HOME
The Info List - Special Economic Zones


--- Advertisement ---



A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which business and trade laws are different from rest of the country. SEZs are located within a country's national borders, and their aims include: increased trade, increased investment, job creation and effective administration. To encourage businesses to set up in the zone, financial policies are introduced. These policies typically regard investing, taxation, trading, quotas, customs and labour regulations. Additionally, companies may be offered tax holidays, where upon establishing in a zone they are granted a period of lower taxation. Sezs are important for a country for competion in market The creation of special economic zones by the host country may be motivated by the desire to attract foreign direct investment (FDI).[1][2] The benefits a company gains by being in a special economic zone may mean that it can produce and trade goods at a lower price, aimed at being globally competitive.[1][3] In some countries the zones have been criticized for being little more than labor camps, with workers denied fundamental labor rights.[4][5]

Contents

1 Definition 2 History 3 Types 4 Special
Special
economic zones by country 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Definition[edit] The operating definition of a SEZ is to determine individually by each country. According to the World Bank
World Bank
in 2008, the modern day special economic zone typically includes a "geographically limited area, usually physically secured (fenced-in); single management/administration; eligibility for benefits based upon physical location within the zone; separate customs area (duty-free benefits) and streamlined procedures."special economic zone are those industrial zone which have been set up by government of India to attract foreign companies to invest in the country.[6] History[edit] Free zones and Entrepôts have been used for centuries to guarantee free storage and exchange along trade routes.[citation needed] Modern SEZs appeared from the late 1950s in industrial countries. The first was in Shannon Airport
Shannon Airport
in Clare, Ireland.[7] From the 1970s onward, zones providing labour-intensive manufacturing have been established, starting in Latin America and East Asia. The first in China following the opening of China in 1979 by Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
was the Shenzhen Special
Special
Economic Zone, which encouraged foreign investment and simultaneously accelerated industrialization in this region. These zones attracted investment from multinational corporations.[1] A recent trend has been for African countries to set up SEZs in partnership with China.[2] Types[edit] The term special economic zone can include:[1][8]

Free trade zones
Free trade zones
(FTZ) Export processing zones
Export processing zones
(EPZ) Free zones/ Free economic zones (FZ/ FEZ) Industrial parks/ industrial estates (IE) Free ports Bonded logistics parks (BLP) Urban enterprise zones

The World Bank
World Bank
created the following table to clarify distinctions between types of special economic zones:

Type [6] Objective Size Typical Location Typical Activities Markets

FTZ Support trade <50 hectares Port of entry Entrepôts and trade related Domestic, re-export

EPZ (traditional) Export manufacturing <100 hectares None Manufacturing, processing Mostly export

EPZ (single Unit/free enterprise) Export manufacturing No minimum Countrywide Manufacturing, processing Mostly export

EPZ (hybrid) Export manufacturing <100 hectares None Manufacturing, processing Export, domestic

Free port/SEZ Integrated development >1000 hectares None Multi-use Internal, domestic, export

Urban enterprise zone Urban revitalization <50 hectares Urban/rural Multi-use Domestic

Special
Special
economic zones by country[edit] Main article: List of special economic zones

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2016)

See also[edit]

Exclusive economic zone
Exclusive economic zone
- sea zones Urban Enterprise Zone Four Asian Tigers

References[edit]

^ a b c d " Special
Special
Economic Zones Progress, Emerging Challenges, and Future Directions" (PDF). Washington DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2014.  ^ a b Woolfrey, Sean (2013). " Special
Special
economic zones and regional integration in Africa" (PDF). Trade Law Center. Retrieved 25 May 2014.  ^ "Goldman Sachs says reforms to create 110 mn jobs for economy in 10 yrs". Business Today. March 29, 2014.  ^ Watson, Peggy (July 23, 2012). "Sackings expose the harsh reality of Poland's junk jobs". The Guardian. ^ Młodawska, Agata (March 8, 2012). "Maciejewska: Kobiety w strefie pracowniczego bezprawia". Nowe Peryferie. ^ a b "Zone Definition", Special
Special
Economic Zone: Performance, Lessons Learned, and Implication for Zone Development, Washington DC: World Bank, 2008, pp. 9–11  ^ "Political priority, economic gamble". The Economist. April 4, 2015 ^ Economic Zones in the ASEAN (PDF), United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 2015, p. 26 

Further reading[edit]

Chee Kian Leong, (2007) A Tale of Two Countries: Openness and Growth in China and India, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade, DEGIT Conference Paper pdf Chee Kian Leong, (forthcoming) Special
Special
economic zones and growth in China and India: an empirical investigation, International Economics and Economic Policy. link Thomas Farole, (2011) Special
Special
Economic Zones in Africa: Comparing Performance and Learning from Global Experiences, Washington, DC, World Bank

External links[edit]

Шмонов Н.Н. «Историческое исследование проблем развития особых экономических зон» Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority BEPZA South Kazakhstan "Ontustyk" special economic zone Indian Special
Special
Economic Zones Export Processing Zones Authority Pakistan PEZA Philippines website India Special
Special
Economic zones map Open Joint Stock Company " Special
Special
Economic Zones" (Russia) U.S.S.R. Special
Special
Economic Zones India: Citizens group demand moratorium on SEZs OneWorld South Asia

v t e

Globalization

Journals Outline Studies

Aspects

Alter-globalization Anti-globalization Counter-hegemonic globalization Cultural globalization Deglobalization Democratic globalization Economic globalization Environmental globalization Financial globalization Global citizenship

education

Global governance Global health History of

archaic early modern

Military globalization Political globalization Trade globalization Workforce globalization

Issues

Global

Disease Digital divide Labor arbitrage Population Warming Water crisis

Other

Brain drain

reverse

Climate change Climate justice Development aid Economic inequality Endangered languages Fair trade Forced migration Human rights Illicit financial flows Invasive species Investor-state disputes New international division of labour North–South divide Offshoring Race to the bottom

pollution havens

Transnational crime McDonaldization Westernization American imperialism British Empire World war

Theories

Capital accumulation Dependency Development Earth system Fiscal localism Modernization

ecological history of

Primitive accumulation Social change World history World-systems

Notable scholars

Samir Amin Arjun Appadurai K. Anthony Appiah Daniele Archibugi Giovanni Arrighi Ravi Batra Jean Baudrillard Zygmunt Bauman Ulrich Beck Walden Bello Jagdish Bhagwati Robert Brenner Manuel Castells Noam Chomsky Alfred Crosby Christopher Chase-Dunn Andre G. Frank Thomas Friedman Anthony Giddens Peter Gowan Michael Hardt David Harvey David Held Paul Hirst Michael Hudson Paul James Ibn Khaldun Naomi Klein Antonio Negri George Ritzer Dani Rodrik Jeffrey Sachs Saskia Sassen John R. Saul Vandana Shiva Joseph Stiglitz John Urry Immanuel Wallerstein

Portal Category

v t e

International trade

Terminology

Absolute advantage Balance of payments Balance of trade Capital account Comparative advantage Current account Export-oriented industrialization Fair trade Foreign exchange reserves Globalization Import substitution industrialization Net capital outflow Outsourcing Tariff Trade justice Trade war Trading nation

Organizations and policies

International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) United Nations Conference on Trade and Development World Bank
World Bank
Group World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO)

International Trade Centre

Bilateral investment treaty Economic integration Free-trade zone Special
Special
economic zone Trade agreement Trade barrier Trade bloc

Political economy

Free trade
Free trade
(Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, Repeal of the Corn Laws) Mercantilism Protectionism
Protectionism
(Economic nationalism, Autarky)

Regional organizations

ACU ASEAN CACM CAN CARICOM CEMAC CUBKR EAC EAU EU GCC Mercosur RCEP SAARC SACU WAEMU

Exports by product

Aircraft & Spacecraft Aircraft parts Aluminium Cars Car parts Coal Coffee Computers Copper Corn Cotton Diamonds Electricity Engines Gas turbines Gold Integrated circuits Iron ore Natural gas Oil Petrol Pharmaceuticals Ships Steel Telecommunications equipment Telephones Trucks Wheat Wine

Category Commons

v t e

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

English terms

Common English terms1

Area

Insular area Local government area Protected area Special
Special
area Statistical area

Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area

Urban area

Canton

Half-canton

Borough

County
County
borough Metropolitan borough

Capital

Federal capital Imperial capital

City

City
City
state Autonomous city Charter city Independent city Incorporated city Imperial city Free imperial city Royal free city

Community

Autonomous community Residential community

County

Administrative county Autonomous county Consolidated city-county Metropolitan county

Non-metropolitan

Viscountcy

Country

Overseas country

Department

Overseas department

District

Capital district City
City
district Congressional district Electoral district Federal district Indian government district Land district Metropolitan district

Non-metropolitan district

Military district Municipal district Police district Regional district Rural district Sanitary district Subdistrict Urban district Special
Special
district

Division

Census division Police division Subdivision

Municipality

City
City
municipality County
County
municipality

Norway Nova Scotia Regional county municipality

Direct-controlled municipality District
District
municipality Mountain resort municipality Neutral municipality Regional municipality Resort municipality Rural municipality Specialized municipality

Prefecture

Autonomous prefecture Subprefecture Super-prefecture Praetorian prefecture

Province

Autonomous province Overseas province Roman province

Region

Administrative region Autonomous region Capital region Development region Economic region Mesoregion Microregion Overseas region Planning region Special
Special
administrative region Statistical region Subregion

Reserve

Biosphere reserve Ecological reserve Game reserve Indian reserve Nature reserve

State

Federal state Free state Sovereign state

Territory

Capital territory

Federal capital territory

Dependent territory Federal territory Military territory Organized incorporated territory Overseas territory Union territory Unorganized territory

Town

Census town Market town

Township

Charter township Civil township Paper township Survey township Urban township

Unit

Autonomous territorial unit Local administrative unit Municipal unit Regional unit

Zone

Economic zone

Exclusive economic zone Free economic zone Special
Special
economic zone

Free-trade zone Neutral zone Self-administered zone

Other English terms

Current

Alpine resort Bailiwick Banner

Autonomous

Block Cadastre Circle Circuit Colony Commune Condominium Constituency Duchy Eldership Emirate Federal dependency Governorate Hamlet Ilkhanate Indian reservation Manor

Royal

Muftiate Neighbourhood Parish Periphery Precinct Principality Protectorate Quarter Regency Autonomous republic Riding Sector

Autonomous

Shire Sultanate Suzerainty Townland Village

Administrative Summer

Ward

Historical

Agency Barony Burgh Exarchate Hide Hundred Imperial Circle March Monthon Presidency Residency Roman diocese Seat Tenth Tithing

Non-English or loanwords

Current

Amt Bakhsh Barangay Bezirk Regierungsbezirk Comune Frazione Fu Gemeinde Județ Kunta / kommun

Finland Sweden

Län Località Megye Muban Oblast

Autonomous

Okrug Ostān Poblacion Purok Shahrestān Sum Sýsla Tehsil Vingtaine

Historical

Commote Gau Heerlijkheid Köping Maalaiskunta Nome

Egypt Greece

Pagus Pargana Plasă Satrapy Socken Subah Syssel Zhou

v t e

Arabic
Arabic
terms for country subdivisions

First-level

Muhafazah (محافظة governorate) Wilayah (ولاية province) Mintaqah (منطقة region) Mudiriyah (مديرية directorate) Imarah (إمارة emirate) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Shabiyah (شعبية "popularate")

Second / third-level

Mintaqah (منطقة region) Qadaa (قضاء district) Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) Markaz (مركز district) Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") Daerah/Daïra (دائرة circle) Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak)

City / township-level

Amanah (أمانة municipality) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) Mahallah (محلة) Qarya (قرية) Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision")

English translations given are those most commonly used.

v t e

French terms for country subdivisions

arrondissement département préfecture subprefectures

v t e

Greek terms for country subdivisions

Modern

apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§

Historical

archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma

§ signifies a defunct institution

v t e

Portuguese terms for country subdivisions

Regional subdivisions

Estado Distrito federal Província Região Distrito Comarca Capitania

Local subdivisions

Município Concelho Freguesia Comuna Circunscrição

Settlements

Cidade Vila Aldeia Bairro Lugar

Historical subdivisions in italics.

v t e

Slavic terms for country subdivisions

Current

dzielnica gmina krai kraj krajina / pokrajina městys obec oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast' okręg okres okrug opština / općina / občina / obshtina osiedle powiat / povit raion selsoviet / silrada sołectwo voivodeship / vojvodina županija

Historical

darugha gromada guberniya / gubernia jurydyka khutor obshchina okolia opole pogost prowincja sorok srez starostwo / starostva uyezd volost ziemia župa

v t e

Spanish terms for country subdivisions

National, Federal

Comunidad autónoma Departamento Distrito federal Estado Provincia Región

Regional, Metropolitan

Cantón Comarca Comuna Corregimiento Delegación Distrito Mancomunidad Merindad Municipalidad Municipio Parroquia

Ecuador Spain

Urban, Rural

Aldea Alquería Anteiglesia Asentamiento

Asentamiento informal Pueblos jóvenes

Barrio Campamento Caserío Ciudad

Ciudad autónoma

Colonia Lugar Masía Pedanía Población Ranchería Sitio Vereda Villa Village
Village
(Pueblito/Pueblo)

Historical subdivisions in italics.

v t e

Turkish terms for country subdivisions

Modern

il (province) ilçe (district) şehir (city) kasaba (town) belediye (municipality) belde (community) köy (village) mahalle (neighbourhood/quarter)

Historical

ağalık (feudal district) bucak (subdistrict) beylerbeylik (province) kadılık (subprovince) kaza (sub-province) hidivlik (viceroyalty) mutasarrıflık (subprovince) nahiye (nahiyah) paşalık (province) reya (Romanian principalities) sancak (prefecture) vilayet (province) voyvodalık (Romanian provinces)

1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics. See also: Census division, Electoral district, Political division, and List of administrative divisions by country

Authority control

.