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Speyer
Speyer
(German pronunciation: [ˈʃpaɪ̯ɐ], older spelling Speier, known as Spire in French and formerly as Spires in English) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants. Located beside the river Rhine, Speyer
Speyer
is 25 km (16 miles) south of Ludwigshafen
Ludwigshafen
and Mannheim. Founded by the Romans, it is one of Germany's oldest cities. Speyer
Speyer
is dominated by the Speyer Cathedral, a number of churches and the Altpörtel (old gate). In the cathedral, beneath the high altar, are the tombs of eight Holy Roman emperors and German kings. The city is famous for the 1529 Protestation at Speyer.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Timeline

2 Main sights 3 Mayors 4 Twin towns – sister cities 5 Notable natives

5.1 Born before 1900 5.2 Born after 1900

6 See also 7 Notes 8 External links

History[edit]

Imperial Town of Speyer

Reichsstadt Speyer

Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
of the Holy Roman Empire

1294–1792

Capital Speyer

Languages Palatine German

Government Republic

Historical era Middle Ages

 •  Founded ca 10 BC

 •  Gained Reichsfreiheit 1294

 •  Speyer
Speyer
Diet confirms Edict of Worms 19 April 1529

 •  Protestation at Speyer 20 April 1529

 •  Town razed by France 1688

 •  Annexed by France 1792

 •  Annexed to Bavaria 1816 1792

 •  Rhenish Palatinate merged into Rheinland-Pfalz 10 August 1946

Preceded by Succeeded by

Bishopric of Speyer

Mont-Tonnerre

Main article: History of Speyer

Main street in Speyer
Speyer
with the Speyer Cathedral
Speyer Cathedral
in the background

The first known names were Noviomagus and Civitas Nemetum, after the Teutonic tribe, Nemetes, settled in the area. The name Spira is first recorded in the 7th century, taken from villa Spira, a Frankish settlement situated outside of Civitas Nemetum. Timeline[edit]

In 10 BC, the first Roman military camp is established (situated between the town hall and the episcopal palace). In AD 150, the town appears as Noviomagus on the world map of the Greek geographer Ptolemy. In 346, a bishop for the town is mentioned for the first time. 4th century, Civitas Nemetum appears on the Peutinger Map. 5th century, Civitas Nemetum is destroyed. 7th century, the town is re-established, and named Spira after a nearby Frankish settlement. In 1030, emperor Conrad II starts the construction of Speyer Cathedral, today one of the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites. Also in the 11th century, the first city wall was built. In 1076, emperor Henry IV embarks from Speyer, his favourite town, for Canossa. In 1084, establishment of the first Jewish community in Speyer. In 1294, the bishop loses most of his previous rights, and from now on Speyer
Speyer
is a Free Imperial Town
Free Imperial Town
of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1349, the Jewish community of Speyer
Jewish community of Speyer
is wiped out. Between 1527 and 1689, Speyer
Speyer
is the seat of the Imperial Chamber Court. In 1526, at the Diet of Speyer (1526) interim toleration of Lutheran teaching and worship is decreed. In 1529, at the Diet of Speyer (1529) the Lutheran
Lutheran
states of the empire protest against the anti-Reformation resolutions (19 April 1529 Protestation at Speyer, hence the term Protestantism). In 1635, Marshal of France
France
Urbain de Maillé-Brézé, together with Jacques Nompar de Caumont, duc de La Force, conquers Heidelberg
Heidelberg
and Speyer
Speyer
at the head of the Army of Germany. In 1689, the town is heavily damaged by French troops. Between 1792 and 1814, Speyer
Speyer
is under French jurisdiction. In 1816, Speyer
Speyer
becomes the seat of administration of the Palatinate and of the government of the Rhine
Rhine
District of Bavaria
Bavaria
(later called the Bavarian Palatinate), and remains so until the end of World War II. Between 1883 and 1904, the Memorial Church is built in remembrance of the Protestation of 1529. In 1947, the State Academy of Administrative Science is founded (later renamed German University of Administrative Sciences Speyer). In 1990, Speyer
Speyer
celebrates its 2000th anniversary.

Main sights[edit]

Cathedral Altpörtel – Old town gate Gedächtniskirche – Memorial Church Jewish courtyard
Jewish courtyard
– Remnants of medieval Synagogue and intact mikve Technikmuseum Speyer
Technikmuseum Speyer
– Transportation Museum Historical Museum of the Palatinate

Mayors[edit] Since 1923 the mayor was a Lord Mayor.[2]

Philipp Lichtenberger (1855-1918) (1904–1911) Ernst Hertrich (1911–1914) (first full-time mayor) Otto Moericke (1880-1965) (1917–1919) Karl Leiling (1919–1943) Rudolf Trampler (1898-1974) (1943–1945) Karl Leiling (1945–1946) Hans Hettinger (1946) Paul Schaefer (1946–1949) Paulus Skopp (1905-1999) (1949–1969) Christian Roßkopf (born 1930) (1969–1995) Werner Schineller (born 1948) (1995–2010) Hansjörg Eger (born 1964) (since 2011)

Twin towns – sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Speyer
Speyer
is twinned with:[3]

Spalding, United Kingdom, since 1956 Chartres, France, since 1959 Kursk, Russia, since 1989 Ravenna, Italy, since 1989 Gniezno, Poland, since 1992[4] Yavne, Israel, since 1998 Rusizi, Rwanda, since 1982/2001 Ningde, China, since October 2013 together with: Worms, Germany, since October 2014[5]

Notable natives[edit] Born before 1900[edit]

Carl Jakob Adolf Christian Gerhardt

Wilhelm Meyer around 1895

Anselm Feuerbach
Anselm Feuerbach
Self-portrait 1873

Hermann Detzner
Hermann Detzner
1921

Samuel of Speyer (after 1096-death unknown), Exeget of Torah and Midrash Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg (1140-1217), scribe and philosopher Julian of Speyer (before 1225- ~ 1250), medieval choir master, composer and poet from the Order of the Franciscans Gabriel Biel
Gabriel Biel
(~ 1415-1495), scholastic philosopher Dietrich Gresemund (1477-1512), author Egon VIII of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg
Egon VIII of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg
(1588-1635), Reichsgraf of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg Johann Joachim Becher
Johann Joachim Becher
(1635-1682), German physician, alchemist, precursor of chemistry, scholar and adventurer Moritz Georg Weidmann
Moritz Georg Weidmann
(1658-1693), publisher and bookseller Adolf von Dalberg
Adolf von Dalberg
(1678-1737), Prince of Fulda Simha of Speyer (13th century) German rabbi and tosafist. He was one of the leading signatories of the Takkanot Shum. Philipp Hieronymus Brinckmann
Philipp Hieronymus Brinckmann
(1709-1760), landscape and historical painters as well as copper cutters Johann Martin Bernatz
Johann Martin Bernatz
(1802-1878), landscape painter Anselm Feuerbach
Anselm Feuerbach
(1829–1880), German painter Carl Jakob Adolf Christian Gerhardt
Carl Jakob Adolf Christian Gerhardt
(1832–1902), German physician Henry Villard
Henry Villard
(1835–1900), German-American journalist Hermann von Stengel (1837-1919), Bavarian Administrative Officer Wilhelm Meyer (philologist)
Wilhelm Meyer (philologist)
(1845-1917), classical philologist, mediavist and librarian Karl Heinrich Emil Becker
Karl Heinrich Emil Becker
(1879-1940), general of the artillery, ballist and defense scientist Hans Purrmann
Hans Purrmann
(1880-1966), painter, graphic artist, art writer and collector Hermann Detzner
Hermann Detzner
(1882-1970), leader of the German Schutztruppe in German New Guinea Karl-Adolf Hollidt (1891-1985), Army officer (Generaloberst) and war criminal George Waldbott (1898–1982), German-American physician

Born after 1900[edit]

Jakob Brendel (1907-1964), wrestler Karl Haas
Karl Haas
(1913–2005), German-American music educator and radio presenter Helmut Bantz (1921-2004), gymnast Alfred Cahn (1922-2016), German musician and composer Edgar E. Stern (born 1926), clinical social worker and author of The Peppermint Train: Journey to a German-Jewish Childhood Gabriel Kney (born 1929), Canadian organ builder Jürgen Brecht (born 1940), fencer Gerhard Vollmer (born 1943), physicist and philosopher Jürgen Creutzmann
Jürgen Creutzmann
(born 1945), politician ( FDP) Hans-Joachim Lang
Hans-Joachim Lang
(born 1951), journalist, Germanist, historian and honorary professor Axel Schimpf (born 1952), Vice Admiral of the German Navy Eberhard Bosslet
Eberhard Bosslet
(born 1953), artist Kay Friedmann (born 1963), footballer Markus Kranz (born 1969), football player Christoph Bechmann (born 1971), German field-hockey player Anke Vondung (born 1972), opera singer Ralf Schmitt (born 1977), football player Simone Weiler (born 1978), swimmer Jochen Kühner (born 1980), rower Martin Kühner (born 1980), rower Matthias Langkamp (born 1984), football player Christian Reif
Christian Reif
(born 1984), long jumper David McCray
David McCray
(born 1986), basketball player Florian Krebs (born 1988), football player Sebastian Langkamp (born 1988), footballer Jonas Marz (born 1989), footballer Gianluca Korte
Gianluca Korte
(born 1990), footballer Raffael Korte (born 1990), footballer Lars Stindl
Lars Stindl
(born 1988), German footballer Elias Harris
Elias Harris
(born 1989), German international basketball player

See also[edit]

Technikmuseum Speyer German University of Administrative Sciences Speyer Speyer
Speyer
line History of the Jews in Speyer

Notes[edit]

^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland mit Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2015" (PDF). Statistisches Bundesamt
Statistisches Bundesamt
(in German). 2016.  ^ Der Kaiserdom zu Speyer
Speyer
– Startseite ^ "Städtepartnerschaften" (official web site) (in German). Stadt Speyer. Retrieved 2015-01-16.  ^ "International collaboration". gmiezno.eu. Gniezno. Retrieved 3 May 2014.  ^ " Ningde
Ningde
(China)" (official web site) (in German). Stadt Speyer. Retrieved 2015-01-16. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Speyer.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Speyer.

speyer.de the town website (partly in English) museum.speyer.de Historical Museum of the Palatinate
Historical Museum of the Palatinate
(in English) dom-speyer.de website of Speyer Cathedral
Speyer Cathedral
(in German) Model Map of Medieval Speyer Speyer, its cathedral and the library of its chapter Technical (Transport) Museum www.speyer.de: living history in past times www.speyer-tour.de: Guided tours through Speyer City overview and photos

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the State of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
in Germany

Urban districts

Frankenthal Kaiserslautern Koblenz Landau Ludwigshafen Mainz Neustadt Pirmasens Speyer Trier Worms Zweibrücken

Rural districts

Ahrweiler Altenkirchen Alzey-Worms Bad Dürkheim Bad Kreuznach Bernkastel-Wittlich Birkenfeld Bitburg-Prüm Cochem-Zell Donnersbergkreis Germersheim Kaiserslautern Kusel Mainz-Bingen Mayen-Koblenz Neuwied Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis Rhein-Lahn-Kreis Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis Südliche Weinstraße Südwestpfalz Trier-Saarburg Vulkaneifel Westerwaldkreis

v t e

Important cities and tourist sites in Germany: Greater region of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
/ Rhine-Neckar–Palatinate

Major cities

Heidelberg Kaiserslautern Ludwigshafen Mannheim Neustadt Speyer Worms

Other touristic sites

Bad Dürkheim Bad Rappenau Buchen Eberbach Edenkoben Ladenburg Lorsch Mosbach Neckargemünd Sinsheim Weinheim Walldürn

Landscapes

German Wine Route Kurpfalz Neckar
Neckar
river Odenwald Palatinate Forest Rhine
Rhine
river

Neighboring areas

Germany

Frankfurt Heidelberg Karlsruhe Saarbrücken Stuttgart Trier Würzburg

France

Alsace Lorraine Wissembourg

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312797396 LCCN: n80050034 GND: 4056179-3 BNF: cb1186

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