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The SPECIAL ACTIVITIES DIVISION (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations . Within SAD there are two separate groups: SAD/SOG for tactical paramilitary operations and SAD/PAG for covert political action.

The SPECIAL OPERATIONS GROUP (SOG) is the department within SAD responsible for operations that include high-threat military or covert operations with which the US government does not wish to be overtly associated. As such, members of the unit (called Paramilitary Operations Officers and Specialized Skills Officers) normally do not carry any objects or clothing (e.g., military uniforms) that would associate them with the United States
United States
government. If they are compromised during a mission, the United States
United States
government may deny all knowledge .

SOG is generally considered the most secretive special operations force in the United States. The group selects operatives from other special mission units such as Delta Force , DEVGRU , ISA , and 24th STS , as well as other United States
United States
special operations forces , such as USNSWC , MARSOC
MARSOC
, US Army Special
Special
Forces , SEALs , SWCC , Force Recon , Pararescuemen , Combat Controllers , and the 75th Ranger Regiment .

SOG Paramilitary Operations Officers account for a majority of Distinguished Intelligence Cross and Intelligence Star recipients during conflicts or incidents which elicited CIA
CIA
involvement. An award bestowing either of these citations represents the highest honors awarded within the CIA
CIA
in recognition of distinguished valor and excellence in the line of duty. SAD/SOG operatives also account for the majority of the stars displayed on the Memorial Wall at CIA headquarters indicating that the agent died while on active duty.

The POLITICAL ACTION GROUP (PAG) is responsible for covert activities related to political influence, psychological operations and economic warfare . The rapid development of technology has added cyberwarfare to their mission. Tactical units within SAD are also capable of carrying out covert political action while deployed in hostile and austere environments. A large covert operation usually has components that involve many, or all, of these categories, as well as paramilitary operations.

Political and "influence" covert operations are used to support US foreign policy. Often, overt support for one element of an insurgency would be counterproductive due to the impression it would have on the local population. In such cases, covert assistance allows the US to assist without damaging these elements in the process.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview * 2 Covert action * 3 Selection and training

* 4 History

* 4.1 World War II
World War II
* 4.2 Tibet
Tibet
* 4.3 Korea * 4.4 Cuba
Cuba
(1961) * 4.5 Bolivia * 4.6 Vietnam
Vietnam
and Laos
Laos
* 4.7 Maritime activities against the USSR * 4.8 Nicaragua * 4.9 El Salvador
El Salvador
* 4.10 Somalia
Somalia

* 4.11 Afghanistan
Afghanistan

* 4.11.1 Tora Bora * 4.11.2 Surge * 4.11.3 The End Game

* 4.12 Yemen
Yemen
* 4.13 Iraq
Iraq

* 4.14 Pakistan
Pakistan

* 4.14.1 Operation Neptune Spear

* 4.15 Iran
Iran
* 4.16 Libya * 4.17 Syria
Syria

* 5 Worldwide mission * 6 Innovations in special operations * 7 Notable paramilitary officers * 8 Notable political action officers * 9 CIA Memorial Wall * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

OVERVIEW

SAD provides the President of the United States
United States
with an option when overt military operations and/or diplomatic actions are not viable or politically feasible. SAD can be directly tasked by the president or the National Security Council at the president's direction, unlike other US special mission forces. SAD/SOG has far fewer members than most of the other special missions units, such as the U.S. Army 's 1st Special
Special
Forces Operational Detachment-Delta ( Delta Force ) or Naval Special
Special
Warfare Development Group (DEVGRU).

As the action arm of the CIA's Directorate of Operations, SAD/SOG conducts direct action missions such as raids , ambushes , sabotage , targeted killings and unconventional warfare (e.g., training and leading guerrilla and military units of other countries in combat). SAD/SOG also conducts special reconnaissance that can be either military- or intelligence -driven, but is carried out by Paramilitary Officers (also called Paramilitary Operatives or Paramilitary Operations Officers) when in "non-permissive environments ". Paramilitary Operations Officers are also fully trained case officers (i.e., "spy handlers") and as such conduct clandestine human intelligence ( HUMINT ) operations throughout the world.

The political action group within SAD conducts the deniable psychological operations , also known as black propaganda , as well as "Covert Influence" to effect political change in other countries as part of United States
United States
foreign policy . Covert intervention in foreign election is the most significant form of SAD's political action. This involves financial support for favored candidates, media guidance, technical support for public relations , get-out-the-vote or political organizing efforts, legal expertise, advertising campaigns, assistance with poll-watching, and other means of direct action. Policy decisions are influenced by agents, such as subverted officials of the country, to make decisions in their official capacity that are in the furtherance of US policy aims. In addition, mechanisms for forming and developing opinions involve the covert use of propaganda .

Propaganda includes leaflets, newspapers, magazines, books, radio, and television, all of which are geared to convey the US message appropriate to the region. These techniques have expanded to cover the internet as well. They may employ officers to work as journalists, recruit agents of influence, operate media platforms, plant certain stories or information in places it is hoped it will come to public attention, or seek to deny and/or discredit information that is public knowledge. In all such propaganda efforts, "black" operations denote those in which the audience is to be kept ignorant of the source; "white" efforts are those in which the originator openly acknowledges themselves; and "gray" operations are those in which the source is partly but not fully acknowledged.

Some examples of political action programs were the prevention of the Italian Communist Party
Italian Communist Party
(PCI) from winning elections between 1948 and the late 1960s; overthrowing the governments of Iran
Iran
in 1953 and Guatemala
Guatemala
in 1954 ; arming rebels in Indonesia
Indonesia
in 1957; and providing funds and support to the trade union federation Solidarity following the imposition of martial law in Poland after 1981.

SAD's existence became better known as a result of the "War on Terror ". Beginning in autumn of 2001, SAD/SOG paramilitary teams arrived in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to hunt down al-Qaeda leaders, facilitate the entry of U.S. Army Special
Special
Forces and lead the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
against the ruling Taliban
Taliban
. SAD/SOG units also defeated Ansar al-Islam in Iraqi Kurdistan prior to the invasion of Iraq
Iraq
in 2003 and trained, equipped, organized and led the Kurdish peshmerga forces to defeat the Iraqi Army in northern Iraq. Despite being the most covert unit in US Special
Special
Operations, numerous books have been published on the exploits of CIA
CIA
paramilitary officers, including Conboy and Morrison's Feet to the Fire: CIA
CIA
Covert Operations in Indonesia, and Warner's Shooting at the Moon: The Story of America's Clandestine War in Laos. Most experts consider SAD/SOG the premier force for unconventional warfare (UW), whether that warfare consists of either creating or combating an insurgency in a foreign country.

There remains some conflict between the National Clandestine Service and the more clandestine parts of the United States
United States
Special
Special
Operations Command (USSOCOM), such as the Joint Special Operations Command . This is usually confined to the civilian/political heads of the respective Department/Agency. The combination of SAD and USSOCOM units has resulted in some of the more prominent actions of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, including the locating and killing of Osama bin Laden . SAD/SOG has several missions. One of these missions is the recruiting, training, and leading of indigenous forces in combat operations. SAD/SOG and its successors have been used when it was considered desirable to have plausible deniability about U.S. support (this is called a covert operation or "covert action"). Unlike other special missions units, SAD/SOG operatives combine special operations and clandestine intelligence capabilities in one individual. These individuals can operate in any environment (sea, air or ground) with limited to no support.

COVERT ACTION

Under U.S. law, the CIA
CIA
is authorized to collect intelligence, conduct counterintelligence and to conduct covert action by the National Security Act of 1947 . President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
issued Executive Order 12333 titled " United States
United States
Intelligence Activities" in 1984. This order defined covert action as "special activities," both political and military, that the U.S. government would deny, granting such operations exclusively to the CIA. The CIA
CIA
was also designated as the sole authority under the 1991 Intelligence Authorization Act and mirrored in Title 50 of the United States
United States
Code Section 413(e). The CIA
CIA
must have a presidential finding issued by the President of the United States
United States
in order to conduct these activities under the Hughes-Ryan amendment to the 1991 Intelligence Authorization Act. These findings are then monitored by the oversight committees in both the U.S. Senate , called the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) and the U.S. House of Representatives , called the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI).

The Pentagon commissioned a study to determine whether the CIA
CIA
or the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) should conduct covert action paramilitary operations. Their study determined that the CIA
CIA
should maintain this capability and be the "sole government agency conducting covert action." The DoD found that, even under U.S. law, it does not have the legal authority to conduct covert action, nor the operational agility to carry out these types of missions.

SELECTION AND TRAINING

Emblem of the Joint Special Operations Command

SAD/SOG has several hundred officers, mostly former members of special operations forces (SOF) and a majority from the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). The CIA
CIA
has also recruited individuals from within the agency. The CIA's formal position for these individuals is " Paramilitary Operations Officers" and "Specialized Skills Officers." Paramilitary Operations Officers most likely attend the Clandestine Service Trainee (CST) program, which trains them as clandestine intelligence operatives and an internal paramilitary training course. The primary strengths of SAD/SOG Paramilitary Officers are operational agility, adaptability, and deniability. They often operate in small teams, typically made up of two to eight operatives (with some operations being carried out by a single officer), all usually with extensive military tactical experience and a set of specialized skills that does not exist in any other unit. As fully trained intelligence case officers, Paramilitary Operations Officers possess all the clandestine skills to collect human intelligence—and most importantly—to recruit assets from among the indigenous troops receiving their training. These officers often operate in remote locations behind enemy lines to carry out direct action (including raids and sabotage ), counter-intelligence , guerrilla /unconventional warfare , counter-terrorism , and hostage rescue missions, in addition to being able to conduct espionage via HUMINT assets.

There are four principal elements within SAD's Special
Special
Operations Group: the Air Branch, the Maritime Branch, the Ground Branch, and the Armor and Special
Special
Programs Branch. The Armor and Special
Special
Programs Branch is charged with development, testing, and covert procurement of new personnel and vehicular armor and maintenance of stockpiles of ordnance and weapons systems used by SOG, almost all of which must be obtained from clandestine sources abroad, in order to provide SOG operatives and their foreign trainees with plausible deniability in accordance with U.S. Congressional directives.

Together, SAD/SOG contains a complete combined arms covert paramilitary. Paramilitary Operations Officers are the core of each branch and routinely move between the branches to gain expertise in all aspects of SOG. As such, Paramilitary Operations Officers are trained to operate in a multitude of environments. Because these officers are taken from the most highly trained units in the U.S. military and then provided with extensive additional training to become CIA
CIA
clandestine intelligence officers, many U.S. security experts assess them as the most elite of the U.S. special missions units.

SAD, like most of the CIA, requires a bachelor\'s degree to be considered for employment. Many have advanced degrees such as Master's and law degrees. Many candidates come from notable schools, many from Ivy League institutions and United States
United States
Service Academies , but the majority of recruits today come from middle-class backgrounds. SAD officers are trained at Camp Peary , Virginia (also known as "The Farm") and at privately owned training centers around the United States. They also train its personnel at "The Point" ( Harvey Point ), a facility outside of Hertford , North Carolina. In addition to the eighteen months of training in the Clandestine Service Trainee (CST) Program required to become a clandestine intelligence officer , Paramilitary Operations Officers are trained to a high level of proficiency in the use and tactical employment of an unusually wide degree of modern weaponry, explosive devices and firearms (foreign and domestic), hand to hand combat , high performance/tactical driving (on and off road), apprehension avoidance (including picking handcuffs and escaping from confinement), improvised explosive devices , cyberwarfare , covert channels , HAHO/HALO parachuting , combat and commercial SCUBA and closed circuit diving , proficiency in foreign languages, surreptitious entry operations (picking or otherwise bypassing locks), vehicle hot-wiring , Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE), extreme survival and wilderness training, combat EMS medical training, tactical communications , and tracking .

HISTORY

WORLD WAR II

William Joseph Donovan

While the World War II
World War II
Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was technically a military agency under the Joint Chiefs of Staff , in practice it was fairly autonomous of military control and enjoyed direct access to President Franklin D. Roosevelt . Major
Major
General William Joseph Donovan was the head of the OSS. Donovan was a soldier and Medal of Honor recipient from World War I
World War I
. He was also a lawyer and former classmate of FDR at Columbia Law School . Like its successor, the CIA, OSS included both human intelligence functions and special operations paramilitary functions. Its Secret Intelligence division was responsible for espionage, while its Jedburgh teams, a joint U.S.-UK-French unit, were forerunners of groups that create guerrilla units, such as the U.S. Army Special
Special
Forces and the CIA. OSS' Operational Groups were larger U.S. units that carried out direct action behind enemy lines. Even during World War II, the idea of intelligence and special operations units not under strict military control was controversial. OSS operated primarily in the European Theater of Operations (ETO) and to some extent in the China-Burma-India Theater , while General of the Army Douglas MacArthur was extremely reluctant to have any OSS personnel within his area of operations.

From 1943 to 1945, the OSS also played a major role in training Kuomintang troops in China and Burma
Burma
, and recruited other indigenous irregular forces for sabotage as well as guides for Allied forces in Burma
Burma
fighting the Japanese army . OSS also helped arm, train and supply resistance movements , including Mao Zedong 's People\'s Liberation Army in China and the Viet Minh in French Indochina , in areas occupied by the Axis powers . Other functions of the OSS included the use of propaganda , espionage, subversion , and post-war planning.

One of the OSS' greatest accomplishments during World War II
World War II
was its penetration of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
by OSS operatives. The OSS was responsible for training German and Austrian commandos for missions inside Nazi Germany. Some of these agents included exiled communists and socialist party members, labor activists , anti-Nazi POWs , and German and Jewish refugees
Jewish refugees
. At the height of its influence during World War II, the OSS employed almost 24,000 people.

OSS Paramilitary Officers parachuted into many countries then behind enemy lines, including France, Norway, Greece and The Netherlands. In Crete
Crete
, OSS paramilitary officers linked up with, equipped and fought alongside Greek resistance forces against the Axis occupation .

OSS was disbanded shortly after World War II, with its intelligence analysis functions moving temporarily into the U.S. Department of State . Espionage and counterintelligence went into military units, while paramilitary and other covert action functions went into the Office of Policy Coordination set up in 1948. Between the original creation of the CIA
CIA
by the National Security Act of 1947 and various mergers and reorganizations through 1952, the wartime OSS functions generally ended up in CIA. The mission of training and leading guerrillas in due course went to the United States
United States
Army Special
Special
Forces , but those missions required to remain covert were performed by the (Deputy) Directorate of Plans and its successor the Directorate of Operations of the CIA. The paramilitary operations of CIA
CIA
were 1962 centralized in the Special
Special
Operations Division (SOD), the predecessor of SAD. The direct descendant of the OSS' Special
Special
Operations is the CIA's Special
Special
Activities Division.

TIBET

After the Chinese invasion of Tibet
Tibet
in October 1950, the CIA
CIA
inserted paramilitary (PM) teams into Tibet
Tibet
to train and lead Tibetan resistance fighters against the People\'s Liberation Army of China. These teams selected and then trained Tibetan soldiers in the Rocky Mountains of the United States; training occurred at Camp Hale . The PM teams then advised and led these commandos against the Chinese, both from Nepal
Nepal
and India. In addition, CIA
CIA
Paramilitary Officers were responsible for the Dalai Lama 's clandestine escape to India, narrowly escaping capture and certain execution by the Chinese government.

According to a book by retired CIA
CIA
officer John Kenneth Knaus, entitled Orphans Of The Cold War: America And The Tibetan Struggle For Survival, Gyalo Thondup, the older brother of the 14th (and current) Dalai Lama, sent the CIA
CIA
five Tibetan recruits. These recruits were then trained in paramilitary tactics on the island of Saipan in the Northern Marianas . Shortly thereafter, the five men were covertly returned to Tibet
Tibet
“to assess and organize the resistance” and selected another 300 Tibetans for training. U.S. assistance to the Tibetan resistance ceased after the 1972 Nixon visit to China , after which the United States
United States
and China normalized relations.

KOREA

Battle of Incheon

The CIA
CIA
sponsored a variety of activities during the Korean War . These activities included maritime operations behind North Korean lines. Yong Do Island, connected by a rugged isthmus to Pusan
Pusan
, served as the base for those operations. These operations were carried out by well-trained Korean guerrillas. The four principal U.S. advisers responsible for the training and operational planning of those special missions were Dutch Kramer, Tom Curtis, George Atcheson and Joe Pagnella. All of these Paramilitary Operations Officers operated through a CIA
CIA
front organization called the Joint Advisory Commission, Korea (JACK), headquartered at Tongnae, a village near Pusan, on the peninsula's southeast coast. These paramilitary teams were responsible for numerous maritime raids and ambushes behind North Korean lines, as well as prisoner of war rescue operations. These were the first maritime unconventional warfare units that trained indigenous forces as surrogates . They also provided a model, along with the other CIA-sponsored ground based paramilitary Korean operations, for the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam-Studies and Observations Group (MACV-SOG) activities conducted by the U.S. military and the CIA/SOD in Vietnam
Vietnam
. In addition, CIA
CIA
paramilitary ground-based teams worked directly for U.S. military commanders, specifically with the 8th Army, on the "White Tiger" initiative. This initiative included inserting South Korean commandos and CIA Paramilitary Operations Officers prior to the two major amphibious assaults on North Korea
North Korea
, including the landing at Inchon .

CUBA (1961)

Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion Map showing the location of the Bay of Pigs

The Bay of Pigs Invasion (known as "La Batalla de Girón", or "Playa Girón" in Cuba), was an unsuccessful attempt by a U.S.-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba
Cuba
and overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
. The plan was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency of the United States. The Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces , trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exile-combatants in three days.

The sea-borne invasion force landed on April 17, and fighting lasted until April 19, 1961. CIA
CIA
Paramilitary Operations Officers Grayston Lynch and William "Rip" Robertson led the first assault on the beaches , and supervised the amphibious landings. Four American aircrew instructors from Alabama Air National Guard were killed while flying attack sorties. Various sources estimate Cuban Army casualties (killed or injured) to be in the thousands (between 2,000 and 5,000). This invasion followed the successful overthrow by the CIA
CIA
of the Mosaddeq government in Iran
Iran
in 1953 and Arbenz
Arbenz
government in Guatemala
Guatemala
in 1954, but was a failure both militarily and politically. Deteriorating Cuban-American relations were made worse by the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis .

BOLIVIA

The National Liberation Army of Bolivia (ELN-Ejército de Liberación Nacional de Bolivia) was a communist guerrilla force that operated from the remote Ñancahuazú region against the pro-U.S. Bolivian government . They were joined by Che Guevara
Che Guevara
in the mid-1960s. The ELN was well equipped and scored a number of early successes against the Bolivian army in the difficult terrain of the mountainous Camiri region. In the late 1960s, the CIA
CIA
deployed teams of Paramilitary Operations Officers to Bolivia to train the Bolivian army in order to counter the ELN. These teams linked up with U.S. Army Special
Special
Forces and Bolivian Special
Special
Forces to track down and capture Guevara, who was a special prize because of his leading role in the Cuban Revolution . On October 9, 1967, Guevara was executed by Bolivian soldiers on the orders of CIA
CIA
paramilitary operative Félix Rodríguez shortly after being captured, according to CIA
CIA
documents.

VIETNAM AND LAOS

South Vietnam, Military Regions, 1967

The original OSS mission in Vietnam
Vietnam
under Major
Major
Archimedes Patti was to work with Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
in order to prepare his forces to assist the United States
United States
and their Allies in fighting the Japanese . After the end of World War II, the US agreed at Potsdam to turn Vietnam
Vietnam
back to their previous French rulers and in 1950 the US began providing military aid to the French.

CIA
CIA
Paramilitary Operations Officers trained and led Hmong tribesmen in Laos
Laos
and Vietnam, and their actions of these officers were not known for several years. Air America was the air component of the CIA's paramilitary mission in Southeast Asia and was responsible for all combat, logistics and search and rescue operations in Laos
Laos
and certain sections of Vietnam. The ethnic minority forces numbered in the tens of thousands and they conducted direct actions mission, led by Paramilitary Operations Officers, against the communist Pathet Lao forces and their North Vietnamese allies.

Elements of the Special
Special
Operations Division were seen in the CIA's Phoenix Program . One component of the Phoenix Program was involved in the capture and killing of suspected Viet Cong (National Liberation Front – NLF) members. Between 1968 and 1972, the Phoenix Program captured 81,740 National Liberation Front of South Vietnam
Vietnam
(NLF or Viet Cong) members, of whom 26,369 were killed. This was a large proportion of U.S. killings between 1969 and 1971. The program was also successful in destroying their infrastructure. By 1970, communist plans repeatedly emphasized attacking the government's "pacification" program and specifically targeted Phoenix agents. The NLF also imposed quotas. In 1970, for example, communist officials near Da Nang in northern South Vietnam
Vietnam
instructed their agents to "kill 400 persons" deemed to be government "tyrant" and to “annihilate” anyone involved with the "pacification" program. Several North Vietnamese officials have made statements about the effectiveness of Phoenix.

MAC-V SOG ( Studies and Observations Group
Studies and Observations Group
) (which was originally named the Special
Special
Operations Group, but was changed for cover purposes), was created and active during the Vietnam
Vietnam
War . While CIA was just one part of MAC-V SOG, it did have operational control of some of the programs. Many of the military members of MAC-V SOG joined the CIA
CIA
after their military service. The legacy of MAC-V SOG continues within SAD's Special
Special
Operations Group.

MARITIME ACTIVITIES AGAINST THE USSR

In 1973, SAD/SOG and the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology built and deployed the USNS Glomar Explorer (T-AG-193) , a large deep-sea salvage ship, on a secret operation. This operation was called Project Azorian (erroneously called Project Jennifer by the press). Her mission was to recover a sunken Soviet submarine , K-129 , which had been lost in April 1968. A mechanical failure caused two-thirds of the submarine to break off during recovery, but SAD recovered two nuclear-tipped torpedoes, cryptographic machines and the bodies of six Soviet submariners. An alternative theory claims that all of K-129 was recovered and that the official account was an "elaborate cover-up".

Also in the 1970s, the U.S. Navy , the National Security Agency (NSA) and SAD/SOG conducted Operation Ivy Bells and a series of other missions to place wire taps on Soviet underwater communications cables. These operations were covered in detail in the 1998 book Blind Man\'s Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine
Submarine
Espionage . In the 1985 edition of "Studies in Intelligence", the CIA's in-house journal that outsiders rarely get to see, the CIA
CIA
describes the "staggering expense and improbable engineering feats" that culminated in the August 1974 mission.

NICARAGUA

In 1979, the U.S.-backed Anastasio Somoza Debayle dictatorship in Nicaragua fell to the socialist Sandinistas . Once in power, the Sandinistas disbanded the Nicaraguan National Guard
Nicaraguan National Guard
, who had committed many human rights abuses, and arrested and executed some of its members. Other former National Guard members helped to form the backbone of the Nicaraguan Counterrevolution or Contra . SAD/SOG paramilitary teams were deployed to train and lead these forces against the Sandinista government. These paramilitary activities were based in Honduras
Honduras
and Costa Rica
Costa Rica
. Direct military aid by the United States was eventually forbidden by the Boland Amendment of the Defense Appropriations Act of 1983. The Boland Amendment was extended in October 1984 to forbid action by not only the Defense Department, but also to include the Central Intelligence Agency.

The Boland Amendment was a compromise because the U.S. Democratic Party did not have enough votes for a comprehensive ban on military aid. It covered only appropriated funds spent by intelligence agencies. Some of Reagan's national security officials used non-appropriated money of the National Security Council (NSC) to circumvent the Amendment. NSC officials sought to arrange funding by third parties. These efforts resulted in the Iran-Contra Affair of 1987, which concerned Contra funding through the proceeds of arms sales to the Islamic Republic of Iran . No court ever made a determination whether Boland covered the NSC and on the grounds that it was a prohibition rather than a criminal statute, no one was indicted for violating it. Congress later resumed aid to the Contras, totaling over $300 million. The Contra war ended when the Sandinistas were voted out of power by a war-weary populace in 1990. Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega was re-elected as President of Nicaragua in 2006 and took office again on January 10, 2007.

EL SALVADOR

CIA
CIA
personnel were also involved in the Salvadoran civil war . Some allege that the techniques used to interrogate prisoners in El Salvador foreshadowed those later used in Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan. In fact, when a similar counter-insurgency program was proposed in Iraq, it was referred to as "the Salvador Option".

SOMALIA

Location of Somalia
Somalia

SAD sent in teams of Paramilitary Operations Officers into Somalia prior to the U.S. intervention in 1992. On December 23, 1992, Paramilitary Officer Larry Freedman became the first casualty of the conflict in Somalia. Freedman was a former Army Delta Force operator who had served in every conflict that the U.S. was involved in, both officially and unofficially, since Vietnam. Freedman was killed while conducting special reconnaissance in advance of the entry of U.S. military forces. His mission was completely voluntary, as it required entry into a very hostile area without any support. Freedman was awarded the Intelligence Star on January 5, 1993 for his "extraordinary heroism".

SAD/SOG teams were key in working with JSOC and tracking high-value targets (HVT), known as "Tier One Personalities". Their efforts, working under extremely dangerous conditions with little to no support, led to several very successful joint JSOC/ CIA
CIA
operations. In one specific operation, a CIA
CIA
case officer, Michael Shanklin and codenamed "Condor", working with a CIA
CIA
Technical Operations Officer from the Directorate of Science and Technology, managed to get a cane with a beacon in it to Osman Ato, a wealthy businessman, arms importer, and Mohammed Aideed, a money man whose name was right below Mohamed Farrah Aidid ’s on the Tier One list.

Once Condor confirmed that Ato was in a vehicle, JSOC 's Delta Force launched a capture operation.

a Little Bird helicopter dropped out of the sky and a sniper leaned out and fired three shots into the car's engine block. The car ground to a halt as commandos roped down from hovering Blackhawks , surrounded the car and handcuffed Ato. It was the first known helicopter takedown of suspects in a moving car. The next time Jones saw the magic cane, an hour later, Garrison had it in his hand. "I like this cane," Jones remembers the general exclaiming, a big grin on his face. "Let's use this again." Finally, a tier one personality was in custody.

President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
withdrew U.S. forces on May 4, 1994.

In June 2006, the Islamic Courts Union seized control of southern Somalia, including the country's capital Mogadishu
Mogadishu
, prompting the Ethiopian government to send in troops to try to protect the transitional government. In December, the Islamic Courts warned Ethiopia
Ethiopia
they would declare war if Ethiopia
Ethiopia
did not remove all its troops from Somalia. Sheikh Sharif Ahmed , leader of the Islamic Courts, called for a jihad , or holy war, against Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and encouraged foreign Muslim fighters to come to Somalia. At that time, the United States
United States
accused the group of being controlled by al-Qaeda , but the Islamic Courts denied that charge.

In 2009, PBS
PBS
reported that al-Qaeda had been training terrorists in Somalia
Somalia
for years. Until December 2006, Somalia's government had no power outside of the town of Baidoa , 150 miles (240 km) from the capital. The countryside and the capital were run by warlords and militia groups who could be paid to protect terrorist groups.

CIA
CIA
officers kept close tabs on the country and paid a group of Somali warlords to help hunt down members of al-Qaeda according to The New York Times . Meanwhile, Ayman al-Zawahiri , the deputy to al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden , issued a message calling for all Muslims to go to Somalia. On January 9, 2007, a U.S. official said that ten militants were killed in one airstrike.

On September 14, 2009, Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan , a senior al-Qaeda leader in East Africa as well as a senior leader in Shabaab, al Qaeda's surrogate in Somalia, was killed by elements of U.S. Special Operations. According to a witness, at least two AH-6 Little Bird attack helicopters strafed a two-car convoy. Navy SEALs then seized the body of Nabhan and took two other wounded fighters captive. JSOC and the CIA
CIA
had been trying to kill Nabhan for some time including back in January 2007, when an AC-130
AC-130
Gunship was called in on one attempt. A U.S. intelligence source stated that CIA
CIA
paramilitary teams are directly embedded with Ethiopian forces in Somalia, allowing for the tactical intelligence to launch these operations. Nabhan was wanted for his involvement in the 1998 United States
United States
embassy bombings , as well as leading the cell behind the 2002 Mombasa attacks .

From 2010 to 2013, the CIA
CIA
set up the Somalia
Somalia
National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA) by providing training, funding and diplomatic access. In the same time period, the EU and UN has spent millions of dollars for the military training of the Somali National Army (SNA). NISA is considered a professional Somali security force that can be relied upon to neutralize the terrorist threat. This force responded to the complex al-Shabaab attack on the Banadir Regional Courthouse in Mogadishu
Mogadishu
which killed 25 civilians. NISA's response however saved 100s and resulted in the death of all the al-Shabaab guerrillas involved.

Significant events during this timeframe included the targeted drone strikes against British al-Qaida operative Bilal el-Berjawi and Moroccan al-Qaida operative Abu Ibrahim. It also included the rescue of U.S. citizen Jessica Buchanan by U.S. Navy SEALs. All likely aided by intelligence collection efforts in Somalia.

AFGHANISTAN

Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
with Special
Special
Forces and CIA
CIA
Paramilitary in late 2001.

During the Soviet war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the 1980s, Paramilitary Operations Officers were instrumental in equipping Mujaheddin forces against the Soviet Army . Although the CIA
CIA
in general, and a Texas congressman named Charlie Wilson in particular, have received most of the attention, the key architect of this strategy was Michael G. Vickers . Vickers was a young Paramilitary Operations Officer from SAD/SOG. The CIA's efforts have been given credit for assisting in ending the Soviet involvement in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and bringing Taliban
Taliban
to power.

SAD paramilitary teams were active in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the 1990s in clandestine operations to locate and kill or capture Osama Bin Laden . These teams planned several operations, but did not receive the order to execute from President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
because the available intelligence did not guarantee a successful outcome weighed against the extraordinary risk to the SAD/SOG teams that would execute the mission. These efforts did however build many of the relationships that would prove essential in the 2001 U.S. Invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
.

On September 26, 2001, members of the Special
Special
Activities Division, led by Gary Schroen , were the first U.S. forces inserted into Afghanistan. The Northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Liaison Team entered the country nine days after the 9/11 attack and linked up with the Northern Alliance as part of Task Force Dagger.

They provided the Northern Alliance with resources including cash to buy weapons and prepared for the arrival of USSOCOM forces. The plan for the invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was developed by the CIA, the first time in United States
United States
history that such a large-scale military operation was planned by the CIA. SAD, U.S. Army Special
Special
Forces, and the Northern Alliance combined to overthrow the Taliban
Taliban
in Afghanistan with minimal loss of U.S. lives. They did this without the use of conventional U.S. military ground forces.

The Washington Post stated in an editorial by John Lehman in 2006:

What made the Afghan campaign a landmark in the U.S. Military's history is that it was prosecuted by Special
Special
Operations forces from all the services, along with Navy and Air Force tactical power, operations by the Afghan Northern Alliance and the CIA
CIA
were equally important and fully integrated. No large Army or Marine force was employed".

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In a 2008 New York Times book review of Horse Soldiers, a book by Doug Stanton about the invasion of Afghanistan, Bruce Barcott wrote:

The valor exhibited by Afghan and American soldiers, fighting to free Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from a horribly cruel regime, will inspire even the most jaded reader. The stunning victory of the horse soldiers – 350 Special
Special
Forces soldiers, 100 C.I.A. officers and 15,000 Northern Alliance fighters routing a Taliban
Taliban
army 50,000 strong – deserves a hallowed place in American military history".

Small and highly agile paramilitary mobile teams spread out over the countryside to meet with locals and gather information about the Taliban
Taliban
and al-Qa'ida. During that time, one of the teams was approached in a village and asked by a young man for help in retrieving his teenage sister. He explained that a senior Taliban official had taken her as a wife and had sharply restricted the time she could spend with her family. The team gave the man a small hand-held tracking device to pass along to his sister, with instructions for her to activate it when the Taliban
Taliban
leader returned home. The team responded to her emergency signal, capturing the senior Taliban
Taliban
official and rescuing the sister. The siblings' tearful reunion left the team at a loss for words—a rarity for the normally loud warriors of CIA's Special
Special
Activities Division.

Tora Bora

See also: Battle of Tora Bora

In December 2001, SAD/SOG and the Army's Delta Force tracked down Osama bin Laden in the rugged mountains near the Khyber Pass in Afghanistan. Former CIA
CIA
station chief Gary Berntsen as well as a subsequent Senate investigation claimed that the combined American special operations task force was largely outnumbered by al-Qaeda forces and that they were denied additional US troops by higher command. The task force also requested munitions to block the avenues of egress of bin Laden, but that request was also denied. The team allegedly uncovered evidence in the subsequent site exploration that bin Laden's ultimate aim was to obtain and detonate a nuclear device in a terrorist attack. According to other press reports, SAD were ineffectual and "Bin Laden and bodyguards walked uncontested out of Tora Bora and disappeared into Pakistan's unregulated tribal area."

Surge

In September 2009, the CIA
CIA
planned on "deploying teams of spies, analysts and paramilitary operatives to Afghanistan, part of a broad intelligence 'surge' ordered by President Obama. This will make its station there among the largest in the agency's history." This presence is expected to surpass the size of the stations in Iraq
Iraq
and Vietnam
Vietnam
at the height of those wars. The station is located at the U.S. Embassy in Kabul
Kabul
and is led "by a veteran with an extensive background in paramilitary operations". The majority of the CIA's workforce is located among secret bases and military special operations posts throughout the country.

Also in 2009, General Stanley McChrystal , the commander of NATO forces in Afghanistan, planned to request an increase in teams of CIA operatives, including their elite paramilitary officers, to join with U.S. military special operations forces. This combination worked well in Iraq
Iraq
and is largely credited with the success of that surge. There have been basically three options described in the media: McChrystal's increased counterinsurgency campaign; a counter-terror campaign using special operations raids and drone strikes ; and withdrawal. The most successful combination in both the wars in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iraq
Iraq
has been the linking up of SAD and military special forces to fight alongside highly trained indigenous units. One thing all of these options have in common is a requirement for greater CIA
CIA
participation.

The End Game

According to the current and former intelligence officials, General McChrystal also had his own preferred candidate for the Chief of Station (COS) job, a good friend and decorated CIA
CIA
paramilitary officer. The officer had extensive experience in war zones, including two previous tours in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
with one as the Chief of Station, as well as tours in the Balkans, Baghdad and Yemen. He is well known in CIA
CIA
lore as "the man who saved Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
's life when the CIA
CIA
led the effort to oust the Taliban
Taliban
from power in 2001". President Karzai is said to be greatly indebted to this officer and was pleased when the officer was named chief of station again. According to interviews with several senior officials, this officer "was uniformly well-liked and admired. A career paramilitary officer, he came to the CIA
CIA
after several years in an elite Marine unit".

General McChrystal's strategy included the lash up of special operations forces from the U.S. Military and from SAD/SOG to duplicate the initial success and the defeat of the Taliban
Taliban
in 2001 and the success of the "Surge" in Iraq
Iraq
in 2007. This strategy proved highly successful and worked very well in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
with SAD/SOG and JSOC forces conducting raids nearly every night having "superb results" against the enemy.

In 2001, the CIA's SAD/SOG began creating what would come to be called Counter-terrorism Pursuit Teams (CTPT). These units grew to include over 3,000 operatives by 2010 and have been involved in sustained heavy fighting against the enemy. It is considered the "best Afghan fighting force".

Located at 7,800 feet (2,400 m) above sea level, Firebase Lilley in Shkin serves as a "nerve center for the covert war". This covert war includes being a hub for these CTPT operations with Firebase Lilley being just one in a constellation of CIA
CIA
bases across Afghanistan. These units have not only been highly effective in combat operations against the Taliban
Taliban
and al-Qaeda forces, but have also been used to engage with the tribes in areas with no other official government presence.

This covert war also includes a large SOG/CTPT expansion into Pakistan
Pakistan
to target senior al-Qaeda and Taliban
Taliban
leadership in the Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA). CTPT units are the main effort in both the "Counterterrorism plus" and the full "Counterinsurgency" options being discussed by the Obama administration in the December 2010 review. SOG/CTPT are also key to any exit strategy for the U.S. government to leave Afghanistan, while still being able to deny al-Qaeda and other trans-national extremists groups a safehaven both in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and in the FATA of Pakistan.

In January 2013, a CIA
CIA
drone strike killed Mullah Nazir a senior Taliban
Taliban
commander in the South Waziristan area of Pakistan
Pakistan
believed responsible for carrying out the insurgent effort against the US military in Afghanistan. Nazir's death degraded the Taliban.

The U.S. has decided to lean heavily on CIA
CIA
in general and SAD specifically in their efforts to withdraw from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as it did in Iraq. There are plans being considered to have several US Military special operations elements assigned to CIA
CIA
after the withdrawal. If so, there would be still a chance to rebuild and assist and coordinate (with Afghan ANSF commandos) and continue to keep a small footprint while allowing free elections and pushing back the Taliban/AQ forces that have failed but continue to attempt their taking back parts of the country, as they have had between 2015 through 2016.

YEMEN

On November 5, 2002, a missile launched from a CIA-controlled Predator drone killed al-Qaeda members traveling in a remote area in Yemen
Yemen
. SAD/SOG paramilitary teams had been on the ground tracking their movements for months and called in this air strike. One of those in the car was Ali Qaed Senyan al-Harthi, al-Qaeda's chief operative in Yemen
Yemen
and a suspect in the October 2000 bombing of the destroyer USS Cole . Five other people, believed to be low-level al-Qaeda members, were also killed to include an American named Kamal Derwish . Former Deputy U.S. Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz
Paul Wolfowitz
called it "a very successful tactical operation" and said "such strikes are useful not only in killing terrorists but in forcing al-Qaeda to change its tactics".

"It's an important step that has been taken in that it has eliminated another level of experienced leadership from al-Qaeda," said Vince Cannistraro , former head of counter-terrorism for the CIA
CIA
and current ABC News consultant. "It will help weaken the organization and make it much less effective." Harithi was on the run, pursued by several security forces who were looking for him and Muhammad Hamdi al-Ahdal, another suspect in the USS Cole bombing case.

In 2009, the Obama administration authorized continued lethal operations in Yemen
Yemen
by the CIA. As a result, the SAD/SOG and JSOC have joined together to aggressively target al-Qaeda operatives in that country, both through leading Yemenese special forces and intelligence driven drone strikes. A major target of these operations is Imam
Imam
Anwar al-Aulaqi , an American citizen with ties to both Nidal Hassan , the alleged Fort Hood attacker, and Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab , the Christmas 2009 attempted bomber of Northwest Airline flight 253. Imam
Imam
al-Aulaki was killed on September 30, 2011 by an air attack carried out by the Joint Special
Special
Operations Command.

IRAQ

SAD paramilitary teams entered Iraq
Iraq
before the 2003 invasion . Once on the ground they prepared the battle space for the subsequent arrival of U.S. military forces. SAD teams then combined with U.S. Army special forces (on a team called the Northern Iraq
Iraq
Liaison Element or NILE). This team organized the Kurdish Peshmerga for the subsequent U.S. led invasion. This joint team combined in Operation Viking Hammer to defeat Ansar al-Islam , an Islamist group allied to al-Qaeda, which several battle-hardened fighters from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
had joined after the fall of the Taliban, in a battle for control over the northeast of Iraq
Iraq
– a battle that turned out being one of the "most intense battles of Special
Special
Forces since Vietnam". This battle was for an entire territory that was completely occupied by Ansar al-Islam and was executed prior to the invasion in February 2003. If this battle had not been as successful as it was, there would have been a considerable hostile force in the rear of the U.S./secular Kurdish force in the subsequent assault on the Iraqi army to the south. The U.S. side was represented by paramilitary operations officers from SAD/SOG and the army's 10th Special
Special
Forces Group (10th SFG). 10th SFG soldiers were awarded three Silver Stars and six Bronze Stars with V for valor for this battle alone and several paramilitary officers were awarded the Intelligence Star for valor in combat. This battle was a significant direct attack and victory on a key U.S. opponent. It resulted in the deaths of a substantial number of militants and the uncovering of a crude laboratory that had traces of poisons and information on chemical weapons at Sargat. The team found foreign identity cards, visas, and passports on the enemy bodies. They had come from a wide variety of Middle Eastern and north African countries including Yemen, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Tunisia, Morocco, and Iran. Sargat was also the only facility that had traces of chemical weapons discovered in the Iraq
Iraq
war. The village of Biyara and Base of Ansar al-Islam 2001–2003

In a 2004 U.S. News "> MQ-9 Reaper

According to the documentary film Drone, by Tonje Schei, since 2002 the U.S. Air Force 17th Reconnaissance Squadron has been working for the CIA
CIA
as "customer", carrying out at least some of the armed missions in Pakistan.

In a National Public Radio (NPR) report dated February 3, 2008, a senior official stated that al-Qaeda has been "decimated" by SAD/SOG's air and ground operations. This senior U.S. counter-terrorism official goes on to say, "The enemy is really, really struggling. These attacks have produced the broadest, deepest and most rapid reduction in al-Qaida senior leadership that we've seen in several years." President Obama's CIA
CIA
Director Leon Panetta
Leon Panetta
stated that SAD/SOG's efforts in Pakistan
Pakistan
have been "the most effective weapon" against senior al-Qaeda leadership.

These covert attacks have increased significantly under President Obama, with as many at 50 al-Qaeda militants being killed in the month of May 2009 alone. In June 2009, sixty Taliban
Taliban
fighters were killed while at a funeral to bury fighters that had been killed in previous CIA
CIA
attacks. On July 22, 2009, National Public Radio reported that U.S. officials believe Saad bin Laden , a son of Osama bin Laden, was killed by a CIA
CIA
strike in Pakistan. Saad bin Laden spent years under house arrest in Iran
Iran
before traveling last year to Pakistan
Pakistan
, according to former National Intelligence Director Mike McConnell . It's believed he was killed sometime in 2009. A senior U.S. counter-terrorism said U.S. intelligence agencies are "80 to 85 percent" certain that Saad bin Laden is dead.

On August 6, 2009, the CIA
CIA
announced that Baitullah Mehsud was killed by a SAD/SOG drone strike in Pakistan. The New York Times said, "Although President Obama has distanced himself from many of the Bush administration’s counter-terrorism policies, he has embraced and even expanded the C.I.A.’s covert campaign in Pakistan
Pakistan
using Predator and Reaper drones". The biggest loss may be to "Osama bin Laden's al-Qa'ida". For the past eight years, al-Qaeda had depended on Mehsud for protection after Mullah Mohammed Omar
Mohammed Omar
fled Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in late 2001. "Mehsud's death means the tent sheltering Al Qaeda has collapsed," an Afghan Taliban
Taliban
intelligence officer who had met Mehsud many times told Newsweek . "Without a doubt he was Al Qaeda's No. 1 guy in Pakistan," adds Mahmood Shah, a retired Pakistani Army brigadier and a former chief of the Federally Administered Tribal Area, or FATA , Mehsud's base.

Airstrikes from CIA
CIA
drones struck targets in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan
Pakistan
on September 8, 2009. Reports stated that seven to ten militants were killed to include one top al-Qaida leader. He was Mustafa al-Jaziri, an Algerian national described as an "important and effective" leader and senior military commander for al-Qaida. The success of these operations are believed to have caused senior Taliban
Taliban
leaders to significantly alter their operations and cancel key planning meetings.

The CIA
CIA
is also increasing its campaign using Predator missile strikes on al-Qaeda in Pakistan. The number of strikes in 2009 exceeded the 2008 total, according to data compiled by the Long War Journal, which tracks strikes in Pakistan. In December 2009, the New York Times reported that President Obama ordered an expansion of the drone program with senior officials describing the program as "a resounding success, eliminating key terrorists and throwing their operations into disarray". The article also cites a Pakistani official who stated that about 80 missile attacks in less than two years have killed “more than 400” enemy fighters, a number lower than most estimates but in the same range. His account of collateral damage was strikingly lower than many unofficial counts: “We believe the number of civilian casualties is just over 20, and those were people who were either at the side of major terrorists or were at facilities used by terrorists.”

On December 6, 2009, a senior al-Qaeda operative, Saleh al-Somali, was killed in a drone strike in Pakistan
Pakistan
. He was responsible for their operations outside of the Afghanistan- Pakistan
Pakistan
region and formed part of the senior leadership. Al-Somali was engaged in plotting terrorist acts around the world and "given his central role, this probably included plotting attacks against the United States
United States
and Europe". On December 31, 2009, senior Taliban
Taliban
leader and strong Haqqani ally Haji Omar Khan, brother of Arif Khan , was killed in the strike along with the son of local tribal leader Karim Khan.

In January 2010, al-Qaeda in Pakistan
Pakistan
announced that Lashkar al-Zil leader Abdullah Said al Libi was killed in a drone missile strike. Neither al-Qaeda nor the US has revealed the date of the attack that killed Libi. On January 14, 2010, subsequent to the suicide attack at Camp Chapman , the CIA
CIA
located and killed the senior Taliban
Taliban
leader in Pakistan, Hakimullah Mehsud . Mehsud had claimed responsibility in a video he made with the suicide bomber Humam Khalil Abu-Mulal al-Balawi .

On February 5, 2010, the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and CIA's SAD/SOG conducted a joint raid and apprehended Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar . Baradar was the most significant Taliban
Taliban
figure to be detained since the beginning of the Afghan War more than eight years ago until that date. He ranked second to Mullah Muhammad Omar , the Taliban’s founder and was known to be a close associate of Osama bin Laden . Mullah Baradar was interrogated by CIA
CIA
and ISI officers for several days before news of his capture was released. This capture sent the message that the Taliban
Taliban
leadership is not safe in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
or Pakistan. "The seizure of the Afghan Taliban's top military leader in Pakistan
Pakistan
represents a turning point in the U.S.-led war against the militants", U.S. officials and analysts said. Per Pakistani Interior Minister Rehman Malik, several raids in Karachi
Karachi
in early February netted dozens of suspected Afghan militants. In other joint raids that occurred around the same time, Afghan officials said that the Taliban
Taliban
"shadow governorsP for two provinces in northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
had also been detained. Mullah Abdul Salam, the Taliban’s leader in Kunduz
Kunduz
, and Mullah Mir Mohammed of Baghlan were captured in Akora Khattack.

On February 20, Muhammad Haqqani, son of Jalaluddin Haqqani , was one of four people killed in the drone strike in Pakistan's tribal region in North Waziristan , according to two Pakistani intelligence sources.

On May 31, 2010, the New York Times reported that Mustafa Abu al Yazid (AKA Saeed al Masri), a senior operational leader for Al Qaeda, was killed in an American missile strike in Pakistan's tribal areas.

From July to December 2010, predator strikes killed 535 suspected militants in the FATA to include Sheikh Fateh Al Misri, Al-Qaeda's new third in command on September 25. Al Misri was planning a major terrorist attack in Europe by recruiting British Muslims who would then go on a shooting rampage similar to what transpired in Mumbai in November 2008.

Operation Neptune Spear

See also: Death of Osama bin Laden Play media President Barack Obama 's address (Text)

On May 1, 2011, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
announced that Osama bin Laden had been killed earlier that day in Abbottabad
Abbottabad
, Pakistan
Pakistan
by "a small team of Americans" acting under his direct orders during a CIA operation under Director Leon Panetta
Leon Panetta
. The helicopter raid was executed from a CIA
CIA
forward operating base in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by the elements of the U.S. Naval Special Warfare Development Group (assigned to the CIA) and CIA
CIA
paramilitary operatives.

The operation in the Bilal military cantonment area in the city of Abbottabad
Abbottabad
resulted in the acquisition of extensive intelligence on the future attack plans of al-Qaeda. The body of bin Laden was flown to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to be identified and then out to the USS Carl Vinson for a burial at sea. DNA from bin Laden's body, compared with DNA samples on record from his dead sister, confirmed his identity.

The operation was a result of years of intelligence work that included the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), the CIA
CIA
, the DSS , and the Delta Force 's apprehension and interrogation of Khalid Sheik Mohammad (KSM), the discovery of the real name of the courier disclosed by KSM, the tracking, via signal intelligence, of the courier to the Abbottobad compound by paramilitary operatives and the establishment of a CIA
CIA
safe house that provided critical advance intelligence for the operation.

The material discovered in the raid indicated that bin Laden was still in charge of his Al-Qaeda organization and was developing plans and issuing orders at the time of his death. There is considerable controversy over claims that elements of the Pakistani government, particularly the ISI, may have been concealing the presence of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan. Bin Laden's death has been labeled a "game changer" and a fatal blow to Al-Qaeda, by senior U.S. officials.

IRAN

In the early 1950s, the Central Intelligence Agency and Britain's Secret Intelligence Service
Secret Intelligence Service
were ordered to overthrow the government of Iran, Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq , and re-install deposed Shah
Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
. This event was called Operation Ajax . The senior CIA
CIA
officer was Kermit Roosevelt, Jr.
Kermit Roosevelt, Jr.
, the grandson of American president Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
. The operation utilized all of SAD's components to include political action, covert influence and paramilitary operations. The paramilitary component included training anti-Communist guerrillas to fight the Tudeh Party if they seized power in the chaos of Operation Ajax. Although a significant tactical/operational success, Operation Ajax is considered very controversial with many critics.

In November 1979, a group of Islamist students and militants took over the American embassy in support of the Iranian Revolution . Operation Eagle Claw was the unsuccessful United States
United States
military operation that attempted to rescue the 52 hostages from the U.S. Embassy in Tehran
Tehran
, Iran
Iran
on April 24, 1980. Several SAD/SOG teams infiltrated into Tehran
Tehran
to support this operation.

On March 9, 2007 alleged CIA
CIA
Agent Robert Levinson was kidnapped from Iran's Kish Island . On July 7, 2008, Pulitzer Prize winning investigative journalist and author Seymour Hersh wrote an article in the New Yorker stating that the Bush Administration had signed a Presidential Finding authorizing the CIA
CIA
to begin cross border paramilitary operations from Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
into Iran. These operations would be against Quds Force , the commando arm of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard , public and private sector strategic targets, and "high-value targets" in the war on terror. Also enrolled to support CIA
CIA
objectives were the Mujahideen-e-Khalq , known in the West as the M.E.K., and the Baluchis insurgents. "The Finding was focused on undermining Iran's nuclear ambitions and trying to undermine the government through regime change," a person familiar with its contents said, and involved "working with opposition groups and passing money." Any significant effort against Iran
Iran
by the Obama Administration would likely come directly from SAD. and in July 2010, Director Panetta chose a former chief of SAD as the new NCS Director.

LIBYA

After the Arab Spring movements overthrew the rulers of Tunisia
Tunisia
and Egypt
Egypt
, its neighbours to the west and east respectively, Libya had a major revolt beginning in February 2011. In response, the Obama administration sent in SAD paramilitary operatives to assess the situation and gather information on the opposition forces. Experts speculated that these teams could have been determining the capability of these forces to defeat the Muammar Gaddafi regime and whether Al-Qaeda had a presence in these rebel elements.

U.S. officials had made it clear that no U.S. troops would be "on the ground", making the use of covert paramilitary operatives the only alternative. During the early phases of the Libyan offensive of U.S. led air strikes, paramilitary operatives assisted in the recovery of a U.S. Air Force pilot who had crashed due to mechanical problems. There was speculation that President Obama issued a covert action finding in March 2011 that authorizes the CIA
CIA
to carry out a clandestine effort to provide arms and support to the Libyan opposition.

SYRIA

CIA
CIA
paramilitary teams have been deployed to Syria
Syria
to report on the uprising, to access the rebel groups, leadership and to potentially train, equip and lead one of those rebel groups against the Bashar al-Assad regime. In early September 2013, President Obama told U.S. Senators that the CIA
CIA
had trained the first 50-man insurgent element and that they had been inserted into Syria. The deployment of this unit and the supplying of weapons may be the first tangible measure of support since the U.S. stated they would begin providing assistance to the opposition.

In October 2013, SAD was tasked with supporting moderate Syrian rebels to help engineer a stalemate and political settlement in the Syrian civil war. This program was considered too limited to have the desired outcome. However, with the rise of the Islamic State , SAD was given the overall command and control of the ground fight against them. This fight crossed borders between Iraq
Iraq
and Syria.

WORLDWIDE MISSION

Khalid Shaikh Mohammed
Khalid Shaikh Mohammed
after his capture

The CIA
CIA
has always had a Special
Special
Activities Division, which secretly carries out special operations mission. However, since September 11, 2001 the US government has relied much more on SAD/SOG because fighting terrorists does not usually involve fighting other armies. Rather, it involves secretly moving in and out of countries like Pakistan
Pakistan
, Iran
Iran
and Somalia
Somalia
where the American military is not legally allowed to operate. If there are missions in these countries that are denied to U.S. military special operations forces , SAD/SOG units are the primary national special missions units to execute those operations.

In the War on Terror , SAD has the lead in the covert war being waged against al Qaeda. SAD/SOG paramilitary teams have apprehended many of the senior leaders. These include: Abu Zubaydah , the chief of operations for al-Qaeda; Ramzi bin al-Shibh , the so-called the "20th hijacker"; Khalid Sheikh Mohammed , the mastermind of the September 11, 2001 attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C.; Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri , alleged to be the mastermind of the USS Cole bombing and leader of al Qaeda operations in the Persian Gulf prior to his capture in November 2002; Abu Faraj al-Libi , al Qaeda's "field general" believed to have taken the role of No. 3 in al Qaeda following the capture of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed in Pakistan; and Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar , the number two taliban commander and the highest level taliban commander apprehended in the Afghan War. Prior to the beginning of the "War on Terror", SAD/SOG located and captured many notable militants and international criminals, including Abimael Guzman and Carlos the Jackal . These were just three of the over 50 caught by SAD/SOG just between 1983 and 1995.

In 2002, the George W. Bush Administration prepared a list of "terrorist leaders" the CIA
CIA
is authorized to kill in a targeted killing , if capture is impractical and civilian casualties can be kept to an acceptable number. The list includes key al Qaeda leaders like Osama bin Laden (deceased) and his chief deputy, Ayman al-Zawahiri , as well as other principal figures from al Qaeda and affiliated groups. This list is called the "high value target list". The U.S. president is not legally required to approve each name added to the list, nor is the CIA
CIA
required to obtain presidential approval for specific attacks, although the president is kept well informed about operations.

SAD/SOG teams have been dispatched to the country of Georgia , where dozens of al Qaeda fugitives from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are believed to have taken refuge with Chechen separatists and thousands of refugees in the Pankisi Gorge
Pankisi Gorge
. Their efforts have already resulted in 15 Arab militants linked to al Qaeda being captured.

The SAD/SOG teams have also been active in the Philippines
Philippines
, where 1,200 U.S. military advisers helped to train local soldiers in "counter-terrorist operations" against Abu Sayyaf , a radical Islamist group suspected of ties with al Qaeda. Little is known about this U.S. covert action program, but some analysts believe that "the CIA’s paramilitary wing, the Special
Special
Activities Division (SAD), has been allowed to pursue terrorist suspects in the Philippines
Philippines
on the basis that its actions will never be acknowledged".

On July 14, 2009, several newspapers reported that D CIA
CIA
Leon Panetta was briefed on a CIA
CIA
program that had not been briefed to the oversight committees in Congress. Panetta cancelled the initiative and reported its existence to Congress and the President. The program consisted of teams of SAD paramilitary officers organized to execute targeted killing operations against al Qaeda operatives around the world in any country. According to the Los Angeles Times, D CIA
CIA
Panetta "has not ruled out reviving the program". There is some question as to whether former Vice President Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
instructed the CIA
CIA
not to inform Congress. Per senior intelligence officers, this program was an attempt to avoid the civilian casualties that can occur during predator drone strikes using Hellfire missiles .

According to many experts, the Obama administration has relied on the CIA
CIA
and their paramilitary capabilities, even more than they have on U.S. military forces, to maintain the fight against terrorists in the Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
region, as well as places like Yemen, Somalia and North Africa. Ronald Kessler states in his book The CIA
CIA
at War: Inside the Secret War Against Terror, that although paramilitary operations are a strain on resources, they’re winning the war against terrorism.

SAD/SOG paramilitary officers executed the clandestine evacuation of U.S. citizens and diplomatic personnel in Somalia
Somalia
, Iraq
Iraq
(during the Persian Gulf War ) and Liberia
Liberia
during periods of hostility, as well as the insertion of Paramilitary Operations Officers prior to the entry of U.S. military forces in every conflict since World War II. SAD officers have operated covertly since 1947 in places such as North Korea , Vietnam, Laos
Laos
, Cambodia, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Iran, Syria
Syria
, Libya, Iraq , El Salvador, Guatemala
Guatemala
, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua , Honduras, Chile
Chile
, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia
Serbia
, Somalia, Kosovo
Kosovo
, Afghanistan and Pakistan
Pakistan
.

INNOVATIONS IN SPECIAL OPERATIONS

The Fulton system in use

The Fulton surface-to-air recovery system
Fulton surface-to-air recovery system
(STARS) is a system developed in the early 1950s by CIA
CIA
paramilitary officers for retrieving persons on the ground from a MC-130E Combat Talon I aircraft. It uses a harness and a self-inflating balloon that carries an attached lift line. An MC-130E engages the line with its V-shaped yoke and the individual is reeled on board. Project COLDFEET was a very successful mission in 1962 in which two military officers parachuted into a remote abandoned Soviet site in the Arctic. The two were subsequently extracted by the Fulton sky hook. The team gathered evidence of advanced research on acoustical systems to detect under-ice US submarines and efforts to develop Arctic anti-submarine warfare techniques.

Sergeant Major
Major
(SgtMaj) Billy Waugh
Billy Waugh
was a Special
Special
Forces soldier attached to the CIA
CIA
in the 1960s. During his time at MACV-SOG in Vietnam, he developed and conducted the first combat High Altitude-Low Opening (HALO) jump , "In October 1970, my team made a practice Combat Infiltration into the NVA owned War Zone D, in South Vietnam, for reassembly training, etc. This was the first one in a combat zone." HALO is a method of delivering personnel, equipment, and supplies from a transport aircraft at a high altitude via free-fall parachute insertion. HALO and HAHO (High Altitude-High Opening) are also known as Military Free Fall (MFF). In the HALO technique, the parachutist opens his parachute at a low altitude after free-falling for a period of time to avoid detection by the enemy. Waugh also led the last combat special reconnaissance parachute insertion into enemy territory occupied by communist North Vietnamese Army (NVA) troops on June 22, 1971.

NOTABLE PARAMILITARY OFFICERS

* George Bacon Call sign Kayak * Morris "Moe" Berg * William Francis Buckley * William Colby * Jerry Daniels Call sign "Hog" * Douglas Mackiernan * John Downey * Richard Fecteau * James (Jim) Glerum * Wilbur "Will" Green . Call sign Black Lion. * Thomas "Tom" Fosmire * Howard Freeman * Richard (Dick) Holm * Bill Lair * Lloyd C. "Pat" Landry * Grayston Lynch * Anthony Poshepny (a.k.a. Tony Poe) * William "Rip" Robertson * Felix Rodriguez * Johnny Micheal Spann
Johnny Micheal Spann
* Gar Thorsrud * Ernest "Chick" Tsikerdanos * Michael G. Vickers * Billy Waugh
Billy Waugh
, Sergeant Major, U.S. Army Retired * William (Bill) Young * Douglas A. Zembiec
Douglas A. Zembiec

On October 25, 2003, paramilitary officers Christopher Mueller and William "Chief" Carlson were killed while conducting an operation to kill/capture high level al-Qa\'ida leaders near Shkin , Afghanistan. Both these officers were honored with Stars on the CIA
CIA
Memorial Wall at their Headquarters in Langley, Virginia. "The bravery of these two men cannot be overstated," Director of Central Intelligence George J. Tenet told a gathering of several hundred Agency employees and family members. "Chris and Chief put the lives of others ahead of their own. That is heroism defined." Mueller, a former US Navy SEAL
Navy SEAL
and Carlson, a former Army Special
Special
Forces soldier, Delta Force operator, and member of the Blackfeet Nation in Montana, died while on this covert operation. Both officers saved the lives of others, including Afghan soldiers, during the engagement with al-Qa'ida forces. In Oliver North's book American Heroes in Special
Special
Operations, a chapter is devoted to their story.

NOTABLE POLITICAL ACTION OFFICERS

* Virginia Hall
Virginia Hall
Goillot started as the only female paramilitary officer in the OSS. She shot herself in the leg while hunting in Turkey
Turkey
in 1932, which was then amputated below the knee. She parachuted into France to organize the resistance with her prosthesis strapped to her body. She was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross . She married an OSS officer named Paul Goillot and the two joined the CIA
CIA
as paramilitary operations officers in SAD. Once aboard, Mrs. Goillot made her mark as a political action officer playing significant roles in the Guatemala
Guatemala
and Guyana operations. These operations involved the covert removal of the governments of these two countries, as directed by the President of the United States. * E. Howard Hunt (October 9, 1918 – January 23, 2007) was an Ivy league educated Naval officer who joined the CIA
CIA
in 1949 after serving with the OSS in World War II. Hunt was a political action officer in what came to be called their Special
Special
Activities Division. He became station chief in Mexico City in 1950, and supervised William F. Buckley, Jr. , (Not to be confused with a famous SAD Paramilitary Officer of the same name) who worked for the CIA
CIA
in Mexico during the period 1951–1952. Buckley, another SAD political action specialist, only served briefly in the CIA
CIA
and went on to be considered the father of the modern American conservative movement. Buckley and Hunt remained lifelong friends. Hunt ran Operation PBSUCCESS , which overthrew the government in Guatemala
Guatemala
in 1954, was heavily involved in the Bay of Pigs Invasion operation, frequently mentioned in the JFK assassination , and was one of the operatives in the Watergate scandal . Hunt was also a well-known author with over 50 books to his credit. These books were published under several alias names and several were made into motion pictures. * David Atlee Phillips Perhaps the most famous propaganda officer ever to serve in CIA, Phillips began his career as a journalist and amateur actor in Buenos Aires, Argentina. He joined the Agency in the 1950s and was one of the chief architects of the operation to overthrow Communist president Arbenz
Arbenz
in Guatemala
Guatemala
in 1954. He was later heavily engaged as a principal member of the Bay of Pigs Task Force at Langley, and in subsequent anti-Castro operations throughout the 1960s. He founded the Association of Former Intelligence Officers (AFIO) after successfully contesting a libel suit against him. * Kermit Roosevelt, Jr.
Kermit Roosevelt, Jr.
(February 16, 1916 – June 8, 2000), was a political action officer in SAD who coordinated the Central Intelligence Agency 's (CIA) Operation Ajax , which orchestrated the coup d’état against Iran's Mohammed Mossadegh and returned Mohammad Reza Pahlavi , the Shah
Shah
of Iran, to Iran's Sun Throne in August 1953. He was also the grandson of American president Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
.

CIA
CIA
MEMORIAL WALL

Main article: CIA Memorial Wall

The CIA Memorial Wall is located at CIA
CIA
headquarters in Langley, Virginia . It honors CIA
CIA
employees who died in the line of duty. As of June 13, 2017, there were 125 stars carved into the marble wall, each one representing an officer. A majority of these were paramilitary officers. A black book, called the "Book of Honor", lies beneath the stars and is encased in an inch-thick plate of glass. Inside this book are stars, arranged by year of death, and the names of 91 employees who died in CIA
CIA
service alongside them. The other names remain secret, even in death.

SEE ALSO

* Military portal

* Army Ranger Wing * Clandestine HUMINT and Covert Action * Counter-terrorism * Delta Force * Defense Intelligence Agency * Defense Clandestine Service * Vympel
Vympel
- A combined GRU /FSB counter-terrorism unit * Foreign Intelligence Service (Russia)
Foreign Intelligence Service (Russia)
* Special Frontier Force * Direct action
Direct action
(military) * Espionage * Extraordinary rendition by the United States
United States
* Foreign internal defense * Forward Operating Base Chapman attack * Guerrilla warfare * Joint Special Operations Command * Krav Maga - An Israeli martial art. * Marine Special Operations Command * Military Intelligence, Section 6
Military Intelligence, Section 6
--(MI6) * Plausible deniability * Psychological operations (United States) * Gary Schroen * Special Air Service * Special reconnaissance * Targeted killing * United States
United States
Army Special
Special
Forces * United States
United States
Naval Special Warfare Development Group * United States
United States
Special
Special
Operations Command * United States
United States
special operations forces

NOTES

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commandos remain covert". Dallas Morning News . * ^ Woodward, Bob (November 18, 2001). "Secret CIA
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Units Playing Central Combat Role". Washington Post. * ^ " Special
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Operations Forces (SOF) and CIA
CIA
Paramilitary Operations: Issues for Congress, CRS-2" (PDF). * ^ Gup, Ted (2000). The Book of Honor: Cover Lives and Classified Deaths at the CIA. * ^ A B C D E F Southworth (2002) * ^ "Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms" (PDF). United States
United States
Department of Defense . October 17, 2008: 512. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 23, 2008. Retrieved November 29, 2008. * ^ A B C Douglas, Waller (February 3, 2003). "The CIA\'s Secret Army". Time. * ^ Mazzetti, Mark; Helene Cooper (February 26, 2009). "CIA Pakistan
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Campaign is Working Director Say". New York Times. p. A15. * ^ A B C Miller, Greg (July 14, 2009). " CIA
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Secret Program: PM Teams Targeting Al Qaeda". Los Angeles Times. p. A1. * ^ Mazzetti, Mark; Shane Scott (July 14, 2009). " CIA
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Had Plan To Assassinate Qaeda Leaders". New York Times. p. A1. * ^ A B C D E F Coll (2004) * ^ A B "americanforeignrelations.com" * ^ "U.S. Aggressiveness towards Iran". Foreign Policy Journal. * ^ Daugherty (2004), p.83 * ^ A B C D E F Woodward (2004) * ^ A B C D Tucker (2008) * ^ Conboy (1999) * ^ Warner (1996) * ^ " Special
Special
OPS: America\'s elite forces in 21st century combat" By Fred J. Pushies, pg. 20 – Google Books. Google Books. Retrieved May 19, 2011. * ^ A B C D Stone ">(PDF). United States
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House of Representatives .

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* ^ "Secret U.S. Unit Trains Commandos in Pakistan," Eric Schmit and Jane Perlez, New York Times, February 22, 2009 * ^ "Unleashed CIA
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* ^ A B C Gup, Ted. " Star
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REFERENCES

* Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. The Penguin Press . ISBN 978-1-59420-007-6 . * Conboy, Kenneth J; James Morrison (1999). Feet to the Fire: CIA Covert Operations in Indonesia, 1957–1958. Naval Institute Press . ISBN 978-1-55750-193-6 . – The history of CIA/IAD's paramilitary operations in Indonesia
Indonesia
in the 1950s, detailing the activities of IAD's Ground Air and Maritime Branches, and highlighting the roles of legendary PMCOs Tom Fosmire, Anthony Posephny ("Tony Poe"), Jim Glerum and others. * Daugherty, William J. (2004). Executive Secrets: Covert Action and the Presidency. University of Kentucky Press. * Lynch, Grayston L. 2000. Decision for Disaster: Betrayal at the Bay of Pigs. Potomac Books Dulles Virginia ISBN 1-57488-237-6 ISBN 9781574882377 * Rodríguez, Félix and Weisman, John. 1989. Shadow Warrior/the CIA Hero of a Hundred Unknown Battles. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-66721-1 * Southworth, Samuel A. & Tanner, Stephen. 2002. U.S. Special Forces: A Guide to America's Special
Special
Operations Units : the World's Most Elite Fighting Force. Da Capo Press ISBN 0-306-81165-0 ISBN 9780306811654 * Stone, Captain Kathryn and Williams, Professor Anthony R. (Project Advisor). April 7, 2003. All Necessary Means: Employing CIA
CIA
operatives in a Warfighting Role Alongside Special
Special
Operations Forces, United States Army War College (USAWC). * Tenet, George. 2007. At the Center of the Storm: My Life at the CIA. Harper Collins * Triay, Victor Andres. 2001. Bay of Pigs: An Oral History of Brigade 2506. University Press of Florida, Gainesville ISBN 0-8130-2090-5 ISBN 978-0813020907 * Tucker, Mike and Faddis, Charles. 2008. Operation Hotel California: The Clandestine War inside Iraq. The Lyons Press. ISBN 978-1-59921-366-8 * P, Matt. 2010, Review of Hotel California: The Clandestine War inside Iraq. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 54 No. 2 * Warner, Roger (1996). Shooting at the Moon: The Story of America\'s Clandestine War in Laos. Steerforth Press. ISBN 978-1-883642-36-5 . – The history of CIA/IAD'S 15-year involvement in conducting the secret war in Laos, 1960–1975, and the career of CIA
CIA
PMCO (paramilitary case officer) Bill Lair. * Woodward, Bob (2004). Plan of Attack
Plan of Attack
. Simon & Schuster, Inc . ISBN 978-0-7432-5547-9 . * Wyden, Peter. 1979. Bay of Pigs – The Untold Story. Simon and Schuster. New York. ISBN 0-671-24006-4 ISBN 0224017543 ISBN 978-0-671-24006-6 *

FURTHER READING

* Air America and The Ravens- by Chris Robbins — Both are the history of CIA/IAD's war in Laos, providing biographies and details on such legendary CIA
CIA
PMCOs as Wil Green, Tony Poe, Jerry Daniels, Howie Freeman, Bill Lair, and the pilots, ground crew and support personnel managed by IAD/SOG/AIR BRANCH under the proprietaries Bird Air, Southern Air Transport, China Air Transport and Air America—and the U.S. Air Force forward air controllers (RAVENS) who were brought in under CIA/IAD command and control as "civilians" to support secret combat ops in Laos. * Raiders of the China Coast by Frank Holober — History of CIA/IAD paramilitary operations in the Taiwan Straits, 1947–1955, with details on such PMCOs as Ernie Tskikerdanos. * Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War, Bowden, Mark (1999), Atlantic Monthly Press. Berkeley, California (USA). ISBN 0-87113-738-0 about operation Gothic Serpent * Killing Pablo: The Hunt for the World\'s Greatest Outlaw , Bowden, Mark (2001), ISBN 0-87113-783-6 about the hunt for Pablo Escobar * Bush at War by Bob Woodward, 2001, detailing the initial invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the role of SAD. * First In: An Insiders Account of how the CIA
CIA
Spearheaded the War on Terror in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by Gary Schroen, 2005. * Jawbreaker: The Attack on Bin Laden and AL Qaeda: A personal account by the CIA's field Commander by Gary Berntsen and Ralph Pezzulla, 2005. * Kill bin Laden, by Dalton Fury, St. Martin's Press, October 2008. * Wild Bill Donovan: The Last Hero, by Anthony Cave Brown, New York: Times Books, 1982. * Safe For Democracy: The Secret Wars Of The CIA, John Prados, Ivan R. Dee, Chicago, 2006. * Inside Delta Force, Haney, Eric L. (2002), New York: Delacorte Press, 325. ISBN 978-0-385-33603-1 . * Not a Good Day to Die: The Untold Story of Operation Anaconda, Naylor, Sean (2005), Penguin Group , New York about Operation Anaconda ; details, among other things, the actions of SAD Paramilitary officers during this chaotic 2002 battle in Afghanistan. * Preparing the Battlefield: The Bush Administration steps up its secret moves against Iran, Seymour M. Hersh, July 7, 2008. * Orphans Of The Cold War: America And The Tibetan Struggle For Survival, John Kenneth Knaus, 1999 IBN 1891620851. * Horse Soldiers: The Extraordinary Story of a Band of U.S. Soldiers Who Rode to Victory in Afghanistan, Doug Stanton, 2009. * Masters of Chaos: The Secret History of the Special
Special
Forces, Linda Robinson, 2004. * The One Percent Doctrine: Deep Inside America's Pursuit of Its Enemies Since 9/11, Ron Suskind, Simon and Schuster, 2006. * ''National Geographic: CIA
CIA
Confidential, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan, . * American spy: my secret history in the CIA, Watergate, and beyond, E. Howard Hunt; with Greg Aunapu; foreword by William F. Buckley, Jr. (2007) * Wilson, Jeremy (2004). "Seven Pillars of Wisdom – Triumph and Tragedy". T. E. Lawrence Studies. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2008.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Official Website of the CIA

* v * t * e

United States
United States
Intelligence Community

Intelligence Community