1 History 2 Solving methods
2.1 CFOP method 2.2 Roux method 2.3 ZZ method 2.4 Petrus method 2.5 Corners-first methods
3.1 World Cube Association
4 World records 5 Lubrication 6 Terminology 7 See also 8 References 9 External links
Anssi Vanhala solving a 3×3×3
World Cube Association Since 2003, speedcubing competitions have been held regularly. The World Cube Association (WCA) was formed in 2004 to govern all official competitions. For a competition to be official, it must be approved by the WCA and follow the WCA regulations. Included in the regulations is the necessity of having one or more WCA delegate in attendance. A delegate's main role is to ensure all regulations are followed during the competition. Once the competition has finished, the results are uploaded on to the WCA website. Format The majority of puzzle competitions are held using an average of 5 format. This involves the competitor solving 5 times in the round; the fastest and slowest solve are disregarded and the mean of the remaining 3 is used. The 6×6×6 and 7×7×7 events are ranked by mean of 3. This is the same but only three solves are done, and no solves are disregarded when calculating the mean. 3×3×3 blindfolded and fewest moves challenge are held either by mean of 3 or best of 3. 4×4×4 blindfolded, 5×5×5 blindfolded and multiple blindfolded are held using best of 1, 2 or 3, depending on the competition. Occasionally an event is held using an uncommon format, for example best of 3 for 3×3×3. When a round begins, competitors hand in the puzzle they will use. Puzzles are scrambled using a computer-generated scramble. Each round, five, three or one (depending on the format, mentioned above) scrambles are used. Every competitor in the round will receive each scramble once. Before starting a solve, a competitor has up to 15 seconds to inspect the puzzle (inspection is removed for blindfolded events). This is monitored by a judge with a stopwatch. Once the solve is complete, the judge records the time on the competitor's scorecard and it is signed by both. If the puzzle is unsolved and the timer is stopped, the time is recorded as "DNF" (Did Not Finish). There are also numerous reasons why the solve can receive a two-second addition to the solve time, such as a face being more than 45 degrees off, or the competitor going over the allowed inspection time. A competitor can also receive an extra solve to replace the one just completed, for example having a timer malfunction or being deliberately distracted by another person. The official timer used in competitions is the StackMat timer. This device has touch-sensitive pads that are triggered by the user lifting one or both of their hands to start the time and placing both their hands back on the pads after releasing the puzzle to stop the timer. Official competitions are currently being held in several categories.
Category Cube type
Speedsolving 2×2×2, 3×3×3, 4×4×4, 5×5×5, 6×6×6, 7×7×7
Blindfolded solving 3x3x3, 4x4x4, 5x5x5
Multiple blindfolded solving 3x3x3
One-handed solving 3x3x3
Solving with feet 3x3x3
Solving in fewest moves 3x3x3
Speedsolvers solving Megaminxes at the 2011 Estonian Open.
Competitions will often include events for speedsolving these other puzzles, as well:
Pyraminx Megaminx Skewb Square-1 Rubik's Clock
Championship Year Host Date(s) Nations Puzzles Events Winner Winning time(s) Ref
I 1982 Budapest 5 June 19 1 1 Minh Thai 22.95 
II 2003 Toronto 23–24 August 15 9 13 Dan Knights 20.00 
III 2005 Lake Buena Vista 5–6 November 16 9 15 Jean Pons 15.10 
IV 2007 Budapest 5–7 October 28 10 17 Yu Nakajima 12.46 
V 2009 Düsseldorf 9–11 October 32 12 19 Breandan Vallance 10.74 
VI 2011 Bangkok 14–16 October 35 12 19 Michał Pleskowicz 8.65 
VII 2013 Las Vegas 26–28 July 35 10 17 Feliks Zemdegs 8.18 
VIII 2015 São Paulo 17–19 July 37 11 18 Feliks Zemdegs 7.56 
IX 2017 Paris 13–16 July 64 11 18 Max Park 6.85 
World records The following are the official speedcubing world records approved by the WCA. Note: For averages of 5 solves, the best time and the worst time are dropped, and the mean of the remaining 3 solves is taken. When only 3 solves are done, the mean of all 3 is taken.
Event Type Result Person Competition (Date(s)) Result Details (Min:Sec.100ths)
3×3×3 Single 4.59 SeungBeom Cho (조승범) ChicaGhosts 2017 (28 October) —
Feliks Zemdegs Hobart Summer 2018 (27 January) —
Average 5.80 Feliks Zemdegs Malaysia Cube Open 2017 (14 October) 5.99 / 5.28 / 5.25 / 6.13 / 9.19
Average 1.35 Maciej Czapiewski Warsaw Cube Masters 2018 (24-25 February) 1.25 / 1.14 / 1.31 / 2.00 / 1.50
LatAm Tour -
Average 22.55 Max Park SacCubing III 2018 (27-28 January) 22.26 / 22.37 / 23.03 / 21.03 / 26.26
5×5×5 Single 38.52 Feliks Zemdegs World Championship 2017 (13-16 July) —
Average 43.21 Feliks Zemdegs Melbourne Cube Days 2017 (18-19 November) 42.24 / 53.93 / 42.02 / 42.66 / 44.74
6×6×6 Single 1:19.60 Max Park SacCubing III 2018 (27-28 January) —
Mean 1:25.10 Max Park SacCubing III 2018 (27-28 January) 1:24.66 / 1:31.04 / 1:19.60
7×7×7 Single 1:59.95 Kevin Hays Heartland Champs 2018 (9-11 March) —
Mean 2:08.71 Kevin Hays Heartland Champs 2018 (9-11 March) 2:13.91 / 2:12.27 / 1:59.95
3×3×3 Blindfolded Single 17.87 Max Hilliard Texas BLD Showdown 2017 (19 November) —
Mean 22.36 Angelo Zhang Longhorn Cube Day 2017 (18 November) 23.18 / 23.17 / 20.73
3×3×3 Fewest Moves Single 19 Tim Wong Irvine Fall 2015 (11 October) —
Marcel Peters Cubelonia 2016 (9–10 January) —
Vladislav Ushakov PSU Open 2016 (27–28 August) —
Mean 24.00 Sébastien Auroux Only FMC 2017 (26 August) 23 / 26 / 23
Walker Welch FMC Americas 2017 (15 October) 22 / 23 / 27
Average 9.99 Max Park Thanks Four The Invite 2018 (13 January) 8.27 / 9.89 / 10.27 / 12.66 / 9.82
3×3×3 with Feet Single 16.96 Daniel Rose-Levine Heartland Champs 2018 (9-11 March) —
Mean 26.84 Jimin Byeon (변지민) Jeju Open 2017 (25-26 November) 24.95 / 28.95 / 26.62
Juan Pablo Huanqui
LatAm Tour -
Average 32.03 Yu Da-Hyun (유다현) CWR Winter 2018 (24 February) 30.94 / 31.24 / 35.78 / 30.12 / 33.90
Pyraminx Single 1.20 Tymon Kolasiński Speed Days Kraśnik 2018 (13-14 January) —
Average 2.02 Tymon Kolasiński GLS Final 2017 (9-10 December) 2.11 / 1.65 / 2.45 / 2.30 / 1.51
Rubik's Clock Single 3.73 Nathaniel Berg Danish Open 2015 (20–21 June) —
Average 4.95 Tairan Zhong (钟泰然) Shanghai Winter 2018 (20-21 January) 4.13 / 4.44 / 5.87 / 5.47 / 4.94
Skewb Single 1.10 Jonatan Kłosko ŚLS Wodzisław Śląski 2015 (17 October) —
Average 2.03 Łukasz Burliga CFL Santa Claus Cube Race 2017 (16-17 December) 2.48 / 1.91 / 1.71 / 1.39 / 4.98
Square-1 Single 5.73 Charlie Stark Guildford Open 2017 (23-24 September) —
Average 7.56 Charlie Stark Guildford Open 2018 (17-18 March) 7.28 / 10.72 / 7.30 / 7.29 / 8.09
Kaijun Lin (林恺俊)
5×5×5 Blindfolded Single 3:46.56 Kaijun Lin (林恺俊) Singapore Championship 2018 (24–25 February) —
3×3×3 Multiple Blindfolded Single 43/44 Mark Boyanowksi Keep Portland Quiet 2018 (24-25 March) 1:00:00
Lubrication Members of the cubing community lubricate their cubes to allow them to be manipulated faster, easier, and more reliably than a non-lubricated cube. The WCA allows lubrication for official competitions. Popular lubricants among speedcubers are:
Cubicle Silicone Lube/Lubicle
Checking a lubricant's MSDS is often helpful in identifying cube-damaging ingredients. Terminology Below are some definitions of words generally used by the speedcubing community. For a more complete list of speedcubing terminology, see the cubefreak.net glossary.
A set of 3915 algorithms to solve every possible state that the last
layer could be in after completing F2L. The average move count is
A predefined sequence of moves used to effect a specific change on the
cube. Often referred to as alg or (less commonly) an algo.
Short for Bad Job, usually used to harass or tease a cuber on a bad
Blindfolded solving, i.e. memorize, don blindfold, then solve.
One of the centers of the faces of the cube. The centers never move
relative to each other on an NxNxN cube, where N is odd. On NxNxN
cubes where N>3, every piece with only one sticker is referred to
as a 'center piece', including those pieces that can move relative to
Corners of the Last Layer. This is the first of two steps of one of
the methods of solving the last layer of the cube. In the process,
edges may be unoriented. This is used in Corners First methods for the
last layer, in which the first all corners are solved, followed by the
edges (see ELL). CLL is also commonly used to solve the last layer of
a 2x2x2 cube in one step.
A commutator is a sequence of the form X.Y.X'.Y' (also represented as
[X:Y] or [X,Y]) which affects only specific portions of the cube,
leaving the rest untouched. This is used in Blindfolded solving and
Fewest Moves Competition.
One of the 8 pieces with exactly three stickers, called a "corner"
piece because a corner is exposed.
Someone who solves a Rubik's cube, any of its other sizes, and/or
other shaped puzzles.
One of the mechanically independent pieces that make up a puzzle. The
cubies do not include fixed center pieces, the central axis to which
they are attached, or any other internal pieces (Such as the internal
edges of a 4x4 or 2x2).
To rotate pieces' positions on the cube. e.g. a 3-cycle would make
cubie set A-B-C become C-A-B.
Initialism for Did Not Finish, used in competitions and self-timing.
e.g. when a piece pop occurs and the competitor decides not to
continue solving the puzzle, or when the solver stops the timer with
the cube still unsolved.
Did Not Start, used in competition when the competitor does not begin
a solve, either by opting to skip it (common in Blindfold Cubing), by
not showing up when he or she is called, or not qualifying for the
remaining (usually three) solves of a certain round.
One of the 12 pieces with exactly two stickers, called an "edge" piece
because only one edge is exposed.
Edges of the Last Layer. The second of two steps of one of the methods
of solving the last layer of the cube, solving the edge pieces without
disturbing the corner pieces (see CLL).
displaystyle R^ -1
, or Ri. Also (less commonly) known as "inverse" or "inverted". Slice The four center pieces and four edge pieces between two opposite layers of the cube. On a cube with four or more layers, it refers to any of the layers of the puzzle that don't have corner pieces. Summer Variation A subset of algorithms for F2L that allows the user to force all upper-face corners to be oriented correctly, or an OLL-Skip, while the last F2L pair can be solved with R U R' or L' U' L. TPS Turns per second - the number count of turns per second indicating how fast the cuber turns. Two-Second Penalty, also known as +2 A penalty of 2 seconds which is added to a solving time in official competitions when the cube is placed back on the timing pad with one or more faces misaligned 45 degrees or more. It can also be given in other cases, such as when the competitor starts the timer too slow or does not correctly stop the timer after finishing the solve. UWR Unofficial World Record. WCA World Cube Association, the international governing body for official cube competitions. Winter Variation, also known as WV A subset of algorithms for F2L that allows the user to force all upper-face corners to be oriented correctly, or an OLL-Skip, while the last F2L pair is already formed. It is used when the last F2L pair (One corner and its corresponding edge correctly positioned relative to each other) to be inserted is in the top layer, with the 3 top-layer edges oriented correctly. There are a total of 27 cases. WV has an average lower move count than the standard OLL. WR World Record. Can also be "World Rank" when referring to the rank of a person's record in a database. X-Cross Completing an F2L pair during the cross setup, used almost exclusively in the CFOP method. YTUWR YouTube Unofficial World Record, the fastest of something that is posted on YouTube. ZBLL Considered one of the holy grails of speedcubing. It is a set of 177 algorithms (Not including mirrors and inverses) with 494 cases to recognize in order to solve the last layer in one look while all of the top edges are oriented with an average move count of ~12.08. Can be used in any layer-by-layer method that ends in N-Look LL, but will only really be efficient in ZZ and Petrus, as these methods keep edges oriented, whereas methods such as CFOP do not keep the edges oriented, becoming a sometimes 2LLL solve.
Rubik's Cube World Cube Association Feliks Zemdegs Max Park
^ "WCA Regulations". World Cube Association. Retrieved 2 August
^ "22x22 rubik's cube World Record". YouTube. Retrieved 2 August
^ "World Records for 3x3 single and average". World Cube Association.
Retrieved 2 July 2017.
^ "Competitions". World Cube Association. Retrieved 2 August
Speedsolving.com Speedsolving.com Wiki Fridrich Method Roux Method ZZ Method World Cube Association
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Ernő Rubik Uwe Mèffert Tony Fisher Panagiotis Verdes Oskar van Deventer
Overview 2×2×2 (Pocket Cube) 3×3×3 (Rubik's Cube) 4×4×4 (Rubik's Revenge) 5×5×5 (Professor's Cube) 6×6×6 (V-Cube 6) 7×7×7 (V-Cube 7) 8×8×8 (V-Cube 8)
Helicopter Cube Skewb Square 1 Sudoku Cube Nine-Colour Cube Void Cube
Virtual variations (>3D)
MagicCube4D MagicCube5D MagicCube7D Magic 120-cell
Missing Link Rubik's 360 Rubik's Clock Rubik's Magic
Rubik's Revolution Rubik's Snake Rubik's Triamid Rubik's Cheese
Erik Akkersdijk Yu Nakajima Bob Burton, Jr. Jessica Fridrich Chris Hardwick Rowe Hessler Leyan Lo Shotaro Makisumi Toby Mao Tyson Mao Frank Morris Lars Petrus Gilles Roux David Singmaster Ron van Bruchem Eric Limeback Anthony Michael Brooks Mats Valk Feliks Zemdegs Collin Burns Lucas Etter
Layer by Layer CFOP Method Roux Method Corners First Optimal
World Cube Association