Air strikes violate the Ceasefire Agreement" (PDF). SLMM. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2007.  ^ "Tigers admit fall of Vakarai". Asian Tribune. 20 January 2007.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Security forces captured LTTE
LTTE
controlled Vaharai". Asian Tribune. 19 January 2007.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
says rebels killed aid workers". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007.  ^ "Tamil Tigers kill 6 civilian workers in Lanka". The Times of India. 2 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
blast 'kills civilians'". BBC. 2 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007.  ^ "Seventeen persons killed, over two dozens injured- Ampara
Ampara
[4th Lead]". Ministry of Defence. 2 April 2007. Archived from the original on 7 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007.  ^ a b " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
captures key highway in rebel territory". Radio Australia. 12 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007.  ^ " Kokkadicholai
Kokkadicholai
LTTE
LTTE
base falls to SL Army". Ministry of Defence. 28 March 2007. Archived from the original on 3 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007.  ^ "SL Army Troops gain complete control over the A-5 Main Road". Ministry of Defence. 12 April 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
declares fall of rebel east, Tigers defiant". Reuters. 11 July 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2007.  ^ Anbarasan, Ethirajan (16 October 2007). " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
on brink of all-out war". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 31 December 2007.  ^ " LTTE
LTTE
defences in Mannar and Vavuniya
Vavuniya
fall to army; terrorists on the run with soaring casualties". Ministry of Defence. 22 December 2007. Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2007.  ^ "Wanni is surrounded on all prongs". Ministry of Defence. 30 December 2007. Archived from the original on 1 January 2008. Retrieved 31 December 2007.  ^ a b "Forces' Chiefs predict Tiger extinction in 2008". www.defence.lk. Ministry of Defence. 31 December 2007. Archived from the original on 1 January 2008. Retrieved 31 December 2007.  ^ "Prabhakaran injured in air attack". Ministry of Defence. 19 December 2007. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 26 December 2007.  ^ "Senior Tamil Tiger
Tamil Tiger
leader killed". BBC
BBC
News. 2 November 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2007.  ^ "Tamil intelligence chief killed". BBC
BBC
News. 6 January 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2008.  ^ "LTTE's Head of Military Intelligence killed in Claymore ambush". TamilNet. 6 January 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2008.  ^ "Ban LTTE, end truce". Daily News. 29 December 2007. Archived from the original on 31 December 2007.  ^ "Government ends ceasefire with Tamil Tigers". Agence France-Presse. 2 January 2008. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008.  ^ "Norway regrets the Government of Sri Lanka's decision to terminate the 2002 ceasefire agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2 January 2008.  ^ "Statement on the possible escalation of violence in sri lanka". Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. 3 January 2008. Archived from the original on 7 January 2008.  ^ "Tamil Tigers in ceasefire appeal". BBC. 10 January 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ " LTTE
LTTE
requests Norway to continue facilitation, urges IC's support for Tamil rights". TamilNet. 10 January 2008.  ^ "Sources: Tigers' feint kills 100 Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
troops". CNN. 23 April 2008.  ^ "Army captures Adampan Town – Mannar front". Ministry of Defence. 19 May 2008. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2008.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Says Mannar `Rice Bowl' Seized From Rebels". Bloomberg. 30 June 2008. Archived from the original on 28 February 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " Vidattaltivu
Vidattaltivu
Liberated; terrorists suffer fatal blow". Ministry of Defence. 16 July 2008. Archived from the original on 18 July 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2008.  ^ "Troops Liberate Illuppaikkadavai". Ministry of Defence. 20 July 2008. Archived from the original on 22 July 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2008.  ^ Najmuddin, Jamila (22 July 2008). " LTTE
LTTE
set to declare unilateral ceasefire". Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on 22 July 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008.  ^ "LTTE's ceasefire: Public relations or more?". Rediff News. 25 July 2008. Archived from the original on 30 July 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2008.  ^ "Troops capture LTTE's last stronghold in Mannar District". Ministry of Defence. 2 August 2008. Archived from the original on 5 August 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2008.  ^ "LTTE's strategic bastion Mallavi
Mallavi
falls to security forces". Ministry of Defence. 2 September 2008. Archived from the original on 6 September 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2008.  ^ "Security Forces crush major terror attack at Vavuniya". Ministry of Defence. 9 September 2008. Archived from the original on 11 September 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2008.  ^ "Mission on Vanni SF HQ successful, Tiger aircrafts (sic) safe – LTTE". TamilNet. 9 September 2008. Retrieved 10 September 2008.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
jets attack rebel base". BBC
BBC
News. 10 September 2008. Retrieved 10 September 2008.  ^ Gamini Gunaratna, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
News Paper by LankaPage.com (LLC)- Latest Hot News from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(1 August 2008). "Sri Lankan troops enter Tigers' final frontier". Colombopage.com. Retrieved 17 May 2009.  ^ Natarajan, Swaminathan (10 October 2008). "Civilians flee Tamil Tiger centre". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 3 October 2008.  ^ "Suicide blast hits Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
town". BBC
BBC
News. 6 October 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2008.  ^ "Troops encircle Nachchikudha; LTTE
LTTE
on the verge of losing Sea Tiger stronghold". Ministry of Defence. 17 October 2008. Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.  ^ "SLA crush LTTE
LTTE
defences: fall of Nachchikuda imminent". Ministry of Defence. 28 October 2008. Archived from the original on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2008.  ^ "Nachchikuda falls to troops – Kilinochchi". Ministry of Defence. 29 October 2008. Archived from the original on 1 November 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2008.  ^ "Heavy fighting at Wanni fronts; Troops recover 9 LTTE
LTTE
bodies". Ministry of Defence. 11 November 2008. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2008.  ^ " Tamil Tiger
Tamil Tiger
'strong point taken'". BBC
BBC
News. 11 November 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2008.  ^ Buerk, Roland (15 November 2008). " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
army 'takes Tiger base'". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 15 November 2008.  ^ "Mop up operations in progress in Pooneryn
Pooneryn
salient; Air Force comes to troops assistance". Ministry of Defence. 15 November 2008. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2008.  ^ "Army Task Force 3 comes into action; pounds LTTE
LTTE
positions in Mankulam". Ministry of Defence. 3 November 2008. Archived from the original on 6 November 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008.  ^ "Troops overrun Mankulama: LTTE
LTTE
flee amidst heavy casualties- Mullaittivu". Ministry of Defence. 17 November 2008. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2008.  ^ Anbarasan, Ethirajan (17 October 2008). "West urged not to ignore Sri Lanka". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 18 October 2008.  ^ "S Lanka attack on rebel 'capital'". BBC
BBC
News. 24 November 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2008.  ^ "'Many dead' in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
battles". BBC
BBC
News. 17 December 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2008.  ^ " Paranthan
Paranthan
LTTE
LTTE
garrison captured: Troops make headway at Wanni battles". Ministry of Defence. 1 January 2009. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2009.  ^ "The fall of rebel headquarters: what does it hold for Sri Lanka?". Xinhua News Agency. 3 January 2009. Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009.  ^ A blow to global terror. ^ "Army 'takes more Tiger territory'". BBC
BBC
News. 8 January 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2009.  ^ "Sri Lankan Military Seizes Last Rebel Base on Jaffna
Jaffna
Peninsula". Bloomberg. 14 January 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009. [permanent dead link] ^ "Last Tamil Tiger
Tamil Tiger
bastion 'taken'". BBC
BBC
News. 25 January 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2009.  ^ Somini Sepgupta (26 January 2009). "Sri Lankan Troops Take Last Rebel Stronghold". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 January 2009.  ^ "Army captures last sea tiger base & clears entire Visuamadu area". Ministry of Defence. 5 February 2009. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2009.  ^ War on the Displaced: Sri Lankan Army and LTTE
LTTE
Abuses against Civilians in the Vanni, Human Rights Watch. 19 February 2009. ^ War UN relief chief concerned over physical condition of Sri Lankans trapped by clashes, United Nations. 27 February 2009. ^ Hodge, Amanda (22 September 2009). " Kamikaze
Kamikaze
raid shows the Tamil Tigers have not been tamed". The Australian. Retrieved 23 February 2009.  ^ " Tamil Tiger
Tamil Tiger
planes raid Colombo". BBC. 20 February 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2009.  ^ "Anatomy of the LTTE
LTTE
military debacle at Aanandapuram". D. B. S. Jeyaraj. 10 April 2009. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ "Troops unshackle LTTE
LTTE
grip on Puthukkudiyirippu: Over 250 terrorists killed". Ministry of Defence. 5 April 2009. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2009.  ^ Ethirajan, Anbarasan (5 April 2009). "Army 'routs Tigers in north-east'". BBC. Retrieved 5 April 2009.  ^ "World's largest hostage rescue mission becomes success; over 30,000 rescued". Ministry of Defence. 20 April 2009. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2009.  ^ "Thousands flee Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
combat". BBC. 20 April 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2009.  ^ "Final assault begins as LTTE
LTTE
vows to fight on". The Times of India. 22 April 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2009.  ^ "Mass Tamil exodus from rebel area". BBC. 21 April 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2009.  ^ Daya Master and George seek refuge with Army Archived 26 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ "Two key Tamil Tigers 'surrender'". BBC
BBC
News. 22 April 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2009.  ^ Natarajan, Swaminathan (6 April 2009). "World Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
civilians tell of war ordeal". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 17 May 2009.  ^ Hidden Reality Archived 2 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine., interview with Daya Master and George ^ "Prabhakaran trapped in 10sqkm [sic] area:Lanka army". The Times of India. 24 April 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2009.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
rejects rebel ceasefire". BBC
BBC
News. 27 April 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2009.  ^ Haviland, Charles (25 April 2009). "Journey to Sri Lanka's frontline". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 11 May 2009.  ^ "Urgent international scrutiny needed in Sri Lanka, say UN rights experts". United Nations. 8 May 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.  ^ "UN mourns Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
'bloodbath'". BBC
BBC
News. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.  ^ "UN chief 'appalled' by weekend death toll in Sri Lankan conflict". United Nations. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2009.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
army 'controls coast'". BBC
BBC
News. 16 May 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2009.  ^ "Sri Lanka's coast free of terror; Army 58 Div links up with the 59 Div". Ministry of Defence. 16 May 2009. Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2009.  ^ " LTTE
LTTE
prepares for mass suicide; key terror leaders trapped". Ministry of Defence. 16 May 2009. Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2009.  ^ Chamberlain, Gethin; David Batthy (17 May 2009). "Tamil Tigers announce plan to surrender". The Observer. London. Retrieved 17 May 2009.  ^ "Death of the Tiger". The New Yorker. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ Fletcher, Martin (17 May 2009). "Sri Lankan troops 'kill' 70 escaping Tamil Tigers". The Times. London. Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ Nelson, Dean (18 May 2009). "Sri Lanka: Tamil Tiger
Tamil Tiger
leader Velupillai Prabhakaran
Velupillai Prabhakaran
and his lieutenants 'eliminated'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 30 May 2009.  ^ "Security Sundayobserver.lk – Sri Lanka". Sundayobserver.lk. 17 May 2009. Archived from the original on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.  ^ "South Asia Sri Lanka's rebel leader 'killed'". BBC
BBC
News. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.  ^ "Sri Lankan TV broadcasts 'video of body of Tamil Tiger
Tamil Tiger
leader' as President declares the country liberated from terrorism". Daily Mail. London. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ Weaver, Matthew; Chamberlain, Gethin (19 May 2009). "Sri Lanka declares end to war with Tamil Tigers". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ "No peace offer from Prabhakaran – only war". Lanka Web. 11 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army – Defenders of the Nation". Army.lk. Archived from the original on 23 May 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2009.  ^ Bosleigh, Robert (9 May 2008). "DNA tests on body of Prabhakaran, Sri Lankan rebel leader". The Times. London. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "Rebel leader Prabhakaran 'alive and safe' Tigers claim". The Times. London. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ " LTTE
LTTE
admits Prabhakaran is dead, finally". The Indian Express. 24 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ "Celebrations at the end of a 25-year war in Sri Lanka". demotix.com. 19 May 2009. Archived from the original on 17 September 2009. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
hails end to 26-year civil war". People. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ Gamini Gunaratna, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
News Paper by LankaPage.com (LLC)- Latest Hot News from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(18 May 2009). "Sri Lanka: Opposition Leader congratulates Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
President". Colombopage.com. Retrieved 30 May 2009.  ^ "Archbishop congratulates Armed forces on the conclusion of war". Defence.lk. 18 May 2009. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2009.  ^ "Geneva, 19 May 2009 – Joint Press Conference held by UN Secretary-General and World Health Organization Director-General, Margaret Chan". United Nations. 19 May 2009. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2009.  ^ "The End of Sri Lanka's Cataclysmic Civil War". Time. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ a b " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army – Defenders of the Nation". Army.lk. 20 May 2009. Archived from the original on 23 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Army – Defenders of the Nation". Army.lk. 21 May 2009. Archived from the original on 26 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.  ^ "Commandos kill 11 LTTE
LTTE
infiltrators – Kalavanchchikudi". Defence.lk. Archived from the original on 31 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.  ^ "Troops recover more military equipments in search and clear operations". defence.lk. 8 June 2009. Archived from the original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.  ^ " LTTE
LTTE
New Leader Kumaran Pathmanathan
Kumaran Pathmanathan
(KP) arrested in Malaysia and transported to Sri Lanka". Tamil Sydney. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2011.  ^ Charles Haviland (8 July 2009). "S Lanka medics recant on deaths". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 12 July 2009.  ^ "Doctors From No-fire Zone Released on Bail". Wikileaks. Retrieved 26 February 2012.  ^ "Report to Congress on Incidents During the Recent Conflict in Sri Lanka" (PDF). Department of State. 22 October 2009.  ^ Buncombe, Andrew (12 February 2010). "Up to 40,000 civilians 'died in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
offensive'". The Independent. London. Retrieved 23 May 2010.  ^ 40,000 Tamil civilians killed in final phase of Lanka war, says UN report Archived 14 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Hindustan Times (2011-04-25). Retrieved on 2013-07-28. ^ Borger, Julian (4 June 2009). " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
says up to 5,000 civilians died in Tigers battle". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 28 December 2011.  ^ "Gunaratna says only 1400 people died in final war, warns Canada is emerging as a LTTE
LTTE
hub". Lakbima News. Retrieved 28 December 2011.  ^ "The civilian death toll in early 2009: A flawed estimate from Gunaratna". The Island. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ "Enumeration of Vital Events, 2011 (Northern Province)" (PDF). Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ "The Causes and Consequences of Group Violence:".  ^ "Economic Impacts of Sri Lanka's Civil War". Retrieved 5 June 2011.  ^ Cost of Conflict in Sri Lanka, 2006, Strategic Foresight Group ^ "IDPs: Govt. already acting on agreed areas of priority – President to Ban Ki-moon". Defence.lk. 23 May 2009. Archived from the original on 27 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.  ^ "Next round of Govt.-TNA talks on May 12". AdaDerana. 30 April 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in denial over war crimes : Neighbours News – India
India
Today". Retrieved 23 October 2014.  ^ "A brother out of control". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 16 August 2011.  ^ "Sri Lankan commission: Civilians weren't targeted". Associated Press/CBS News. 16 December 2011. [dead link] ^ "Sri Lankan civilians 'not targeted', says report". Channel 4
Channel 4
News. 16 December 2011.  ^ Gentleman, Amelia (18 January 2009). "Fears grow for trapped civilians as army advances on Tamil Tigers". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 May 2010.  ^ "Military declares civilian safety zone in rebel area". The Guardian. London. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2010.  ^ Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
admits bombing safe zone – Central & South Asia. Al Jazeera English (2 May 2009). Retrieved 3 December 2010. ^ Page, Jeremy (1 May 2009). "Leaked UN satellite images show haven for Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
refugees was bombed". The Times. London. Retrieved 23 May 2010.  ^ Pallister, David (24 April 2009). " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
war toll near 6,500, UN report says". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 May 2010.  ^ "ASA 37/016/2009 Unlock the Camps in Sri Lanka: Safety and Dignity for the Displaced Now". Amnesty International. 10 August 2009. Archived from the original on 15 September 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009.  ^ "Sri Lanka: Government Breaks Promises That Displaced Can Go Home". Human Rights Watch. 19 October 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
vows to resettle Tamils". BBC
BBC
News. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009.  ^ " India
India
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
agree on IDP timetable, political solution". The Official Government News Portal
Portal
of Sri Lanka. 22 May 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009.  ^ "Situation Report as at 18.01.2012". Ministry of Resettlement, Sri Lanka. 18 January 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ "Over 750 Lankan refugees returned to the Island this year". Chennai: NDTV. Press Trust of India. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
'Taming The Tigers'". Sangam.org. March 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
frees 73 rehabilitated ex- LTTE
LTTE
members". IBN Live. 22 January 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2012.  ^ "Over 1,930 sq. km landmines free in North". iewy.com. January 2012. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2012.  ^ Sri Lanka : More Tamil youths want to join Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Police. Colombopage.com (21 May 2009). Retrieved 3 December 2010. ^ " Tamil diaspora
Tamil diaspora
sceptical over 'win'". Al Jazeera. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ Tamil protesters take to streets BBC
BBC
11 May 2009. ^ Siddiqui, Haroon (16 May 2009). "Tamil protests a test of our tolerance". The Star. Retrieved 29 April 2012.  ^ "OHCHR Investigation on Sri Lanka". UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL. Retrieved 21 October 2014.  ^ "Lanka Will Not Cooperating With The OHCHR Investigation". Sri Lanka Guardian. Retrieved 21 October 2014.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
bans foreigners from old war zone amid UN probe". Reuters.in. Retrieved 21 October 2014.  ^ Nadira Gunatilleke (24 May 2007). "Aranthalawa massacre, one of the darkest chapters in Lankan history". Daily News. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2009.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Tamil Terror". The Time. 27 May 1985. Retrieved 4 January 2009.  ^ "Human rights violations in a context of armed conflict". Amnesty International USA. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2009.  ^ David Shelby (15 June 2006). "United States Condemns Terrorist Attack on Sri Lankan Bus". US Department of State. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2009.  ^ "Timeline of the Tamil conflict". BBC
BBC
News. 4 September 2000. Retrieved 4 January 2009.  ^ "1996: Fifty dead in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
suicide bombing". BBC
BBC
News. 31 January 1996. Retrieved 4 January 2009.  ^ "Shattered dreams behind Lion Air mystery". The Sunday Times. SundayTimes. 4 October 1998. Retrieved 12 April 2007.  ^ "LIONAIR FLIGHT 602 FROM JAFFNA:". UTHR. 6 October 1998. Retrieved 12 April 2007.  ^ "Sri Lanka: US War Crimes Report Details Extensive Abuses". Human Rights Watch. 22 October 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010.  ^ "Govt.: LTTE
LTTE
Executed Soldiers". The Sunday Leader. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2010.  ^ "Deeming Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
execution video authentic, UN expert calls for war crimes probe". UN News Centre. 7 January 2010.  ^ "Sri Lanka: Colombo
Colombo
rejects UN call for war crimes inquiry". Adnkronos Security. Retrieved 9 September 2015.  ^ "Report of the UNSG's panel of experts on accountability in SL". The Island, Sri Lanka. 16 April 2011.  ^ "UN panel admits international failure in Vanni war, calls for investigations". TamilNet. 16 April 2011.  ^ "Summary of UN Panel report". Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka). 16 April 2011.  ^ "Sri Lankan military committed war crimes: U.N. panel". The Hindu. 16 April 2011.  ^ "The Government of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
states that the report of the UN Secretary General's Panel of Experts is fundamentally flawed in many respects". Ministry of External Affairs. 13 April 2011.  ^ "President Releases LLRC Report To Parliament, The UN And Public". The Sunday Leader. 18 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
sets roadmap to investigate war crimes". 27 July 2012.  ^ "UN calls on Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to probe war crimes". Al Jazeera. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2013.  ^ "UN council votes for Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
civil war rights abuses inquiry". ANI News. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.  ^ Deen, Thalif (6 February 2015). " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Seeks U.S.-U.N. Backing for Domestic Probe of War Crimes Charges". Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved 9 September 2015.  ^ "UN supports a credible domestic probe in Sri Lanka". Ada Derana. 3 March 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.  ^ "Tamils firm on international probe says TNA Colombo
Colombo
Gazette". Retrieved 2015-09-20.  ^ "Sri Lanka: TNA Rejects Domestic Probe Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Brief". srilankabrief.org. Retrieved 2015-09-20.  ^ Dharmapriya, Sugath. "TNA divided over Wigneswaran's call for genocide probe SRI TV News". Retrieved 2015-09-20.  ^ "TNA, civil society hail Samaraweera's proposals". The Hindu. 2015-09-16. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2015-09-21.  ^ "Wigneswaran's belief". Retrieved 2015-09-23.  ^ "TNA hits out at LTTE, calls on Govt. to accept OISL report The Sunday Times Sri Lanka". www.sundaytimes.lk. Retrieved 2015-09-20.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to set up a South Africa-style truth and reconciliation commission". Retrieved 10 April 2017.  ^ "New Constitution most potent weapon for non-recurrence of war: Mangala". Retrieved 10 April 2017.  ^ "The Global Failure to Protect Tamil Rights Under International Law".  ^ Francis Anthony Boyle, Professor. The Tamil Genocide by Sri Lanka: The Global Failure to Protect Tamil Rights Under International Law. ISBN 978-0932863706.  ^ a b "Permanent People's Tribunal Tribunal on Sri Lanka" (16 January 2010). The Irish School of Ecumenics, Trinity College Dublin The School of Law and Government, Dublin City University. Permanent People's Tribunal.  ^ a b "The Legal Case of the Tamil Genocide". hrbrief.org. Human Rights Brief. Retrieved 12 September 2016.  ^ "Dublin tribunal takes up genocide investigation".  ^ "TN Assembly demands referendum for separate Tamil Eelam". Retrieved 12 September 2016.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
guilty of genocide against Eelam
Eelam
Tamils with UK, US complicity: PPT". Retrieved 12 September 2016.  ^ "Tribunal condemns Sri Lankan genocide against Eelam
Eelam
Tamils". Retrieved 12 September 2016.  ^ " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
guilty of genocide against Eelam
Eelam
Tamils with UK, US complicity: PPT". Retrieved 12 September 2016.  ^ "Peoples' Tribunal on Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
07-10 December 2013" (PDF). Peoples’ Tribunal on Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
– Permanent People’s Tribunal. Permanent People’s Tribunal. 10 December 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2016.  ^ "NPC passes resolution asking UN to investigate genocide of Tamils by Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
state". Tamil Guardian. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ "Lanka's Northern Council Passes Damning Resolution on Genocide". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ "Tamil party in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
calls for international war crimes inquiry". World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/09/sri-lanka-leader-shield-general-war-crimes-case-170903193335527.html

Bibliography[edit]

Balasingham, Adele: The Will to Freedom – An Inside View of Tamil Resistance. Fairmax Publishing Ltd, 2nd ed. 2003, ISBN 1-903679-03-6. Deegalle, Mahinda (ed.): Buddhism, Conflict and Violence in Modern Sri Lanka. Routlege, London, 2006, ISBN 0-415-35920-1. Dissanayaka, T.D.S.A.: War or Peace in Sri Lanka, Volume II. Swastika (Pvt.) Ltd., Colombo
Colombo
1998. Dixit, J.N.: Assignment Colombo, ISBN 81-220-0499-7. (Dixit was the Indian High Commissioner
High Commissioner
during the 1980s negotiations that led to the IPKF presence.) Gamage, S. and Watson, I.B.: Conflict and Community in Contemporary Sri Lanka. Sage, New Delhi 1999. Gamage, S.: Ethnic Conflict, State Reform and Nation Building in Sri Lanka: Analysis of the Context and Suggestions for a Settlement, in: Neelsen, John P. and Malik, Dipak: "Crises of State and Nation: South Asian States between Nation Building and Fragmentation", Manohar, New Delhi (forthcoming). Hoole, R., Somasundaram, D., Sritharan K., and Thiranagama, R. The Broken Palmyra – The Tamil Crisis in Sri Lanka: An Inside Account. The Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Studies Institute, Claremont 1990. (Also available online.)The Broken Palmyra – The Tamil Crisis in Sri Lanka: An Inside Account. Johnson, Robert: A Region in Turmoil. Reaktion, New York and London 2005. (Covers Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and its regional context.) Narayan Swamy, M. R.: Tigers of Lanka: from Boys to Guerrillas. Konark Publishers; 3rd ed. 2002, ISBN 81-220-0631-0. Rajasinghan, K.T.: Sri Lanka: The Untold Story. 2001–2002. (Serialised in Asia Times Online).Sri Lanka: The Untold Story. War and Peace in Sri Lanka: With a Post-Accord Report From Jaffna. ISBN 955-26-0001-4 /ISBN 978-955-26-0001-2, Institute of Fundamental Studies, Sri Lanka; 1 edition (1 October 1987), By Rohan Gunaratna. Indian intervention in Sri Lanka: The role of India's intelligence agencies. ISBN 955-95199-0-5/ ISBN 978-955-95199-0-4, South Asian Network on Conflict Research (1993), By Rohan Gunaratna. Bansal, Alok, Mayilvaganan. M and Podder, Sukanya, Sri Lanka: Search for Peace. Manas Publications, New Delhi, 2007. ISBN 81-7049-340-4 Weiss, Gordon. The cage: The fight for Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the last days of the Tamil Tigers. Random House, 2011. ISBN 1847921396

External links[edit] Official websites

Ministry of Defence, Sri Lanka Government of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Peace Secretariat

Government reports

Report by Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission, appointed by Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa
Mahinda Rajapaksa
to look back at the Sri Lankan Civil War Humanitarian Operation – Factual Analysis Ministry of Defence report on key military facts

Maps

Ministry of Defence, Battle Progress Map Final Conflict Zone Maps Interactive Defence Map of Sri Lanka

Independent reports, documentaries and texts

Pawns of Peace Evaluation of Norwegian peace efforts in Sri Lanka, 1997–2009 by NORAD World Socialist Web Site Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Coverage – Many reports and socialist analysis Peace and Conflict Timeline (PACT) – an interactive timeline of the Sri Lankan conflict Texts of key agreements in past peace processes and an analysis of the process by Conciliation Resources Understanding Sri Lanka's Defeat of the Tamil Tigers by National Defense University War on the Displaced: Sri Lankan Army and LTTE
LTTE
Abuses against Civilians in the Vanni, Human Rights Watch Sri Lanka's Killing Fields
Sri Lanka's Killing Fields
an investigative documentary by ITN/Channel 4 Visiting Sri Lanka; 3 years after the civil war by T. E. Narasimhan, Rediff.com Unholy Ground – Indie documentary on a war-related massacre in one Sri Lankan village Appalling Journalism – Monitoring coverage of, and reporting on, Sri Lanka in the international media

v t e

Major armed conflicts involving the Armed Forces of Sri Lanka

Domestic

1971 JVP Insurrection 1987–89 JVP Insurrection Sri Lankan Civil War

Foreign

Battle of Vijithapura Pandyan Civil War (1169-1177) Ming–Kotte War Kotte conquest of the Jaffna
Jaffna
Kingdom Sinhalese–Portuguese War Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna
Jaffna
kingdom Dutch–Portuguese War British Expedition to Ceylon Kandyan Wars
Kandyan Wars
(Great Rebellion of 1817–18) Matale Rebellion Second Boer War World War I World War II

Peacekeeping

United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon

Related articles

Military history Ceylon in World War II

v t e

Sri Lankan Civil War

Origins

Sri Lankan Tamil
Sri Lankan Tamil
nationalism Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism 1956 1958 1977 Sri Lankan riots Burning of Jaffna
Jaffna
library Black July

Combatants

 Sri Lanka

Army (LRRP) Navy Air Force Police

Special
Special
Task Force

Home Guards Attacks on civilians

Assassinations

LTTE

Divisions Air Tigers Sea Tigers Black Tigers Attacks

in the 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Assassinations Suicide bombings

Other militants (list)

ENDLF ENLF EPRLF EROS PLOTE TELO

 India

Indian Peace Keeping Force

Paramilitary

EPDP TMVP

Phases

Eelam
Eelam
War I Indian intervention Eelam
Eelam
War II III IV

Eastern / Northern theaters

Major battles

Kokkilai Vadamarachchi Poomalai Pawan Jaffna
Jaffna
University Helidrop Balavegaya 1st Elephant Pass Pooneryn Riviresa 1st Mullaitivu Sath Jaya Vavunathivu Jayasikurui Thandikulam–Omanthai 1st Kilinochchi Oddusuddan A-9 highway 2nd Elephant Pass Bandaranaike Airport attack Point Pedro Jaffna Thoppigala Vidattaltivu 2nd Kilinochchi 2nd Mullaitivu Puthukkudiyirippu

Major Events

Air Lanka Flight 512 Indo- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Accord Expulsions from Northern province Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi Assassination of Ranasinghe Premadasa Assassination of Lalith Athulathmudali Temple of the Tooth
Temple of the Tooth
attack Lionair Flight 602 Bandaranaike Airport attack Expulsions from Colombo 2009 suicide air raid on Colombo

Leaders

Sri Lanka

Military

Army

Tissa Weeratunga Nalin Seneviratne Hamilton Wanasinghe Cecil Waidyaratne G. H. De Silva Rohan Daluwatte C. S. Weerasooriya L. P. Balagalle Shantha Kottegoda Sarath Fonseka

Navy

Asoka de Silva H. A. Silva Clancy Fernando D. A. M. R. Samarasekara H. C. A. C. Thisera Daya Sandagiri Wasantha Karannagoda

Air Force

Dick Perera Andibuduge Fernando Makalandage Gunawardena Oliver Ranasinghe Jayalath Weerakkody Donald Perera Roshan Goonetileke

Civilian

J. R. Jayewardene Ranasinghe Premadasa Dingiri Banda Wijetunga Chandrika Kumaratunga Mahinda Rajapaksa

LTTE

Militant

Velupillai Prabhakaran Pottu Amman Soosai Karuna Amman

Political

Selvarasa Pathmanathan Anton Balasingham S. P. Thamilselvan

India

Military

Harkirat Singh Ashok K. Mehta

Civilian

R. Venkataraman Rajiv Gandhi V. P. Singh

Aftermath

Reactions to end of war (Tamil diaspora) Remembrance Day Alleged war crimes

Chemical weapons

Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC) UN Panel on Accountability
Accountability
in Sri Lanka NPC resolution on Genocide

Related topics

Casualties

Assassinations Massacres

Child soldiers Disappearances Human rights Popular culture Terrorism

PTA State

Sixth Amendment Thirteenth Amendment 1988 Maldives coup d'état 1987–89 JVP Insurrection

Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War
at Wiktionary    Source texts at Wikisource    Textbooks at Wikibooks   Images and media at the Commons    Quotations at Wikiquote    News stories at Wikinews

v t e

Sri Lankan Tamil
Sri Lankan Tamil
people

List of Sri Lankan Tamils

History

Ancient

History of Eastern Tamils Tissamaharama inscription Annaicoddai seal Ketheeswaram temple Koneswaram temple Munneswaram temple Tenavaram temple

Jaffna
Jaffna
kingdom

History Aryacakravarti Jaffna
Jaffna
Palace ruins Kotagama inscriptions Portuguese conquest Vannimai Vanniar Demala Hatpattu

Colonial

American Ceylon Mission Wesleyan Methodist Mission Jaffna
Jaffna
Youth Congress

Post-colonial

Nationalism Colonisation Sinhala Only Act Riots Bandaranaike–Chelvanayakam Pact Standardisation Militancy Vaddukoddai Resolution Tamil Eelam Burning of Jaffna
Jaffna
library Black July Civil War NPC Resolution on Genocide

Politics

Government

Northern Provincial Council

Government of the Northern Province Governors Chief Ministers

Eastern Provincial Council

Governors Chief Ministers

Political parties

All Ceylon Tamil Congress Federal Party Tamil United Liberation Front Tamil National Alliance Tamil National People's Front

Militant groups

ENDLF ENLF EPRLF EORS LTTE PLOTE TELO

Diaspora

British Tamils Forum Canadian Tamil Congress Federation of Tamil Sangams of North America Global Tamil Forum Tamils Against Genocide Tamil Youth Organisation Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam

Society

Eelam Genetic studies Karaiyar Koviar Mukkuvar Nalavar Paraiyar Thesavalamai Vellalar Vedar

Culture

Cinema Literature News

Saturday Review Sudar Oli Tamil Guardian TamilNet Tamil Times Thinakaran Thinakkural Uthayan Virakesari

Diaspora

Australia Canada France Germany Italy India Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan United Kingdom United States

Languages and dialects

Batticaloa
Batticaloa
Tamil Jaffna
Jaffna
Tamil Negombo Tamil Loanwords

Religion

Hinduism

Naguleswaram temple Nallur Kandaswamy temple

Catholicism

Shrine of Our Lady of Madhu

Village deities

Sport

Badminton Cricket Football

Category

v t e

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
topics

Overviews

Outline Index Bibliography Timeline Years

2018

History

Periods

Prehistory Early kingdoms period Anuradhapura period Polonnaruwa period Transitional period Crisis of the Sixteenth Century Kandyan period History of British Ceylon History of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(1948–present)

Epochs

Mahavamsa Vijaya Tambapanni Upatissa Nuwara Anuradhapura Polonnaruwa Jaffna Dambadeniya Gampola Kotte Sitawaka Kandy Portuguese Ceylon Dutch Ceylon British Ceylon Kandyan Wars Uva Rebellion Matale rebellion Independence
Independence
movement Dominion of Ceylon Civil War

Topics

Chronicles Ancient capitals Monarchs Demographic Economic Education Military

Government

Law

Constitution Constitutional Council

Executive

President

Executive Office

Cabinet / Ministries Administrative Service National Security Council Law enforcement

Judiciary

Supreme Court Court of appeal High Courts District courts Magistrate's Courts Primary Courts Labour Tribunal

Legislature

Parliament

Prime Minister

Office

Speaker Deputy speaker and chairman of committees Deputy Chairman of Committees Leader of the House Leader of the Opposition Chief Government Whip Chief Opposition Whip Secretaries-General

15th Parliament

Members

National security

Armed Forces

Air Force Army Navy Coast Guard

Intelligence

State Intelligence Service Directorate of Military Intelligence Criminal Investigation Department

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Police Service

Politics

Electoral districts Elections Foreign relations Parties

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Freedom Party United National Party

Scandals Provincial governments Local governments

Geography

Administrative divisions

Provinces Districts Divisional Secretary's Divisions Municipalities

Cities

Wards Grama Niladhari divisions

Towns

Ecoregions Environment Extreme points Islands Mountains

Pidurutalagala Central Highlands Hanthana Mountain Range Knuckles Mountain Range

National parks Protected areas Rivers

Mahaweli Malvathu Kelani Kalu Gin

Waterfalls Wildlife

Economy

Agriculture Banking

Central Bank

Communications Companies Energy Information Technology Public debt Research Rupee Stock Exchange Taxation Trade Transport Unemployment

Industries

Apparel Beer Cinnamon Coconut Coffee Gems Rice Rubber Sugar Tea Tourism

Society

Topics

Birth Demographics Education Health Languages

Sinhala Tamil

Media People Public holidays Religion Social class Sport

Culture

Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Dance Fashion Flag Folklore Literature Music National symbols Philosophy Radio Television Theatre World Heritage Sites

Issues

Capital punishment Crime Gender inequality Human rights Immigration International rankings LGBT history LGBT rights Poverty Terrorism

Book Category Portal WikiProject

v t e

Post– Cold War
Cold War
conflicts in Asia

South Asia

Nepalese conflicts

Civil War (1996–2006) Royal massacre (2001)

Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War
(1983–2009) Kashmir conflict
Kashmir conflict
(1947–present)

2013 India–Pakistan border skirmishes India–Pakistan border skirmishes (2014–2015) India–Pakistan military confrontation (2016–present) Kargil War
Kargil War
(1999) Jammu and Kashmir insurgency (1989–present)

Insurgency
Insurgency
in Northeast India
India
(1964–present) Naxalite–Maoist insurgency
Naxalite–Maoist insurgency
(1967–present) Afghanistan–Pakistan skirmishes Afghan Wars

1989–92 1992–96 1996–2001 2001–present

War in North-West Pakistan
War in North-West Pakistan
(2004–present) Balochistan conflict (2004–present) Rohingya conflict
Rohingya conflict
(1947–present)

East Asia

Taiwan Strait Crisis (1996) Korean dispute

Maritime border incidents (1967–present) 2013 crisis 2017 crisis

Xinjiang conflict
Xinjiang conflict
(1960s–present)

Southeast Asia

Cambodian–Vietnamese War Insurgency
Insurgency
in Laos East Timorese conflicts

Indonesian occupation (1975–99) 1999 crisis 2006 crisis

Cambodian–Thai border dispute
Cambodian–Thai border dispute
(2008–11) Other Indonesian conflicts

Papua conflict
Papua conflict
(1969–present) Aceh insurgency (1976–2005)

Myanmar internal conflict (1948–present)

Karen conflict Kachin (2011–present)

Civil conflict in the Philippines

CPP–NPA–NDF Moro

Al-Ma'unah
Al-Ma'unah
(2000-2001) Kampung Medan riots (2001) South Thailand insurgency
South Thailand insurgency
(2004–present)

Central Asia

Tajikistani Civil War
Tajikistani Civil War
(1992–97) Kyrgyz Revolution (2010) South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes (2010) Tajikistan Insurgency
Insurgency
(2010–12)

Western Asia (excluding South Caucasus)

Iraqi conflicts

Iraqi–Kurdish (1918–2003)

Civil War (1994–97)

Kurdistan Islamist conflict
Kurdistan Islamist conflict
(2001–03) War (2003–11) Post-War insurgency (2011–13) Civil War (2014–present)

Conflicts with Israel

Israeli–Palestinian (1948–present)

Intifada (2000–05) Gaza–Israel (2006–present)

Israeli–Lebanese (1948–present)

South Lebanon (1985–2000) Lebanon War (2006)

Yemeni conflicts

Yemeni Civil War (1994) al-Qaeda (1998–2015) Houthi (2004–15) South Yemen (2009–15) Yemeni Crisis (2011–present)

Coup d'état (2014–15) Civil War (2015–present)

Civil conflict in Turkey

Political violence (1976–80) Maoist insurgency DHKP/C insurgency PKK conflict Turkey–ISIL conflict

Others

Kurdish separatism in Iran

KDPI insurgency (1989–96) Iran–PJAK conflict
Iran–PJAK conflict
(2004–present)

Sinai insurgency
Sinai insurgency
(2011–present) Bahraini uprising (2011) Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
(2011–present)

Regional spillover

Related topics

War on Terror
War on Terror
(2001–present) Arab Spring
Arab Spring
(2010–11)

Arab Winter

Colour revolutions

European conflicts African conflicts Conflic

.