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The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of the
People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million m ...
directly under
Central People's Government The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China. It is chaired by the p ...
. As a region, they possess the highest degree of
autonomy The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republic of Karelia. In developmental psychology and morality, moral, pol ...
in China. Despite the relative autonomy that the Central People's Government affords special administrative regions, the
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, normally referred to as the National People's Congress (usually abbreviated NPC), is the highest organ of state power and the national legislature of the People's Republic of ...
is still able to unilaterally write laws in secret for special administrative regions that are not read publicly until they are passed. The legal basis for the establishment of SARs, unlike the other
administrative divisions of China Due to China's large population and geographical area, the administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient era. The constitution of China provides for three ''de jure'' levels of government. Currently, however, ...
, is provided for by Article 31, rather than Article 30, of the
Constitution of the People's Republic of China The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law of the People's Republic of China. It was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982, with further revisions about every five years. It is ...
of 1982. Article 31 reads: "The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in the light of the specific conditions". At present, there are two SARs established according to the Constitution, namely the
Hong Kong SAR Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and special administrative region of the People's Republic of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta o ...
and the
Macau SAR Macau (; , ; ), also spelled Macao and officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區), is a city and special administrative region of the People's Republ ...
, former British and Portuguese dependencies, respectively,Ghai, Yash P. (2000). ''Autonomy and Ethnicity: Negotiating Competing Claims in Multi-Ethnic States''. Cambridge University Press. , 9780521786423. p 92. transferred to China in 1997 and 1999, respectively, pursuant to the
Sino-British Joint Declaration The Sino-British Joint Declaration is a joint statement by the United Kingdom and China on Hong Kong under Chinese sovereignty. Signed on 19 December 1984 in Beijing and deposited as an international treaty at the United Nations,Constitution ...
of 1984 and the
Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration The Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau, or Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration, was a treaty between Portugal and the People's Republic of China over the status of Macau. The full name of the treaty is Joint Declaration of the Government of ...
of 1987. Pursuant to their Joint Declarations, which are binding inter-state treaties registered with the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of ...
, and their
Basic law In countries with uncodified constitutions, basic law is the denomination of a law providing constitutional powers. In Germany ''basic law'' ("Grundgesetz") is the name given to the codified constitution. "Basic law" is often used to denote an inte ...
s, the Chinese SARs "shall enjoy a high degree of
autonomy The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republic of Karelia. In developmental psychology and morality, moral, pol ...
". Generally, the two SARs are not considered to constitute a part of
Mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopolitical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since October 1, 1949. It include ...
, by both SAR and mainland Chinese authorities. The provision to establish special administrative regions appeared in the
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed. When these principl ...
in 1982, in anticipation of the talks with the United Kingdom over the question of the sovereignty over Hong Kong. It was envisioned as the model for the eventual
reunification A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states. The process of creating such a state out of smaller states is called unification. Unification of states that used to be together and are reuniting is referr ...
with
Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...
and other islands, where the
Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...
has resided since 1949. Under the
one country, two systems "One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle of the People's Republic of China describing the governance of Hong Kong and Macau since they became Special Administrative Regions (SARs) of China in 1997 and 1999 respectively. It was ...
principle, the two SARs continue to possess their own
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
s,
multi-party In political science, a multi-party system is a political system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national elections, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coali ...
legislatures,
legal system The contemporary national legal systems are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these. However, the legal system of each country is shaped by its unique history and s ...
s,
police forces The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state, with the aim to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crime and civil disorder. Their lawful powers include arrest and the us ...
, monetary systems, separate customs territory, immigration policies,
national sports team A national sports team (commonly known as a national team or a national side) is a team that represents a nation, rather than a particular club or region, in an international sport. The term is most commonly associated with team sports, for examp ...
s,
official language An official language, also called state language, is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used in government (judiciary, legislature ...
s, postal systems, academic and educational systems, and substantial competence in
external relations
external relations
that are different or independent from the People's Republic of China. The two SARs also continue to have
left-hand traffic Left-hand traffic (LHT) and right-hand traffic (RHT) are the practices, in bidirectional traffic, of keeping to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively. They are fundamental to traffic flow, and are sometimes referred to a ...
, the opposite of mainland China. Special administrative regions should not be confused with
special economic zones A special economic zone is an area in which the business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country. SEZs are located within a country's national borders, and their aims include increased trade balance, employment, increased inve ...
, which are areas in which special economic laws apply to promote
trade Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system or network that allows trade as a market. An early form of trade, the Gift economy, saw the excha ...
and
investment To invest is to allocate money in the expectation of some benefit/return in the future. In other words, to invest means owning an asset or an item with the goal of generating income from the investment or the appreciation of your investment whic ...
s. The
Wolong Special Administrative Region Wolong National Nature Reserve (), also known as Wolong Special Administrative Region (), is a protected area located in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China. Established in 1963 with an initial size of about 20,000 hectar ...
in
Sichuan Sichuan (, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ; alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked province in Southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha ...
province is a nature preserve not a political division.


List of special administrative regions of China

There are currently two special administrative regions established according to Article 31 of the Chinese Constitution. For the
Wolong Special Administrative Region Wolong National Nature Reserve (), also known as Wolong Special Administrative Region (), is a protected area located in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China. Established in 1963 with an initial size of about 20,000 hectar ...
in
Sichuan Province Sichuan (, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ; alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked province in Southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha ...
, please see the section Wolong below.


Characteristics

The two special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau (created in 1997 and 1999 respectively) each have a codified constitution called
Basic Law In countries with uncodified constitutions, basic law is the denomination of a law providing constitutional powers. In Germany ''basic law'' ("Grundgesetz") is the name given to the codified constitution. "Basic law" is often used to denote an inte ...
. The law provides the regions with a high degree of autonomy, a separate political system, and a
capitalist Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets, a price system, private proper ...
economy under the principle of "
one country, two systems "One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle of the People's Republic of China describing the governance of Hong Kong and Macau since they became Special Administrative Regions (SARs) of China in 1997 and 1999 respectively. It was ...
" proposed by
Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (, ; ; Wade–Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; born Xiansheng (); courtesy name Xixian (); 22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997) was a Chinese revolutionary and statesman who served as the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China (P ...

Deng Xiaoping
.


High degree of autonomy

Currently, the two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau are responsible for all affairs except those regarding diplomatic relations and national defence.Zhang Wei-Bei.
006 Alec Trevelyan (006), also known as Janus, is a fictional character and the main antagonist in the 1995 James Bond film ''GoldenEye'', the first film to feature actor Pierce Brosnan as the titular spy. Trevelyan is portrayed by actor Sean Bean. ...
(2006). Hong Kong: the pearl made of British mastery and Chinese docile-diligence. Nova Publishers. , 9781594546006.
Consequently, the
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, normally referred to as the National People's Congress (usually abbreviated NPC), is the highest organ of state power and the national legislature of the People's Republic of ...
authorises the SAR to exercise a high degree of autonomy and enjoy executive, legislative and independent judicial power, and each with their own Courts of Final Appeal.Oliveira, Jorge. Cardinal, Paulo. 009(2009). One Country, Two Systems, Three Legal Orders – Perspectives of Evolution: Essays on Macau's Autonomy After the Resumption of Sovereignty by China. , 9783540685715. p 212.


External affairs

Special administrative regions are empowered to contract a wide range of agreements with other countries and territories such as mutual abolition of visa requirement, mutual legal aid, air services,
extradition Extradition is an action wherein one jurisdiction delivers a person accused or convicted of committing a crime in another jurisdiction, over to the other's law enforcement. It is a cooperative law enforcement procedure between the two jurisdiction ...
, handling of
double taxationDouble taxation is the levying of tax by two or more jurisdictions on the same income (in the case of income taxes), asset (in the case of capital taxes), or financial transaction (in the case of sales taxes). Double liability may be mitigated in a ...
and others, with no
Chinese government The government of the People's Republic of China () is collectively the state authority in the People's Republic of China (PRC) under the exclusive political leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It consists of legislative, execut ...
involvement. However, in some diplomatic talks involving a SAR, the SAR concerned may choose to send officials to be part of the Chinese delegation. For example, when former Director of Health of Hong Kong
Margaret Chan Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun, (born August 21, 1947) is a Chinese-Canadian physician, who served as the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) delegating the People's Republic of China for 2006–2017. Chan has previously serve ...
became the
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. The WHO Constitution, which establishes the agency's governing structure and principles, states its main objective as ...
(WHO) Director-General, she served as a delegate from the
People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million m ...
to the WHO. In sporting events the SARs participate under the respective names of "''
Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and special administrative region of the People's Republic of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta o ...

Hong Kong
, China''" and "''
Macau Macau (; , ; ), also spelled Macao and officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區), is a city and special administrative region of the People's Republ ...
, China''", and compete as different entities as they had done since they were under foreign rules, but both SARs are usually allowed to omit the term "'', China''" for informal use. The
Government of Hong Kong The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , commonly known as the Hong Kong Government or HKSAR Government, refers to the executive authorities of Hong Kong SAR. It was formed in July 1997 in accordance with the Sino-British ...
has established
Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office The Hong Kong Economic and Trade Offices (HKETOs) are the trade offices of Hong Kong outside the territory. There are 12 HKETOs outside the Greater China Region, and eight in the Greater China Region (one in Taiwan, four offices and three liaison ...
s (HKETOs) in few countries as well as
Greater China Region "Greater China" is an informal geographical area that shares commercial and cultural ties with the Han Chinese. The notion of "Greater China" refers to the area that normally encompasses Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan in East Asia, ...
. HKETOs serve as a quasi-
interests section A protecting power is a country that represents another sovereign state in a country where it lacks its own diplomatic representation. It is common for protecting powers to be appointed when two countries break off diplomatic relations with each o ...
in favour of
Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and special administrative region of the People's Republic of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta o ...
. For regions with no HKETOs, Chinese diplomatic missions take charge of protecting Hong Kong-related interests. Some countries which have a diplomatic relationship with the central Chinese government maintain
Consulate-General A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the t ...
offices in Hong Kong.


Defence and military

The
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the regular armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the armed wing of the PRC's founding and ruling political party, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Besides the Central Military Commis ...
is garrisoned in both SARs. PRC authorities have said the PLA will not be allowed to interfere with the local affairs of Hong Kong and Macau, and must abide by its laws. In 1988, scholar Chen Fang of the Academy of Military Science even tried to propose the "One military, two systems" concept to separate the defence function and public functions in the army. The PLA does not participate in the governance of the SAR but the SAR may request them for civil-military participation, in times of emergency such as
natural disaster A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, storms, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can ...
s. Defence is the responsibility of the PRC government. A 1996 draft PRC law banned People's Liberation Army–run businesses in Hong Kong, but
loophole A loophole or loop hole is an ambiguity or inadequacy in a system, such as a law or security, which can be used to circumvent or otherwise avoid the purpose, implied or explicitly stated, of the system. Originally, the word means an arrowslit, a ...
s allow them to operate while the profits are ploughed back into the military.Gurtov, Melvin. Hwang, Byong-Moo Hwang (1998). ''China's Security: The New Roles of the Military''. Lynne Rienner Publishing. , 9781555874346. pp. 203–204. There are many PLA-run corporations in Hong Kong. The PLA also have sizeable land holdings in Hong Kong worth billions of dollars.


Immigration and nationality

Each of the SARs issues passports on its own to its permanent residents who are concurrently Chinese (PRC) citizens. PRC citizens must also satisfy one of the following conditions: * born in the SAR; * born anywhere while either parent was a permanent resident of the SAR; * resided continuously and legally for seven or more years in the SAR and therefore gained a
right of abode The right of abode is an individual's freedom from immigration control in a particular country. A person who has the right of abode in a country does not need permission from the government to enter the country and can live and work there without ...
in the SAR. Apart from affording the holder consular protection by the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China (MOFA, MFA or FMPRC; ) is the first-ranked executive department of the State Council of the Chinese government, responsible for the foreign relations of the People's Republic of ...
, these passports also specify that the holder has right of abode in the issuing SAR. The
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, normally referred to as the National People's Congress (usually abbreviated NPC), is the highest organ of state power and the national legislature of the People's Republic of ...
has also put each SAR in charge of administering the PRC's Nationality Law in its respective realms, namely
naturalisation Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. It may be done automatically by a statute, i.e., without any effort on the part of the ind ...
, renunciation and restoration of PRC nationality and issuance of proof of nationality. Due to their colonial past, many inhabitants of the SARs hold some form of non-Chinese nationality (e.g.
British National (Overseas) British National (Overseas), abbreviated BN(O), is a class of British nationality associated with the former colony of Hong Kong. The status was granted by voluntary registration to Hong Kong residents who had been British Dependent Territorie ...
status,
British citizenship British nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds United Kingdom nationality. There are six different classes of British nationality, each with varying degrees of civil and political rights, due to the UK's historical status ...
, British Overseas citizenship or
Portuguese citizenship Portuguese nationality law is the legal set of rules that regulate access to Portuguese citizenship, which is acquired mainly through descent from a Portuguese parent, naturalisation in Portugal or marriage to a Portuguese citizen. In some cases ...
). However, SAR residents who are Chinese descent have always been considered as Chinese citizens by the PRC authorities, an exception to this case is Macau, wherein residents of Chinese descent may choose Chinese or Portuguese nationality. Special interpretation of the Nationality Law, while not recognising
dual nationality Dual or Duals may refer to: Paired/two things * Dual (mathematics), a notion of paired concepts that mirror one another ** Dual (category theory), a formalization of mathematical duality ** . . . see more cases in :Duality theori ...
, has allowed Chinese citizens to keep their foreign "right of abode" and use travel documents issued by the foreign country. However, such travel documents cannot be used to travel to
mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopolitical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since October 1, 1949. It include ...
and persons concerned must use
Home Return Permit A Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents (), also colloquially referred to as a Home Return Permit or Home Visit Permit (), is issued to Chinese nationals who are permanent residents of or settled in Hong Kong and Macau as the t ...
. Therefore,
master nationality ruleThe Master Nationality Rule is a consequence of Article 4 of the Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Laws of 1930. This provides that "a State may not afford diplomatic protection to one of its nationals against a ...
applies so the holder may not enjoy consular protection while in mainland China. Chinese citizens who also have foreign citizenship may declare a change of nationality at the Immigration Department of the respective SARs, and upon approval, would no longer be considered Chinese citizens. SAR permanent residents who are not Chinese citizens (including stateless persons) are not eligible for SAR passports. Persons who hold a non-Chinese citizenship must obtain passports from foreign diplomatic missions which represents their countries of citizenship. For those who are stateless, each SAR may issue its own form of certificates of identity, e.g. Document of Identity, in lieu of national passports to the persons concerned. Chinese citizens who are non-permanent residents of two SARs are also ineligible for SAR passports but may obtain CIs just like stateless persons.


Comparisons


Offer to Taiwan and other ROC-controlled areas

The status of a special administrative region for
Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...
and other areas controlled by the
Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...
(ROC) was first proposed in 1981. The 1981 proposal was put forth by
Ye Jianying Ye Jianying (; 28 April 1897 – 22 October 1986) was a Chinese communist revolutionary leader and politician, one of the founding Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army. He was the top military leader in the 1976 coup that overthrew the G ...

Ye Jianying
called "Ye's nine points" (). A series of different offers have since appeared. On 25 June 1983
Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (, ; ; Wade–Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; born Xiansheng (); courtesy name Xixian (); 22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997) was a Chinese revolutionary and statesman who served as the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China (P ...

Deng Xiaoping
appeared at
Seton Hall University Seton Hall University is a private, Catholic university in South Orange, New Jersey. Founded in 1856 by then-Bishop James Roosevelt Bayley and named after his aunt, Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton, Seton Hall is the oldest diocesan university in the ...
in the US to propose "Deng's six points" (), which called for a "Taiwan Special Administrative Region" (). It was envisioned that after Taiwan's unification with the PRC as an SAR, the PRC would become the sole representative of China. Under this proposal, Taiwan would be guaranteed its own military, its own administrative and legislative powers, an independent judiciary and the right of adjudication, although it would not be considered a separate government of China. In 2005 the Anti-Secession Law of the PRC was enacted. It promises the lands currently ruled by the authorities of Taiwan a high degree of autonomy, among other things. The PRC can also employ non-peaceful means and other necessary measures to defend its claims to sovereignty over the ROC's territories in the event of an outright declaration of independence by Taiwan (ROC).United Nations refugee agency.
UNHCR
." ''Anti-Secession Law (No. 34).'' Retrieved on 14 December 2009.
In January 2019, the 40-year anniversary of a statement made by the PRC to Taiwan in 1979,
Chinese Communist Party The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and sole governing political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The CCP leads eight other legally permitted subordinate minor p ...
general secretary Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, power, or importance in the organization. Secretaries announce important events and communicate to the organization. The term is derived fro ...
Xi Jinping Xi Jinping ( ; , ; born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician who has served as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) since 2012, and President of the People's Republic of ...
outlined in a speech how the "one country, two systems" principle would be applied to Taiwan. Several major points from the speech include: * Taiwan would be a special administrative region of China, and part of the PRC. The ROC would no longer exist. * Taiwan's institutions would metamorphose into sub-national bodies. * Taiwan's social system and economic lifestyle would be respected. * Taiwan's private property rights, belief systems, and "legitimate rights and interests" would be safeguarded. * The "Taiwan issue" should not be passed down from generation to generation (i.e. reunification should be done promptly). * The reunification of Taiwan would lead to the "great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation".


Wolong

The
Wolong Special Administrative Region Wolong National Nature Reserve (), also known as Wolong Special Administrative Region (), is a protected area located in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China. Established in 1963 with an initial size of about 20,000 hectar ...
Wolong Introduction
() is located in the southwest of
Wenchuan County Wenchuan County is a county in Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. The county has an area of and a population of 106,119 as of 2005. Wolong National Nature Reserve is a protected area located in We ...
,
Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, also known as Aba (; Qiang: Ggabba Shbea Rrmea nyujugvez zhou; ), is an autonomous prefecture of northwestern Sichuan, bordering Gansu to the north and northeast and Qinghai to the northwest. Its seat ...
of Sichuan. It was formerly known as Wolong Special Administrative Region of Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province and was founded in March 1983 with approval of the State Council. It was given its current name and placed under Sichuan provincial government with administrative supervision by the provincial department of forestry. Its area supersedes Sichuan
Wolong National Nature Reserve Wolong National Nature Reserve (), also known as Wolong Special Administrative Region (), is a protected area located in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China. Established in 1963 with an initial size of about 20,000 hectar ...
and its administrative office is the same as the Administrative Bureau of the State Forestry Administration for the reserve. It currently has a population of 5343. Despite its name, the Wolong Special Administrative Region is not an SAR as defined by Article 31 of the
Constitution of the People's Republic of China The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law of the People's Republic of China. It was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982, with further revisions about every five years. It is ...
; as a result, it has been proposed the Wenchuan Wolong Special Administrative Region of Sichuan Province change its name, with designations such as special area or township.


Defunct SARs

In the
Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...
(ROC) era between 1912 and 1949, the "special administrative regions" () were historically used to designate special areas, most of which were eventually converted into
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside ...
. All were suspended or abolished after the end of the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lasting intermittently between 1927 and 1949. The war is genera ...
, with the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the ROC government's retreat to
Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...
. The regions were:


See also

*
Autonomous regions of China An autonomous region (AR; ) is a first-level administrative division of China. Like Chinese provinces, an autonomous region has its own local government, but an autonomous region has more legislative rights. An autonomous region is the highest l ...
*
Constitution of the People's Republic of China The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law of the People's Republic of China. It was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982, with further revisions about every five years. It is ...
*
History of Hong Kong The region of Hong Kong has been inhabited since the Old Stone Age, later becoming part of the Chinese empire with its loose incorporation into the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC). Starting out as a farming fishing village and salt production site, ...
**
British Hong Kong Hong Kong was a colony and dependent territory of the British Empire from 1841 to 1997, apart from a brief period under Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945. The colonial period began with the occupation of Hong Kong Island in 1841 during t ...
*
History of Macau Macau is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China. In 1557 it was leased to Portugal as a trading post in exchange for an annual rent of 500 tael in order to stay in Macau, it remained under Chinese sovereignty a ...
**
Portuguese Macau Portuguese Macau covers Macau's history from the establishment of a Portuguese settlement in 1557 to the end of Portuguese colonial rule and transfer of full sovereignty to the People's Republic of China in 1999. Macau was both the first and last ...


Notes


References

{{Macau topics Province-level divisions of China