The Info List - Specialty (medicine)

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A SPECIALTY, or SPECIALITY, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school , physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a MEDICAL SPECIALIST.


* 1 History of medical specialization * 2 Classification of medical specialization * 3 Specialties that are common worldwide * 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area * 5 List of North American medical specialties and others * 6 Physician compensation

* 7 Specialties by country

* 7.1 Australia and New Zealand * 7.2 Canada * 7.3 Germany * 7.4 India * 7.5 United States
United States

* 8 Other uses * 9 Training * 10 Satisfaction * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References


To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized. According to Galen
, specialization was common among Roman physicians. The particular system of modern medical specialities evolved gradually during the 19th century. Informal social recognition of medical specialization evolved before the formal legal system. The particular subdivision of the practice of medicine into various specialities varies from country to country, and is somewhat arbitrary.


Medical specialties can be classified along several axes. These are:

* Surgical or internal medicine * Age range of patients * Diagnostic or therapeutic * Organ-based or technique-based

Throughout history, the most important has been the division into surgical and internal medicine specialties. The surgical specialties are the specialties in which an important part of diagnosis and treatment is achieved through major surgical techniques. The internal medicine specialties are the specialties in which the main diagnosis and treatment is never major surgery. In some countries Anesthesiology is classified as a surgical discipline, since it is vital in the surgical process, though anesthesiologists never perform major surgery themselves.

Many specialties are organ-based. Many symptoms and diseases come from a particular organ. Others are based mainly around a set of techniques, such as radiology, which was originally based around X-rays.

The age range of patients seen by any given specialist can be quite variable. Paediatricians handle most complaints and diseases in children that do not require surgery, and there are several subspecialties (formally or informally) in paediatrics that mimic the organ-based specialties in adults. Paediatric surgery may or may not be a separate specialty that handles some kinds of surgical complaints in children.

A further subdivision is the diagnostic versus therapeutic specialties. While the diagnostic process is of great importance in all specialties, some specialists perform mainly or only diagnostic examinations, such as pathology, clinical neurophysiology, and radiology. This line is becoming somewhat blurred with interventional radiology , an evolving field that uses image expertise to perform minimally invasive procedures.



Allergy and immunology Paediatrics or Internal medicine Both I All O

Adolescent medicine Paediatrics Both I Paediatric T

Anaesthesiology None T Unknown All Both

Aerospace medicine None Both Neither All Both

Pathology None D Neither All T

Cardiology Internal medicine T I Adults O

Cardiothoracic surgery
Cardiothoracic surgery
General surgery T S Adults O

and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy Psychiatry T I Paediatric T

Clinical neurophysiology
Clinical neurophysiology
Neurology D I All Both

Colon and Rectal Surgery General Surgery Both S All O

Dermatology-Venereology None T I All O

Emergency medicine Anaesthetics Both I All Both

Endocrinology Internal medicine T I Adults O

Gastroenterology Internal medicine T I Adults O

General practice None Both Neither All Multidisciplinary

Geriatrics Internal medicine or family medicine T I Geriatric Multidisciplinary

Obstetrics and gynaecology None T S All O

Health informatics
Health informatics
None Both Neither All Multidisciplinary

Hospice and palliative medicine Various Both Neither All Neither

Infectious disease Pediatrics
or Internal medicine Both I All Neither

Internal medicine None T I Adults Neither

Interventional radiology
Interventional radiology
Radiology Both Unknown All Multidisciplinary

Vascular medicine Internal medicine T I Adults O

Microbiology None D I All T

Internal medicine T I All O

Neurology Internal medicine T I All O

Neurosurgery Surgery T S All O

Nuclear medicine
Nuclear medicine
None Both I All T

Occupational medicine None T I Adults Multidisciplinary

Ophthalmology None T S All O

Orthodontics None T S All O

Orthopaedics General surgery T S All O

Oral and maxillofacial surgery Surgery T S All O

Otorhinolaryngology None T S All O

Paediatrics None T I Paediatric Neither

Paediatric allergology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric cardiology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric endocrinology and diabetes Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric haematology and oncology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric infectious diseases Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Neonatology Paediatrics T I Neonatal Neither

Paediatric nephrology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric respiratory medicine Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric rheumatology Paediatrics T I Paediatric O

Paediatric surgery General Surgery T S Paediatric O

Physical medicine and rehabilitation
Physical medicine and rehabilitation
None T I All Multidisciplinary

Plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery General surgery T S All O

Pulmonology Internal medicine T I Adults O

Psychiatry Internal medicine T I All T

Public Health None Neither Neither All T

Radiation Oncology None T Neither All T

Radiology None Both I All T

Sports medicine Family medicine Both Neither All Multidisciplinary

Radiology Both I All Both

General surgery
General surgery
None T S Adults T

Urology General surgery T S All O

Vascular surgery
Vascular surgery
General surgery T S All O


The European Union publishes a list of specialties recognized in the European Union, and by extension, the European Economic Area. Note that there is substantial overlap between some of the specialties and it is likely that for example "Clinical radiology" and "Radiology" refer to a large degree to the same pattern of practice across Europe.

* Accident and emergency medicine * Allergology * Anaesthetics * Biological hematology * Cardiology * Child
psychiatry * Clinical biology * Clinical chemistry * Clinical neurophysiology * Craniofacial surgery * Dental, oral and maxillo-facial surgery * Dermato-venerology * Dermatology * Endocrinology * Gastro-enterologic surgery * Gastroenterology * General hematology * General Practice * General surgery * Geriatrics * Immunology * Infectious diseases * Internal medicine * Laboratory medicine * Maxillo-facial surgery * Microbiology * Nephrology * Neuro-psychiatry * Neurology * Neurosurgery * Nuclear medicine * Obstetrics
and gynecology * Occupational medicine * Ophthalmology * Orthopaedics * Otorhinolaryngology * Paediatric surgery * Paediatrics * Pathology * Pharmacology * Physical medicine and rehabilitation * Plastic surgery * Podiatric Surgery * Psychiatry * Public health and Preventive Medicine * Radiation Oncology * Radiology * Respiratory medicine * Rheumatology * Stomatology * Thoracic surgery * Tropical medicine * Urology * Vascular surgery * Venereology


In this table, as in many healthcare arenas, medical specialties are organized into the following groups:

* Surgical specialties focus on manually operative and instrumental techniques to treat disease. * Medical specialties that focus on the diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of disease. * Diagnostic specialties focus more purely on diagnosis of disorders.


Allergy and immunology

Allergic reactions, asthma, and the immune system

Anesthesiology AN, PAN Surgery

* Pediatric anesthesia * Pain management * Intensive care * Critical care * Obstetrics and gynaecology * Cardiothoracic anesthesiology * Trauma care * Pre- and Post-Operative Assessment and Care * Generalist (covers all the sub-specialties)




Disease of the cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular surgery
Cardiovascular surgery


The operation of heart and major blood vessels of the chest .

Clinical laboratory
Clinical laboratory


* Transfusion medicine is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood component , including the maintenance of a "blood bank ". * Cellular pathology
Cellular pathology
is concerned with diagnosis using samples from patients taken as tissues and cells using histology and cytology . * Clinical chemistry is concerned with diagnosis by making biochemical analysis of blood, body fluids, and tissues. * Hematology is concerned with diagnosis by looking at changes in the cellular composition of the blood and bone marrow as well as the coagulation system in the blood. * Clinical microbiology is concerned with the in vitro diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria , viruses , fungi , and parasites . * Clinical immunology is concerned with disorders of the immune system and related body defenses. It also deals with diagnosis of allergy .

Application of diagnostic techniques in medical laboratories such as assays , microscope analysis.

Dermatology D, DS Medicine Dermatology, Mohs surgery Skin
and its appendages (hair , nails , sweat glands etc.).

Dietetics RD

Food and nutrition

Emergency medicine EM Medicine

* Disaster medicine * Emergency medical services * Hospice and palliative medicine * International Emergency Medicine
and Global Health * Medical toxicology * Pediatric emergency medicine * Research * Simulation * Sports medicine * Toxicology * Ultrasound * Undersea and hyperbaric medicine * Wilderness medicine

The initial management of emergent medical conditions, often in hospital emergency departments or the field.



The endocrine system (i.e., endocrine glands and hormones ) and its diseases, including diabetes and thyroid diseases.

Family medicine FM Medicine

* Adolescent medicine * Geriatric medicine * Hospice and palliative medicine * Sleep medicine * Sports medicine

Continuing, comprehensive healthcare for the individual and family, integrating the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences to treat patients of all ages, sexes, organ systems, and diseases.

Forensic medicine


Gastroenterology GI Medicine

The alimentary tract

General surgery
General surgery
GS Surgery

* Colorectal surgery * Gastrointestinal surgery * Transplant surgery * Trauma surgery

Geriatrics IMG Medicine

Elderly patients


Female reproductive health



The liver and biliary tract , usually a part of gastroenterology.



Infectious disease ID Medicine

Diseases caused by biological agents

Intensive care medicine


Life support and management of critically ill patients, often in an ICU .

Internal Medicine


Medical research

Anatomy , Biochemistry , Embryology , Genetics , Pharmacology , Toxicology Care of hospitalized patients



Kidney diseases

Neurology N Medicine

* Behavioral neurology * Clinical neurophysiology
Clinical neurophysiology
* Geriatric neurology * Headache medicine * Neuromuscular medicine * Neurodevelopmental disabilities * Neuro-oncology * Neuroradiology
* Vascular neurology * Hospice and palliative medicine * Pain medicine * Sleep medicine

Diseases involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems

Neurosurgery NS Surgery

* Cerebrovascular
* Neurosurgical oncology * Stereotactic and functional * Spine * Neurotrauma * Skull base * Peripheral nerve * Pediatric neurosurgery

Disease of the central nervous system , peripheral nervous system , and spinal column .

Obstetrics and gynecology OB/GYN Surgery

* Maternal-fetal medicine * Reproductive medicine * Fertility medicine * Gynecologic oncology

Oncology ON Medicine

* Radiation oncology – pertains to the use of radiation therapy (the medical use of ionizing radiation ) as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology ).

Cancer and other malignant diseases, often grouped with hematology.

Ophthalmology OPH Surgery Retina, Cornea Diseases of the visual pathways, including the eyes, brain, etc.

Oral and maxillofacial surgery Maxfacs, OMS Surgery

* Oral and Craniofacial surgery (Head and neck) * Facial cosmetic surgery * Craniomaxillofacial trauma

Disease of the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region.

Orthopedic surgery
Orthopedic surgery
ORS Surgery Hand surgery , surgical sports medicine , adult reconstruction, spine surgery, foot and ankle, musculoskeletal oncology, orthopedic trauma surgery, pediatric orthopedic surgery Injury and disease of the musculoskeletal system .

Otorhinolaryngology , or ENT ORL, ENT Surgery Head and neck, facial cosmetic surgery, Neurotology , Laryngology Treatment of ear, nose, and throat disorders. The term head and neck surgery defines a closely related specialty that is concerned mainly with the surgical management of cancer of the same anatomical structures.

Palliative care PLM Medicine

A relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure .

Pathology PTH Diagnostic

Understanding disease through examination of molecules , cells , tissues and organs . The term encompasses both the medical specialty that uses tissues and body fluids to obtain clinically useful information and the related scientific study of disease processes.

PD Medicine Children. Like internal medicine, pediatrics has many sub-specialties for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and sites of care delivery. Most sub-specialties of adult medicine have a pediatric equivalent such as pediatric cardiology , pediatric emergency medicine , pediatric endocrinology , pediatric gastroenterology , pediatric hematology , pediatric oncology , pediatric ophthalmology , and neonatology . deals with the medical care of infants , children , and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country).

Pediatric surgery
Pediatric surgery

Surgery Treats a wide variety of thoracic and abdominal (and sometimes urologic ) diseases of childhood.

Physical medicine and rehabilitation
Physical medicine and rehabilitation
Or Physiatry PM&R Medicine

Concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or congenital disorders .

Plastic surgery PS Surgery

* Cosmetic surgery * Burn * Microsurgery * Hand surgery * Craniofacial surgery

Elective cosmetic surgery as well as reconstructive surgery after traumatic or operative mutilation.

Podiatry POD Surgery

* Forefoot surgery * Midfoot surgery * Rearfoot surgery * Ankle surgery * Soft tissue leg surgery

Elective podiatric surgery of the foot and ankle, lower limb diabetic wound and salvation, peripheral vascular disease limb preservation, lower limb mononeuropathy conditions. Reconstructive foot & ankle surgery .

Proctology PRO Medicine

(or Colorectal Surgery ) Treats disease in the rectum , anus , and colon .

Psychiatry P Medicine

* Child
and adolescent psychiatry focuses on the care of children and adolescents with mental, emotional, and learning problems including ADHD , autism , and family conflicts. * Geriatric psychiatry focuses on the care of elderly people with mental illnesses including dementias , post-stroke cognitive changes, and depression. * Addiction psychiatry focuses on substance abuse and its treatment. * Forensic psychiatry focuses on the interface of psychiatry and law. * Neuropsychiatry focuses on affective, cognitive and behavioral disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system * Sleep medicine focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders. * Psychosomatic medicine * Hospice and Palliative Medicine
* Pain medicine

The bio-psycho-social study of the etiology , diagnosis , treatment and prevention of cognitive , perceptual , emotional and behavioral disorders. Related non-medical fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology .



The lungs and respiratory system . Pulmonology is generally considered a branch of internal medicine , although it is closely related to intensive care medicine when dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation .

Radiology R, DR Diagnostic and Therapeutic

* Interventional radiology
Interventional radiology
is concerned with using expert imaging of the human body, usually via CT, ultrasound, fluoroscopy , or MRI to perform a breadth of intravascular procedures (angioplasty, arterial stenting, thrombolysis, uterine fibroid embolization), biopsies and minimally invasive oncologic procedures (radiofrequency and cryoablation of tumors "> Play media Physician compensation in the US

The mean annual salary of a medical specialist is $175,011 in the US, and $272,000 for surgeons. However, because of commodity inflation , increasing negligent costs, steep price rise of rental, the annual salary range of a medical specialist varies and is not rising as fast as other professional pay. Often, especially in the United States, physicians practice in groups of specialists within a particular medical specialty. These practice groups are often formed to help reach economies of scales in rental, insurance and staff costs as well as other benefits of practicing with other professionals and are typically governed by various legal documents.

The table below details the average range of salaries for physicians of selected specialties as of July 2010. Also given in the average number of hours worked per week for full-time physicians (numbers are from 2003).



Anaesthesia 331,000 to $423,507 61

Dermatology 313,100 to $480,088 45.5 103

Emergency medicine 239,000 to $316,296 46 87

Cardiac Surgery 218,684 to $500,000 55

Family medicine 175,000 to $220,196 52.5 58

Internal medicine 184,200 to $231,691 57 58

Neurology 213,000 to $301,327 55.5 93

and Gynecology 251,500 to $326,924 61 83

Ophthalmology 150,000 to $351,000 47

Orthopedic surgery
Orthopedic surgery
397,879 to $600,000 58

Otolaryngology 191,000 to $393,000 53.5

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 260,000 to $440,210 53

160,111 to $228,750 54 69

Podiatry 170,800 to $315,150 45 80

Psychiatry 173,800 to $248,198 48 72

Radiology (diagnostic) 377,300 to $478,000 58

Surgery (general) 284,642 to $383,333 60

Urology 331,192 to $443,518 60.5

Neurological surgery 350,000 to $705,000


Plastic surgery 265,000 to $500,000


Gastroenterology 251,026 to $396,450


Pulmonology 165,000 to $365,875


According to a 2010 study, physician and surgeon median annual income was $166,400.



Specialty training in Australia and New Zealand is overseen by the specialty colleges:

* Australasian College for Emergency Medicine
* Australasian College of Dermatologists * Australasian College of Physical Medicine * Australasian College of Podiatric Surgeons * Australasian College of Sports Physicians * Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists * Australasian Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine * Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine
* College of Intensive Care Medicine
* Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons (supervises training of medical practitioners specializing in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in addition to its role in the training of dentists ) * Royal Australasian College of Medical Administrators * Royal Australasian College of Physicians
Royal Australasian College of Physicians
* Royal Australasian College of Surgeons
Royal Australasian College of Surgeons
* Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists * Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists
* Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists * Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists * Royal Australian College of General Practitioners
Royal Australian College of General Practitioners
* Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners * Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia


Specialty training in Canada is overseen by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada , the College of Family Physicians of Canada , and by Collège des médecins du Québec .


In Germany these doctors use the term Facharzt.


Specialty training in India is overseen by the Medical Council of India , which is responsible for recognition of post graduate training and by the National Board of Examinations . And education of Ayurveda in overseen by Central Council of Indian Medicine
(CCIM), the council conducts u.g and p.g courses all over India, while Central Council of Homoeopathy does the same in the field of Homeopathy.


There are three agencies or organizations in the United States
United States
that collectively oversee physician board certification of MD and DO physicians in the United States
United States
in the 26 approved medical specialties recognized in the country. These organizations are the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the American Medical Association (AMA); the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABOS) and the American Osteopathic Association ; the American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS) and the American Association of Physician Specialists (AAPS). Each of these agencies and their associated national medical organization functions as its various specialty academies, colleges and societies.





All boards of certification now require that medical practitioners demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for a chosen specialty. Recertification varies by particular specialty between every seven and every ten years.


There are hierarchies of medical specialties in the cities of a region. Small towns and cities have primary care, middle sized cities offer secondary care, and metropolitan cities have tertiary care. Income, size of population, population demographics, distance to the doctor, all influence the numbers and kinds of specialists and physicians located in a city. (Smith, 1977, 1979)

Economic demand influences the location of particular specialties. For example, more orthopedic surgeons are found in ski areas, obstetricians in the suburbs, and boutique specialties such as hypnosis, plastic surgery, psychiatry are more likely to practice in high income areas. Small populations can usually only support primary care. A large population is needed to support specialists who treat rare diseases. Some specialties need to cooperate and thus locate near each other, such as hematology, oncology, and pathology, or cardiology, thoracic surgery and pulmonology.

A population's income level determines whether sufficient physicians can practice in an area and whether public subsidy is needed to maintain the health of the population. Developing countries and poor areas usually have shortages of physicians and specialties, and those in practice usually locate in larger cities. For some underlying theory regarding physician location, see Central Place Theory. (Smith, 1977, 1979)


In the U.S. Army , the term "medical specialist" refers to occupational therapists, physical therapists, dietitians and physician assistants, also known as allied health professionals. Also included in the term "medical specialist", but not in the term "allied health professional" are EMT/combat medics.


In Sweden
, a medical license is required before commencing specialty training. Those graduating from Swedish medical schools are first required to do a rotational internship of about 1.5 to 2 years in various specialties before attaining a medical license. The specialist training lasts 5 years.

In the United States
United States
, graduates from medical schools can start specialty training directly in the form of residency . The medical license is attained during the course of the residency.


A survey of physicians in the United States
United States
came to the result that dermatologists are most satisfied with their choice of specialty followed by radiologists , oncologists , plastic surgeons , and gastroenterologists . In contrast, primary care physicians were the least satisfied, followed by nephrologists , obstetricians/gynecologists , and pulmonologists . Surveys have also revealed high levels of depression among medical students (25 - 30%) as well as among physicians in training (22 - 43%), which for many specialties, continue into regular practice.


Dermatologist 80% 71% 93%

Radiologist 72% 69% 82%

Oncologist 70% 55% 79%

Gastroenterologist 69% 52% 80%

Ophthalmologist 67% 55% 79%

Infectious disease/HIV physician 66% 54% 73%

Plastic surgeon 66% 53% 82%

Anesthesiologist 65% 63% 70%

Orthopedic surgeon 65% 47% 83%

Psychiatrist 65% 58% 67%

Rheumatologist 65% 53% 66%

Podiatrist 64% 51% 75%

Emergency medicine physician 63% 65% 56%

Urologist 63% 47% 78%

Cardiologist 62% 46% 75%

Pediatrician 62% 51% 61%

Diabetes specialist/Endocrinologist 61% 45% 68%

Neurologist 60% 49% 63%

General surgeon 58% 44% 60%

Nephrologist 57% 45% 55%

Obstetrician/Gynecologist 57% 50% 53%

Pulmonologist 57% 45% 52%

Primary care physician 54% 48% 43%


* Interdisciplinary sub-specialties of medicine , including

* Occupational medicine – branch of clinical medicine that provides health advice to organizations and individuals concerning work-related health and safety issues and standards. See occupational safety and health . * Disaster medicine – branch of medicine that provides healthcare services to disaster survivors; guides medically related disaster preparation , disaster planning , disaster response and disaster recovery throughout the disaster life cycle and serves as a liaison between and partner to the medical contingency planner , the emergency management professional, the incident command system , government and policy makers. * Preventive medicine – part of medicine engaged with preventing disease rather than curing it. It can be contrasted not only with curative medicine, but also with public health methods (which work at the level of population health rather than individual health). * Medical genetics – the application of genetics to medicine . Medical genetics is a broad and varied field. It encompasses many different individual fields, including clinical genetics , biochemical genetics , cytogenetics , molecular genetics , the genetics of common diseases (such as neural tube defects ), and genetic counseling .

* Specialty Registrar * Federation of National Specialty Societies of Canada * Society of General Internal Medicine


* ^ http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/medical-specialists-medical-specialists * ^ Weisz G (Fall 2003). "The Emergence of Medical Specialization in the Nineteenth Century". Bull Hist Med. 77 (3): 536–574. doi :10.1353/bhm.2003.0150 . PMID 14523260 . * ^ "Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications". European Parliament and Council. Retrieved 19 April 2011. * ^ A B C Regeringen.se – new grouping of the medical specialties Archived April 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Becoming a Registered Dietitian". Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved 21 April 2016. * ^ A B ibmdllc.com - Physician income not rising as fast as other professional pay Archived April 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ " Physician Separation Issues". The National Law Review . Baker & Hostetler LLP. 2011-11-21. Retrieved 2012-01-13. * ^ Physician Compensation Survey . Modern Healthcare. July 19, 2010: 20-26. Archived November 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Physician work hours (2003) Medfriends.org. Accessed 15 December 2010. * ^ Leigh JP; Tancredi D; Jerant A; Kravitz RL (October 2010). " Physician wages across specialties: informing the physician reimbursement debate". Arch. Intern. Med. 170 (19): 1728–34. doi :10.1001/archinternmed.2010.350 . PMID 20975019 . * ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition, Physicians and Surgeons, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/physicians-and-surgeons.htm (visited November 01, 2013). * ^ "Specialty training / residency". Lund University
Lund University
, Faculty of Medicine. 2015-05-20. Retrieved 2016-11-26. * ^ A B C D E Medscape Physician Compensation Report: 2011 * ^ Rotenstein, Lisa S.; Ramos, Marco A.; Torre, Matthew; Segal, J. Bradley; Peluso, Michael J.; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan; Mata, Douglas A. (2016-12-06). "Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". JAMA. 316 (21): 2214–2236. doi :10.1001/jama.2016.17324 . ISSN 1538-3598 . PMID 27923088 . * ^ Douglas A. Mata , Marco A. Ramos , Narinder Bansal , Rida Khan , Constance Guille , Emanuele Di Angelantonio & Srijan Sen (2015). "Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms Among Resident Physicians: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis" . JAMA . 314 (22): 2373–2383. doi :10.1001/jama.2015.15845 . PMC 4866499  . PMID 26647259 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )


* Smith, Margot W. "Physician's Specialties and Medical Trade Areas: An Application of Central Place Theory." Papers and Proceedings of Applied Geography Conferences, Vol. 9, West Point NY 1986. * Smith Margot W (1979). "A Guide to the Delineation of Medical Care Regions, Medical Trade Areas and Hospital
Service Areas". Public Health Reports. 94 (3): 247. * Smith, Margot W. "The Economics of Physician Location," Western Regional Conference, American Association of Geographers, Chicago, Illinois, 1979 * Smith, Margot W. "The Distribution of Medical Care in Central California: a Social and Economic Analysis," Thesis, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, 1977 - 1004 pages

* v * t * e


* Outline * History

Specialties and subspecialties


* Cardiac surgery
Cardiac surgery
* Cardiothoracic surgery
Cardiothoracic surgery
* Colorectal surgery
Colorectal surgery
* Eye surgery
Eye surgery
* General surgery
General surgery
* Neurosurgery * Oral and maxillofacial surgery * Orthopedic surgery
Orthopedic surgery
* Hand surgery * Otolaryngology (ENT) * Pediatric surgery
Pediatric surgery
* Plastic surgery * Reproductive surgery * Surgical oncology * Thoracic surgery
Thoracic surgery
* Transplant surgery * Trauma surgery

* Urology

* Andrology

* Vascular surgery
Vascular surgery

Internal medicine

* Allergy / Immunology * Angiology * Cardiology * Endocrinology

* Gastroenterology

* Hepatology

* Geriatrics * Hematology * Hospital
medicine * Infectious disease * Nephrology
* Oncology * Pulmonology * Rheumatology

Obstetrics and gynaecology

* Gynaecology
* Gynecologic oncology * Maternal–fetal medicine * Obstetrics
* Reproductive endocrinology and infertility * Urogynecology


* Radiology

* Interventional radiology
Interventional radiology
* Nuclear medicine
Nuclear medicine

* Pathology

* Anatomical pathology * Clinical pathology
Clinical pathology
* Clinical chemistry * Clinical immunology * Cytopathology * Medical microbiology * Transfusion medicine

Other specialties

* Addiction medicine * Adolescent medicine * Anesthesiology * Dermatology * Disaster medicine * Diving medicine

* Emergency medicine

* Mass-gathering medicine

* Family medicine * General practice * Hospital
medicine * Intensive-care medicine * Medical genetics

* Neurology

* Clinical neurophysiology
Clinical neurophysiology

* Occupational medicine * Ophthalmology * Oral medicine
Oral medicine
* Pain management * Palliative care

* Pediatrics

* Neonatology

* Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMborder-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Medical school
Medical school
* Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery * Bachelor of Medical Sciences * Master of Medicine
* Master of Surgery * Doctor of Medicine
* Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
* MD–PhD


* Allied health

* Dentistry * Podiatry * Physiotherapy

* Nanomedicine * Molecular oncology * Personalized medicine * Veterinary medicine

* Physician

* Chief physician

* History of medicine


* Medicine

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