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v t e

Sri
Sri
Aurobindo (Bengali: [ Sri
Sri
Ôrobindo]) (born Aurobindo Ghose; 15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950) was an Indian philosopher, yogi, guru, poet, and nationalist.[2] He joined the Indian movement for independence from British rule, for a while was one of its influential leaders and then became a spiritual reformer, introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution. Aurobindo studied for the Indian Civil Service at King's College, Cambridge, England. After returning to India he took up various civil service works under the maharaja of the princely state of Baroda and became increasingly involved in nationalist politics and the nascent revolutionary movement in Bengal. He was arrested in the aftermath of a number of bomb outrages linked to his organisation, but in a highly public trial where he faced charges of treason, Aurobindo could only be convicted and imprisoned for writing articles against British rule in India. He was released when no evidence could be provided, following the murder of a prosecution-witness during the trial. During his stay in the jail he had mystical and spiritual experiences, after which he moved to Pondicherry, leaving politics for spiritual work. During his stay in Pondicherry, Sri
Sri
Aurobindo developed a method of spiritual practice he called Integral Yoga. The central theme of his vision was the evolution of human life into a life divine. He believed in a spiritual realisation that not only liberated man but transformed his nature, enabling a divine life on earth. In 1926, with the help of his spiritual collaborator, Mirra Alfassa
Mirra Alfassa
(referred to as "The Mother"), he founded the Sri
Sri
Aurobindo Ashram. His main literary works are The Life Divine, which deals with theoretical aspects of Integral Yoga; Synthesis of Yoga, which deals with practical guidance to Integral Yoga; and Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol, an epic poem. His works also include philosophy, poetry, translations and commentaries on the Vedas, Upanishads
Upanishads
and the Bhagavad Gita. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1943 and for the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1950.[3]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 England
England
(1879–1893) 1.3 Baroda and Calcutta
Calcutta
(1893–1910) 1.4 Conversion from politics to spirituality 1.5 Pondicherry (1910–1950) 1.6 Mirra Alfassa
Mirra Alfassa
( The Mother) and the development of the Ashram

2 Philosophy and spiritual vision 3 Legacy

3.1 Influence 3.2 Followers 3.3 Critics 3.4 Literary works

4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Aurobindo Ghose was born in Calcutta
Calcutta
(now Kolkata), Bengal Presidency, India on 15 August 1872 . His father, Krishna Dhun Ghose, was then Assistant Surgeon of Rangpur in Bengal, and a former member of the Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj
religious reform movement who had become enamoured with the then-new idea of evolution while pursuing medical studies in Britain.[a] His mother was Swarnalata Devi, whose father was Shri Rajnarayan Bose, a leading figure in the Samaj. She had been sent to the more salubrious surroundings of Calcutta
Calcutta
for Aurobindo's birth. Aurobindo had two elder siblings, Benoybhusan and Manmohan, a younger sister, Sarojini, and a younger brother, Barindrakumar (also referred to as Barin).[4][5] Young Aurobindo was brought up speaking English but used Hindustani to communicate with servants. Although his family were Bengali, his father believed British culture to be superior. He and his two elder siblings were sent to the English-speaking Loreto House boarding school in Darjeeling, in part to improve their language skills and in part to distance them from their mother, who had developed a mental illness soon after the birth of her first child. Darjeeling
Darjeeling
was a centre of British life in India and the school was run by Irish nuns, through which the boys would have been exposed to Christian religious teachings and symbolism.[6] England
England
(1879–1893)[edit]

Aurobindo (seated center next to his mother) and his family. In England, ca. 1879.[7]

Krishna Dhun Ghose wanted his sons to enter the Indian Civil Service (ICS), an elite organisation comprising around 1000 people. To achieve this it was necessary that they study in England
England
and so it was there that the entire family moved in 1879.[8][b] The three brothers were placed in the care of the Reverend W. H. Drewett in Manchester.[8] Drewett was a minister of the Congregational Church
Congregational Church
whom Krishna Dhun Ghose knew through his British friends at Rangapur.[9][c] The boys were taught Latin by Drewett and his wife. This was a prerequisite for admission to good English schools and, after two years, in 1881, the elder two siblings were enrolled at Manchester Grammar School. Aurobindo was considered too young for enrolment and he continued his studies with the Drewetts, learning history, Latin, French, geography and arithmetic. Although the Drewetts were told not to teach religion, the boys inevitably were exposed to Christian teachings and events, which generally bored Aurobindo and sometimes repulsed him. There was little contact with his father, who wrote only a few letters to his sons while they were in England, but what communication there was indicated that he was becoming less endeared to the British in India than he had been, on one occasion describing the British Raj
British Raj
as a "heartless government".[10]

Basement of 49 St Stephen's Avenue, London W12 with Sri
Sri
Aurobindo Blue Plaque

Drewett emigrated to Australia in 1884, causing the boys to be uprooted as they went to live with Drewett's mother in London. In September of that year, Aurobindo and Manmohan joined St Paul's School there.[d] He learned Greek and spent the last three years reading literature and English poetry. He also acquired some familiarity with the German and Italian languages and, exposed to the evangelical strictures of Drewett's mother, a distaste for religion. He considered himself at one point to be an atheist but later determined that he was agnostic.[14] A blue plaque unveiled in 2007 commemorates Aurobindo's residence at 49 St Stephen's Avenue in Shepherd's Bush, London, from 1884 to 1887.[15] The three brothers began living in spartan circumstances at the Liberal Club in South Kensington
South Kensington
during 1887, their father having experienced some financial difficulties. The Club's secretary was James Cotton, brother of their father's friend in the Bengal ICS, Henry Cotton.[16] By 1889, Manmohan had determined to pursue a literary career and Benoybhusan had proved himself unequal to the standards necessary for ICS entrance. This meant that only Aurobindo might fulfil his father's aspirations but to do so when his father lacked money required that he studied hard for a scholarship.[13] To become an ICS official, students were required to pass the competitive examination, as well as to study at an English university for two years under probation. Aurobindo secured a scholarship at King's College, Cambridge, under recommendation of Oscar Browning.[17] He passed the written ICS examination after a few months, being ranked 11th out of 250 competitors. He spent the next two years at King's College.[12] Aurobindo had no interest in the ICS and came late to the horse-riding practical exam purposefully to get himself disqualified for the service.[18] At this time, the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Baroda, Sayajirao Gaekwad
Gaekwad
III, was travelling in England. Cotton secured for him a place in Baroda State Service and arranged for him to meet the prince.[19] He left England for India,[19] arriving there in February 1893.[20] In India, Krishna Dhun Ghose, who was waiting to receive his son, was misinformed by his agents from Bombay
Bombay
(now Mumbai) that the ship on which Aurobindo had been travelling had sunk off the coast of Portugal. His father died upon hearing this news.[21][22] Baroda and Calcutta
Calcutta
(1893–1910)[edit] Main article: Political history of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo See also: Anushilan Samiti In Baroda, Aurobindo joined the state service in 1893, working first in the Survey and Settlements department, later moving to the Department of Revenue and then to the Secretariat, and much miscellaneous work like teaching grammar and assisting in writing speeches for the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Gaekwad
Gaekwad
until 1897.[23] In 1897 during his work in Baroda he started working as a part-time French teacher at Baroda College
Baroda College
(now Maharaja
Maharaja
Sayajirao University of Baroda). He was later promoted to the post of vice-principal.[24] At Baroda, Aurobindo self-studied Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Bengali.[25]

Copy of Bande Mataram, September 1907

During his stay at Baroda he contributed to many articles to Indu Prakash and spoke as a chairman of the Baroda college board.[26] He started taking an active interest in the politics of India's independence struggle against British rule, working behind the scenes as his position in the Baroda state administration barred him from overt political activity. He linked up with resistance groups in Bengal and Madhya Pradesh, while traveling to these states. He established contact with Lokmanya Tilak
Lokmanya Tilak
and Sister Nivedita. He arranged the military training of Jatindra Nath Banerjee (Niralamba Swami) in the Baroda army and then dispatched him to organise the resistance groups in Bengal.[27] Aurobindo often travelled between Baroda and Bengal, at first in a bid to re-establish links with his parent's families and other Bengali relatives, including his sister Sarojini and brother Barin, and later increasingly to establish resistance groups across the Presidency. He formally moved to Calcutta
Calcutta
in 1906 after the announcement of the Partition of Bengal. Age 28, he had married 14-year-old Mrinalini, daughter of Bhupal Chandra Bose, a senior official in government service, when he visited Calcutta
Calcutta
in 1901. Mrinalini died in December 1918 during the influenza pandemic.[28] Aurobindo was influenced by studies on rebellion and revolutions against England
England
in medieval France and the revolts in America and Italy. In his public activities he favoured non-co-operation and passive resistance; in private he took up secret revolutionary activity as a preparation for open revolt, in case that the passive revolt failed.[29]

Sri
Sri
Aurobindo seated at the table, with Tilak speaking: Surat session of congress, 1907

In Bengal, with Barin's help, he established contacts with revolutionaries, inspiring radicals such as Bagha Jatin
Bagha Jatin
or Jatin Banerjee and Surendranath Tagore. He helped establish a series of youth clubs, including the Anushilan Samiti
Anushilan Samiti
of Calcutta
Calcutta
in 1902.[30] Aurobindo attended the 1906 Congress meeting headed by Dadabhai Naoroji and participated as a councillor in forming the fourfold objectives of "Swaraj, Swadesh, Boycott and national education". In 1907 at the Surat session of Congress where moderates and extremists had a major showdown, he led with extremists along with Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The Congress split after this session.[31] In 1907–1908 Aurobindo travelled extensively to Pune, Bombay
Bombay
and Baroda to firm up support for the nationalist cause, giving speeches and meeting with groups. He was arrested again in May 1908 in connection with the Alipore Bomb Case. He was acquitted in the ensuing trial, following the murder of chief prosecution witness Naren Gosain within jail premises which subsequently led to the case against him collapsing. Aurobindo was subsequently released after a year of isolated incarceration. Once out of the prison he started two new publications, Karmayogin in English and Dharma
Dharma
in Bengali. He also delivered the Uttarpara Speech hinting at the transformation of his focus to spiritual matters. The British persecution continued because of his writings in his new journals and in April 1910 Aurobindo moved to Pondicherry, where Britain's secret police monitored his activities.[32][33] Conversion from politics to spirituality[edit]

Photographs of Aurobindo as a prisoner in Alipore Jail, 1908.

In July 1905 then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, partitioned Bengal. This sparked an outburst of public anger against the British, leading to civil unrest and a nationalist campaign by groups of revolutionaries, who included Aurobindo. In 1908, Khudiram Bose
Khudiram Bose
and Prafulla Chaki
Prafulla Chaki
attempted to kill Magistrate Kingsford, a judge known for handing down particularly severe sentences against nationalists. However, the bomb thrown at his horse carriage missed its target and instead landed in another carriage and killed two British women, the wife and daughter of barrister Pringle Kennedy. Aurobindo was also arrested on charges of planning and overseeing the attack and imprisoned in solitary confinement in Alipore Jail. The trial of the Alipore Bomb Case
Alipore Bomb Case
lasted for a year, but eventually he was acquitted on May 6, 1909. His defence counsel was Chittaranjan Das.[34] During this period in the Jail, his view of life was radically changed due to spiritual experiences and realizations. Consequently, his aim went far beyond the service and liberation of the country. [35] Aurobindo said he was "visited" by Vivekananda
Vivekananda
in the Alipore Jail: "It is a fact that I was hearing constantly the voice of Vivekananda speaking to me for a fortnight in the jail in my solitary meditation and felt his presence."[36] In his autobiographical notes, Aurobindo said he felt a vast sense of calmness when he first came back to India. He could not explain this and continued to have various such experiences from time to time. He knew nothing of yoga at that time and started his practise of it without a teacher, except for some rules that he learned from Ganganath, a friend who was a disciple of Brahmananda.[37] In 1907, Barin introduced Aurobindo to Vishnu Bhaskar Lele, a Maharashtrian yogi. Aurobindo was influenced by the guidance he got from the yogi, who had instructed Aurobindo to depend on an inner guide and any kind of external guru or guidance would not be required.[38] In 1910 Aurobindo withdrew himself from all political activities and went into hiding at Chandannagar
Chandannagar
in the house of Motilal Roy, while the British were trying to prosecute him for sedition on the basis of a signed article titled 'To My Countrymen', published in Karmayogin. As Aurobindo disappeared from view, the warrant was held back and the prosecution postponed. Aurobindo manoeuvred the police into open action and a warrant was issued on 4 April 1910, but the warrant could not be executed because on that date he had reached Pondicherry, then a French colony.[39] The warrant against Aurobindo was withdrawn. Pondicherry (1910–1950)[edit] In Pondicherry, Sri
Sri
Aurobindo dedicated himself to his spiritual and philosophical pursuits. In 1914, after four years of secluded yoga, he started a monthly philosophical magazine called Arya. This ceased publication in 1921. Many years later, he revised some of these works before they were published in book form. Some of the book series derived out of this publication were The Life Divine, The Synthesis of Yoga, Essays on The Gita, The Secret of The Veda, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, The Upanishads, The Renaissance in India, War
War
and Self-determination, The Human Cycle, The Ideal of Human Unity and The Future Poetry were published in this magazine.[40] At the beginning of his stay at Pondicherry, there were few followers, but with time their numbers grew, resulting in the formation of the Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Sri Aurobindo Ashram
in 1926.[41] From 1926 he started to sign himself as Sri
Sri
Aurobindo, Sri
Sri
(meaning holy in Sanskrit) being commonly used as an honorific.[42]

Sri
Sri
Aurobindo on his deathbed December 5, 1950

For some time afterwards, his main literary output was his voluminous correspondence with his disciples. His letters, most of which were written in the 1930s, numbered in the several thousands. Many were brief comments made in the margins of his disciple's notebooks in answer to their questions and reports of their spiritual practice—others extended to several pages of carefully composed explanations of practical aspects of his teachings. These were later collected and published in book form in three volumes of Letters on Yoga. In the late 1930s, he resumed work on a poem he had started earlier—he continued to expand and revise this poem for the rest of his life.[43] It became perhaps his greatest literary achievement, Savitri, an epic spiritual poem in blank verse of approximately 24,000 lines.[44] Sri
Sri
Aurobindo died on 5 December 1950. Around 60,000 people attended to see his body resting peacefully. Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the President Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
praised him for his contribution to Yogic philosophy and the independence movement. National and international newspapers commemorated his death.[41][45] Mirra Alfassa
Mirra Alfassa
( The Mother) and the development of the Ashram[edit] Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's close spiritual collaborator, Mirra Alfassa
Mirra Alfassa
(b. Alfassa), came to be known as The Mother.[46] She was a French national, born in Paris
Paris
on 21 February 1878. In her 20s she studied occultism with Max Theon. Along with her husband, Paul Richard, she went to Pondicherry on 29 March 1914,[47] and finally settled there in 1920. Sri
Sri
Aurobindo considered her his spiritual equal and collaborator. After 24 November 1926, when Sri
Sri
Aurobindo retired into seclusion, he left it to her to plan, build and run the ashram, the community of disciples which had gathered around them. Some time later, when families with children joined the ashram, she established and supervised the Sri
Sri
Aurobindo International Centre of Education with its experiments in the field of education. When he died in 1950, She continued their spiritual work, directed the ashram, and guided their disciples.[48] Philosophy and spiritual vision[edit] Main article: Integral yoga

Aurobindo's model of Being and Evolution[49][50]

Levels of Being Development

Overall Outer Being Inner Being Psychic Being

Supermind Supermind Gnostic Man

Supra-mentalisation

Mind

Overmind Psychisation and Spiritualisation

Intuition

Illuminated Mind

Higher Mind

Subconscient mind Mind proper Subliminal (inner) mind

Evolution

Vital Subconsc. Vital Vital Subl. (inner) Vital

Physical Subconsc. Physical Physical Subl. (inner) Physical

Inconscient Inconscient

Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's concept of the Integral Yoga system is described in his books, The Synthesis of Yoga
Yoga
and The Life Divine. [51] The Life Divine
Divine
is a compilation of essays published serially in Arya. Sri
Sri
Aurobindo argues that divine Brahman
Brahman
manifests as empirical reality through līlā, or divine play. Instead of positing that the world we experience is an illusion (māyā), Aurobindo argues that world can evolve and become a new world with new species, far above the human species just as human species have evolved after the animal species. Sri
Sri
Aurobindo believed that Darwinism
Darwinism
merely describes a phenomenon of the evolution of matter into life, but does not explain the reason behind it, while he finds life to be already present in matter, because all of existence is a manifestation of Brahman. He argues that nature (which he interpreted as divine) has evolved life out of matter and then mind out of life. All of existence, he argues, is attempting to manifest to the level of the supermind – that evolution had a purpose.[52] He stated that he found the task of understanding the nature of reality arduous and difficult to justify by immediate tangible results.[53] Legacy[edit] Sri
Sri
Aurobindo was an Indian nationalist but is best known for his philosophy on human evolution and Integral Yoga.[54] Influence[edit] His influence has been wide-ranging. In India, S. K. Maitra, Anilbaran Roy and D. P. Chattopadhyaya commented on Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's work. Writers on esotericism and traditional wisdom, such as Mircea Eliade, Paul Brunton, and Rene Guenon, all saw him as an authentic representative of the Indian spiritual tradition.[55] Haridas Chaudhuri
Haridas Chaudhuri
and Frederic Spiegelberg[56] were among those who were inspired by Aurobindo, who worked on the newly formed American Academy of Asian Studies in San Francisco. Soon after, Chaudhuri and his wife Bina established the Cultural Integration Fellowship, from which later emerged the California Institute of Integral Studies.[57] Karlheinz Stockhausen
Karlheinz Stockhausen
was heavily inspired by Satprem's writings about Sri
Sri
Aurobindo during a week in May 1968, a time at which the composer was undergoing a personal crisis and had found Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's philosophies were relevant to his feelings. After this experience, Stockhausen's music took a completely different turn, focusing on mysticism, that was to continue until the end of his career.[58] William Irwin Thompson
William Irwin Thompson
travelled to Auroville
Auroville
in 1972, where he met "The Mother". Thompson has called Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's teaching on spirituality a "radical anarchism" and a "post-religious approach" and regards their work as having "... reached back into the Goddess culture of prehistory, and, in Marshall McLuhan's terms, 'culturally retrieved' the archetypes of the shaman and la sage femme... " Thompson also writes that he experienced Shakti, or psychic power coming from The Mother on the night of her death in 1973.[59] Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's ideas about the further evolution of human capabilities influenced the thinking of Michael Murphy – and indirectly, the human potential movement, through Murphy's writings.[60] The American philosopher Ken Wilber
Ken Wilber
has called Sri
Sri
Aurobindo "India's greatest modern philosopher sage"[61] and has integrated some of his ideas into his philosophical vision. Wilber's interpretation of Aurobindo has been criticised by Rod Hemsell.[62] New Age
New Age
writer Andrew Harvey also looks to Sri
Sri
Aurobindo as a major inspiration.[63] Followers[edit] The following authors, disciples and organisations trace their intellectual heritage back to, or have in some measure been influenced by, Sri
Sri
Aurobindo and The Mother.

Chinmoy
Chinmoy
(1931–2007) joined the ashram in 1944. Later, he wrote the play about Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's life – Sri
Sri
Aurobindo: Descent of the Blue – and a book, Infinite: Sri
Sri
Aurobindo.[64] An author, composer, artist and athlete, he was perhaps best known for holding public events on the theme of inner peace and world harmony (such as concerts, meditations, and races).[65] Nolini Kanta Gupta (1889–1983) was one of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's senior disciples, and wrote extensively on philosophy, mysticism, and spiritual evolution based on the teaching of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo and "The Mother".[66] Pavitra (1894–1969) was one of their early disciples. Born as Philippe Barbier Saint-Hilaire in Paris. Pavitra left some very interesting memoirs of his conversations with them in 1925 and 1926, which were published as Conversations avec Pavitra.[67] Nirodbaran (1903–2006). A doctor who obtained his medical degree from Edinburgh, his long and voluminous correspondence with Sri Aurobindo elaborate on many aspects of Integral Yoga and fastidious record of conversations bring out Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's thought on numerous subjects.[68] M. P. Pandit (1918–1993). Secretary to "The Mother" and the ashram, his copious writings and lectures cover Yoga, the Vedas, Tantra, Sri Aubindo's epic "Savitri" and others. Dilipkumar Roy (1897–1980) was a Bengali Indian musician, musicologist, novelist, poet and essayist. Satprem (1923–2007) was a French author and an important disciple of "The Mother" who published Mother's Agenda
Mother's Agenda
(1982), Sri
Sri
Aurobindo or the Adventure of Consciousness (2000), On the Way to Supermanhood (2002) and more.[69] Indra Sen (1903–1994) was another disciple of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo who, although little-known in the West, was the first to articulate integral psychology and integral philosophy, in the 1940s and 1950s. A compilation of his papers came out under the title, Integral Psychology in 1986.[70] Margaret Woodrow Wilson
Margaret Woodrow Wilson
(Nistha) (1886–1944), daughter of US President Woodrow Wilson, she came to the ashram in 1940 and stayed there until her death.[71]

Critics[edit]

Adi Da
Adi Da
finds that Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's contributions were merely literary and cultural and had extended his political motivation into spirituality and human evolution[72] N. R. Malkani finds Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's theory of creation to be false, as the theory talks about experiences and visions which are beyond normal human experiences. He says the theory is an intellectual response to a difficult problem and that Sri
Sri
Aurobindo uses the trait of unpredictability in theorising and discussing things not based upon truth of existence. Malkani says that awareness is already a reality and suggests there would be no need to examine the creative activity subjected to awareness.[73] Rajneesh
Rajneesh
(Osho) says that Sri
Sri
Aurobindo was a great scholar but was never realised; that his personal ego had made him indirectly claim that he went beyond Buddha; and that he is said to have believed himself to be enlightened due to increasing number of followers.[74] Wilber's interpretation of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's philosophy differed from the notion of dividing reality as a different level of matter, life, mind, overmind, supermind proposed by Sri
Sri
Aurobindo in The Life Divine, and terms them as higher- or lower-nested holons and states that there is only a fourfold reality (a system of reality created by himself).[75]

Literary works[edit]

Bases of Yoga, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-941524-77-9 Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and Its Message, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-941524-78-7 Dictionary of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's Yoga, (compiled by M.P. Pandit), Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-941524-74-4 Essays on the Gita, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-914955-18-7 The Future Evolution
Evolution
of Man, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-940985-55-1 The Future Poetry, Pondicherry, India: Sri
Sri
Aurobindo Ashram, 1953. The Human Cycle: The Psychology of Social Development, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-914955-44-6 Hymns to the Mystic Fire, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-914955-22-5 The Ideal of Human Unity, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-914955-43-8 The Integral Yoga: Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's Teaching and Method of Practice, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-941524-76-0 The Life Divine, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-941524-61-2 The Mind of Light, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-940985-70-5 The Mother, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-941524-79-5 Rebirth and Karma, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-941524-63-9 Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-941524-80-9 Secret of the Veda, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-914955-19-5 Sri
Sri
Aurobindo Primary Works Set 12 vol. US Edition, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-941524-93-0 Sri
Sri
Aurobindo Selected Writings Software CD ROM, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-914955-88-8 The Synthesis of Yoga, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-941524-65-5 The Upanishads, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-914955-23-3 Vedic Symbolism, Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-941524-30-2 The Essential Aurobindo – Writings of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo ISBN 978-0-9701097-2-9 The Powers Within, Lotus Press. ISBN 978-0-941524-96-4 Human Cycle, Ideal of Human Unity, War
War
and Self Determination by Aurobindo, Lotus Press. ISBN 81-7058-014-5 Hour of God by Sri
Sri
Aurobindo, Lotus Press. ISBN 81-7058-217-2

See also[edit]

Integral movement Integral psychology

References[edit] Notes

^ Aurobindo described his father as a "tremendous atheist" but Thakur calls him an agnostic and Heehs believes that he followed his own coda.[4][5] ^ Krishna Dhun Ghose returned to India soon after, leaving his wife in the care of a physician in London. Barindra was born in England
England
in January 1880.[7] ^ While in Manchester, the Ghose brothers lived first at 84 Shakespeare Street and then, by the time of the 1881 census, at 29 York Place, Chorlton-on-Medlock. Aurbindo was recorded in the census as Aravinda Ghose, as he was also by the University of Cambridge.[10][11][12] ^ Benoybhusan's education ended in Manchester.[13]

Citations

^ Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol, Book XI: The Book of Everlasting Day, Canto I: The Eternal Day: The Soul's Choice and The Supreme Consummation, p 709 ^ McDermott (1994), pp. 11–12, 14 ^ Nomination database Nobel.org accessed 28 January 2016 ^ a b Heehs (2008), pp. 3–7, 10 ^ a b Thakur (2004), p. 3 ^ Heehs (2008), pp. 8–9 ^ a b Heehs (2008), p. 10 ^ a b Heehs (2008), pp. 9–10 ^ Heehs (2008), pp. 10, 13 ^ a b Heehs (2008), p. 14 ^ 1881 Census ^ a b ACAD & GHS890AA. ^ a b Heehs (2008), p. 19 ^ Heehs (2008), pp. 14–18 ^ English Heritage ^ Heehs (2008), p. 18 ^ Aurobindo (2006), pp. 29–30 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 31 ^ a b Thakur (2004), p. 6 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 34 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 36 ^ Thakur (2004), p. 7 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 37 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 42 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 43 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 68 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 77 ^ Heehs (2008), p. 53 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 71 ^ Heehs (2008), p. 67 ^ Thorpe (2010), p. 29C ^ Lorenzo (1999), p. 70 ^ Heehs (2008), p. 217 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 86 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 61 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 98 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 110 ^ Heehs (2008), pp. 142–143 ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 101 ^ Thakur (2004), pp. 31–33 ^ a b Sri
Sri
Aurobindo: A Life Sketch, Sri
Sri
Aurobindo Birth Centenary Library, 30, retrieved 1 January 2013  ^ Heehs (2008), p. 347: Sri
Sri
Aurobindo without the surname seems to have first appeared in print in articles published in Chandernagore in 1920. It did not catch on at that time. He first signed his name Sri
Sri
Aurobindo in March 1926, but continued to use Sri
Sri
Aurobindo Ghose for a year or two. ^ Thakur (2004), pp. 20–26 ^ Yadav (2007), p. 31: "the fame of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo mainly rests upon Savitri which is considered as his magnum opus ... [It is] a 24000 line blank verse epic in which he has widened the original legend of the Mahabharta and turned it into a symbol where the soul of man, represented by Satyavan, is delivered from the grip of death and ignorance through the love and power of the Divine
Divine
Mother, incarnated upon earth as Savitri." ^ Heehs (2008), pp. 411–412: "On the morning of December 6, 1950 all of the major newspapers of the country announced the passing of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo ... President Rajendra Prasad, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, central and state ministers ... recalled his contribution to the struggle for freedom, his philosophical and other writings, and the example of his yogic discipline. Abroad, his death was noted by newspapers in London, Paris
Paris
and New York. A writer in the Manchester
Manchester
Guardian called him 'the most massive philosophical thinker that modern India has produced.'" ^ Leap of Perception: The Transforming Power of Your Attention (1 ed.). New York: Atria books. 2013. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-58270-390-9.  ^ Aurobindo (2006), p. 102 ^ Jones & Ryan (2007), pp. 292–293 ^ Wilber 1980, p. 263. ^ Sharma 1991. ^ McDermott (1994), p. 281 ^ Aurobindo (2005), p. 5 ^ Aurobindo (2005), p. 7 ^ McDermott (1994), p. 11 ^ Heehs (2008), p. 379 ^ Haridas Chaudhuri
Haridas Chaudhuri
and Frederic Spiegelberg, The integral philosophy of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo: a commemorative symposium, Allen & Unwin, 1960 ^ "From the American Academy of Asian Studies
American Academy of Asian Studies
to the California Institute of Integral Studies"[1] ^ O'Mahony (2001) ^ "Thinking otherwise – From Religion to Post-Religious Spirituality: Conclusion". Retrieved 2014-04-13.  ^ Kripal (2007), pp. 60–63 ^ Ken Wilber, Foreword to A. S. Dalal (ed.), A Greater Psychology – An Introduction to the Psychological Thought of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo, Tarcher/Putnam, 2000. ^ Rod Hemsell, " Ken Wilber
Ken Wilber
and Sri
Sri
Aurobindo: A Critical Perspective" Jan. 2002. ^ "Hidden Journey: A Spiritual Awakening". Retrieved 2014-02-06.  ^ Sri, Chinmoy, Sri
Sri
Chinmoy's writings on Sri
Sri
Aurobindo, retrieved 12 November 2013  ^ Dua (2005), pp. 18–22 ^ Sachidananda Mohanty (2008). Sri
Sri
Aurobindo: A Contemporary Reade (1 ed.). New Delhi: routeledge. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-415-46093-4.  ^ Satprem (1965). Mother's Agenda. 6 (3 ed.). Paris: Inst. de Recherches Évolutives. p. 188. ISBN 0-938710-12-5.  ^ Nirodbaran (1973), pp. 1–19 ^ Satprem (1982), p. 5 ^ K. Satchidanandan, Who's who of Indian Writers: supplementary volume, 1990 New Delhi : Sahitya Akademi,, p. 134 ^ " Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
Daughter Dead". The Milwaukee Sentinel. February 14, 1944. p. 1. Retrieved 16 November 2015.  ^ "Bubba Free John in India". The Dawn Horse Magazine. 4 August 1974. Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ " Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's theory of evolution – a criticism by Prof. Malkani examined". Retrieved 2014-02-06.  ^ "Osho Beyond Enlightenment". Beyond Enlightenment. Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "Wilber's Critique of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo". Retrieved 2014-10-13. 

Bibliography

Census Returns of England
England
and Wales, Kew, England: The National Archives of the UK: Public Record Office, 1881, Class: RG11; Piece: 3918; Folio: 15; Page: 23; GSU roll: 1341936  Thorpe, Edgar (2010), The Pearson General Knowledge Manual, New Delhi: Dorling kindersley Pvt ltd  Anon, Aurobindo, Sri
Sri
(1872–1950), English Heritage, retrieved 18 August 2012  Aurobindo, Sri
Sri
(2005), The Life Divine, Pondicherry: Lotus press, ISBN 0-941524-61-2  "Ghose, Aravinda Acroyd (GHS890AA)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.  Aurobindo, Sri
Sri
(2006), Autobiographical Notes and Other Writings of Historical Interest, Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Publication Department  Dua, Shyam, ed. (2005), The Luminous Life of Sri
Sri
Chinmoy: An Authorized Biography, Tiny Tot Publications, ISBN 978-81-304-0221-5  Heehs, Peter (2008), The Lives of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-14098-3  Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D., eds. (2007), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Facts on File, ISBN 0-8160-5458-4  Kripal, Jeffery John (2007), Esalen: America and the Religion of No Religion, Chicago, USA: University of Chicago press, ISBN 978-0-226-45369-9  Lorenzo, David J. (1999), Tradition and the Rhetoric of Right: Popular Political Argument in the Aurobindo Movement, London: Associated University Presses, ISBN 0-8386-3815-5  McDermott, Robert A. (1994), Essential Aurobindo, SteinerBooks, ISBN 0-940262-22-3  Nirodbaran (1973), Twelve years with Sri
Sri
Aurobindo, Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram  O'Mahony, John (29 September 2001), "The Sound of Discord", The Guardian, London  Satprem (1982), The Mind of the Cells, New York, NY: Institute for Evolutionary Research, ISBN 0-938710-06-0  Thakur, Bimal Narayan (2004), Poetic Plays of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo, Northern Book Centre, ISBN 978-81-7211-181-6  Yadav, Saryug (2007), " Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's Life, Mind and Art", in Barbuddhe, Satish, Indian Literature in English: Critical Views, Sarup and Sons  Wilber, Ken (1980), The Atman project:a transpersonal view of human development, The Theosophical publishing house  Sharma, Ram Nath (1991), Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's Philosophy of Social Development, Atlantic Publishers 

Further reading[edit]

Heehs, Peter (2011). "The Kabbalah, the Philosophie Cosmique, and the Integral Yoga. A Study in Cross-Cultural Influence" (PDF). ARIES. Brill. 11 (2): 219–247.  Iyengar, K. R. Srinivasa (1985) [1945]. Sri
Sri
Aurobindo: a biography and a history. Sri
Sri
Aurobindo International Centre of Education.  (2 volumes, 1945) – written in a hagiographical style Kallury, Syamala (1989). Symbolism in the Poetry of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-257-4.  Kitaeff, Richard. " Sri
Sri
Aurobindo". Nouvelles Clés (62): 58–61.  Mehrotra, Arvind Krishna (2003). A History of Indian Literature in English. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12810-0.  Mishra, Manoj Kumar (2004). Young Aurobindo's Vision: The Viziers of Bassora. Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot.  Mukherjee, Prithwindra (2000). Sri
Sri
Aurobindo. Paris: Desclée de Brouwer.  Satprem (1968). Sri
Sri
Aurobindo, or the Adventure of Consciousness. Pondicherry, India: Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Press.  K. D. Sethna, Vision and Work of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo Singh, Ramdhari (2008). Sri
Sri
Aurobindo: Meri Drishti Mein. New Delhi: Lokbharti Prakashan.  van Vrekhem, Georges (1999). Beyond Man – The Life and Work of Sri
Sri
Aurobindo and The Mother. New Delhi: HarperCollins. ISBN 81-7223-327-2.  Raychaudhuri, Girijashankar..... Sri
Sri
Aurobindo O Banglar Swadeshi Joog (published 1956)...this book was serially published in the journal Udbodhan
Udbodhan
and read out to Sri
Sri
Aurobindo in Pondicherry while he was still alive...... Sri
Sri
Aurobindo commented, " he will snatch away smile from my face" Ghose, Aurobindo, Nahar, S., & Institut de recherches évolutives. (2000). India's rebirth: A selection from Sri
Sri
Aurobindo's writing, talks and speeches Paris: Institut de recherches évolutives.

External links[edit]

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(1964) Swami Vivekananda
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Mission Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Centenary College Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
Subharti University Swami Vivekanand University, Madhya Pradesh Vivekanda Degree College, Kukatpally Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Degree College, Puttur Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Global University Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Institution Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Kendra Vidyalaya Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Vidya Mandir

Books on Vivekananda

Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
on Himself Life and Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda Notes of some wanderings with the Swami Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda: Messiah of Resurgent India Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
in the West: New Discoveries Pransakha Vivekananda Rousing Call to Hindu Nation The Master as I Saw Him

Researchers

Sankari Prasad Basu Mani Shankar Mukherjee

WikiProject Commons Wikiquote Wikisource
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texts

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Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika

Concepts

Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

Related articles

Jurisprudence Philosophy and economics Philosophy of education Philosophy of history Philosophy of love Philosophy of sex Philosophy of social science Political ethics Social epistemology

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 66462996 LCCN: n79071149 ISNI: 0000 0001 2137 144X GND: 118505157 SELIBR: 55820 SUDOC: 02728090X BNF: cb11889589g (data) NLA: 36556815 NDL: 00431920 NKC: jn20000601785 BNE: XX1049

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