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Ursus ornatus Cuvier, 1825

The spectacled bear ( Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus), also known as the Andean bear or Andean short-faced bear and locally as jukumari (Aymara), ukumari (Quechua) or ukuku, is the last remaining short-faced bear (subfamily Tremarctinae). Its closest relatives are the extinct Florida spectacled bear,[2] and the giant short-faced bears of the Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
to Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
age.[3][4] Spectacled bears are the only surviving species of bear native to South America, and the only surviving member of the subfamily Tremarctinae. The species is classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN
IUCN
because of habitat loss.

Contents

1 Description 2 Distribution and habitat 3 Naming and etymology 4 Behavior and diet

4.1 Reproduction

5 Conservation

5.1 Threats 5.2 Conservation actions and plans

6 Media 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Description[edit]

At the Cincinnati Zoo

The spectacled bear is the only bear native to South America
South America
and is technically the largest land carnivore on that part of the continent, although as little as 5% of its diet is composed of meat. South America's largest obligate carnivorous mammal is the jaguar (Panthera onca). Among South America's extant, native land animals, only the Baird's (Tapirus bairdii) and South American tapirs (T. terrestris) are heavier than this species.[5] The spectacled bear is a mid-sized species of bear. Overall, its fur is blackish in color, though bears may vary from jet black to dark brown and to even a reddish hue. The species typically has distinctive beige or ginger-coloured markings across its face and upper chest, though not all spectacled bears have "spectacle" markings. The pattern and extent of pale markings are slightly different on each individual bear, and bears can be readily distinguished by this.[6] Males are a third larger than females in dimensions and sometimes twice their weight.[7] Males can weigh from 100 to 200 kg (220 to 440 lb), and females can weigh from 35 to 82 kg (77 to 181 lb).[8] Head-and-body length can range from 120 to 200 cm (47 to 78.5 in), though mature males do not measure less than 150 cm (59 in).[9][10] The tail is a mere 7 cm (2.8 in) in length, and the shoulder height is from 60 to 90 cm (23.5 to 35.5 in). Compared to other living bears, this species has a more rounded face with a relatively short and broad snout. In some extinct species of the Tremarctinae subfamily, this facial structure has been thought to be an adaptation to a largely carnivorous diet, despite the modern spectacled bears' herbivorous dietary preferences.[11][12][13] Distribution and habitat[edit] Despite some rare spilling-over into eastern Panama,[14] spectacled bears are mostly restricted to certain areas of northern and western South America. They can range in western Venezuela,[15] Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, western Bolivia, and northwestern Argentina. The species is found almost entirely in the Andes
Andes
Mountains. Before spectacled bear populations became fragmented during the last 500 years, the species had a reputation for being adaptable, as it is found in a wide variety of habitats and altitudes throughout its range, including cloud forests, high-altitude grasslands, dry forests and scrub deserts. A single spectacled bear population on the border of Peru
Peru
and Ecuador
Ecuador
inhabited as great a range of habitat types as the world's brown bears (Ursus arctos) now occupy.[10] The best habitats for spectacled bears are humid to very humid montane forests. These cloud forests typically occupy a 500 to 1,000 m (1,600 to 3,300 ft) elevational band between 1,000 and 2,700 m (3,300 and 8,900 ft) depending on latitude. Generally, the wetter these forests are the more food species there are that can support bears.[10][16] Occasionally, they may reach altitudes as low as 250 m (820 ft), but are not typically found below 1,900 m (6,200 ft) in the foothills. They can even range up to the mountain snow line at over 5,000 m (16,000 ft) in elevation.[5][10][17] Naming and etymology[edit] Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus is commonly referred to in English as the "spectacled bear", a reference to the light colouring on its chest, neck and face, which may resemble eyeglasses in some individuals, or the "Andean bear" for its distribution along the Andes. The root trem- comes from a Greek word meaning "hole;" arctos is the Greek word for "bear." Tremarctos
Tremarctos
is a reference to an unusual hole on the animal's humerus. Ornatus, Latin for "decorated", is a reference to the markings that give the bear its common English name. Behavior and diet[edit]

Skull

At a zoo in Venezuela

Spectacled bears are one of four extant bear species that are habitually arboreal, alongside the American black bear
American black bear
(Ursus americanus) and Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus), and the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus). In Andean cloud forests, spectacled bears may be active both during the day and night, but in Peruvian desert are reported to bed down under vegetative cover during the day. Their continued survival alongside humans has depended mostly on their ability to climb even the tallest trees of the Andes. They usually retreat from the presence of humans, often by climbing trees.[18] Once up a tree, they may often build a platform, perhaps to aid in concealment, as well as to rest and store food on.[18] Although spectacled bears are solitary and tend to isolate themselves from one another to avoid competition, they are not territorial. They have even been recorded to feed in small groups at abundant food sources.[14] Males are reported to have an average home range of 23 km2 (8.9 sq mi) during the wet season and 27 km2 (10 sq mi) during the dry season. Females are reported to have an average home range of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi) in the wet season and 7 km2 (2.7 sq mi) in the dry season.[19] When encountered by humans or other spectacled bears, they will react in a docile but cautious manner, unless the intruder is seen as a threat or a mother's cubs are endangered. Like other bears, mothers are protective of their young and have attacked poachers. There is only a single reported human death due to a spectacled bear, which occurred while it was being hunted and was already shot. The only predators of cubs include cougars (Puma concolor) and possibly male spectacled bears. The bears "appear to avoid" jaguars, but the jaguar has considerably different habitat preferences, does not overlap with the spectacled bear in altitude on any specific mountain slope, and only overlaps slightly (900m) in altitude if the entire Cordillera Oriental is considered based upon unpublished data.[10] Generally, the only threat against adult bears is humans.[20] The longest-lived captive bear, at the National Zoo in Washington, DC, attained a lifespan of 36 years and 8 months. Lifespan in the wild has not been studied, but bears are believed to commonly live to 20 years or more unless they run afoul of humans.[5] Spectacled bears are more herbivorous than most other bears; normally about 5 to 7% of their diets is meat.[5] The most common foods for these bears include cactus, bromeliads (especially Puya ssp., Tillandsia
Tillandsia
ssp. and Guzmania
Guzmania
ssp.) palm nuts, bamboo hearts, frailejon ( Espeletia
Espeletia
spp.), orchid bulbs, fallen fruit on the forest floor, and unopened palm leaves.[21][22][23] They will also peel back tree bark to eat the nutritious second layer.[24] Much of this vegetation is very tough to open or digest for most animals, and the bear is one of the few species in its range to exploit these food sources. The spectacled bear has the largest zygomatic mandibular muscles relative to its body size and the shortest muzzle of any living bear, slightly surpassing the relative size of the giant panda's (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) morphology here.[25][26] Not coincidentally, both species are known for extensively consuming tough, fibrous plants. Unlike the ursid bears whose fourth premolar has a more well-developed protoconid, an adaptation for shearing flesh,[27] the fourth premolar of spectacled bears has blunt lophs with three pulp cavities instead of two, and can have three roots instead of the two that characterize ursid bears. The musculature and tooth characteristics are designed to support the stresses of grinding and crushing vegetation. Besides the giant panda, the spectacled bear is perhaps the most herbivorous living bear species.[28] These bears also eat cultivated plants, such as sugarcane (Saccharum ssp.), honey (made by Apis ssp.), and corn (Zea mays), and have been known to travel above the tree line for berries and more ground-based bromeliads.[29] When food is abundant, such as large corn fields, up to nine individual bears have fed close by each other in a single vicinity. Animal
Animal
prey is usually quite small, but these bears can prey on adult deer, llama (Lama glama) and domestic cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) and horses (Equus ferus caballus).[14][23][30] Animal
Animal
prey has included rabbits, mice, other rodents, birds at the nest (especially ground-nesting birds like tinamous or lapwings (Vanellus ssp.)), arthropods, and carrion.[21][22][31] They are occasionally accused of killing livestock, especially cattle, and raiding corn fields.[10][18] Allegedly, some bears become habituated to eating cattle, but the bears are actually more likely to eat cattle as carrion and some farmers may accidentally assume the spectacled bear killed them. Due to fear of loss of stock, bears may be killed on sight.[32][33] Reproduction[edit] Mating may occur at almost any time of the year, but activity normally peaks in April and June, at the beginning of the wet season and corresponding with the peak of fruit-ripening. The mating pair are together for one to two weeks, during which they will copulate multiple times. Births usually occur in the dry season, between December and February. The gestation period is 5.5 to 8.5 months.[5][10][34] From one to three cubs may be born, with four being rare and two being the average. The cubs are born with their eyes closed and weigh about 300 to 330 g (11 to 12 oz) each.[35] Although this species does not give birth during the hibernation cycle as do northern bear species, births usually occur in a small den and the female waits until the cubs can see and walk before she leaves with them. The size of the litter has been positively correlated with both the weight of the female and the abundance and variety of food sources, particularly the degree to which fruiting is temporally predictable.[10] The cubs often stay with the female for one year before striking out on their own.[5][10][14] Breeding maturity is estimated to be reached at between four and seven years of age for both sexes, based solely on captive bears.[34] Conservation[edit] Threats[edit]

Spectacled Bear
Bear
at Tennoji Zoo
Tennoji Zoo
in Osaka, Japan.

The andean bear is threatened due to poaching and habitat loss. Poaching
Poaching
might have several reasons: trophy hunting, pet trade, religious or magical beliefs, natural products trade and conflicts with humans.[36] Trophy hunting
Trophy hunting
of andean bear was apparently popular during the 19th century in some rural areas of Latin-America. In the costumbrist novel "María" by Colombian writer Jorge Isaacs, it was portrayed as an activity for privileged young men in Colombia. Tales regarding pet bears are also known from documents about the Ecuadorian aristocracy of that time.[37] These threats might have diminished in recent years, but there are still isolated reports of captive bears confiscated in rural areas, which usually are unable to adapt again to their natural habitat and must be kept in zoological facilities.[38] Religious or magical beliefs might be motivations for killing andean bears, specially in places where bears are related to myths of disappearing women or kids, or where bear parts are related to traditional medicine or superstitions. In this context, the trade of bear parts might have commercial value. Their gall bladders appear to be valued in traditional Chinese medicine and can fetch a high price on the international market. Conflicts with humans, however, appear to be the most common cause of poaching in large portions of its distribution.[36] Andean Bears are often suspected of attacking cattle and raiding crops, and are killed for retaliation or in order to avoid further damages. It has been argued that attacks to cattle attributed to andean bear are partly due to other predators. Raiding of crops can be frequent in areas with diminishing natural resources and extensive crops in former bear habitat, or when problematic individuals get used to human environments. The intensity of poaching can create ecological traps for andean bears. That is, if bears are attracted to areas of high habitat quality that are also high in poaching risk.[39] Perhaps the most epidemic problem for the species is extensive logging and farming, which has led to habitat loss for the largely tree-dependent bears. As little as 5% of the original habitat in Andean cloud forest remains.[10] Shortage of natural food sources might push bears to feed on crops or livestock, increasing the conflict that usually results in poaching of individual. Impacts of climate changes on bear habitat and food sources are not fully understood, but might have potential negative impact in the near future. Conservation actions and plans[edit] The IUCN
IUCN
has recommended the following courses for spectacled bear conservation: expansion and implementation of conservation land to prevent further development, greater species level research and monitoring of trends and threats, more concerted management of current conservation areas, stewardship programs for bears which engage local residents and the education of the public regarding spectacled bears, especially the benefits of conserving the species due to its effect on natural resources.[10] National governments, NGOs and rural communities have made different commitments to conservation of this species along its distribution. Conservation actions in Venezuela
Venezuela
date back to the early [1990]s, and have been based mostly on environmental education at several levels and the establishment of protected areas. The effort of several organizations has led to a widespread recognition of the andean bear in Venezuelan society, raising it as an emblematic species of conservation efforts in the country, and to the establishment of a 10-year action plan.[40] Evidence about the effects of these actions in actually protecting the species (like reducing poaching risk, maintaining population viability, and reducing extinction risk) is still debattable and needs to be subject to further evaluation.[41][42] Legislation against bears hunting exists, but is rarely enforced.[36][43] This leads to persistence of the poaching problematic, even inside protected areas.[39] In 2006 the Spectacled Bear
Bear
Conservation Society was established in Peru
Peru
to study and protect the spectacled bear.[44] Media[edit]

Colombian 50 pesos coin, with an image of a Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
and text "oso de anteojos – Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus" on the obverse.

The children's character Paddington Bear
Bear
is a spectacled bear, famously from "darkest Peru".[45] In the documentary Paddington Bear: The Early Years, British actor Stephen Fry
Stephen Fry
encounters a spectacled bear called Yogi, which was kept in a small cage by Andean villagers. Fry bartered with the villagers to have the bear released, and it was taken to an enclosure in Machu Picchu. Fry's interest in the bears led to the follow-up documentary, Stephen Fry
Stephen Fry
and the Spectacled Bears, and he also wrote and published his experiences in Rescuing the Spectacled Bear: A Peruvian Diary. In the BBC
BBC
television programme Serious Andes, a team of eight teenagers built a prerelease enclosure for two spectacled bears before returning them to the wild. The BBC
BBC
documentary "Spectacled Bears: Shadows of the Forest" looked at conservation issues and conflicts with farming communities.[46] See also[edit]

Spectacled Bear
Bear
Conservation Society

References[edit]

^ Goldstein, I., Velez-Liendo, X., Paisley, S. & Garshelis, D.L. (2008). " Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 27 January 2009. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Listed as Vulnerable (VU A4cd) ^ Krause, J.; Unger, T.; Noçon, A.; Malaspinas, A.; Kolokotronis, S.; Stiller, M.; Soibelzon, L.; Spriggs, H.; Dear, P. H.; Briggs, A. W.; Bray, S. C. E.; O'Brien, S. J.; Rabeder, G.; Matheus, P.; Cooper, A.; Slatkin, M.; Pääbo, S.; Hofreiter, M. (2008). "Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8 (220): 220. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-220. PMC 2518930 . PMID 18662376. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Spectacled Bear. Grizzly Bear.org. Retrieved on 2011-09-26. ^ Spectacled Bears. Bear
Bear
Planet. Retrieved on 2011-09-26. ^ a b c d e f Nowak, R.M. (1991). Walker’s Mammals of the World.'. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, ISBN 0801857899. ^ Roth H.H. (1964). "Ein beitrag zur Kenntnis von Tremarctos
Tremarctos
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Bear
– National Zoo FONZ. Nationalzoo.si.edu. Retrieved on 2011-09-26. ^ Macdonald, D. (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Servheen, C., Herrero, S. and Peyton, B. (1999). Bears: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Bear
Bear
and Polar Bear
Bear
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videos, photos and facts – Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus. ARKive. Retrieved on 2011-09-26. ^ Spectacled Bear. Brazilianfauna.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-26. ^ Burton, Maurice; Burton, Robert (1970). The international wildlife encyclopedia. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 2470–. ISBN 978-0-7614-7266-7. Retrieved 26 September 2011.  ^ a b c d Bunnell, Fred (1984). Macdonald, D., ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. p. 96. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.  ^ "Spectacled bear, Andean bear, ucumari". BBC
BBC
– Science & Nature – Wildfacts. BBC.  ^ Peyton, B. (1987). "Habitat components of the spectacled bear". Ursus. 7 (International Conf. Bear
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Res. and Manage.): 127–133.  ^ Brown, A.D. and Rumiz, D.I. (1989). "Habitat and distribution of the spectacled bear ( Tremarctos
Tremarctos
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Tremarctos
ornatus, in Peru". Journal of Mammalogy. 61 (4): 639–652. doi:10.2307/1380309. JSTOR 1380309.  ^ a b Jorgenson, J.P., and Rodriguez, J.S. (1986). Proyecto del oso frontino en Colombia. Spectacled Bear
Bear
Specialist Group Newsletter 10:22–25. ^ a b Goldstein, I. (1989). " Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
distribution and diet in the Venezuelan Andes", pp. 2–16. in: Rosenthal, M., (Ed.) Proc. First Int. Symp. Spectacled Bear. Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, Chicago Park District Press, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. ^ Figueroa, J. and Stucchi, M. (2009). El Oso Andino: Alcances Sobre su Historia Natural. Asociación para la Investigación y Conservación de la Biodiversidad-AICB, Lima, Peru. ^ Davis, D.D. (1955). "Masticatory apparatus in the spectacled bear ( Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus)". Fieldiana Zoology. 37: 25–46. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.2809.  ^ Mondolfi E (1971). "El oso frontino". Defensa de la Naturaleza. 1: 31–35.  ^ Kurtén, B. (1966). " Pleistocene
Pleistocene
bears of North America: Genus Tremarctos, spectacled bears". Acta Zoologica Fennica. 115: 1–96.  ^ Thenius, E. (1976). "Zur stammesgeschichtlichen Herkunft von Tremarctos
Tremarctos
(Ursidae, Mammalia)". Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 41: 109–114.  ^ Suárez, L. (1989). "Seasonal distribution and food habits of the spectacled bear ( Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus) in the highlands of Ecuador". Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 23 (3): 133–136. doi:10.1080/01650528809360755.  ^ Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus – Natural Diet (Literature Reports). Wildlife1.wildlifeinformation.org. Retrieved on 2011-09-26. ^ Spectacled Bears. Bears Of The World. Retrieved on 2011-09-26. ^ Peru: Who We Are. Spectacled Bear
Bear
Conservation. Retrieved on 2011-09-26. ^ CARNIVORA – Spectacled Bear
Bear
Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus. Carnivoraforum.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-26. ^ a b Rosenthal, M.A. (1987). "Biological management of spectacled bears ( Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus) in captivity", pp. 93–103. in: Weinhardt, D., (ed.) International studybook for the spectacled bear, 1986. Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, Chicago Park District Press, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. ^ Bloxam, Q. (1977). "Breeding the Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus at Jersey Zoo". International Zoo Yearbook. 17: 158–161. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1977.tb00894.x.  ^ a b c Sánchez-Mercado, A.; Ferrer-Paris, J. R.; Yerena, E.; García-Rangel, S.; Rodríguez-Clark, K. M. (2008). "Factors affecting poaching risk to Vulnerable Andean bears Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela: space, parks and people". Oryx. 42 (3): 437–447. doi:10.1017/S0030605308006996. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Boussingault, Jean Baptiste Joseph Dieudonné (Documento digitalizado por Biblioteca Virtual del Banco de la República, 2005). Memoirs. p. Capítulo XII El Salto de Tequendama – Historia de Manuelita Sáenz.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ Rodríguez-Clark, K. M.; Sánchez-Mercado, A. (2006). "Population management of threatened taxa in captivity within their natural ranges: Lessons from Andean bears ( Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus) in Venezuela". Biological Conservation. 129 (1): 134–148. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.10.037. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b Sánchez-Mercado, A.; Ferrer-Paris, J. R.; García-Rangel, S.; Yerena, E.; Robertson, B. A.; Rodríguez-Clark, K. M. (2014). "Combining threat and occurrence models to predict potential ecological traps for Andean bears in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela". Animal
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Conservation. 17 (4): 388–398. doi:10.1111/acv.12106. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Edgard Yerena; Dorixa Monsalve Dam; Denis Alexander Torres; Ada Sánchez; Shaenandhoa García-Rangel; Andrés Eloy Bracho; Zoila Martínez; Isis Gómez (2007). Plan de Acción para la Conservación del Oso Andino ( Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus) en Venezuela
Venezuela
(2006-2016). Fundación AndígenA, FUDENA, Universidad Simón Bolívar. p. 60pp.  ^ D. Monsalve-Dam, A Sánchez-Mercado, E. Yerena, S. García-Rangel, D. Torres (2010). "Efectividad de las áreas protegidas para la conservación del oso andino ( Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus) en los Andes Suramericanos". Ciencia y conservación de especies amenazadas en Venezuela: Conservación basada en evidencias e intervenciones estratégicas. Provita: 127–136. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ A. Sánchez-Mercado, E. Yerena, D. Monsalve, S. García-Rangel, D. Torres (2010). "Efectividad de las iniciativas de educación ambiental para la conservación del oso andino ( Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus) en la cordillera andina". Ciencia y conservación de especies amenazadas en Venezuela: Conservación basada en evidencias e intervenciones estratégicas. Provita: 137–146. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "Endangered Bears", The Pet
Pet
Wiki. ^ "Spectacled Bear
Bear
Conservation Society - Peru". Spectacled Bear Conservation Society.  ^ Alice Vincent (10 Jun 2014). "Paddington Bear: 13 things you didn't know". www.telegraph.co.uk. The Telegraph. Retrieved 8 January 2018. It's surprising that the earnest little chap wasn't given glasses. Bond wanted to Paddington to have "travelled all the way from darkest Africa", but was advised by his agent to change his country of origin due to the lack of bears in Africa. Instead, he picked Peru
Peru
- home to the Spectacled Bear.  ^ IM, DB. "Spectacled Bears: Shadows of the Forest". www.imdb.com. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus (category)

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus

Andean Bear
Bear
Conservation Project www.sbc-peru.org Don Oso Program by Fundación Cordillera Tropical

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey
Honey
badger (M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

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Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q137641 ADW: Tremarctos ARKive: tremarctos-ornatus EoL: 328076 Fossilworks: 97841 GBIF: 2433401 ITIS: 621849 IUCN: 22066 MSW: 14000951 NCBI: 96

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