The Info List - Specialty (medicine)

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A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]


1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country

7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician

8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 References

History of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized. According to Galen, specialization was common among Roman physicians. The particular system of modern medical specialities evolved gradually during the 19th century. Informal social recognition of medical specialization evolved before the formal legal system. The particular subdivision of the practice of medicine into various specialities varies from country to country, and is somewhat arbitrary.[2] Classification of medical specialization[edit] Medical specialties can be classified along several axes. These are:

Surgical or internal medicine Age range of patients Diagnostic or therapeutic Organ-based or technique-based

Throughout history, the most important has been the division into surgical and internal medicine specialties. The surgical specialties are the specialties in which an important part of diagnosis and treatment is achieved through major surgical techniques. The internal medicine specialties are the specialties in which the main diagnosis and treatment is never major surgery. In some countries Anesthesiology is classified as a surgical discipline, since it is vital in the surgical process, though anesthesiologists never perform major surgery themselves. Many specialties are organ-based. Many symptoms and diseases come from a particular organ. Others are based mainly around a set of techniques, such as radiology, which was originally based around X-rays. The age range of patients seen by any given specialist can be quite variable. Paediatricians handle most complaints and diseases in children that do not require surgery, and there are several subspecialties (formally or informally) in paediatrics that mimic the organ-based specialties in adults. Paediatric surgery
Paediatric surgery
may or may not be a separate specialty that handles some kinds of surgical complaints in children. A further subdivision is the diagnostic versus therapeutic specialties. While the diagnostic process is of great importance in all specialties, some specialists perform mainly or only diagnostic examinations, such as pathology, clinical neurophysiology, and radiology. This line is becoming somewhat blurred with interventional radiology, an evolving field that uses image expertise to perform minimally invasive procedures. Specialties that are common worldwide[edit]

Specialty Can be subspecialty of Diagnostic (D) or therapeutic (T) specialty Surgical (S) or internal medicine specialty (I) Age range of patients Organ-based (O) or technique-based (T)

and immunology Paediatrics
or Internal medicine Both I All O

medicine Paediatrics Both I Paediatric T

Anaesthesiology None T Unknown All Both

Aerospace medicine None Both Neither All Both

Pathology None D Neither All T

Cardiology Internal medicine T I Adults O

Cardiothoracic surgery General surgery T S Adults O

and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy Psychiatry T I Paediatric T

Clinical neurophysiology Neurology D I All Both

Colon and Rectal Surgery General Surgery Both S All O

Dermatology-Venereology None T I All O

Emergency medicine Anaesthetics Both I All Both

Endocrinology Internal medicine T I Adults O

Gastroenterology Internal medicine T I Adults O

General practice None Both Neither All Multidisciplinary

Geriatrics Internal medicine or family medicine T I Geriatric Multidisciplinary

and gynaecology None T S All O

Health informatics None Both Neither All Multidisciplinary

Hospice and palliative medicine Various Both Neither All Neither

Infectious disease Pediatrics
or Internal medicine Both I All Neither

Internal medicine None T I Adults Neither

Interventional radiology Radiology Both Unknown All Multidisciplinary

Vascular medicine Internal medicine T I Adults O

Nephrology Internal medicine T I All O

Neurology Internal medicine T I All O

Neurosurgery Surgery T S All O

Nuclear medicine None Both I All T

Occupational medicine None T I Adults Multidisciplinary

Ophthalmology None T S All O

Orthodontics None T S All O

Orthopaedics General surgery T S All O

Oral and maxillofacial surgery Surgery T S All O

Otorhinolaryngology None T S All O

Paediatrics None T I Paediatric Neither

Paediatric allergology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric cardiology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric endocrinology and diabetes Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric haematology and oncology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric infectious diseases Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Neonatology Paediatrics T I Neonatal Neither

Paediatric nephrology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric respiratory medicine Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric rheumatology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric surgery General Surgery T S Paediatric O

Physical medicine and rehabilitation None T I All Multidisciplinary

Plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery General surgery T S All O

Pulmonology Internal medicine T I Adults O

Psychiatry Internal medicine T I All T

Public Health None Neither Neither All T

Radiation Oncology None T Neither All T

Radiology None Both I All T

Sports medicine Family medicine Both Neither All Multidisciplinary

Neuroradiology Radiology Both I All Both

General surgery None T S Adults T

Urology General surgery T S All O

Vascular surgery General surgery T S All O

List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area[edit] The European Union publishes a list of specialties recognized in the European Union, and by extension, the European Economic Area.[3] Note that there is substantial overlap between some of the specialties and it is likely that for example "Clinical radiology" and "Radiology" refer to a large degree to the same pattern of practice across Europe.

Accident and emergency medicine Allergology Anaesthetics Biological hematology Cardiology Child
psychiatry Clinical biology Clinical chemistry Clinical neurophysiology Craniofacial surgery Dental, oral and maxillo-facial surgery Dermato-venerology Dermatology Endocrinology Gastro-enterologic surgery Gastroenterology General hematology General Practice General surgery Geriatrics Immunology Infectious diseases Internal medicine Laboratory medicine Maxillo-facial surgery Microbiology Nephrology Neuro-psychiatry Neurology Neurosurgery Nuclear medicine Obstetrics
and gynecology Occupational medicine Ophthalmology Orthopaedics Otorhinolaryngology Paediatric surgery Paediatrics Pathology Pharmacology Physical medicine and rehabilitation Plastic surgery Podiatric Surgery Psychiatry Public health
Public health
and Preventive Medicine Radiation Oncology Radiology Respiratory medicine Rheumatology Stomatology Thoracic surgery Tropical medicine Urology Vascular surgery Venereology

List of North American medical specialties and others[edit] In this table, as in many healthcare arenas, medical specialties are organized into the following groups:

Surgical specialties focus on manually operative and instrumental techniques to treat disease. Medical specialties that focus on the diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of disease. Diagnostic specialties focus more purely on diagnosis of disorders.

Specialty Code Group Sub-specialties Focus

and immunology

Allergic reactions, asthma, and the immune system

Anesthesiology AN, PAN Surgery[4][citation needed]

Pediatric anesthesia Pain management Intensive care Critical care Obstetrics
and gynaecology Cardiothoracic anesthesiology Trauma care Pre- and Post-Operative Assessment and Care Generalist (covers all the sub-specialties)




of the cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular surgery


The operation of heart and major blood vessels of the chest.

Clinical laboratory
Clinical laboratory


Transfusion medicine is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood component, including the maintenance of a "blood bank". Cellular pathology
Cellular pathology
is concerned with diagnosis using samples from patients taken as tissues and cells using histology and cytology. Clinical chemistry
Clinical chemistry
is concerned with diagnosis by making biochemical analysis of blood, body fluids, and tissues. Hematology is concerned with diagnosis by looking at changes in the cellular composition of the blood and bone marrow as well as the coagulation system in the blood. Clinical microbiology
Clinical microbiology
is concerned with the in vitro diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Clinical immunology
Clinical immunology
is concerned with disorders of the immune system and related body defenses. It also deals with diagnosis of allergy.

Application of diagnostic techniques in medical laboratories such as assays, microscope analysis.

Dermatology D, DS Medicine Dermatology, Mohs surgery Skin
and its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands etc.).

Dietetics RD[5]

Food and nutrition

Emergency medicine EM Medicine

Disaster medicine Emergency medical services Hospice and palliative medicine International Emergency Medicine
and Global Health Medical toxicology Pediatric emergency medicine Research Simulation Sports medicine Toxicology Ultrasound Undersea and hyperbaric medicine Wilderness medicine

The initial management of emergent medical conditions, often in hospital emergency departments or the field.



The endocrine system (i.e., endocrine glands and hormones) and its diseases, including diabetes and thyroid diseases.

Family medicine FM Medicine

medicine Geriatric medicine Hospice and palliative medicine Sleep medicine Sports medicine

Continuing, comprehensive healthcare for the individual and family, integrating the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences to treat patients of all ages, sexes, organ systems, and diseases.

Forensic medicine


Gastroenterology GI Medicine

The alimentary tract

General surgery GS Surgery

Colorectal surgery Gastrointestinal surgery Transplant surgery Trauma surgery

Geriatrics IMG Medicine[4][citation needed]

Elderly patients


Female reproductive health



The liver and biliary tract, usually a part of gastroenterology.



Infectious disease ID Medicine

Diseases caused by biological agents

Intensive care
Intensive care


Life support
Life support
and management of critically ill patients, often in an ICU.

Internal Medicine


Medical research

Anatomy, Biochemistry, Embryology, Genetics, Pharmacology, Toxicology Care of hospitalized patients



Kidney diseases

Neurology N Medicine

Behavioral neurology Clinical neurophysiology Geriatric neurology Headache medicine Neuromuscular medicine Neurodevelopmental disabilities Neuro-oncology Neuroradiology Vascular neurology Hospice and palliative medicine Pain medicine Sleep medicine

Diseases involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems

Neurosurgery NS Surgery

Cerebrovascular Neurosurgical oncology Stereotactic and functional Spine Neurotrauma Skull base Peripheral nerve Pediatric neurosurgery

of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and spinal column.

and gynecology OB/GYN Surgery[4][citation needed]

Maternal-fetal medicine Reproductive medicine Fertility medicine Gynecologic oncology

Oncology ON Medicine

Radiation oncology
Radiation oncology
– pertains to the use of radiation therapy (the medical use of ionizing radiation) as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology).

and other malignant diseases, often grouped with hematology.

Ophthalmology OPH Surgery Retina, Cornea Diseases of the visual pathways, including the eyes, brain, etc.

Oral and maxillofacial surgery Maxfacs, OMS Surgery

Oral and Craniofacial surgery (Head and neck) Facial cosmetic surgery Craniomaxillofacial trauma

of the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region.

Orthopedic surgery ORS Surgery Hand surgery, surgical sports medicine, adult reconstruction, spine surgery, foot and ankle, musculoskeletal oncology, orthopedic trauma surgery, pediatric orthopedic surgery Injury and disease of the musculoskeletal system.

Otorhinolaryngology, or ENT ORL, ENT Surgery Head and neck, facial cosmetic surgery, Neurotology, Laryngology Treatment of ear, nose, and throat disorders. The term head and neck surgery defines a closely related specialty that is concerned mainly with the surgical management of cancer of the same anatomical structures.

Palliative care PLM Medicine

A relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure.

Pathology PTH Diagnostic

Understanding disease through examination of molecules, cells, tissues and organs. The term encompasses both the medical specialty that uses tissues and body fluids to obtain clinically useful information and the related scientific study of disease processes.

Pediatrics PD Medicine Children. Like internal medicine, pediatrics has many sub-specialties for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and sites of care delivery. Most sub-specialties of adult medicine have a pediatric equivalent such as pediatric cardiology, pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric hematology, pediatric oncology, pediatric ophthalmology, and neonatology. deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country).

Pediatric surgery

Surgery Treats a wide variety of thoracic and abdominal (and sometimes urologic) diseases of childhood.

Physical medicine and rehabilitation
Physical medicine and rehabilitation
Or Physiatry PM&R Medicine

Concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or congenital disorders.

Plastic surgery PS Surgery

Cosmetic surgery Burn Microsurgery Hand surgery Craniofacial surgery

Elective cosmetic surgery as well as reconstructive surgery after traumatic or operative mutilation.

Podiatry POD Surgery

Forefoot surgery Midfoot surgery Rearfoot surgery Ankle surgery Soft tissue leg surgery

Elective podiatric surgery of the foot and ankle, lower limb diabetic wound and salvation, peripheral vascular disease limb preservation, lower limb mononeuropathy conditions. Reconstructive foot & ankle surgery.

Proctology PRO Medicine

(or Colorectal Surgery) Treats disease in the rectum, anus, and colon.

Psychiatry P Medicine

and adolescent psychiatry focuses on the care of children and adolescents with mental, emotional, and learning problems including ADHD, autism, and family conflicts. Geriatric psychiatry focuses on the care of elderly people with mental illnesses including dementias, post-stroke cognitive changes, and depression. Addiction psychiatry focuses on substance abuse and its treatment. Forensic psychiatry
Forensic psychiatry
focuses on the interface of psychiatry and law. Neuropsychiatry
focuses on affective, cognitive and behavioral disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system Sleep medicine
Sleep medicine
focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders. Psychosomatic medicine Hospice and Palliative Medicine Pain medicine

The bio-psycho-social study of the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cognitive, perceptual, emotional and behavioral disorders. Related non-medical fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology.



The lungs and respiratory system. Pulmonology
is generally considered a branch of internal medicine, although it is closely related to intensive care medicine when dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation.

Public Health

Public health
Public health
focuses on the health of populations. Physicians employed in this field work in policy, research or health promotion, taking a broad view of health that encompasses the social determinants of health.

Radiology R, DR Diagnostic and Therapeutic

Interventional radiology
Interventional radiology
is concerned with using expert imaging of the human body, usually via CT, ultrasound, fluoroscopy, or MRI to perform a breadth of intravascular procedures (angioplasty, arterial stenting, thrombolysis, uterine fibroid embolization), biopsies and minimally invasive oncologic procedures (radiofrequency and cryoablation of tumors & transarterial chemoembolization) Nuclear medicine
Nuclear medicine
uses radioactive substances for in vivo and in vitro diagnosis either using imaging of the location of radioactive substances placed into a patient or using in vitro diagnostic tests utilizing radioactive substances.

The use of expertise in radiation in the context of medical imaging for diagnosis or image guided minimally invasive therapy. X-rays, etc.

Rheumatology RHU Medicine

Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the joints and other organ systems, such as arthritis and other rheumatic diseases.

Surgical oncology SO Surgery

Curative and palliative surgical approaches to cancer treatment.

Thoracic surgery TS Surgery

of the organs of the thoracic cavity: the heart, lungs, and great vessels.

Transplant surgery TTS Surgery

Transplantation of organs from one body to another

Urgent Care Medicine UCM Medicine

Immediate medical care offering outpatient care for the treatment of acute and chronic illness and injury

Urology U Surgery

Urinary tracts of males and females, and the male reproductive system. It is often practiced together with andrology ("men's health").

Vascular surgery VS Surgery

The peripheral blood vessels – those outside the chest (usually operated on by cardiovascular surgeons) and outside the central nervous system (treated by neurosurgery)


Play media

compensation in the US

The mean annual salary of a medical specialist is $175,011[6][citation needed] in the US, and $272,000[6][citation needed] for surgeons. However, because of commodity inflation, increasing negligent costs, steep price rise of rental, the annual salary range of a medical specialist varies and is not rising as fast as other professional pay. Often, especially in the United States, physicians practice in groups of specialists within a particular medical specialty. These practice groups are often formed to help reach economies of scales in rental, insurance and staff costs as well as other benefits of practicing with other professionals and are typically governed by various legal documents.[7] The table below details the average range of salaries for physicians of selected specialties as of July 2010. Also given in the average number of hours worked per week for full-time physicians (numbers are from 2003).

Specialty Median salary (USD)[8][citation needed] Average hours work/week[9]

Average salary/hour (USD)[10]

Anaesthesia 331,000 to $423,507 61

Dermatology 313,100 to $480,088 45.5 103

Emergency medicine 239,000 to $316,296 46 87

Cardiac Surgery 218,684 to $500,000 55

Family medicine 175,000 to $220,196 52.5 58

Internal medicine 184,200 to $231,691 57 58

Neurology 213,000 to $301,327 55.5 93

and Gynecology 251,500 to $326,924 61 83

Ophthalmology 150,000 to $351,000 47

Orthopedic surgery 397,879 to $600,000 58

Otolaryngology 191,000 to $393,000 53.5

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 260,000 to $440,210 53

Pediatrics 160,111 to $228,750 54 69

Podiatry 170,800 to $315,150 45 80

Psychiatry 173,800 to $248,198 48 72

(diagnostic) 377,300 to $478,000 58

(general) 284,642 to $383,333 60

Urology 331,192 to $443,518 60.5

Neurological surgery 350,000 to $705,000


Plastic surgery 265,000 to $500,000


Gastroenterology 251,026 to $396,450


Pulmonology 165,000 to $365,875


According to a 2010 study, physician and surgeon median annual income was $166,400.[11] Specialties by country[edit] Australia and New Zealand[edit] Specialty training in Australia and New Zealand is overseen by the specialty colleges:

Australasian College for Emergency Medicine Australasian College of Dermatologists Australasian College of Physical Medicine Australasian College of Podiatric Surgeons Australasian College of Sports Physicians Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists Australasian Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine College of Intensive Care Medicine Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons (supervises training of medical practitioners specializing in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in addition to its role in the training of dentists) Royal Australasian College of Medical Administrators Royal Australasian College of Physicians Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists Royal Australian College of General Practitioners Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia

Canada[edit] Specialty training in Canada is overseen by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, the College of Family Physicians of Canada, and by Collège des médecins du Québec. Germany[edit] In Germany these doctors use the term Facharzt. India[edit] Specialty training in India is overseen by the Medical Council of India, which is responsible for recognition of post graduate training and by the National Board of Examinations. And education of Ayurveda in overseen by Central Council of Indian Medicine
(CCIM), the council conducts u.g and p.g courses all over India, while Central Council of Homoeopathy does the same in the field of Homeopathy. United States[edit] There are three agencies or organizations in the United States
United States
that collectively oversee physician board certification of MD and DO physicians in the United States
United States
in the 26 approved medical specialties recognized in the country. These organizations are the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the American Medical Association (AMA); the American Osteopathic Association
American Osteopathic Association
Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABOS) and the American Osteopathic Association; the American Board of Physician
Specialties (ABPS) and the American Association of Physician
Specialists (AAPS). Each of these agencies and their associated national medical organization functions as its various specialty academies, colleges and societies.

Certifying board National organization Physician




All boards of certification now require that medical practitioners demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for a chosen specialty. Recertification varies by particular specialty between every seven and every ten years. Specialty and Physician
Location[edit] In the United States
United States
there are hierarchies of medical specialties in the cities of a region. Small towns and cities have primary care, middle sized cities offer secondary care, and metropolitan cities have tertiary care. Income, size of population, population demographics, distance to the doctor, all influence the numbers and kinds of specialists and physicians located in a city.[12] Economic demand influences the location of particular specialties. For example, more orthopedic surgeons are found in ski areas, obstetricians in the suburbs, and boutique specialties such as hypnosis, plastic surgery, psychiatry are more likely to practice in high income areas. Small populations can usually only support primary care. A large population is needed to support specialists who treat rare diseases. Some specialties need to cooperate and thus locate near each other, such as hematology, oncology, and pathology, or cardiology, thoracic surgery and pulmonology. A population's income level determines whether sufficient physicians can practice in an area and whether public subsidy is needed to maintain the health of the population. Developing countries and poor areas usually have shortages of physicians and specialties, and those in practice usually locate in larger cities. For some underlying theory regarding physician location, see central place theory.[12] Other uses[edit] In the U.S. Army, the term "medical specialist" refers to occupational therapists, physical therapists, dietitians and physician assistants, also known as allied health professionals. Also included in the term "medical specialist", but not in the term "allied health professional" are EMT/combat medics.[citation needed] Training[edit] In Sweden, a medical license is required before commencing specialty training. Those graduating from Swedish medical schools are first required to do a rotational internship of about 1.5 to 2 years in various specialties before attaining a medical license. The specialist training lasts 5 years.[13] In the United States, graduates from medical schools can start specialty training directly in the form of residency. The medical license is attained during the course of the residency. Satisfaction[edit] A survey of physicians in the United States
United States
came to the result that dermatologists are most satisfied with their choice of specialty followed by radiologists, oncologists, plastic surgeons, and gastroenterologists.[14] In contrast, primary care physicians were the least satisfied, followed by nephrologists, obstetricians/gynecologists, and pulmonologists.[14] Surveys have also revealed high levels of depression among medical students (25 - 30%) as well as among physicians in training (22 - 43%), which for many specialties, continue into regular practice.[15][16]

Specialty Overall satisfaction[14] Feeling of enough compensation[14] Would have chosen same specialty again[14]

Dermatologist 80% 71% 93%

Radiologist 72% 69% 82%

Oncologist 70% 55% 79%

Gastroenterologist 69% 52% 80%

Ophthalmologist 67% 55% 79%

Infectious disease/HIV physician 66% 54% 73%

Plastic surgeon 66% 53% 82%

Anesthesiologist 65% 63% 70%

Orthopedic surgeon 65% 47% 83%

Psychiatrist 65% 58% 67%

Rheumatologist 65% 53% 66%

Podiatrist 64% 51% 75%

Emergency medicine
Emergency medicine
physician 63% 65% 56%

Urologist 63% 47% 78%

Cardiologist 62% 46% 75%

Pediatrician 62% 51% 61%

specialist/Endocrinologist 61% 45% 68%

Neurologist 60% 49% 63%

General surgeon 58% 44% 60%

Nephrologist 57% 45% 55%

Obstetrician/Gynecologist 57% 50% 53%

Pulmonologist 57% 45% 52%

Primary care physician 54% 48% 43%

See also[edit]

Interdisciplinary sub-specialties of medicine, including

Occupational medicine – branch of clinical medicine that provides health advice to organizations and individuals concerning work-related health and safety issues and standards. See occupational safety and health. Disaster medicine – branch of medicine that provides healthcare services to disaster survivors; guides medically related disaster preparation, disaster planning, disaster response and disaster recovery throughout the disaster life cycle and serves as a liaison between and partner to the medical contingency planner, the emergency management professional, the incident command system, government and policy makers. Preventive medicine
Preventive medicine
– part of medicine engaged with preventing disease rather than curing it. It can be contrasted not only with curative medicine, but also with public health methods (which work at the level of population health rather than individual health). Medical genetics
Medical genetics
– the application of genetics to medicine. Medical genetics is a broad and varied field. It encompasses many different individual fields, including clinical genetics, biochemical genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, the genetics of common diseases (such as neural tube defects), and genetic counseling.

Specialty Registrar Federation of National Specialty Societies of Canada Society of General Internal Medicine


^ "Different Types of Doctors: Find the Specialist You Need". webmd.com. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ Weisz G (Fall 2003). "The Emergence of Medical Specialization in the Nineteenth Century". Bull Hist Med. 77 (3): 536–574. doi:10.1353/bhm.2003.0150. PMID 14523260.  ^ "Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications". European Parliament and Council. Retrieved 19 April 2011.  ^ a b c Regeringen.se – new grouping of the medical specialties Archived April 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Becoming a Registered Dietitian". Department of Food Science
and Human Nutrition. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved 21 April 2016.  ^ a b ibmdllc.com - Physician
income not rising as fast as other professional pay Archived April 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Physician
Separation Issues". The National Law Review. Baker & Hostetler LLP. 2011-11-21. Retrieved 2012-01-13.  ^ Physician
Compensation Survey [special feature]. Modern Healthcare. July 19, 2010: 20-26. [1] Archived November 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Physician
work hours (2003) Medfriends.org. Accessed 15 December 2010. ^ Leigh JP; Tancredi D; Jerant A; Kravitz RL (October 2010). " Physician
wages across specialties: informing the physician reimbursement debate". Arch. Intern. Med. 170 (19): 1728–34. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2010.350. PMID 20975019.  [2] ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition, Physicians and Surgeons, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/physicians-and-surgeons.htm (visited November 01, 2013). ^ a b Smith, Margot Wiesinger (1979). "A guide to the delineation of medical care regions, medical trade areas, and hospital service areas" (PDF). Public Health
Public Health
Reports. 94 (3): 248–254. JSTOR 4596085.  ^ "Specialty training / residency". Lund University, Faculty of Medicine. 2015-05-20. Retrieved 2016-11-26.  ^ a b c d e "Medscape Log In". www.medscape.com. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ Rotenstein, Lisa S.; Ramos, Marco A.; Torre, Matthew; Segal, J. Bradley; Peluso, Michael J.; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan; Mata, Douglas A. (2016-12-06). "Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". JAMA. 316 (21): 2214–2236. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.17324. ISSN 1538-3598. PMID 27923088.  ^ Douglas A. Mata, Marco A. Ramos, Narinder Bansal, Rida Khan, Constance Guille, Emanuele Di Angelantonio & Srijan Sen (2015). "Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms Among Resident Physicians: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA. 314 (22): 2373–2383. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15845. PMC 4866499 . PMID 26647259. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

v t e


Outline History

Specialties and subspecialties


Cardiac surgery Cardiothoracic surgery Colorectal surgery Eye surgery General surgery Neurosurgery Oral and maxillofacial surgery Orthopedic surgery Hand surgery Otolaryngology
(ENT) Pediatric surgery Plastic surgery Reproductive surgery Surgical oncology Thoracic surgery Transplant surgery Trauma surgery Urology


Vascular surgery

Internal medicine

/ Immunology Angiology Cardiology Endocrinology Gastroenterology


Geriatrics Hematology Hospital
medicine Infectious disease Nephrology Oncology Pulmonology Rheumatology

and gynaecology

Gynaecology Gynecologic oncology Maternal–fetal medicine Obstetrics Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Urogynecology



Interventional radiology Nuclear medicine


Anatomical pathology Clinical pathology Clinical chemistry Clinical immunology Cytopathology Medical microbiology Transfusion medicine

Other specialties

Addiction medicine Adolescent
medicine Anesthesiology Dermatology Disaster medicine Diving medicine Emergency medicine

Mass-gathering medicine

Family medicine General practice Hospital
medicine Intensive-care medicine Medical genetics Neurology

Clinical neurophysiology

Occupational medicine Ophthalmology Oral medicine Pain management Palliative care Pediatrics


Physical medicine and rehabilitation
Physical medicine and rehabilitation
(PM&R) Preventive medicine Psychiatry Public health Radiation oncology Reproductive medicine Sexual medicine Sleep medicine Sports medicine Transplantation medicine Tropical medicine

Travel medicine


Medical education

Medical school Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery Bachelor of Medical Sciences Master of Medicine Master of Surgery Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine MD–PhD

Related topics

Allied health

Dentistry Podiatry Physiotherapy

Nanomedicine Molecular oncology Personalized medicine Veterinary medicine Physician

Chief physician

History of medicine