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A SPHINX ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Σφίγξ , Boeotian : Φίξ , plural SPHINGES) is a mythical creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion .

In Greek tradition , it has the head of a human , the haunches of a lion , and sometimes the wings of a bird . It is mythicised as treacherous and merciless. Those who cannot answer its riddle suffer a fate typical in such mythological stories, as they are killed and eaten by this ravenous monster. This deadly version of a sphinx appears in the myth and drama of Oedipus
Oedipus
. Unlike the Greek sphinx, which was a woman, the Egyptian sphinx is typically shown as a man (an ANDROSPHINX). In addition, the Egyptian sphinx was viewed as benevolent, but having a ferocious strength similar to the malevolent Greek version and both were thought of as guardians often flanking the entrances to temples.

In European decorative art, the sphinx enjoyed a major revival during the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Later, the sphinx image, something very similar to the original Ancient Egyptian concept, was exported into many other cultures, albeit often interpreted quite differently due to translations of descriptions of the originals and the evolution of the concept in relation to other cultural traditions.

Sphinxes are generally associated with architectural structures such as royal tombs or religious temples. The oldest known sphinx was found near Gobekli Tepe at another site, Nevali Çori , or possibly 195 kilometres (120 mi) to the east at Kortik Tepe, Turkey
Turkey
, and was dated to 9,500 BCE.

CONTENTS

* 1 Egyptian sphinxes

* 2 Greek traditions

* 2.1 The Riddle of the Sphinx
Sphinx

* 3 South and Southeast Asia * 4 Europe
Europe
* 5 Freemasonry * 6 Popular culture * 7 Similar creatures * 8 Gallery * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

EGYPTIAN SPHINXES

Great Sphinx
Sphinx
before clearance, Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum
Archives Back of Sphinx, Giza
Giza
Egypt

The largest and most famous sphinx is the Great Sphinx of Giza
Great Sphinx of Giza
, situated on the Giza
Giza
Plateau adjacent to the Great Pyramids of Giza
Giza
on the west bank of the Nile River and facing east (29°58′31″N 31°08′15″E / 29.97528°N 31.13750°E / 29.97528; 31.13750 ). The sphinx is located southeast of the pyramids. Although the date of its construction is uncertain, the head of the Great Sphinx
Sphinx
now is believed to be that of the pharaoh Khafra .

What names their builders gave to these statues is not known. At the Great Sphinx
Sphinx
site, a 1400 BCE inscription on a stele belonging to the 18th dynasty pharaoh Thutmose IV lists the names of three aspects of the local sun deity of that period, _ Khepera Atum _. The inclusion of these figures in tomb and temple complexes quickly became traditional and many pharaohs had their heads carved atop the guardian statues for their tombs to show their close relationship with the powerful solar deity, Sekhmet , a lioness. Other famous Egyptian sphinxes include one bearing the head of the pharaoh Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
, with her likeness carved in granite , which is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and the alabaster sphinx of Memphis , Memphis, Egypt , currently located within the open-air museum at that site. The theme was expanded to form great avenues of guardian sphinxes lining the approaches to tombs and temples as well as serving as details atop the posts of flights of stairs to very grand complexes. Nine hundred with ram heads, representing Amon , were built in Thebes , where his cult was strongest.

The Great Sphinx
Sphinx
has become an emblem of Egypt, frequently appearing on its stamps, coins, and official documents.

GREEK TRADITIONS

From the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, the Hellenes had trade and cultural contacts with Egypt. Before the time that Alexander the Great occupied Egypt, the Greek name, _sphinx_, was already applied to these statues. The historians and geographers of Greece wrote extensively about Egyptian culture. Herodotus
Herodotus
called the ram -headed sphinxes CRIOSPHINXES and called the hawk -headed ones HIERACOSPHINXES .

The word _sphinx_ comes from the Greek Σφίγξ, apparently from the verb σφίγγω (_sphíngō_), meaning "to squeeze", "to tighten up". This name may be derived from the fact that the hunters for a pride of lions are the lionesses, and kill their prey by strangulation, biting the throat of prey and holding them down until they die. However, the historian Susan Wise Bauer suggests that the word "sphinx" was instead a Greek corruption of the Egyptian name "shesepankh", which meant "living image", and referred rather to the _statue_ of the sphinx, which was carved out of "living rock" (rock that was present at the construction site, not harvested and brought from another location), than to the beast itself.

There was a single _sphinx_ in Greek mythology, a unique demon of destruction and bad luck. According to Hesiod , she was a daughter of Orthrus and either Echidna or the Chimera , or perhaps even Ceto ; according to others, she was a daughter of Echidna and Typhon
Typhon
. All of these are chthonic figures from the earliest of Greek myths, before the Olympians ruled the Greek pantheon . The Sphinx
Sphinx
is called Phix (Φίξ) by Hesiod in line 326 of the Theogony , the proper name for the Sphinx
Sphinx
noted by Pierre Grimal 's _The Penguin Dictionary of Classical Mythology_.

In Greek mythology , a sphinx is represented as a monster with a head of a woman, the body of a lioness , the wings of an eagle , and a serpent -headed tail.

The sphinx was the emblem of the ancient city-state of Chios
Chios
, and appeared on seals and the obverse side of coins from the 6th century BCE until the 3rd century CE.

THE RIDDLE OF THE SPHINX

" Riddle of the Sphinx" redirects here. For other uses, see Riddle of the Sphinx (other) . Marble Sphinx, dated 540 BCE, in the Acropolis Museum
Acropolis Museum
, Athens
Athens

The Sphinx
Sphinx
is said to have guarded the entrance to the Greek city of Thebes, and to have asked a riddle of travellers to allow them passage. The exact riddle asked by the Sphinx
Sphinx
was not specified by early tellers of the stories, and was not standardized as the one given below until late in Greek history.

It was said in late lore that Hera
Hera
or Ares
Ares
sent the Sphinx
Sphinx
from her Aethiopian homeland (the Greeks always remembered the foreign origin of the Sphinx) to Thebes in Greece where she asks all passersby the most famous riddle in history: "Which creature has one voice and yet becomes four-footed and two-footed and three-footed?" She strangled and devoured anyone who could not answer. Oedipus
Oedipus
solved the riddle by answering: Man—who crawls on all fours as a baby, then walks on two feet as an adult, and then uses a walking stick in old age. By some accounts (but much more rarely), there was a second riddle: "There are two sisters: one gives birth to the other and she, in turn, gives birth to the first. Who are the two sisters?" The answer is "day and night" (both words—_ἡμέρα_ and _νύξ_, respectively—are feminine in Ancient Greek). This riddle is also found in a Gascon version of the myth and could be very ancient.

Bested at last, the tale continues, the Sphinx
Sphinx
then threw herself from her high rock and died. An alternative version tells that she devoured herself. Thus Oedipus
Oedipus
can be recognized as a "liminal " or threshold figure, helping effect the transition between the old religious practices, represented by the death of the Sphinx, and the rise of the new, Olympian gods.

In Jean Cocteau 's retelling of the Oedipus
Oedipus
legend, _The Infernal Machine _, the Sphinx
Sphinx
tells Oedipus
Oedipus
the answer to the riddle in order to kill herself so that she did not have to kill anymore, and also to make him love her. He leaves without ever thanking her for giving him the answer to the riddle. The scene ends when the Sphinx
Sphinx
and Anubis ascend back to the heavens.

There are mythic, anthropological, psychoanalytic and parodic interpretations of the Riddle of the Sphinx, and of Oedipus's answer to it. Sigmund Freud describes "the question of where babies come from" as a riddle of the Sphinx. Numerous riddle books use the Sphinx in their title or illustrations.

Michael Maier in his book, the _ Atalanta Fugiens _ (1617) writes the following remark about the Sphinx's riddle, in which he states that the solution is the Philosopher\'s Stone :

Sphinx
Sphinx
is indeed reported to have had many Riddles, but this offered to Oedipus
Oedipus
was the chief, "What is that which in the morning goeth upon four feet; upon two feet in the afternoon; and in the Evening upon three?" What was answered by Oedipus
Oedipus
is not known. But they who interpret concerning the Ages of Man are deceived. For a Quadrangle of Four Elements are of all things first to be considered, from thence we come to the Hemisphere having two lines, a Right and a Curve, that is, to the White Luna; from thence to the Triangle which consists of Body, Soul and Spirit, or Sol, Luna and Mercury. Hence Rhasis in his Epistles, "The Stone," says he, "is a Triangle in its essence, a Quadrangle in its quality."

SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA

Burmese depiction of the Manussiha

A composite mythological being with the body of a lion and the head of a human being is present in the traditions, mythology and art of South and South-East Asia. Variously known as _purushamriga_ (Sanskrit, "man-beast"), _purushamirugam_ (Tamil, "man-beast"), _naravirala_ (Sanskrit, "man-cat") in India, or as _nara-simha_ (Sanskrit, "man-lion") in Sri Lanka, _manusiha_ or _manuthiha_ (Pali, "man-lion") in Myanmar, and _norasingh_ (from Pali, "man-lion", a variation of the Sanskrit "nara-simha") or _thep norasingh_ ("man-lion deity"), or _nora nair_ in Thailand.

In contrast to the sphinx in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Greece, where the traditions largely have been lost due to the discontinuity of the civilization, the traditions of the "Asian sphinx" are very much alive today. The earliest artistic depictions of "sphinxes" from the South Asian subcontinent are to some extent influenced by Hellenistic art and writings. These hail from the period when Buddhist art underwent a phase of Hellenistic influence.

In South India, the "sphinx" is known as _purushamriga_ (Sanskrit) or _purushamirugam_ (Tamil), meaning "human-beast". It is found depicted in sculptural art in temples and palaces where it serves an apotropaic purpose, just as the "sphinxes" in other parts of the ancient world. It is said by the tradition, to take away the sins of the devotees when they enter a temple and to ward off evil in general. It is therefore often found in a strategic position on the gopuram or temple gateway, or near the entrance of the Sanctum Sanctorum . Male purushamriga or Indian sphinx guarding the entrance of the Shri Shiva Nataraja temple in Chidambaram

The _purushamriga_ plays a significant role in daily as well as yearly ritual of South Indian Shaiva temples. In the shodhasha-upakaara (or sixteen honors) ritual, performed between one and six times at significant sacred moments through the day, it decorates one of the lamps of the diparadhana or lamp ceremony. And in several temples the _purushamriga_ is also one of the _vahana _ or vehicles of the deity during the processions of the Brahmotsava or festival.

In Kanya Kumari district, in the southernmost tip of the Indian subcontinent, during the night of Shiva
Shiva
Ratri , devotees run 75 kilometres while visiting and worshiping at twelve Shiva
Shiva
temples. This Shiva
Shiva
Ottam (or Run for Shiva) is performed in commemoration of the story of the race between the Sphinx
Sphinx
and Bhima
Bhima
, one of the heroes of the epic _ Mahabharata _.

The Indian conception of a sphinx that comes closest to the classic Greek idea is in the concept of the _ Sharabha _, a mythical creature, part lion, part man and part bird, and the form of Sharabha that god Shiva
Shiva
took on to counter Narasimha
Narasimha
's violence.

In Philippines
Philippines
, the sphinx is known as _nicolonia_. Depicted as part man and part eagle, it is known to ask riddles to wanderers who trespass in the Bicol region. Anyone who fails to answer its riddle is said to be carried off to the Mayon Volcano where the person is said to be offered to the volcano god, Gev\'ra , to appease his anger.

In Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, the sphinx is known as _narasimha_ or man-lion. As a sphinx, it has the body of a lion and the head of a human being, and is not to be confused with Narasimha
Narasimha
, the fourth reincarnation of the deity Vishnu
Vishnu
; this avatar or incarnation is depicted with a human body and the head of a lion. The "sphinx" narasimha is part of the Buddhist tradition and functions as a guardian of the northern direction and also was depicted on banners.

In Burma
Burma
, the sphinx is known as _manussiha _ (_manuthiha_). It is depicted on the corners of Buddhist stupas , and its legends tell how it was created by Buddhist monks to protect a new-born royal baby from being devoured by ogresses .

Nora Nair, Norasingh and Thep Norasingh are three of the names under which the "sphinx" is known in Thailand
Thailand
. They are depicted as upright walking beings with the lower body of a lion or deer, and the upper body of a human. Often they are found as female-male pairs. Here, too, the sphinx serves a protective function. It also is enumerated among the mythological creatures that inhabit the ranges of the sacred mountain Himapan .

EUROPE

La Granja , Spain, mid-18th century Fernand Khnopff 's symbolist version of a sphinx.

The revived Mannerist sphinx of the late 15th century is sometimes thought of as the "French sphinx". Her coiffed head is erect and she has the breasts of a young woman. Often she wears ear drops and pearls as ornaments. Her body is naturalistically rendered as a recumbent lioness. Such sphinxes were revived when the _grottesche _ or "grotesque" decorations of the unearthed _ Domus Aurea _ of Nero
Nero
were brought to light in late 15th-century Rome, and she was incorporated into the classical vocabulary of arabesque designs that spread throughout Europe
Europe
in engravings during the 16th and 17th centuries. Sphinxes were included in the decoration of the _loggia _ of the Vatican Palace by the workshop of Raphael
Raphael
(1515–20), which updated the vocabulary of the Roman _grottesche_.

The first appearances of sphinxes in French art are in the School of Fontainebleau in the 1520s and 1530s and she continues into the Late Baroque
Baroque
style of the French Régence (1715–1723).

From France, she spread throughout Europe, becoming a regular feature of the outdoors decorative sculpture of 18th-century palace gardens, as in the Upper Belvedere Palace in Vienna
Vienna
, Sanssouci Park in Potsdam , La Granja in Spain, Branicki Palace in Białystok
Białystok
, or the late Rococo
Rococo
examples in the grounds of the Portuguese Queluz National Palace (of perhaps the 1760s), with ruffs and clothed chests ending with a little cape.

Sphinxes are a feature of the neoclassical interior decorations of Robert Adam
Robert Adam
and his followers, returning closer to the undressed style of the _grottesche_. They had an equal appeal to artists and designers of the Romantic , and later Symbolism movements in the 19th century. Most of these sphinxes alluded to the Greek sphinx , rather than the Egyptian, although they may not have wings.

FREEMASONRY

Sphinx
Sphinx
adopted as an emblem in Masonic architecture

The sphinx image also has been adopted into Masonic architecture. Among the Egyptians, sphinxes were placed at the entrance of the temple to guard the mysteries, by warning those who penetrated within that they should conceal a knowledge of them from the uninitiated. Champollion says that the sphinx became successively the symbol of each of the gods. The placement of the sphinx expresses the idea that all the gods were hidden from the people, and that the knowledge of them, guarded in the sanctuaries, was revealed to the initiates only. As a Masonic emblem, the sphinx has been adopted in its Egyptian character as a symbol of mystery, and as such often is found as a decoration sculptured in front of Masonic temples, or engraved at the head of Masonic documents. It cannot, however, be properly called an ancient, recognized symbol of the order. Its introduction has been of comparatively recent date, and rather as a symbolic decoration than as a symbol of any particular dogma.

POPULAR CULTURE

The 1992 animated film _Aladdin _ depicts the construction of the Great Sphinx of Giza
Great Sphinx of Giza
. In the film, a man is carving the Sphinx's human face just as Aladdin flies by on a flying carpet . The sight proves such a distraction to the sculptor that he mishits the great statue, causing its nose to break off.

The Sphinx
Sphinx
makes an appearance in the 2016 film _Gods of Egypt _, where it is voiced and motion-captured by Kenneth Ransom . It is found in Set 's pyramid and poised to kill any who cannot solve its riddle:

I never was, am always to be. No one ever saw me, nor ever will, and yet, I am the confidence of all who live and breathe. What am I?

Horus
Horus
and mortal Bek bring Thoth , the god of wisdom, with them, sure he will be able to solve whatever riddle is posed. Thoth stumbles at first, offering _order _ and other suggestions before landing on, at the last second, the correct answer: _tomorrow_. The Sphinx
Sphinx
expresses its disappointment before residing.

SIMILAR CREATURES

* The 32,000-year-old Aurignacian Löwenfrau Goddess is the oldest known anthropomorphic statue. Previously known as the Lion-man , she has a human female body and a lioness head. * Not all human-headed animals of antiquity are sphinxes. In ancient Assyria
Assyria
, for example, bas-reliefs of shedu bulls with the crowned bearded heads of kings guarded the entrances of the temples. * In the classical Olympian mythology of Greece, all the deities had human form, although they could assume their animal natures as well. All the creatures of Greek myth who combine human and animal form are archaic survivals: centaurs , Typhon
Typhon
, Medusa , Lamia . * Narasimha
Narasimha
("man-lion") is described as an incarnation ( Avatar
Avatar
) of Vishnu
Vishnu
within the Puranic texts of Hinduism who takes the form of half-man/half- Asiatic lion , having a human torso and lower body, but with a lion-like face and claws. * The Manticore is a similar creature, which also features a lion's body with human-like face.

GALLERY

*

Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great during Persian Empire at Susa
Susa
(480 BCE). *

Head from a female sphinx, c. 1876-1842 BCE, Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum
*

Egypt. Gizeh. Sphinx
Sphinx
and Pyramid., n.d. Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum
Archives *

The Great Sphinx of Giza
Great Sphinx of Giza
in 1858 *

Typical Egyptian sphinx with a human head. ( Museo Egizio , Turin
Turin
)

*

Sphinx
Sphinx
of Egyptian pharaoh Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
with unusual ear and ruff features, 1503-1482 *

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
sphinx from Delphi
Delphi
. *

Modern reproduction of symbol used for Chian goods and coinage during pre-Hellenic times *

3000-year-old sphinxes were imported from Egypt to embellish public spaces in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and other European capitals . *

Upper Belvedere Palace in Vienna
Vienna
. *

Park Sanssouci in Potsdam
Potsdam
*

Queluz wingless rococo sphinx. *

Classic Régence garden Sphinx
Sphinx
in lead, Château Empain, the Parc d\'Enghien (nl), Belgium
Belgium
. *

Park Schönbusch in Aschaffenburg , Bavaria
Bavaria
, 1789-90. *

Ingres , _ Oedipus
Oedipus
and the Sphinx_. *

Hôtel de Ville, Paris , 1870s. *

Symbolist _ Oedipus
Oedipus
and the Sphinx_ by Gustave Moreau
Gustave Moreau
. *

A contemporary sphinx by Botero , in Medellín, Colombia . *

Sphinx
Sphinx
at Plaza de los Emperadores (Parque de El Capricho, Madrid
Madrid
). *

The Lester B. Pearson Building in Ottawa
Ottawa
was designed to resemble the Sphinx. *

Marble sphinx on a cavetto capital, Attic, c. 580-575 BCE *

Sphinx
Sphinx
guarding the entrance of Parque Eduardo Guinle (pt). *

"Future," shielding its face with its wings, one of two sphinxes at the National World War I Museum and Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri , United States.

SEE ALSO

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to SPHINXES _.

* Hybrid creatures in mythology * List of hybrid creatures in mythology

SIMILAR HYBRID CREATURES

* Anzû (older reading: Zû), Mesopotamian monster * Chimera , Greek mythological hybrid monster * Cockatrice , snake with rooster's head and feet and bat's wings * Dragon
Dragon
, European and East Asian reptile-like mythical creature * Griffin
Griffin
or griffon, lion-bird hybrid * Harpy , Greco-Roman mythological bird monster with woman's face * Lamassu , Assyrian deity, bull/lion-eagle-human hybrid * Manticore , Persian monster with a lion's body and a humanoid head. * Nue
Nue
, Japanese legendary creature * Pegasus
Pegasus
, winged stallion in Greek mythology * Phoenix , self-regenerating bird in Greek mythology * Pixiu or Pi Yao, Chinese mythical creature * Qilin
Qilin
, Chinese/East Asian mythical hybrid creature * Sharabha , Hindu mythology: lion-bird hybrid * Simurgh , Iranian mythical flying creature * Sirin , Russian mythological creature, half-woman half-bird * Snow Lion
Lion
, Tibetan mythological celestial animal * Yali , Hindu mythological lion-elephant-horse hybrid * Ziz
Ziz
, giant griffin-like bird in Jewish mythology * Komainu
Komainu
to compare its use in Japanese culture * Chinthe similar lion statues in Burma, Laos and Cambodia * Shisa similar lion statues in the Ryukyu Islands * Nian to compare with a similar but horned (unicorn) mythical beast * Pixiu to compare with a similar but winged mythical beast * Haetae to compare with similar lion-like statues in Korea
Korea
.

NOTES

* ^ "Dr. J\'s Lecture on Oedipus
Oedipus
and the Sphinx". People.hsc.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-15. * ^ Kallich, Martin. "Oepidus and the Sphinx." Oepidus: Myth and Drama. N.p.: Western, 1968. N. pag. Print. * ^ Stewart, Desmond. Pyramids and the Sphinx. : Newsweek, U.S., 72. Print. * ^ "Is The Sphinx