HOME
The Info List - Spermatophyta



--- Advertisement ---


(i)

The SPERMATOPHYTES (from the Greek word Σπερματόφυτα), also known as PHANEROGAMS or PHENOGAMAE, comprise those plants that produce seeds , hence the alternative name SEED PLANTS. They are a subset of the embryophytes or land plants. The term _phanerogams_ or _phanerogamae_ is derived from the Greek φανερός, _phanerós_ meaning "visible", in contrast to the CRYPTOGAMAE from Greek κρυπτός _kryptós_ = "hidden" together with the suffix γαμέω, _gameein_, "to marry". These terms distinguished those plants with hidden sexual organs (cryptogamae) from those with visible sexual organs (phanerogamae).

CONTENTS

* 1 Description * 2 Evolution * 3 Relationships and nomenclature * 4 References * 5 Bibliography

DESCRIPTION

The living spermatophytes form five groups, the first four of which were traditionally grouped as "gymnosperms":

* cycads , a subtropical and tropical group of plants with a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk, * _ Ginkgo
Ginkgo
_, a single living species of tree , * conifers , cone-bearing trees and shrubs , * gnetophytes , woody plants in the genera _Ephedra _, _ Gnetum
Gnetum
_, and _ Welwitschia
Welwitschia
_ * angiosperms , (or magnoliophyta) the flowering plants, a large group including many familiar plants in a wide variety of habitats.

In addition to the taxa listed above, the fossil (old creature) record contains evidence of many extinct taxa of seed plants. The so-called "seed ferns" ( Pteridospermae) were one of the earliest successful groups of land plants, and forests dominated by seed ferns were prevalent in the late Paleozoic. _ Glossopteris
Glossopteris
_ was the most prominent tree genus in the ancient southern supercontinent of Gondwana
Gondwana
during the Permian
Permian
period. By the Triassic
Triassic
period, seed ferns had declined in ecological importance, and representatives of modern gymnosperm groups were abundant and dominant through the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
, when angiosperms radiated.

EVOLUTION

Main article: Evolutionary history of plants
Evolutionary history of plants
§ Seeds

A whole genome duplication event in the ancestor of seed plants occurred about 319 million years ago . This gave rise to a series of evolutionary changes that resulted in the origin of seed plants.

A middle Devonian
Devonian
precursor to seed plants from Belgium
Belgium
has been identified predating the earliest seed plants by about 20 million years. _ Runcaria_, small and radially symmetrical, is an integumented megasporangium surrounded by a cupule. The megasporangium bears an unopened distal extension protruding above the mutlilobed integument . It is suspected that the extension was involved in anemophilous (wind) pollination . _Runcaria_ sheds new light on the sequence of character acquisition leading to the seed. _Runcaria_ has all of the qualities of seed plants except for a solid seed coat and a system to guide the pollen to the seed.

RELATIONSHIPS AND NOMENCLATURE

Further information: Gnetophyta
Gnetophyta
§ Classification

Seed-bearing plants were traditionally divided into angiosperms , or flowering plants, and gymnosperms , which includes the gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgo, and conifers. Older morphological studies believed in a close relationship between the gnetophytes and the angiosperms, in particular based on vessel elements . However, molecular studies (and some more recent morphological and fossil papers) have generally shown a clade of gymnosperms , with the gnetophytes in or near the conifers. For example, one common proposed set of relationships is known as the _gne-pine hypothesis_ and looks like:

angiosperms (flowering plants)

gymnosperms

cycads

_ Ginkgo
Ginkgo
_

Pinaceae(the pine family)

gnetophytes

other conifers

However, the relationships between these groups should not be considered settled.

Other classifications group all the seed plants in a single division , with classes for the five groups:

* Division SPERMATOPHYTA

* CYCADOPSIDA , the cycads * GINKGOOPSIDA , the ginkgo * PINOPSIDA , the conifers, ("Coniferopsida") * GNETOPSIDA , the gnetophytes * MAGNOLIOPSIDA , the flowering plants , or ANGIOSPERMOPSIDA

A more modern classification ranks these groups as separate divisions (sometimes under the SUPERDIVISION SPERMATOPHYTA):

* CYCADOPHYTA , the cycads * GINKGOPHYTA , the ginkgo * PINOPHYTA , the conifers * GNETOPHYTA , the gnetophytes * MAGNOLIOPHYTA , the flowering plants

An alternative phylogeny of spermatophytes based on the work by Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni 2015 with plant taxon authors from Anderson, Anderson padding: 0; border-right: solid 0px black; border-top: solid 0px black; border-bottom: 0px solid black;">

†Moresnetiopsida Doweld 2001

†Lyginopteridopsida Novák 1961 emend. Anderson, Anderson border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0; vertical-align: top;">

†Pachytestopsida Doweld 2001

CallistophytalesRothwell 1981 emend. Anderson, Anderson border-top: 0; border-right: 0; border-bottom: 0; vertical-align: top;">

†Peltaspermopsida Doweld 2001

†Umkomasiales Doweld 2001

Acrogymnospermae

Cycadopsida(Cycads)

Ginkgoopsida(Maidenhair trees)

Pinopsida(Conifers)

†Phasmatocycadopsida Doweld 2001

†Pentoxylopsida Pant ex Doweld 2001

†Dictyopteridiopsida Doweld 2001

†Cycadeoideopsida Scott 1923

†Caytoniopsida Thomas ex Frenguelli 1946

Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
(Flowering plants)

Seed
Seed
ferns

Unassigned spermatophytes:

* †Avatiaceae Anderson & Anderson 2003 * †Axelrodiopsida Anderson & Anderson * †Alexiales Anderson & Anderson 2003 * †Hamshawviales Anderson & Anderson 2003 * †Hexapterospermales Doweld 2001 * †Hlatimbiales Anderson & Anderson 2003 * †Matatiellales Anderson -webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ Jiao Y, Wickett NJ, Ayyampalayam S, Chanderbali AS, Landherr L, Ralph PE, Tomsho LP, Hu Y, Liang H, Soltis PS , Soltis DE , Clifton SW, Schlarbaum SE, Schuster SC, Ma H, Leebens-Mack J, Depamphilis CW (2011) Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms. Nature * ^ "Science Magazine". _Runcaria, a Middle Devonian
Devonian
Seed
Seed
Plant Precursor_. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Chase, Mark W. (2004). "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view". _American Journal of Botany_. 91 (10): 1437–1445. PMID 21652302 . doi :10.3732/ajb.91.10.1437 . * ^ James A. Doyle (January 2006). " Seed
Seed
ferns and the origin of angiosperms". _The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society_. 133 (1): 169–209. ISSN 1095-5674 . doi :10.3159/1095-5674(2006)1332.0.CO;2 . * ^ Zi-Qiang Wang (2004). "A New Permian
Permian
Gnetalean Cone as Fossil Evidence for Supporting Current Molecular Phylogeny". _Annals of Botany_. 94 (2): 281–288. PMID 15229124 . doi :10.1093/aob/mch138 . * ^ Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Parkinson, Christopher L.; Cheng, Yuchang; Vincent, Thomas M.; Palmer, Jeffrey D. (2000). " Seed
Seed
plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: Monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers". _Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences_. 97 (8): 4086–4091. PMC 18157  _. PMID 10760277 . doi :10.1073/pnas.97.8.4086 . * ^ Bowe, L. M.; Michelle, L.; Coat, Gwénaële; Claude (2000). "Phylogeny of seed plants based on all three genomic compartments: Extant gymnosperms are monophyletic and Gnetales\' closest relatives are conifers". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences_. 97 (8): 4092–4097. PMC 18159  _. PMID 10760278 . doi :10.1073/pnas.97.8.4092 . * ^ Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Zanis, Michael J. (2002). "Phylogeny of seed plants based on evidence from eight genes". American Journal of Botany_. 89 (10): 1670–1681. PMID 21665594 . doi :10.3732/ajb.89.10.1670 . * ^ Chung-Shien Wu, Ya-Nan Wang, Shu-Mei Liu and Shu-Miaw Chaw (2007). "Chloroplast Genome (cpDNA) of Cycas taitungensis and 56 cp Protein-Coding Genes of Gnetum
Gnetum
parvifolium: Insights into cpDNA Evolution and Phylogeny of Extant Seed
Seed
Plants". _Molecular Biology and Evolution_. 24 (6): 1366–1379. PMID 17383970 . doi :10.1093/molbev/msm059 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Won, Hyosig; Renner, Susanne (August 2006). "Dating Dispersal and Radiation in the Gymnosperm
Gymnosperm
Gnetum
Gnetum
(Gnetales)—Clock Calibration When Outgroup Relationships Are Uncertain". _Systematic Biology_. 55 (4): 610–622. PMID 16969937 . doi :10.1080/10635150600812619 . * ^ Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni (2015). "Modern plant systematics". Liga-Pres: 685. ISBN 978-966-397-276-3 . doi :10.13140/RG.2.1.4745.6164 . * ^ Anderson, Anderson & Cleal (2007). "Brief history of the gymnosperms: classification, biodiversity, phytogeography and ecology". _Strelitzia_. SANBI. 20: 280. ISBN 978-1-919976-39-6 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Kron, Kathleen A; Chase, Mark W. _Molecular systematics and seed plant phylogeny: a summary of a parsimony analysis of rbcL sequence data_. pp. 243–252. , in Gibbs et al (1995) * Gibbs, Adrian J.; Calisher, Charles H.; García-Arenal, Fernando, eds. (1995). _Molecular basis of virus evolution_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521022897 . * Soltis, D. E. ; Soltis, P. S. ; Zanis, M. J. (1 October 2002). "Phylogeny of seed plants based on evidence from eight genes". _ American Journal of Botany_. 89 (10): 1670–1681. PMID 21665594 . doi :10.3732/ajb.89.10.1670 .

TAXON IDENTIFIERS

* NCBI : 58024 * Fossilworks: 55350

* v * t * e

Classification of Archaeplastida/ Plantae_sensu lato_

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant
Plant
Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Animal Fungi )

Rhodophyta (red algae)

* Cyanidiophyceae * Porphyridiophyceae * Compsopogonophyceae * Stylonematophyceae * Rhodellophyceae * Bangiophyceae * Florideophyceae

Glaucocystophyta (glaucophytes)

* Glaucocystophyceae

* _ Glaucocystis_ * _ Cyanophora_ * _ Gloeochaete_

Viridiplantae (green algae border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

CHLOROPHYTA

* Palmophyllales * Nephroselmidophyceae * Prasinophyceae
Prasinophyceae
* Pseudoscourfieldiales * Pyramimonadophyceae * Scourfieldiales * Pedinophyceae * Chlorodendrophyceae

* UTC clade

* Ulvophyceae
Ulvophyceae
* Trebouxiophyceae * Chlorophyceae
Chlorophyceae

Streptophyta
Streptophyta
(charophyta , border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Charophytes
Charophytes

* Mesostigmatophyceae * Chlorokybophyceae * Klebsormidiophyceae * Charophyceae * Coleochaetophyceae * Zygnematophyceae
Zygnematophyceae

Embryophyta
Embryophyta
(land plants)

Bryophytes (non-vascular)

* Marchantiophyta
Marchantiophyta
* Anthocerotophyta * Bryophyta "Moss" * † Horneophytopsida

Tracheophyta (vascular)

Lycopodiophyta (microphylls )

* † Zosterophyllopsida * † Sawdoniales * Isoetopsida * Lycopodiopsida
Lycopodiopsida

Euphyllophyta (megaphylls )

Moniliformopses (ferns)

* † Cladoxylopsida
Cladoxylopsida
* † Stauropteridales * † Zygopteridales * Equisetopsida
Equisetopsida
* Psilotopsida * Marattiopsida * Filicopsida

Spermatophyta (seed plants)

* † Seed
Seed
ferns

* Gymnosperms

* Gnetopsida * Pinopsida * Cycadopsida * Ginkgoopsida

* Angiosperms
Angiosperms
or flowering plants

* Monocotyledon
Monocotyledon
* Eudicots
Eudicots
* Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
* Magnoliids
Magnoliids

OTHER

* †Trimerophyta * † Progymnosperm

OTHER

* † Rhyniophyta

† = extinct . See also the list of plant orders .

* v * t * e

Botany
Botany

History of botany

SUBDISCIPLINES

* Plant
Plant
systematics * Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
* Paleobotany
Paleobotany
* Plant
Plant
anatomy * Plant
Plant
ecology

* Phytogeography

* Geobotany * Flora
Flora

* Phytochemistry
Phytochemistry
* Plant
Plant
pathology * Bryology
Bryology
* Phycology
Phycology
* Floristics * Dendrology
Dendrology

PLANT GROUPS

* Algae
Algae
* Archaeplastida * Bryophyte * Non-vascular plants * Vascular plants * Spermatophytes * Pteridophyte * Gymnosperm
Gymnosperm

* Angiosperm(flowering)

* Grasses

Plant
Plant
morphology (glossary )

PLANT CELLS

* Cell wall
Cell wall
* Phragmoplast * Plastid * Plasmodesmata * Vacuole
Vacuole

TISSUES

* Meristem

* Vascular tissue
Vascular tissue

* Vascular bundle
Vascular bundle

* Ground tissue
Ground tissue

* Mesophyll

* Cork * Wood
Wood
* Storage organs

VEGETATIVE

* Root
Root
* Rhizoid * Bulb
Bulb
* Rhizome
Rhizome

* Shoot
Shoot

* Stem

* Leaf
Leaf

* Petiole * Cataphyll

* Bud
Bud
* Sessility

Reproductive (Flower)

* Flower
Flower
development

* Inflorescence
Inflorescence

* Umbel
Umbel
* Raceme * Bract * Pedicellate

* Flower
Flower

* Whorl * Floral symmetry * Floral diagram
Floral diagram
* Floral formula
Floral formula

* Receptacle * Hypanthium
Hypanthium
(Floral cup)

* Perianth

* Tepal
Tepal
* Petal
Petal
* Sepal
Sepal

* Sporophyll

* Gynoecium

* Ovary

* Ovule
Ovule

* Stigma

* Archegonium
Archegonium

* Androecium

* Stamen
Stamen
* Staminode * Pollen
Pollen
* Tapetum

* Gynandrium * Gametophyte
Gametophyte
* Sporophyte
Sporophyte
* Plant
Plant
embryo

* Fruit
Fruit

* Fruit
Fruit
anatomy * Berry * Capsule

* Seed
Seed

* Seed
Seed
dispersal * Endosperm

SURFACE STRUCTURES

* Epicuticular wax * Plant
Plant
cuticle * Epidermis * Stoma * Nectary * Trichome
Trichome
* Prickle

* Plant
Plant
physiology * Materials

* Nutrition

* Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis

* Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll

* Plant
Plant
hormone * Transpiration
Transpiration
* Turgor pressure * Bulk flow * Aleurone
Aleurone
* Phytomelanin * Sugar
Sugar
* Sap
Sap
* Starch
Starch
* Cellulose
Cellulose

PLANT GROWTH AND HABIT

* Secondary growth
Secondary growth
* Woody plants * Herbaceous plants

* Habit

* Vines

* Lianas

* Shrubs

* Subshrubs

* Trees * Succulent plants

Reproduction

* Evolution * Ecology

* Alternation of generations
Alternation of generations

* Sporangium
Sporangium

* Spore
Spore

* Microsporangia

* Microspore
Microspore

* Megasporangium

* Megaspore
Megaspore

* Pollination
Pollination

* Pollinators * Pollen
Pollen
tube

* Double fertilization
Double fertilization
* Germination
Germination
* Evolutionary development

* Evolutionary history

* timeline

* Hardiness zone

PLANT TAXONOMY

* History of plant systematics
History of plant systematics
* Herbarium
Herbarium
* Biological classification
Biological classification

* Botanical nomenclature

* Botanical name * Correct name * Author citation * International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) * - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP)

* Taxonomic rank
Taxonomic rank
* International Association for Plant
Plant
Taxonomy (IAPT) * Plant
Plant
taxonomy sys