HOME
The Info List - Sparta



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Coordinates : 37°4′55″N 22°25′25″E / 37.08194°N 22.42361°E / 37.08194; 22.42361

Lacedaemon

Σπάρτα / Λακεδαίμων

900S–192 BC

_ Lambda_ was used by the Spartan army
Spartan army
as a symbol of Lacedaemon

Territory of ancient Sparta
Sparta

CAPITAL Sparta

LANGUAGES Doric Greek
Doric Greek

RELIGION Greek polytheism

GOVERNMENT Diarchy
Diarchy
Oligarchy

KING _SEE LIST_

LEGISLATURE Gerousia
Gerousia

HISTORICAL ERA Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity

• Foundation 900s BC

• Messenian War 685–668 BC

Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae
480 BC

Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
431–404 BC

• Battle of Mantinea 362 BC

• Annexed by Achaea 192 BC

PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY

Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages

Achaean League
Achaean League

Roman Republic
Roman Republic

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS SPECIAL CHARACTERS . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .

Hollow Lacedaemon. Site of the Menelaion, the ancient shrine to Helen and Menelaus
Menelaus
constructed in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
city that stood on the hill of Therapne on the left bank of the Eurotas River
Eurotas River
overlooking the future site of Dorian Sparta. Across the valley the successive ridges of Mount Taygetus
Taygetus
are in evidence.

SPARTA ( Doric Greek
Doric Greek
: Σπάρτα, _Spártā_; Attic Greek
Attic Greek
: Σπάρτη, _Spártē_) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece . In antiquity the city-state was known as LACEDAEMON (Λακεδαίμων, _Lakedaímōn_), while the name Sparta
Sparta
referred to its main settlement on the banks of the Eurotas River
Eurotas River
in Laconia
Laconia
, in south-eastern Peloponnese
Peloponnese
. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece.

Given its military pre-eminence, Sparta
Sparta
was recognized as the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-Persian Wars
Greco-Persian Wars
. Between 431 and 404 BC, Sparta
Sparta
was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
, from which it emerged victorious, though at a great cost of lives lost. Sparta's defeat by Thebes in the Battle of Leuctra
Battle of Leuctra
in 371 BC ended Sparta's prominent role in Greece. However, it maintained its political independence until the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC . It then underwent a long period of decline, especially in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when many Spartans moved to live in Mystras
Mystras
. Modern Sparta
Sparta
is the capital of the Greek regional unit of Laconia
Laconia
and a center for the processing of goods such as citrus and olives.

Sparta
Sparta
was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution , which completely focused on military training and excellence. Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates (Spartan citizens, who enjoyed full rights), mothakes (non-Spartan free men raised as Spartans), perioikoi (free residents, literally "dwellers around"), and helots (state-owned serfs, enslaved non-Spartan local population). Spartiates underwent the rigorous _agoge _ training and education regimen, and Spartan phalanges were widely considered to be among the best in battle. Spartan women enjoyed considerably more rights and equality to men than elsewhere in the classical world.

Sparta
Sparta
was the subject of fascination in its own day, as well as in the West following the revival of classical learning. This love or admiration of Sparta
Sparta
is known as Laconism or Laconophilia
Laconophilia
. At its peak around 500 BC the size of the city would have been some 20,000 – 35,000 citizens, plus numerous helots and perioikoi. The likely total of 40,000 – 50,000 made Sparta
Sparta
one of the largest Greek cities; however, according to Thucydides, the population of Athens in 431 BC was 360,000 – 610,000, making it unlikely that Athens
Athens
was smaller than Sparta
Sparta
in 5th century BC. The French classicist François Ollier in his 1933 book _Le mirage spartiate_ ("_The Spartan Mirage_") warned that a major scholarly problem regarding Sparta
Sparta
is that all the surviving accounts were written by non-Spartans who often presented an excessively idealized image of Sparta. Ollier's views have been widely accepted by scholars.

CONTENTS

* 1 Names * 2 Geography * 3 Mythology

* 4 Archaeology of the classical period

* 4.1 Menelaion

* 5 History

* 5.1 Prehistory, "dark age" and archaic period * 5.2 Classical Sparta
Sparta
* 5.3 Hellenistic and Roman Sparta
Sparta
* 5.4 Medieval and modern Sparta
Sparta

* 6 Structure of Classical Spartan society

* 6.1 Constitution
Constitution
* 6.2 Citizenship

* 6.3 Non citizens

* 6.3.1 Helots
Helots
* 6.3.2 Perioikoi

* 6.4 Economy

* 7 Life in Classical Sparta
Sparta

* 7.1 Birth and death * 7.2 Education * 7.3 Military life * 7.4 Agriculture, food, and diet * 7.5 Marriage

* 8 Role of women

* 8.1 Political, social, and economic equality * 8.2 Historic women

* 9 Laconophilia
Laconophilia
* 10 Notable ancient Spartans * 11 See also * 12 Notes and references * 13 Sources * 14 External links

NAMES

The earliest attested term referring to Lacedaemon is the Mycenaean Greek 𐀨𐀐𐀅𐀖𐀛𐀍, _ra-ke-da-mi-ni-jo_, "Lacedaimonian", written in Linear B
Linear B
syllabic script, being the equivalent of the written in the Greek alphabet, latter Greek, Λακεδαιμόνιος, _Lakedaimonios_ ( Latin
Latin
: _Lacedaemonius_). Eurotas River
Eurotas River

The ancient Greeks used one of three words to refer to the home location of the Spartans. The first refers primarily to the main cluster of settlements in the valley of the Eurotas River
Eurotas River
: Sparta. The second word was Lacedaemon (Λακεδαίμων); this was also used sometimes as an adjective and is the name commonly used in the works of Homer
Homer
and the historians Herodotus
Herodotus
and Thucydides
Thucydides
. Herodotus seems to denote by it the Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
citadel at Therapne , in contrast to the lower town of Sparta. It could be used synonymously with Sparta, but typically it was not. It denoted the terrain on which Sparta
Sparta
was situated. In Homer
Homer
it is typically combined with epithets of the countryside: wide, lovely, shining and most often hollow and broken (full of ravines). The hollow suggests the Eurotas
Eurotas
Valley. Sparta
Sparta
on the other hand is the country of lovely women, a people epithet.

The name of the population was often used for the state of Lacedaemon: the Lacedaemonians. This epithet utilized the plural of the adjective Lacedaemonius (Greek: Λακεδαιμὀνιοι; Latin: _Lacedaemonii_, but also _Lacedaemones_). If the ancients wished to refer to the country more directly, instead of Lacedaemon, they could use a back-formation from the adjective: _Lacedaemonian country_. As most words for "country" were feminine, the adjective was in the feminine: _Lacedaemonia_ (Λακεδαιμονία, _Lakedaimonia_). Eventually, the adjective came to be used alone.

Lacedaemonia was not in general use during the classical period and before. It does occur in Greek as an equivalent of Laconia
Laconia
and Messenia
Messenia
during the Roman and early Byzantine periods, mostly in ethnographers and lexica glossing place names. For example, Hesychius of Alexandria
Alexandria
's _Lexicon_ (5th century AD) defines Agiadae as a "place in Lacedaemonia" named after Agis. The actual transition may be captured by Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville
's _Etymologiae_ (7th century AD), an etymological dictionary. He relied heavily on Orosius
Orosius
' _Historiarum Adversum Paganos_ (5th century AD) and Eusebius of Caesarea 's _Chronicon _ (early 5th century AD) as did Orosius. The latter defines Sparta
Sparta
to be _Lacedaemonia Civitas_ but Isidore defines Lacedaemonia as founded by Lacedaemon, son of Semele, relying on Eusebius. There is a rare use, perhaps the earliest of Lacedaemonia, in Diodorus Siculus , but probably with Χὠρα ("country") suppressed.

The immediate area around the town of Sparta, the plateau east of the Taygetos mountains, was generally referred as Laconice (Λακωνική). This term was sometimes used to refer to all the regions under direct Spartan control, including Messenia
Messenia
.

Lacedaemon is now the name of a province in the modern Greek prefecture of Laconia
Laconia
.

GEOGRAPHY

Sparta
Sparta
is located in the region of Laconia, in the south-eastern Peloponnese. Ancient Sparta
Sparta
was built on the banks of the Eurotas River , the main river of Laconia, which provided it with a source of fresh water. The valley of the Eurotas
Eurotas
is a natural fortress, bounded to the west by Mt. Taygetus
Taygetus
(2407 m) and to the east by Mt. Parnon (1935 m). To the north, Laconia
Laconia
is separated from Arcadia
Arcadia
by hilly uplands reaching 1000 m in altitude. These natural defenses worked to Sparta's advantage and contributed to Sparta
Sparta
never having been sacked. Though landlocked, Sparta
Sparta
had a harbor, Gytheio , on the Laconian Gulf.

MYTHOLOGY

Lacedaemon (Greek: Λακεδαίμων) was a mythical king of Laconia. The son of Zeus
Zeus
by the nymph Taygete , he married Sparta
Sparta
, the daughter of Eurotas
Eurotas
, by whom he became the father of Amyclas , Eurydice , and Asine. He named the country after himself and the city after his wife. He was believed to have built the sanctuary of the Charites
Charites
, which stood between Sparta
Sparta
and Amyclae , and to have given to those divinities the names of Cleta and Phaenna. A shrine was erected to him in the neighborhood of Therapne.

ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE CLASSICAL PERIOD

The theater of ancient Sparta
Sparta
with Mt. Taygetus
Taygetus
in the background.

Thucydides
Thucydides
wrote:

Suppose the city of Sparta
Sparta
to be deserted, and nothing left but the temples and the ground-plan, distant ages would be very unwilling to believe that the power of the Lacedaemonians was at all equal to their fame. Their city is not built continuously, and has no splendid temples or other edifices; it rather resembles a group of villages, like the ancient towns of Hellas, and would therefore make a poor show.

Until the early 20th century, the chief ancient buildings at Sparta were the theatre, of which, however, little showed above ground except portions of the retaining walls ; the so-called _Tomb of Leonidas
Leonidas
_, a quadrangular building, perhaps a temple, constructed of immense blocks of stone and containing two chambers; the foundation of an ancient bridge over the Eurotas
Eurotas
; the ruins of a circular structure; some remains of late Roman fortifications; several brick buildings and mosaic pavements.

The remaining archaeological wealth consisted of inscriptions, sculptures, and other objects collected in the local museum, founded by Stamatakis in 1872 and enlarged in 1907. Partial excavation of the round building was undertaken in 1892 and 1893 by the American School at Athens. The structure has been since found to be a semicircular retaining wall of Hellenic origin that was partly restored during the Roman period. Ruins
Ruins
from the ancient site

In 1904, the British School at Athens
Athens
began a thorough exploration of Laconia
Laconia
, and in the following year excavations were made at Thalamae, Geronthrae, and Angelona near Monemvasia
Monemvasia
. In 1906, excavations began in Sparta.

A small circus described by Leake proved to be a theatre-like building constructed soon after AD 200 around the altar and in front of the temple of Artemis Orthia . Here musical and gymnastic contests took place as well as the famous flogging ordeal (_diamastigosis _). The temple, which can be dated to the 2nd century BC, rests on the foundation of an older temple of the 6th century, and close beside it were found the remains of a yet earlier temple, dating from the 9th or even the 10th century. The votive offerings in clay, amber, bronze, ivory and lead found in great profusion within the precinct range, dating from the 9th to the 4th centuries BC, supply invaluable evidence for early Spartan art.

In 1907, the sanctuary of Athena "of the Brazen House" (_Chalkioikos_) was located on the acropolis immediately above the theatre, and though the actual temple is almost completely destroyed, the site has produced the longest extant archaic inscription of Laconia, numerous bronze nails and plates, and a considerable number of votive offerings. The Greek city-wall , built in successive stages from the 4th to the 2nd century, was traced for a great part of its circuit, which measured 48 stades or nearly 10 km (6 miles) (Polyb. 1X. 21). The late Roman wall enclosing the acropolis, part of which probably dates from the years following the Gothic raid of AD 262, was also investigated. Besides the actual buildings discovered, a number of points were situated and mapped in a general study of Spartan topography, based upon the description of Pausanias .

MENELAION

Main article: Menelaion, Sparta

The Menelaion is a shrine associated with Menelaus, located east of Sparta, by the river Eurotas, on the hill _Profitis Ilias_ (Coordinates : 37°03′57″N 22°27′13″E / 37.065853°N 22.453629°E / 37.065853; 22.453629 ). Built early 8th century BC it was believed by Spartans to be the home of Menelaus. In 1970 the British School in Athens
Athens
started excavations in an attempt to locate Mycenaean remains in the area around Menelaion. Among other findings, they uncovered the remains of two Mycenaean mansions and found the first offerings dedicated to Helen and Menelaus. These mansions were destroyed, by an earthquake and by fire, and archaeologists consider as the possible palace of Menelaus
Menelaus
himself. Excavations made from the early 1990s to the present suggest that the area around Menelaion in the southern part of the Eurotas
Eurotas
valley seems to have been the center of Mycenaean Laconia. The Mycenaean settlement was roughly triangular in shape, with its apex pointed towards the north. Its area was approximately equal to that of the "newer" Sparta, but denudation has wreaked havoc with its buildings and nothing is left save ruined foundations and broken potsherds.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Sparta

PREHISTORY, "DARK AGE" AND ARCHAIC PERIOD

The prehistory of Sparta
Sparta
is difficult to reconstruct because the literary evidence is far removed in time from the events it describes and is also distorted by oral tradition. However, the earliest certain evidence of human settlement in the region of Sparta
Sparta
consists of pottery dating from the Middle Neolithic
Neolithic
period, found in the vicinity of Kouphovouno some two kilometres (1.2 miles) south-southwest of Sparta. These are the earliest traces of the original Mycenaean Spartan civilisation, as represented in Homer's _ Iliad
Iliad
_.

This civilization seems to have fallen into decline by the late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, when, according to Herodotus, Macedonian tribes from the north (called Dorians
Dorians
by those they conquered) marched into Peloponnese
Peloponnese
and, subjugating the local tribes, settled there. The Dorians
Dorians
seem to have set about expanding the frontiers of Spartan territory almost before they had established their own state. They fought against the Argive
Argive
Dorians
Dorians
to the east and southeast, and also the Arcadian Achaeans to the northwest. The evidence suggests that Sparta, relatively inaccessible because of the topography of the Taygetan plain, was secure from early on: it was never fortified. Lycurgus

Nothing distinctive in the archaeology of the Eurotas River
Eurotas River
Valley identifies the Dorians
Dorians
or the Dorian Spartan state. The prehistory of the Neolithic, the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and the Dark Age (the Early Iron Age) at this moment must be treated apart from the stream of Dorian Spartan history.

The legendary period of Spartan history is believed to fall into the Dark Age. It treats the mythic heroes such as the Heraclids and the Perseids , offering a view of the occupation of the Peloponnesus that contains both fantastic and possibly historical elements. The subsequent proto-historic period, combining both legend and historical fragments, offers the first credible history.

Between the 8th and 7th centuries BC the Spartans experienced a period of lawlessness and civil strife, later attested by both Herodotus
Herodotus
and Thucydides. As a result, they carried out a series of political and social reforms of their own society which they later attributed to a semi-mythical lawgiver, Lycurgus . These reforms mark the beginning of the history of Classical Sparta.

CLASSICAL SPARTA

In the Second Messenian War , Sparta
Sparta
established itself as a local power in Peloponnesus and the rest of Greece. During the following centuries, Sparta's reputation as a land-fighting force was unequalled. In 480 BC a small force of Spartans, Thespians, and Thebans led by King Leonidas
Leonidas
(approximately 300 were full Spartiates, 700 were Thespians, and 400 were Thebans although these numbers do not reflect casualties incurred prior to the final battle), made a legendary last stand at the Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae
against the massive Persian army, inflicting very high casualties on the Persian forces before finally being encircled. The superior weaponry, strategy, and bronze armour of the Greek hoplites and their phalanx again proved their worth one year later when Sparta
Sparta
assembled at full strength and led a Greek alliance against the Persians at the battle of Plataea .

The decisive Greek victory at Plataea put an end to the Greco-Persian War along with Persian ambition of expanding into Europe. Even though this war was won by a pan-Greek army, credit was given to Sparta, who besides being the protagonist at Thermopylae and Plataea, had been the de facto leader of the entire Greek expedition.

In later Classical times, Sparta
Sparta
along with Athens
Athens
, Thebes , and Persia
Persia
had been the main powers fighting for supremacy against each other. As a result of the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
, Sparta, a traditionally continental culture, became a naval power. At the peak of its power Sparta
Sparta
subdued many of the key Greek states and even managed to overpower the elite Athenian navy. By the end of the 5th century BC it stood out as a state which had defeated the Athenian Empire
Athenian Empire
and had invaded the Persian provinces in Anatolia, a period which marks the Spartan Hegemony .

During the Corinthian War
Corinthian War
Sparta
Sparta
faced a coalition of the leading Greek states: Thebes , Athens
Athens
, Corinth , and Argos
Argos
. The alliance was initially backed by Persia, whose lands in Anatolia
Anatolia
had been invaded by Sparta
Sparta
and which feared further Spartan expansion into Asia. Sparta
Sparta
achieved a series of land victories, but many of her ships were destroyed at the battle of Cnidus by a Greek-Phoenician mercenary fleet that Persia
Persia
had provided to Athens. The event severely damaged Sparta's naval power but did not end its aspirations of invading further into Persia, until Conon
Conon
the Athenian ravaged the Spartan coastline and provoked the old Spartan fear of a helot revolt.

After a few more years of fighting, in 387 BC the Peace of Antalcidas was established, according to which all Greek cities of Ionia
Ionia
would return to Persian control, and Persia's Asian border would be free of the Spartan threat. The effects of the war were to reaffirm Persia's ability to interfere successfully in Greek politics and to affirm Sparta's weakened hegemonic position in the Greek political system. Sparta
Sparta
entered its long-term decline after a severe military defeat to Epaminondas
Epaminondas
of Thebes at the Battle of Leuctra
Battle of Leuctra
. This was the first time that a Spartan army
Spartan army
lost a land battle at full strength.

As Spartan citizenship was inherited by blood, Sparta
Sparta
now increasingly faced a helot population that vastly outnumbered its citizens. The alarming decline of Spartan citizens was commented on by Aristotle
Aristotle
.

HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN SPARTA

Sparta
Sparta
never fully recovered from the losses that the Spartans suffered at Leuctra in 371 BC and the subsequent helot revolts . Nonetheless, it was able to continue as a regional power for over two centuries. Neither Philip II nor his son Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
attempted to conquer Sparta
Sparta
itself.

Even during its decline, Sparta
Sparta
never forgot its claim to be the "defender of Hellenism" and its Laconic wit . An anecdote has it that when Philip II sent a message to Sparta
Sparta
saying "If I enter Laconia, I will raze Sparta", the Spartans responded with the single, terse reply: αἴκα, "if".

When Philip created the league of the Greeks on the pretext of unifying Greece against Persia, the Spartans chose not to join, since they had no interest in joining a pan-Greek expedition unless it were under Spartan leadership. Thus, upon the conquest of Persia, Alexander the Great sent to Athens
Athens
300 suits of Persian armour with the following inscription: _Alexander, son of Philip, and all the Greeks EXCEPT THE SPARTANS, give these offerings taken from the foreigners who live in Asia_ .

During Alexander's campaigns in the east, the Spartan king, Agis III sent a force to Crete
Crete
in 333 BC with the aim of securing the island for Sparta. Agis next took command of allied Greek forces against Macedon, gaining early successes, before laying siege to Megalopolis in 331 BC. A large Macedonian army under general Antipater marched to its relief and defeated the Spartan-led force in a pitched battle. More than 5,300 of the Spartans and their allies were killed in battle, and 3,500 of Antipater's troops. Agis, now wounded and unable to stand, ordered his men to leave him behind to face the advancing Macedonian army so that he could buy them time to retreat. On his knees, the Spartan king slew several enemy soldiers before being finally killed by a javelin. Alexander was merciful, and he only forced the Spartans to join the League of Corinth, which they had previously refused to join.

During the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
Sparta
Sparta
was an ally of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
. Spartan political independence was put to an end when it was eventually forced into the Achaean League
Achaean League
after its defeat in the decisive Laconian War by a coalition of other Greek city-states and Rome and the resultant overthrow of its final king Nabis . In 146 BC Greece was conquered by the Roman general Lucius Mummius . Following the Roman conquest, the Spartans continued their way of life, and the city became a tourist attraction for the Roman elite who came to observe exotic Spartan customs.

MEDIEVAL AND MODERN SPARTA

According to Byzantine sources, some parts of the Laconian region remained pagan until well into the 10th century AD. Doric -speaking populations survive today in Tsakonia . In the Middle Ages, the political and cultural center of Laconia
Laconia
shifted to the nearby settlement of Mystras
Mystras
, and Sparta
Sparta
fell further in even local importance. Modern Sparti was re-founded in 1834, by a decree of King Otto of Greece
Otto of Greece
.

STRUCTURE OF CLASSICAL SPARTAN SOCIETY

CONSTITUTION

Main article: Spartan Constitution
Constitution
Structure of the Spartan Constitution
Constitution

Sparta
Sparta
was an oligarchy . The state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontid families , both supposedly descendants of Heracles
Heracles
and equal in authority, so that one could not act against the power and political enactments of his colleague.

The duties of the kings were primarily religious, judicial, and military. They were the chief priests of the state and also maintained communication with the Delphian sanctuary, which always exercised great authority in Spartan politics. In the time of Herodotus, about 450 BC, their judicial functions had been restricted to cases dealing with heiresses, adoptions and the public roads. Aristotle
Aristotle
describes the kingship at Sparta
Sparta
as "a kind of unlimited and perpetual generalship" (Pol. iii. I285a), while Isocrates
Isocrates
refers to the Spartans as "subject to an oligarchy at home, to a kingship on campaign" (iii. 24).

Civil and criminal cases were decided by a group of officials known as the ephors , as well as a council of elders known as the gerousia . The gerousia consisted of 28 elders over the age of 60, elected for life and usually part of the royal households, and the two kings. High state policy decisions were discussed by this council who could then propose action alternatives to the _damos_, the collective body of Spartan citizenry, who would select one of the alternatives by voting .

The royal prerogatives were curtailed over time. Dating from the period of the Persian wars, the king lost the right to declare war and was accompanied in the field by two ephors. He was supplanted also by the ephors in the control of foreign policy. Over time, the kings became mere figureheads except in their capacity as generals. Real power was transferred to the ephors and to the gerousia.

The origins of the powers exercised by the assembly of the citizens called the Apella
Apella
are virtually unknown because of the lack of historical documentation and Spartan state secrecy.

CITIZENSHIP

Not all inhabitants of the Spartan state were considered to be citizens. Only those who had undertaken the Spartan education process known as the agoge were eligible. However, usually the only people eligible to receive the agoge were Spartiates , or people who could trace their ancestry to the original inhabitants of the city.

There were two exceptions. Trophimoi or "foster sons" were foreign students invited to study. The Athenian general Xenophon
Xenophon
, for example, sent his two sons to Sparta
Sparta
as trophimoi. The other exception was that the son of a helot could be enrolled as a syntrophos if a Spartiate
Spartiate
formally adopted him and paid his way. If a syntrophos did exceptionally well in training, he might be sponsored to become a Spartiate. Spartans who could not afford to pay the expenses of the agoge could lose their citizenship.

These laws meant that Sparta
Sparta
could not readily replace citizens lost in battle or otherwise and eventually proved near fatal to the continuance of the state as the number of citizens became greatly outnumbered by the non-citizens and, even more dangerously, the helots.

NON CITIZENS

Others in the state were the perioikoi , who were free inhabitants of Spartan territory but were non-citizens, and the helots , the state-owned serfs . Descendants of non-Spartan citizens were not able to follow the agoge.

Helots

Main article: Helots
Helots

The Spartans were a minority of the Lakonian population. The largest class of inhabitants were the helots (in Classical Greek Εἵλωτες / _Heílôtes_).

The helots were originally free Greeks from the areas of Messenia
Messenia
and Lakonia whom the Spartans had defeated in battle and subsequently enslaved. In contrast to populations conquered by other Greek cities (e.g. the Athenian treatment of Melos), the male population was not exterminated and the women and children turned into chattel slaves. Instead, the helots were given a subordinate position in society more comparable to serfs in medieval Europe than chattel slaves in the rest of Greece.

Helots
Helots
did not have voting rights, although compared to non-Greek chattel slaves in other parts of Greece they were relatively privileged. The Spartan poet Tyrtaios refers to Helots
Helots
being allowed to marry and retaining 50% of the fruits of their labor. They also seem to have been allowed to practice religious rites and, according to Thucydides, own a limited amount of personal property. Some 6,000 helots accumulated enough wealth to buy their freedom, for example, in 227 BC.

In other Greek city-states, free citizens were part-time soldiers who, when not at war, carried on other trades. Since Spartan men were full-time soldiers, they were not available to carry out manual labour. The helots were used as unskilled serfs , tilling Spartan land. Helot women were often used as wet nurses . Helots
Helots
also travelled with the Spartan army
Spartan army
as non-combatant serfs. At the last stand of the Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae
, the Greek dead included not just the legendary three hundred Spartan soldiers but also several hundred Thespian and Theban troops and a number of helots.

Relations between the helots and their Spartan masters were sometimes strained. There was at least one helot revolt (ca. 465–460 BC), and Thucydides
Thucydides
remarked that "Spartan policy is always mainly governed by the necessity of taking precautions against the helots." On the other hand, the Spartans trusted their helots enough in 479 BC to take a force of 35,000 with them to Plataea, something they could not have risked if they feared the helots would attack them or run away. Slave revolts occurred elsewhere in the Greek world, and in 413 BC 20,000 Athenian slaves ran away to join the Spartan forces occupying Attica. What made Sparta's relations with her slave population unique was that the helots, precisely because they enjoyed privileges such as family and property, retained their identity as a conquered people (the Messenians) and also had effective kinship groups that could be used to organize rebellion.

As the Spartiate
Spartiate
population declined and the helot population continued to grow, the imbalance of power caused increasing tension. According to Myron of Priene of the middle 3rd century BC:

"They assign to the Helots
Helots
every shameful task leading to disgrace. For they ordained that each one of them must wear a dogskin cap (κυνῆ / _kunễ_) and wrap himself in skins (διφθέρα / _diphthéra_) and receive a stipulated number of beatings every year regardless of any wrongdoing, so that they would never forget they were slaves. Moreover, if any exceeded the vigour proper to a slave's condition, they made death the penalty; and they allotted a punishment to those controlling them if they failed to rebuke those who were growing fat".

Plutarch
Plutarch
also states that Spartans treated the Helots
Helots
"harshly and cruelly": they compelled them to drink pure wine (which was considered dangerous – wine usually being cut with water) "_...and to lead them in that condition into their public halls, that the children might see what a sight a drunken man is; they made them to dance low dances, and sing ridiculous songs..._" during syssitia (obligatory banquets).

Each year when the Ephors took office they ritually declared war on the helots, thereby allowing Spartans to kill them without the risk of ritual pollution. This seems to have been done by _kryptes_ (sing. κρύπτης), graduates of the _Agoge_ who took part in the mysterious institution known as the _ Krypteia _. Thucydides
Thucydides
states:

"The helots were invited by a proclamation to pick out those of their number who claimed to have most distinguished themselves against the enemy, in order that they might receive their freedom; the object being to test them, as it was thought that the first to claim their freedom would be the most high spirited and the most apt to rebel. As many as two thousand were selected accordingly, who crowned themselves and went round the temples, rejoicing in their new freedom. The Spartans, however, soon afterwards did away with them, and no one ever knew how each of them perished."

Perioikoi

Main article: Perioeci
Perioeci

The Perioikoi came from similar origins as the helots but occupied a significantly different position in Spartan society. Although they did not enjoy full citizen-rights, they were free and not subjected to the same restrictions as the helots. The exact nature of their subjection to the Spartans is not clear, but they seem to have served partly as a kind of military reserve, partly as skilled craftsmen and partly as agents of foreign trade. Perioikoic hoplites served increasingly with the Spartan army, explicitly at the Battle of Plataea
Battle of Plataea
, and although they may also have fulfilled functions such as the manufacture and repair of armour and weapons, they were increasingly integrated into the combat units of the Spartan army
Spartan army
as the Spartiate
Spartiate
population declined.

ECONOMY

Name vase
Name vase
of the Spartan artist known as the Rider Painter (black-figured kylix , ca. 550–530 BC)

Spartan citizens were debarred by law from trade or manufacture, which consequently rested in the hands of the Perioikoi. The Periokoi monopoly on trade and manufacturing in one of the richest territories of Greece explains in large part the loyalty of the perioikoi to the Spartan state. Lacedaemon was rich in natural resources, fertile and blessed with a number of good natural harbors. The periokoi could exploit these resources for their own enrichment, and did.

Spartiates, on the other hand, were forbidden (in theory) from engaging in menial labor or trade, although there is evidence of Spartan sculptors, and Spartans were certainly poets, magistrates, ambassadors, and governors as well as soldiers. Allegedly, Spartans were prohibited from possessing gold and silver coins, and according to legend Spartan currency consisted of iron bars to discourage hoarding. In fact, archeology has not produced evidence of this currency, and it is more likely that Sparta
Sparta
simply used currencies minted elsewhere.

The conspicuous display of wealth appears to have been discouraged, although this did not preclude the production of very fine, highly decorated bronze, ivory and wooden works of art and the production of jewellery. Archeology has produced many examples of all these objects, some of which are exquisite.

Allegedly in connection with the Lycurgan Reforms (e.g. in the mid-8th Century BC), property had been divided into 9,000 equal portions as part of a massive land reform. Each citizen received one estate, a kleros, and thereafter was expected to derive his wealth from it. The land itself was worked by helots, who retained half the yield. From the other half, the Spartiate
Spartiate
was expected to pay his mess (syssitia) fees, and the agoge fees for his children. However, we know nothing about whether land could be bought and sold, whether it could be inherited, if so by what system (primogeniture or equally divided among heirs), whether daughters received dowries and much more. What is clear is that from early on there were marked differences of wealth within the state, and these became even more serious after the law of Epitadeus , passed at some time after the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
, removed the legal prohibition of the gift or bequest of land. By the mid-5th century, land had become concentrated in the hands of a tiny elite, and the notion of all Spartan citizens being "equals" had become a farce. By Aristotle's day (384–322 BC) citizenship had been reduced from 9,000 to less than 1,000, and then further decreased to 700 at the accession of Agis IV
Agis IV
in 244 BC. Attempts were made to remedy this situation by creating new laws. Certain penalties were imposed upon those who remained unmarried or who married too late in life. These laws, however, came too late and were ineffective in reversing the trend.

LIFE IN CLASSICAL SPARTA

BIRTH AND DEATH

Sparta
Sparta
was above all a militarist state, and emphasis on military fitness began virtually at birth. Shortly after birth, a mother would bathe her child in wine to see whether the child was strong. If the child survived it was brought before the Gerousia
Gerousia
by the child's father. The Gerousia
Gerousia
then decided whether it was to be reared or not. It is commonly stated that if they considered it "puny and deformed", the baby was thrown into a chasm on Mount Taygetos known euphemistically as the _Apothetae_ (Gr., _ἀποθέται_, "Deposits"). This was, in effect, a primitive form of eugenics . Sparta
Sparta
is often portrayed as being unique in this matter; however, there is considerable evidence that the killing of unwanted children was practiced in other Greek regions, including Athens. There is controversy about the matter in Sparta, since excavations in the chasm only uncovered adult remains, likely belonging to criminals.

When Spartans died, marked headstones would only be granted to soldiers who died in combat during a victorious campaign or women who died either in service of a divine office or in childbirth.

EDUCATION

Main article: Agoge
Agoge
Bronze
Bronze
appliqué of Spartan manufacture, possibly depicting Orestes
Orestes
, 550-525 BC ( Getty Villa
Getty Villa
)

When male Spartans began military training at age seven, they would enter the _Agoge_ system. The _Agoge_ was designed to encourage discipline and physical toughness and to emphasise the importance of the Spartan state. Boys lived in communal messes and, according to Xenophon, whose sons attended the agoge, the boys were fed "just the right amount for them never to become sluggish through being too full, while also giving them a taste of what it is not to have enough." Besides physical and weapons training, boys studied reading, writing, music and dancing. Special
Special
punishments were imposed if boys failed to answer questions sufficiently 'laconically' (i.e. briefly and wittily).

There is some evidence that in late-Classical and Hellenistic Sparta boys were expected to take an older male mentor, usually an unmarried young man. However, there is no evidence of this in archaic Sparta. According to some sources, the older man was expected to function as a kind of substitute father and role model to his junior partner; however, others believe it was reasonably certain that they had sexual relations (the exact nature of Spartan pederasty is not entirely clear). It is notable, however, that the only contemporary source with direct experience of the agoge, Xenophon, explicitly denies the sexual nature of the relationship.

Post 465 BC, some Spartan youth apparently became members of an irregular unit known as the _ Krypteia _. The immediate objective of this unit was to seek out and kill vulnerable helot Laconians as part of the larger program of terrorising and intimidating the helot population.

Less information is available about the education of Spartan girls, but they seem to have gone through a fairly extensive formal educational cycle, broadly similar to that of the boys but with less emphasis on military training. In this respect, classical Sparta
Sparta
was unique in ancient Greece. In no other city-state did women receive any kind of formal education.

MILITARY LIFE

Main articles: Spartan army
Spartan army
and Spartiate
Spartiate
Marble
Marble
statue of a helmed hoplite (5th century BC), Archaeological Museum of Sparta , Greece

At age 20, the Spartan citizen began his membership in one of the _syssitia _ (dining messes or clubs), composed of about fifteen members each, of which every citizen was required to be a member. Here each group learned how to bond and rely on one another. The Spartans were not eligible for election for public office until the age of 30. Only native Spartans were considered full citizens and were obliged to undergo the training as prescribed by law, as well as participate in and contribute financially to one of the _syssitia_.

Sparta
Sparta
is thought to be the first city to practice athletic nudity, and some scholars claim that it was also the first to formalize pederasty. According to these sources, the Spartans believed that the love of an older, accomplished aristocrat for an adolescent was essential to his formation as a free citizen. The _agoge _, the education of the ruling class, was, they claim, founded on pederastic relationships required of each citizen, with the lover responsible for the boy's training.

However, other scholars question this interpretation. Xenophon explicitly denies it, but not Plutarch.

Spartan men remained in the active reserve until age 60. Men were encouraged to marry at age 20 but could not live with their families until they left their active military service at age 30. They called themselves "_homoioi_" (equals), pointing to their common lifestyle and the discipline of the phalanx , which demanded that no soldier be superior to his comrades. Insofar as hoplite warfare could be perfected, the Spartans did so.

Thucydides
Thucydides
reports that when a Spartan man went to war, his wife (or another woman of some significance) would customarily present him with his hoplon (shield) and say: "With this, or upon this" (Ἢ τὰν ἢ ἐπὶ τᾶς, _Èi tàn èi èpì tàs_), meaning that true Spartans could only return to Sparta
Sparta
either victorious (with their shield in hand) or dead (carried upon it). Unfortunately, poignant as this image may be, it is almost certainly propaganda. Spartans buried their battle dead on or near the battle field; corpses were not brought back on their hoplons. Nevertheless, it is fair to say that it was less of a disgrace for a soldier to lose his helmet, breastplate or greaves than his hoplon, since the former were designed to protect one man, whereas the hoplon also protected the man on his left. Thus the shield was symbolic of the individual soldier's subordination to his unit, his integral part in its success, and his solemn responsibility to his comrades in arms – messmates and friends, often close blood relations.

According to Aristotle, the Spartan military culture was actually short-sighted and ineffective. He observed:

It is the standards of civilized men not of beasts that must be kept in mind, for it is good men not beasts who are capable of real courage. Those like the Spartans who concentrate on the one and ignore the other in their education turn men into machines and in devoting themselves to one single aspect of city's life, end up making them inferior even in that.

Aristotle, of course, was a harsh critic of the Spartan constitution and way of life. There is considerable evidence that the Spartans, certainly in the archaic period, were not educated as one-sidedly as Aristotle
Aristotle
asserts. In fact, the Spartans were also rigorously trained in logic and philosophy.

One of the most persistent myths about Sparta
Sparta
that has no basis in fact is the notion that Spartan mothers were without feelings toward their off-spring and helped enforce a militaristic lifestyle on their sons and husbands. The myth can be traced back to Plutarch, who includes no less than 17 "sayings" of "Spartan women," all of which paraphrase or elaborate on the theme that Spartan mothers rejected their own offspring if they showed any kind of cowardice. In some of these sayings, mothers revile their sons in insulting language merely for surviving a battle. These sayings purporting to be from Spartan women were far more likely to be of Athenian origin and designed to portray Spartan women as unnatural and so undeserving of pity.

AGRICULTURE, FOOD, AND DIET

Sparta's agriculture consisted mainly of barley, wine, cheese, grain, and figs. These items were grown locally on each Spartan citizens kleros and were tended to by helots. Spartan citizens were required to donate a certain amount of what they yielded from their kleros to their syssitia, or mess. These donations to the syssitia were a requirement for every Spartan citizen. All the donated food was then redistributed to feed the Spartan population of that syssitia. The helots who tended to the lands were fed using a portion of what they harvested.

MARRIAGE

Plutarch
Plutarch
reports the peculiar customs associated with the Spartan wedding night:

The custom was to capture women for marriage(...) The so-called 'bridesmaid' took charge of the captured girl. She first shaved her head to the scalp, then dressed her in a man's cloak and sandals, and laid her down alone on a mattress in the dark. The bridegroom – who was not drunk and thus not impotent, but was sober as always – first had dinner in the messes, then would slip in, undo her belt, lift her and carry her to the bed.

The husband continued to visit his wife in secret for some time after the marriage. These customs, unique to the Spartans, have been interpreted in various ways. One of them decidedly supports the need to disguise the bride as a man in order to help the bridegroom consummate the marriage, so unaccustomed were men to women's looks at the time of their first intercourse. The "abduction" may have served to ward off the evil eye , and the cutting of the wife's hair was perhaps part of a rite of passage that signaled her entrance into a new life.

ROLE OF WOMEN

Main article: Women in ancient Sparta

POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC EQUALITY

Spartan women, of the citizenry class, enjoyed a status, power, and respect that was unknown in the rest of the classical world. The higher status of females in Spartan society started at birth; unlike Athens, Spartan girls were fed the same food as their brothers. Nor were they confined to their father's house and prevented from exercising or getting fresh air as in Athens, but exercised and even competed in sports. Most important, rather than being married off at the age of 12 or 13, Spartan law forbade the marriage of a girl until she was in her late teens or early 20s. The reasons for delaying marriage were to ensure the birth of healthy children, but the effect was to spare Spartan women the hazards and lasting health damage associated with pregnancy among adolescents. Spartan women, better fed from childhood and fit from exercise, stood a far better chance of reaching old age than their sisters in other Greek cities, where the median age for death was 34.6 years or roughly 10 years below that of men.

Unlike Athenian women who wore heavy, concealing clothes and were rarely seen outside the house, Spartan women wore dresses (peplos) slit up the side to allow freer movement and moved freely about the city, either walking or driving chariots. Girls as well as boys exercised, possibly in the nude, and young women as well as young men may have participated in the _ Gymnopaedia _ ("Festival of Nude Youths").

Another practice that was mentioned by many visitors to Sparta
Sparta
was the practice of “wife-sharing”. In accordance with the Spartan belief that breeding should be between the most physically fit parents, many older men allowed younger, more fit men, to impregnate their wives. Other unmarried or childless men might even request another man’s wife to bear his children if she had previously been a strong child bearer. For this reason many considered Spartan women polygamous or polyandrous . This practice was encouraged in order that women bear as many strong-bodied children as they could. The Spartan population was hard to maintain due to the constant absence and loss of the men in battle and the intense physical inspection of newborns.

Spartan women were also literate and numerate, a rarity in the ancient world. Furthermore, as a result of their education and the fact that they moved freely in society engaging with their fellow (male) citizens, they were notorious for speaking their minds even in public. Plato, in the middle of the fourth century, described women's curriculum in Sparta
Sparta
as consisting of gymnastics and mousike (music and arts). Plato
Plato
goes on to praise Spartan women's ability when it came to philosophical discussion.

Most importantly, Spartan women had economic power because they controlled their own properties, and those of their husbands. It is estimated that in later Classical Sparta, when the male population was in serious decline, women were the sole owners of at least 35% of all land and property in Sparta. The laws regarding a divorce were the same for both men and women. Unlike women in Athens, if a Spartan woman became the heiress of her father because she had no living brothers to inherit (an epikleros ), the woman was not required to divorce her current spouse in order to marry her nearest paternal relative.

Spartan women acquired so much wealth that in Aristotle
Aristotle
’s analysis of the laws and history of Sparta
Sparta
he attributed its precipitous fall (which happened during his lifetime) from being the master of Greece to a second rate power in less than 50 years to the fact that Sparta had become a gynecocracy whose intemperate women loved luxury. These tendencies became worse after the huge influx of wealth following the Spartan victory of the Peloponnesian War, leading to the eventual downfall of Sparta.

HISTORIC WOMEN

Many women played a significant role in the history of Sparta
Sparta
. Queen Gorgo , heiress to the throne and the wife of Leonidas
Leonidas
I , was an influential and well-documented figure. Herodotus
Herodotus
records that as a small girl she advised her father Cleomenes to resist a bribe. She was later said to be responsible for decoding a warning that the Persian forces were about to invade Greece; after Spartan generals could not decode a wooden tablet covered in wax, she ordered them to clear the wax, revealing the warning. Plutarch's _ Moralia
Moralia
_ contains a collection of "Sayings of Spartan Women", including a laconic quip attributed to Gorgo: when asked by a woman from Attica
Attica
why Spartan women were the only women in the world who could rule men, she replied "Because we are the only women who are mothers of men".

LACONOPHILIA

Main article: Laconophilia
Laconophilia

Laconophilia
Laconophilia
is love or admiration of Sparta
Sparta
and of the Spartan culture or constitution. Sparta
Sparta
was subject of considerable admiration in its day, even in its rival, Athens
Athens
. In ancient times "Many of the noblest and best of the Athenians always considered the Spartan state nearly as an ideal theory realised in practice." Many Greek philosophers, especially Platonists, would often describe Sparta
Sparta
as an ideal state, strong, brave, and free from the corruptions of commerce and money. _ Young Spartans Exercising _ by Edgar Degas (1834–1917)

With the revival of classical learning in Renaissance
Renaissance
Europe , Laconophilia
Laconophilia
re-appears, for examples in the writings of Machiavelli
Machiavelli
. The Elizabethan English constitutionalist John Aylmer compared the mixed government of Tudor England to the Spartan republic, stating that "Lacedemonia , the noblest and best city governed that ever was". He commended it as a model for England. The Swiss-French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
contrasted Sparta
Sparta
favourably with Athens
Athens
in his Discourse on the Arts and Sciences
Discourse on the Arts and Sciences
, arguing that its austere constitution was preferable to the more cultured nature of Athenian life. Sparta
Sparta
was also used as a model of social purity by Revolutionary and Napoleonic France.

Certain early Zionists, and particularly the founders of Kibbutz movement in Israel, had been influenced by Spartan ideals, particularly as a model for education. Tabenkin, for example, a founding father of the Kibbutz
Kibbutz
and the Palmach
Palmach
, was influenced by Spartan education. He prescribed that education for warfare "should begin from the nursery", that children should from kindergarten age be taken to "spend nights in the mountains and valleys".

A new element of Laconophilia
Laconophilia
by Karl Otfried Müller
Karl Otfried Müller
, who linked Spartan ideals to the supposed racial superiority of the Dorians, the ethnic sub-group of the Greeks to which the Spartans belonged. Adolf Hitler praised the Spartans, recommending in 1928 that Germany should imitate them by limiting "the number allowed to live". He added that "The Spartans were once capable of such a wise measure... The subjugation of 350,000 Helots
Helots
by 6,000 Spartans was only possible because of the racial superiority of the Spartans." The Spartans had created "the first racialist state".

In the modern times, the adjective "spartan" is used to imply simplicity, frugality, or avoidance of luxury and comfort. The term laconic phrase describes a very terse and concise way of speaking that was characteristic of the Spartans.

Sparta
Sparta
also features prominently in modern popular culture (see Sparta in popular culture ), particularly the Battle of Thermopylae (see Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae
in popular culture ).

NOTABLE ANCIENT SPARTANS

* Agis I – king * Agis II – king * Agesilaus II
Agesilaus II
– king * Cleomenes I – king * Leonidas
Leonidas
I (c. 520-480 BC) – king, famous for his actions at the Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae
* Cleomenes III
Cleomenes III
– king and reformer * Lysander
Lysander
(5th–4th century BC) – general * Lycurgus (10th century BC) – lawgiver * Chionis (7th century BC) – athlete * Cynisca (4th century BC) – princess and athlete * Chilon – philosopher * Gorgo – queen and politician * Helen – of the Trojan War, Queen of Sparta * Menelaus
Menelaus
– King of Sparta
Sparta
during the Trojan War * Xanthippus of Carthage – Spartan mercenary, of the first Punic war. * Clearchus of Sparta – Spartan mercenary in the army of the Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries) . * Nabis – King

SEE ALSO

* List of Kings of Sparta
List of Kings of Sparta

NOTES AND REFERENCES

Notes

* ^ For the nature of this development, see the article on Laconophilia. * ^ According to Thucydides, the Athenian citizens at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(5th century BC) numbered 40,000, making with their families a total of 140,000 people in all. The metics, i.e. those who did not have citizen rights and paid for the right to reside in Athens, numbered a further 70,000, whilst slaves were estimated at between 150,000 to 400,000. * ^ Found on the following tablets: TH Fq 229, TH Fq 258, TH Fq 275, TH Fq 253, TH Fq 284, TH Fq 325, TH Fq 339, TH Fq 382. There are also words like 𐀨𐀐𐀅𐀖𐀛𐀍𐀄𐀍, _ra-ke-da-mo-ni-jo-u-jo_ - found on the TH Gp 227 tablet - that could perhaps mean "son of the Spartan". Moreover, the attested words 𐀨𐀐𐀅𐀜 , _ra-ke-da-no_ and 𐀨𐀐𐀅𐀜𐀩, _ra-ke-da-no-re_ could possibly be Linear B
Linear B
forms of _Lacedaemon_ itself; the latter, found on the MY Ge 604 tablet, is considered to be the dative case form of the former which is found on the MY Ge 603 tablet. It is considered much more probable though that _ra-ke-da-no_ and _ra-ke-da-no-re_ correspond to the anthroponym Λακεδάνωρ, _Lakedanor_, though the latter is thought to be related etymologically to _Lacedaemon_. * ^ Especially the Diamastigosis at the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, Limnai outside Sparta. There an amphitheatre was built in the 3rd century CE to observe the ritual whipping of Spartan youths.

References

* ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 91 * ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 174 * ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 192 * ^ Morris, Ian (December 2005), _The growth of Greek cities in the first millennium BC. v.1_ (PDF), Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics * ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=oafCBYBbMRgC&pg=PA22 * ^ Wilson, Nigel Guy, ed. (2006). _Encyclopedia Of Ancient Greece_. Routledge (UK). pp. 214–215. ISBN 0-415-97334-1 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Hodkinson, Stephen "The Imaginary Spartan _Politeria_" pages 222-281 from _The Imaginary Polis: Symposium, January 7–10, 2004_ edited by Mogens Herman Hansen, Copenhagen: Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2005 page 222. * ^ "The Linear B
Linear B
word ra-ke-da-mi-ni-jo". _Palaeolexicon. Word study tool of Ancient languages_. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "TH 229 Fq (305)". "TH Fq 258 (305)". "TH 275 Fq (305)". "TH 253 Fq (305)". "TH 284 Fq (305)". "TH 325 Fq (305)". "TH 339 Fq (305)". "TH 382 Fq (305)". "TH 227 Gp (306)". "MY 603 Ge + frr. (58a)". "MY 604 Ge (58a)". _DĀMOS Database of Mycenaean at Oslo_. University of Oslo
University of Oslo
. * ^ Thompson, Rupert (2010). "Mycenaean Greek". In Bakker, Egbert J. _A Companion to the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Language_. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-4051-5326-3 . * ^ Raymoure, K.A. "ra-ke-da-no". _Minoan Linear A
Linear A
& Mycenaean Linear B_. Deaditerranean. * ^ Jasanoff, Jay H.; Nussbaum, Alan (1996). Lefkowitz, Mary R.; Rogers Maclean, Guy, eds. _Black Athena Revisited_. The University of North Carolina Press. p. 193. ISBN 0807845558 . * ^ LIddell & Scott 1940 , Λακεδαιμόνιος, s.v. Λακεδαίμων. * ^ Lacedaemonius, s.v. Lacedaemon. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. _A Latin
Latin
Dictionary _ on Perseus Project . * ^ LIddell & Scott 1940 , Σπάρτη. * ^ Liddell Johnson, Samuel (1773). "Lacedaemon". _A Dictionary of Ancient Geography _ London: G. Robinson . * ^ Autenrieth 1891 , Λακεδαίμων. * ^ Schmidt, Maurice, ed. (1863). "s.v. Ἀγιάδαι". _Hesychii Alexandrini Lexicon_ (in Greek). Jena: Frederick Mauk. . At the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
* ^ Wiener, Leo (1920). _Contributions toward a History of Arabico-Gothic Culture_. V. III: Tacitus' Germania & Other Forgeries. Philadelphia: Innes & Sones. p. 20. * ^ Diodorus Siculus, _Library_, 19.70.2. * ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 4 * ^ _A_ _B_ Pausanias 1918 , Description of Greece, ΙΙΙ.1.2. * ^ Thucydides, i. 10 * ^ The British School at Athens, Home. * ^ _"The Mycenaean presence in the southeastern Eurotas
Eurotas
valley: Vouno Panagias and Ayios Georgios"_, by Emilia Banou. * ^ _A_ _B_ Herodot, Book I, 56.3 * ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 28 * ^ _A_ _B_ Ehrenberg 2004 , p. 31 * ^ Ehrenberg 2004 , p. 36 * ^ Ehrenberg 2004 , p. 33 * ^ "A Historical Commentary on Thucydides"—David Cartwright, p. 176 * ^ Green 1998 , p. 10 * ^ Britannica ed. 2006, "Sparta" * ^ "Dictionary of Ancient in Greek. * ^ Agis III * ^ _Agis III_, by E. Badian © 1967 - Jstor * ^ Diodorus, World History * ^ Diodorus, World History, 17.62.1-63.4;tr. C.B. Welles * ^ Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and his time By Agnes Savill Page 44 ISBN 0-88029-591-0 * ^ Cicero
Cicero
(1918). "II.34". In Pohlenz, M. _Tusculanae Disputationes _ (in Latin). Leipzig: Teubner. At the Perseus Project. * ^ Michell, Humfrey (1964). _Sparta_. Cambridge University Press. p. 175. * ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 89 * ^ The _Encyclopædia Britannica_: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and ... - Page 611. primary and secondary source * ^ The _Encyclopædia Britannica_: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and ... - Page 611. primary secondary source * ^ The Greeks at War By Philip De Souza, Waldemar Heckel, Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones, Victor Davis Hanson * ^ The Politics By Aristotle, Thomas Alan Sinclair, Trevor J. Saunders * ^ A companion to Greek studies By Leonard Whibley * ^ σύντροφος in Liddell and Scott . * ^ The Greek World By Anton Powell * ^ Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
By Sarah B. Pomeroy , Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts * ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
(IX, 28–29) * ^ Xenophon, _Hellenica_, III, 3, 5 * ^ West 1999 , p. 24 * ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 141 * ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 140 * ^ Ehrenberg 2004 , p. 159 * ^ Thucydides
Thucydides
(IV, 80); the Greek is ambiguous * ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 211 * ^ Thucydides
Thucydides
(VII, 27) * ^ Talbert, p.26. * ^ Apud Athenaeus, 14, 647d = _FGH_ 106 F 2. Trans. by Cartledge, p.305. * ^ _Life of Lycurgus_ 28, 8-10. See also, _Life of Demetrios_, 1, 5; _ Constitution
Constitution
of the Lacedemonians_ 30; _De Cohibenda Ira_ 6; _De Commmunibus Notitiis_ 19. * ^ (Plutarch, _Life of Lycurgus_ 28, 7) * ^ Powell 2001 , p. 254 * ^ Thucydides
Thucydides
(Book IV 80.4). * ^ Classical historian Anton Powell has recorded a similar story from 1980s El Salvador
El Salvador
. Cf. Powell, 2001, p. 256 * ^ Cartledge 2002 , pp. 153–155 * ^ Cartledge 2002 , p. 158,178 * ^ "Population Patterns in Late Archaic and Classical Sparta" by Thomas Figueira, Transactions of the American Philological Association 116 (1986), p.165-213 * ^ Paul Cartledge, " Sparta
Sparta
and Lakonia," Routledge, London, 1979, pp.154-159 * ^ Conrad Stibbe, "Das Andere Sparta," Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, 1996, pp. 111-127 * ^ Excel HSC Ancient History By Peter Roberts, ISBN 1-74125-178-8 , ISBN 978-1-74125-178-4 * ^ Greene, Robert (2000), _ The 48 Laws of Power _, Penguin Books
Penguin Books
, p. 420, ISBN 0-14-028019-7 * ^ Conrad Stibbe, Das Andere Sparta, Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, 1996 * ^ A.H.M. Jones, "Sparta," Basel Blackwell and Mott Ltd.,1967,pp.40-43 * ^ Stephen Hodkinson, Property and Wealth in Classical Sparta, The Classical Press of Wales, Swansea, 2000. See also Paul Cartledge's discussion of property in Sparta
Sparta
in " Sparta
Sparta
and Lakonia," pp. 142-144. * ^ Social Conflict in Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
By Alexander Fuks, ISBN 965-223-466-4 , ISBN 978-965-223-466-7 * ^ _A_ _B_ Cartledge 2001 , p. 84 * ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
2005 , p. 20 * ^ Buxton 2001 , p. 201 * ^ Ancient Sparta
Sparta
– Research Program of Keadas Cavern Theodoros K. Pitsios * ^ Plutarch, Lycurgus 27.2-3. However this may be conflating later practice with that of the classical period. See Not the Classical Ideal: Athens
Athens
and the Construction of the Other in Greek Art ed. Beth Cohen, p.263, note 33, 2000, Brill. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Xenophon, Spartan Society, 2 * ^ Cartledge 2001 , p. 85 * ^ Cartledge 2001 , pp. 91–105 * ^ Cartledge 2001 , p. 88 * ^ Cartledge 2001 , pp. 83–84 * ^ E. David (1984). _ Aristophanes
Aristophanes
and Athenian Society of the Early Fourth Century B.C_. Brill Archive. ISBN 9004070621 . * ^ Scanlon, Thomas F. (2005). "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in Sixth-Century BC Greece". _J Homosex_. 49: 63–85. PMID 16338890 . doi :10.1300/j082v49n03_03 . _Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West,_ pp. 64-70. * ^ Erich Bethe ,_Die Dorische Knabenliebe: ihre Ethik und ihre Ideen_ (The Doric pederasty: their ethics and their ideas), Sauerländer, 1907, 441, 444. ISBN 978-3921495773 * ^ Plutarch, The Life of Lycurgus, 18 * ^ Readers Companion Military Hist p. 438—Cowley * ^ Adcock 1957 , pp. 8–9 * ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
2004 , p. 465 * ^ _A_ _B_ Helena P. Schrader (2011). "Sons and Mothers". _ΣPARTA: Journal of Ancient Spartan and Greek History_. Markoulakis Publications. 7 (4). ISSN 1751-0007 . Retrieved September 14, 2013. (subscription required) * ^ Forrest 1968 , p. 53 * ^ W. Lindsay Wheeler (2007). "Doric Crete
Crete
and Sparta, the Home of Greek Philosophy". _ΣPARTA: Journal of Ancient Spartan and Greek History_. Markoulakis Publications. 3 (2). ISSN 1751-0007 . Retrieved September 14, 2013. * ^ Sarah B. Pomeroy (2002). _Spartan Women_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-8030002 . Retrieved September 14, 2013. * ^ _The Greeks_, H. D. F. Kitto, ISBN 0-202-30910-X , 9780202309101 * ^ Langridge-Noti, Elizabeth (2015). "Unchanging Tastes: First Steps Towards Correlation of the Evidence for Food Preparation and Consumption in Ancient Laconia". In Spataro, Michela; Villing, Alexandra. _Ceramics, Cuisine and Culture_. United Kingdom: Oxbow Books. pp. 148–155. ISBN 978-1-78297-947-0 . * ^ Figueira, Thomas (1984). "Mess Contributions and Subsistence at Sparta". _Transactions of the American Philological Association_. 114: 87–109. * ^ Plutarch, The Life of Lycurgus * ^ Pomeroy 2002 , p. 42 * ^ _A_ _B_ Xenophon, Spartan Society, 1 * ^ Susan Blundell, "Women in Ancient Greece," British Museum Press, London, 1999 * ^ Guttentag and Secord, 1983; Finley, 1982; Pomeroy, 1975 * ^ Pomeroy 2002 , p. 34 * ^ Powell 2001 , p. 248 * ^ Blundell 1995 , p. 154 * ^ Powell 2001 , p. 246 * ^ Maria Dettenhofer, "Die Frauen von Sparta," Reine Männer Sache, Munich, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1994, p.25. * ^ Pomeroy, Sarah (2002). _Spartan Women_. Oxford University Press. p. 9. * ^ Pomeroy, 1975 * ^ Pomeroy, Sarah B. _Goddess, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity_. New York: Schocken Books, 1995 p. 60-62 * ^ Ancient History Sourcebook: Aristotle: Spartan Women * ^ "Gorgo and Spartan Women". Web.archive.org. 2009-10-27. Archived from the original on 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2011-08-10. * ^ Helena Schrader (2010-07-11). " Sparta
Sparta
Reconsidered—Spartan Women". Elysiumgates.com. Retrieved 2011-08-10. * ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
2004 , p. 457 * ^ Mueller:_Dorians_ II, 192 * ^ Žižek, Slavoj . "The True Hollywood Left". www.lacan.com. * ^ _The Making of Israeli Militarism_, By Uri Ben-Eliezer, Indiana University Press, 1998, page 63 * ^ _Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948_, By Anita Shapira, Stanford University Press 1999, 300 * ^ "Professor Ben Kiernan, \'\'Hitler, Pol Pot, and Hutu Power: Distinguishing Themes of Genocidal Ideology\'\', Holocaust and the United Nations Discussion Paper". Un.org. Retrieved 2011-08-10. * ^ Webster Dictionary http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Spartan%5B2%5Dhttp://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Spartan

SOURCES

* Davies, Norman (1997) . _Europe: a History_. Random House. ISBN 0712666338 . * Adcock, F.E. (1957), _The Greek and Macedonian Art of War_, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-00005-6 * Autenrieth, Georg (1891). _A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges_. New York: Harper and Brothers. * Bradford, Ernle (2004), _Thermopylae: The Battle for the West_, New York: Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-81360-2 * Buxton, Richard (1999), _From Myth to Reason?: Studies in the Development of Greek Thought_, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-7534-5110-7 * Cartledge, Paul (2002), _ Sparta
Sparta
and Lakonia: A Regional History 1300 to 362 BC_ (2 ed.), Oxford: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26276-3 * Cartledge, Paul (2001), _Spartan Reflections_, London: Duckworth, ISBN 0-7156-2966-2 * Cartledge, Paul. "What have the Spartans Done for us?: Sparta's Contribution to Western Civilization", _Greece Spawforth, Antony (2001), _Hellenistic and Roman Sparta_ (2 ed.), Oxford: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26277-1 * Ehrenberg, Victor (1973), _From Solon
Solon
to Socrates: Greek History and Civilisation between the 6th and 5th centuries BC_ (2 ed.), London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-04024-8 * Forrest, W.G. (1968), _A History of Sparta, 950–192 B.C._, New York: W. W. Norton & Co. * Green, Peter (1998), _The Greco-Persian Wars_ (2 ed.), Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-20313-5 * Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940). Jones, Henry Stuart, ed. _A Greek-English Lexicon_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. . * Morris, Ian (1992), _Death-Ritual and Social Structure in Classical Antiquity_, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-37611-4 * Pomeroy, Sarah B. (2002), _Spartan Women_, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-513067-6 * Powell, Anton (2001), _ Athens
Athens
and Sparta: Constructing Greek Political and Social History from 478 BC_ (2 ed.), London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26280-1 * Pausanias (1918). _Description of Greece_. with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, MA; London. * Plutarch
Plutarch
(1874), _Plutarch's Morals_, Plutarch, Translated from the Greek by several hands. Corrected and revised by. William W. Goodwin, PH. D., Boston, Cambridge * Plutarch
Plutarch
(1891), Bernardakis, Gregorius N., ed., _Moralia_, Plutarch
Plutarch
(in Greek), Leipzig: Teubner * Plutarch
Plutarch
(2005), Richard J.A. Talbert, ed., _On Sparta_ (2 ed.), London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-044943-4 * Plutarch
Plutarch
(2004), Frank Cole Babbitt, ed., _ Moralia
Moralia
Vol. III_, Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-99270-9 * Thompson, F. Hugh (2002), _The Archaeology of Greek and Roman Slavery_, London: Duckworth, ISBN 0-7156-3195-0 * Thucydides
Thucydides
(1974), M.I. Finley, Rex Warner, ed., _History of the Peloponnesian War_, London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-044039-9 * West, M.L. (1999), _Greek Lyric Poetry_, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954039-6

_ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica _ (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to SPARTA _.

_ Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica_ article _SPARTA _.

* * Sparta
Sparta
on _In Our Time_ at the BBC
BBC
. * GTP—Sparta * GTP—Ancient Sparta * Schrader, Helena P. (2001–2010). " Sparta
Sparta
Reconsidered: An Introduction". _The Spartans: Warrior Philosophers of the Ancient World_. Elysium Gates. * Papakyriakou-Anagnostou, Ellen (2000–2011). "History of Sparta". _Ancient Greek

.