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The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or land plants. The term phanerogams or phanerogamae is derived from the Greek φανερός, phanerós meaning "visible", in contrast to the cryptogamae from Greek κρυπτός kryptós = "hidden" together with the suffix γαμέω, gameein, "to marry". These terms distinguished those plants with hidden sexual organs (cryptogamae) from those with visible sexual organs (phanerogamae).

Contents

1 Description 2 Evolution 3 Relationships and nomenclature 4 References 5 Bibliography

Description[edit] The living spermatophytes form five groups, the first four of which were traditionally grouped as "gymnosperms":

cycads, a subtropical and tropical group of plants with a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk, Ginkgo, a single living species of tree, conifers, cone-bearing trees and shrubs, gnetophytes, woody plants in the genera Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia angiosperms, (or magnoliophyta) the flowering plants, a large group including many familiar plants in a wide variety of habitats.

In addition to the taxa listed above, the fossil record contains evidence of many extinct taxa of seed plants. The so-called "seed ferns" (Pteridospermae) were one of the earliest successful groups of land plants, and forests dominated by seed ferns were prevalent in the late Paleozoic. Glossopteris
Glossopteris
was the most prominent tree genus in the ancient southern supercontinent of Gondwana
Gondwana
during the Permian
Permian
period. By the Triassic
Triassic
period, seed ferns had declined in ecological importance, and representatives of modern gymnosperm groups were abundant and dominant through the end of the Cretaceous, when angiosperms radiated. Evolution[edit] Main article: Evolutionary history of plants
Evolutionary history of plants
§ Seeds A whole genome duplication event in the ancestor of seed plants occurred about 319 million years ago.[1] This gave rise to a series of evolutionary changes that resulted in the origin of seed plants. A middle Devonian
Devonian
(385-million-year-old) precursor to seed plants from Belgium
Belgium
has been identified predating the earliest seed plants by about 20 million years. Runcaria, small and radially symmetrical, is an integumented megasporangium surrounded by a cupule. The megasporangium bears an unopened distal extension protruding above the mutlilobed integument. It is suspected that the extension was involved in anemophilous (wind) pollination. Runcaria sheds new light on the sequence of character acquisition leading to the seed. Runcaria has all of the qualities of seed plants except for a solid seed coat and a system to guide the pollen to the seed.[2] Relationships and nomenclature[edit] Further information: Gnetophyta
Gnetophyta
§ Classification Seed-bearing plants were traditionally divided into angiosperms, or flowering plants, and gymnosperms, which includes the gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgo, and conifers. Older morphological studies believed in a close relationship between the gnetophytes and the angiosperms,[3] in particular based on vessel elements. However, molecular studies (and some more recent morphological[4] and fossil[5] papers) have generally shown a clade of gymnosperms, with the gnetophytes in or near the conifers. For example, one common proposed set of relationships is known as the gne-pine hypothesis and looks like:[6][7][8]

angiosperms (flowering plants)

gymnosperms

cycads [9]

Ginkgo

Pinaceae
Pinaceae
(the pine family)

gnetophytes

other conifers

However, the relationships between these groups should not be considered settled.[3][10] Other classifications group all the seed plants in a single division, with classes for the five groups:

Division Spermatophyta

Cycadopsida, the cycads Ginkgoopsida, the ginkgo Pinopsida, the conifers, ("Coniferopsida") Gnetopsida, the gnetophytes Magnoliopsida, the flowering plants, or Angiospermopsida

A more modern classification ranks these groups as separate divisions (sometimes under the Superdivision Spermatophyta):

Cycadophyta, the cycads Ginkgophyta, the ginkgo Pinophyta, the conifers Gnetophyta, the gnetophytes Magnoliophyta, the flowering plants

An alternative phylogeny of spermatophytes based on the work by Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni 2015[11] with plant taxon authors from Anderson, Anderson & Cleal 2007[12] showing the relationship of extinct clades.

Spermatophytina

 †Moresnetiopsida Doweld 2001 

 † Lyginopteridopsida
Lyginopteridopsida
Novák 1961 emend. Anderson, Anderson & Cleal 2007

 †Pachytestopsida Doweld 2001

 † Callistophytales
Callistophytales
Rothwell 1981 emend. Anderson, Anderson & Cleal 2007

 †Peltaspermopsida Doweld 2001

 †Umkomasiales Doweld 2001 

 

Acrogymnospermae

Cycadopsida
Cycadopsida
(Cycads)

Ginkgoopsida
Ginkgoopsida
(Maidenhair trees)

Pinopsida
Pinopsida
(Conifers)

†Phasmatocycadopsida Doweld 2001

†Pentoxylopsida Pant ex Doweld 2001

†Dictyopteridiopsida Doweld 2001

†Cycadeoideopsida Scott 1923

†Caytoniopsida Thomas ex Frenguelli 1946

Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
(Flowering plants)

Seed
Seed
ferns

Unassigned spermatophytes:[citation needed]

†Avatiaceae Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Axelrodiopsida Anderson & Anderson †Alexiales Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Hamshawviales Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Hexapterospermales Doweld 2001 †Hlatimbiales Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Matatiellales Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Petriellales Taylor et al. 1994 †Arberiopsida Doweld 2001 †Czekanowskiales Taylor et al. 2008 †Iraniales E. Taylor et al. 2008 †Vojnovskyales E. Taylor et al. 2008 †Hermanophytales E. Taylor et al. 2008 †Dirhopalostachyaceae E. Taylor et al. 2008

References[edit]

^ Jiao Y, Wickett NJ, Ayyampalayam S, Chanderbali AS, Landherr L, Ralph PE, Tomsho LP, Hu Y, Liang H, Soltis PS, Soltis DE, Clifton SW, Schlarbaum SE, Schuster SC, Ma H, Leebens-Mack J, Depamphilis CW (2011) Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms. Nature ^ "Science Magazine". Runcaria, a Middle Devonian
Devonian
Seed
Seed
Plant Precursor. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011.  ^ a b Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Chase, Mark W. (2004). "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1437–1445. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1437. PMID 21652302.  ^ James A. Doyle (January 2006). " Seed
Seed
ferns and the origin of angiosperms". The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 133 (1): 169–209. doi:10.3159/1095-5674(2006)133[169:SFATOO]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1095-5674.  ^ Zi-Qiang Wang (2004). "A New Permian
Permian
Gnetalean Cone as Fossil Evidence for Supporting Current Molecular Phylogeny". Annals of Botany. 94 (2): 281–288. doi:10.1093/aob/mch138. PMID 15229124.  ^ Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Parkinson, Christopher L.; Cheng, Yuchang; Vincent, Thomas M.; Palmer, Jeffrey D. (2000). " Seed
Seed
plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: Monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (8): 4086–4091. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.8.4086. PMC 18157 . PMID 10760277.  ^ Bowe, L. M.; Michelle, L.; Coat, Gwénaële; Claude (2000). "Phylogeny of seed plants based on all three genomic compartments: Extant gymnosperms are monophyletic and Gnetales' closest relatives are conifers". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (8): 4092–4097. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.8.4092. PMC 18159 . PMID 10760278.  ^ Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Zanis, Michael J. (2002). "Phylogeny of seed plants based on evidence from eight genes". American Journal of Botany. 89 (10): 1670–1681. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.10.1670. PMID 21665594.  ^ Chung-Shien Wu, Ya-Nan Wang, Shu-Mei Liu and Shu-Miaw Chaw (2007). "Chloroplast Genome (cpDNA) of Cycas taitungensis and 56 cp Protein-Coding Genes of Gnetum
Gnetum
parvifolium: Insights into cpDNA Evolution and Phylogeny of Extant Seed
Seed
Plants". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 24 (6): 1366–1379. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm059. PMID 17383970. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Won, Hyosig; Renner, Susanne (August 2006). "Dating Dispersal and Radiation in the Gymnosperm
Gymnosperm
Gnetum
Gnetum
(Gnetales)—Clock Calibration When Outgroup Relationships Are Uncertain". Systematic Biology. 55 (4): 610–622. doi:10.1080/10635150600812619. PMID 16969937.  ^ Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni (2015). "Modern plant systematics". Liga-Pres: 685. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4745.6164. ISBN 978-966-397-276-3.  ^ Anderson, Anderson & Cleal (2007). "Brief history of the gymnosperms: classification, biodiversity, phytogeography and ecology". Strelitzia. SANBI. 20: 280. ISBN 978-1-919976-39-6. 

Bibliography[edit]

Kron, Kathleen A; Chase, Mark W. Molecular systematics and seed plant phylogeny: a summary of a parsimony analysis of rbcL sequence data. pp. 243–252. , in Gibbs et al (1995) Gibbs, Adrian J.; Calisher, Charles H.; García-Arenal, Fernando, eds. (1995). Molecular basis of virus evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521022897.  Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S.; Zanis, M. J. (1 October 2002). "Phylogeny of seed plants based on evidence from eight genes". American Journal of Botany. 89 (10): 1670–1681. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.10.1670. PMID 21665594. 

v t e

Classification of Archaeplastida
Archaeplastida
/ Plantae
Plantae
sensu lato

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

Rhodophyta (red algae)

Cyanidiophyceae Porphyridiophyceae Compsopogonophyceae Stylonematophyceae Rhodellophyceae Bangiophyceae Florideophyceae

Glaucocystophyta (glaucophytes)

Glaucocystophyceae

Glaucocystis Cyanophora Gloeochaete

Viridiplantae (green algae, & land plants)

Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae

C+S

Chlorophyta

Palmophyllales Nephrophyceae Prasinophyceae Pseudoscourfieldiales Pyramimonadophyceae Scourfieldiales Pedinophyceae Chlorodendrophyceae UTC clade

Ulvophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Chlorophyceae

Streptophyta (charophytes, & land plants)

Klebsormidiophyceae

Phragmo- plastophyta

Charophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Zygnematophyceae

Embryophyta (land plants)

Bryophytes (non-vascular)

Marchantiophyta Anthocerotophyta Bryophyta "Moss" †Horneophytopsida

Tracheophyta (vascular)

Lycopodiophyta (microphylls)

†Zosterophyllopsida †Sawdoniales Isoetopsida Lycopodiopsida

Euphyllophyta (megaphylls)

Moniliformopses (ferns)

†Cladoxylopsida †Stauropteridales †Zygopteridales Equisetopsida Psilotopsida Marattiopsida Polypodiopsida

Spermatophyta (seed plants)

Seed
Seed
ferns Gymnosperms

Gnetopsida Pinopsida Cycadopsida Ginkgoopsida

Angiosperms
Angiosperms
or flowering plants

Amborellales Nymphaeales Austrobaileyales Magnoliids Monocots Eudicots

Other

†Trimerophytopsida †Progymnosperm

Other

†Rhyniopsida

† = extinct. See also the list of plant orders.

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