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The Spanish Army
Army
(Spanish: Ejército de Tierra; lit. " Army
Army
of the Land/Ground") is the terrestrial army of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is one of the oldest active armies — dating back to the late 15th century.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Under the Habsburgs 1.2 18th century 1.3 Napoleonic era and Restoration 1.4 Nineteenth-century wars 1.5 Second Republic (1931–36) 1.6 Civil War (1936–39)

2 The Spanish Army
Army
under the Francoist Regime (1939–1975)

2.1 Second World War 2.2 International Isolation 2.3 Agreement with the United States
United States
(Barroso Reform, 1957) 2.4 Years of Economic Development (Menéndez Tolosa Reform, 1965)

3 The Spanish Army
Army
under King Juan Carlos I

3.1 Initial years (1975–1989) 3.2 After the end of the Cold War
Cold War
(1989–present)

4 Today

4.1 Personnel 4.2 Equipment

4.2.1 Weapons 4.2.2 Combat vehicles 4.2.3 Artillery 4.2.4 Aircraft 4.2.5 Unmanned aerial vehicles

5 Formation and structure 6 Commanders in Chief of the Spanish Army

6.1 Army
Army
Ministers 6.2 Chiefs of the Army
Army
Staff

7 Uniforms 8 Ranks and insignia 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links and further reading

History[edit] Main article: Military history of Spain The Spanish Army
Army
has existed continuously since the reign of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (late 15th century). The oldest and largest of the three services, its mission was the defense of Peninsular Spain, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, Melilla, Ceuta
Ceuta
and the Spanish islands and rocks off the northern coast of Africa. Under the Habsburgs[edit]

The Battle of Pavia, 1525. Spanish forces capture the French king, Francis I

During the 16th century, Habsburg Spain
Habsburg Spain
saw a steady growth in its military power. The Italian Wars
Italian Wars
(1494–1559) resulted in an ultimate Spanish victory and hegemony in northern Italy
Italy
by expelling the French. During the war, the Spanish Army
Army
transformed its organization and tactics, evolving from a primarily pike and halberd wielding force into the first pike and shot formation of arquebusiers and pikemen, known as the colunella. During the 16th century this formation evolved into the tercio infantry formation. The new formation and battle tactics were developed because of Spain's inability to field sufficient cavalry forces to face the heavy French cavalry.[3] Backed by the financial resources drawn from the Americas,[4] Spain could afford to mount lengthy campaigns against her enemies, such as the long running Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
(1568–1609), defending Christian Europe
Europe
from Ottoman raids and invasions, supporting the Catholic cause in the French civil wars and fighting England during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). The Spanish Army
Army
grew in size from around 20,000 in the 1470s, to around 300,000 by the 1630s during the Thirty Years' War that tore Europe
Europe
apart, requiring the recruitment of soldiers from across Europe.[5] With such numbers involved, Spain
Spain
had trouble funding the war effort on so many fronts. The non-payment of troops led to many mutinies and events such as the Sack of Antwerp
Sack of Antwerp
(1576), when unpaid tercio units looted the Dutch city. The Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
(1618–1648) drew in Spain
Spain
alongside most other European states. Spain
Spain
entered the conflict with a strong position, but the ongoing fighting gradually eroded her advantages; first Dutch, then Swedish innovations had made the tercio more vulnerable, having less flexibility and firepower than its more modern equivalents.[6] Nevertheless, Spanish armies continued to win major battles and sieges throughout this period across large swathes of Europe. French entry into the war in 1635 put additional pressure on Spain, with the French victory at the Battle of Rocroi
Battle of Rocroi
in 1643 being a major boost for the French. By the signing of the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
in 1648, Spain
Spain
was forced to accept the independence of the Dutch Republic. In the second half of the century, a much reduced and increasingly neglected Spanish Army
Army
became infamous for being poorly equipped and rarely paid.[7] 18th century[edit] Spain
Spain
remained an important naval and military power, depending on critical sea lanes stretching from Spain
Spain
through the Caribbean
Caribbean
and South America, and westwards towards Manila
Manila
and the Far East. The Army
Army
was reorganised on the French model and in 1704 the old Tercios were transformed into Regiments. The first modern military school (the Artillery School) was created in Segovia
Segovia
in 1764. Finally, in 1768 King Charles III sanctioned the "Royal Ordinances for the Regime, Discipline, Subordination and Service in His Armies", which were in force until 1978.[8] Napoleonic era and Restoration[edit] Further information: Peninsular War In the late 18th century, Bourbon-ruled Spain
Spain
had an alliance with Bourbon-ruled France, and therefore did not have to fear a land war. Its only serious enemy was Britain, which had a powerful Royal Navy; Spain
Spain
therefore concentrated its resources on its Navy. When the French Revolution
French Revolution
overthrew the Bourbons, a land war with France became a danger which the king tried to avoid. The Spanish Army
Army
was ill-prepared. The officer corps was selected primarily on the basis of royal patronage, rather than merit. About a third of the junior officers had been promoted from the ranks, and they did have talent, but they had few opportunities for promotion or leadership. The rank-and-file were poorly trained peasants. Elite units included foreign regiments of Irishmen, Italians, Swiss, and Walloons, in addition to elite artillery and engineering units. Equipment was old-fashioned and in disrepair. The army lacked its own horses, oxen and mules for transportation, so these auxiliaries were operated by civilians, who might run away if conditions looked bad. In combat, small units fought well, but their old-fashioned tactics were hardly of use against the French Grande Armée, despite repeated desperate efforts at last-minute reform.[9] When war broke out with France
France
in 1808, the army was deeply unpopular. Leading generals were assassinated, and the army proved incompetent to handle command-and-control. Junior officers from peasant families deserted and went over to the insurgents; many units disintegrated. Spain
Spain
was unable to mobilize its artillery or cavalry. In the war, there was one victory at the Battle of Bailén
Battle of Bailén
within the first 2 months of the start and with little time to prepare against the veteran French troops, which however not followed in its advantage - the French evacuated the peninsula all the way to the Ebro
Ebro
valley near the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
- and suffering many humiliating defeats of the Spanish regular Army
Army
after such auspicious start, proved to be the first sound defeat to the hitherto seemly unbeatable Imperial armies, and demonstrating that if given more or less equal forces than the usual mass superiority of the French as it happened forcing the surrender of a whole Division of the Imperial Army, this inspired many other nations formerly defeated by France, motivating first Austria and showed the force of nationwide resistance to Napoleon. Conditions however steadily worsened as Napoleon
Napoleon
brought more effective troops into the peninsula, as the insurgents increasingly took control of Spain's battle against Napoleon
Napoleon
in the oldest national trait of warfare, known by its vernacular name Guerrilla and more or less unified underground National Resistance for which traditional armies of the Time and warfare developed during the 18th century were not organized or prepared yet. Napoleon
Napoleon
ridiculed the Spanish standard army as "the worst in Europe". And the British who had to work with it agreed.[10] It was not the Army
Army
that defeated Napoleon, but the insurgent peasants whom Napoleon
Napoleon
ridiculed as packs of "bandits led by monks"[11] or "rebels" in "insurgency" against the legitimate government of his brother, Joseph I implanted by him as a new monarch. By 1812, the army controlled only scattered enclaves, and could only harass the French with occasional raids. The morale of the army had reached a nadir, and reformers stripped the aristocratic officers of most of their legal privileges.[12] Nineteenth-century wars[edit] Main articles: Carlist Wars, Spanish–American War, and Cuban War of Independence

A Republican machine gunner with the M1926 boilersuit, during the Battle of Madrid
Madrid
in 1938. The Republic endured the use of previous uniforms.

Spain
Spain
entered the 19th century with a reduction of territory and recognition of power in Europe
Europe
following the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1814, and faced renewed problems in the international arena. The Spanish military was devastated as a consequence of its former alliance with France, costing it its main fleets and many war damages in its military arsenals and weapons factories, much of which was inflicted by the British or Portuguese allies during the Peninsular campaign to prevent the French or Spanish to resume their services after the war. In the immediate aftermath of the war, while its administration was facing local rebellions against a renewed absolutist monarchy, the overseas colonies inspired by France
France
and the United States
United States
of America sought to wrestle control from the debilitated European government that demanded more taxes to rebuild itself after the Napoleonic period disasters. Many continental armies were sent to Central America and South America
South America
which proved to be futile and too late. The former Empire lost an important artery of its power and with it the wealth in revenues which it had become dependent on over the centuries. In response, attempts were made to reform the military into a modern and standing national force, with conscription being adopted. Simultaneously, as consequence of regional grievances brewing for decades against the centralization of government that the Bourbon rulers brought from France, as well as political tensions surfacing during and after the Napoleonic Wars, Spain
Spain
faced a series of internal dynastic conflicts, collectively known as the Carlist Wars, requiring Spain
Spain
to undergo a series of reforms directed at its military, administrative, and social structures. As consequence of these internal conflicts, and the weakness of the central structures of government under the monarchy, many generals with political ambitions would interrupt public life in multiple Coup d'états, known as Pronunciamientos, for the rest of the century until the Second Restoration of the Bourbons in Spain
Spain
under Alfonso XII. These series of military interruptions in civil government eventually shaped a permissive cultural and political mentality, with a tacit expectation of "special emergency interventions" from the military that would pervade well into the first third of the 20th century, ultimately ending up in the Spanish Civil War. Second Republic (1931–36)[edit] During the Second Spanish Republic, the Spanish government enlisted over a ten million men to the army. Civil War (1936–39)[edit] Many US citizens came to Spain
Spain
to fight in their civil war for two main reasons. The first being to promote their ideals the other being to escape the trials of living in America during the great depression. The Spanish Army
Army
under the Francoist Regime (1939–1975)[edit] See also: Policía Armada This period can be divided in four phases:[13]

1939–1945: Second World War 1945–1954: International Isolation (lack of means) 1954–1961: Agreement with the United States
United States
(a certain improvement in means and capabilities) 1961–1975: Development plans (economic basis for the modernisations that follows in the 1970s and 1980s).

Second World War[edit]

Military service in Spain
Spain
(1945)

At the end of the Civil War, the Spanish (Francoist) Army
Army
counted with 1,020,500 men, in 60 Divisions.[14] During the first year of peace, Franco dramatically reduced the size of the Spanish Army
Army
to 250,000 in early 1940, with most soldiers two-year conscripts.[15] A few weeks after the end of the war, the eight traditional Military Regions (Madrid, Sevilla, Valencia, Barcelona, Zaragoza, Burgos, Valladolid, La Coruña) were reestablished. In 1944 a ninth Military Region, with HQ in Granada, was created.[14] The Air Force became an independent service, under its own Air Ministry. Concerns about the international situation, Spain's possible entry into World War II, and threats of invasion led him to undo some of these reductions. In November 1942, with the Allied landings in North Africa and the German occupation of Vichy France
Vichy France
bringing hostilities closer than ever to Spain's border, Franco ordered a partial mobilization, bringing the army to over 750,000 men.[15] The Air Force and Navy also grew in numbers and in budgets, to 35,000 airmen and 25,000 sailors by 1945, although for fiscal reasons Franco had to restrain attempts by both services to undertake dramatic expansions.[15] During the Second World War, the Spanish Army
Army
had eight Army
Army
Corps, with two or three Infantry Division each. Additionally, there were two Army
Army
Corps in Northern Africa, the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
General Command and the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
General Command, one Cavalry
Cavalry
Division and the Artillery's General Reserve. In 1940 a Reserve Group, with three Divisions, was created.[14] International Isolation[edit] At the end of the Second World War, the Spanish Army
Army
counted 22,000 officers, 3,000 NCO and almost 300,000 soldiers. The equipment dated from the Civil War, with some systems produced in Germany
Germany
during the World War. Doctrine and Training were obsolete, as they had not incorporated the teachings of the Second World War. This situation lasted until the agreements with the United States
United States
in September 1953.[13] Agreement with the United States
United States
(Barroso Reform, 1957)[edit] After the signature of the military agreement with the United States in 1953, the assistance received from Washington allowed Spain
Spain
to procure more modern equipment and to improve the country's defence capabilities. More than 200 Spanish officers and NCOs received specialised training in the United States
United States
each year under a parallel program. With the Barroso Reform (1957), the Spanish Army
Army
abandoned the organisation inherited from the Civil War to adopt the United States' pentomic structure. In 1958 three experimental pentomic Infantry Divisions were created (Madrid, Algeciras, Valencia). In 1960, five more pentomic Infantry Divisions (Gerona, Málaga, Oviedo, Vigo, Vitoria) and four mountain Divisions were created. All in all, after the Barroso Reform, the Spanish Army
Army
had 8 pentomic Infantry Divisions, four Mountain Divisions, one Armoured Division, one Cavalry Division, three independent Armoured Brigades and three Field Artillery Brigades.[13] Years of Economic Development (Menéndez Tolosa Reform, 1965)[edit] The 1965 Reforms were inspired by contemporary French organisation and Doctrine of the era. The Army
Army
was grouped into two basic categories: the Immediate Intervention Forces (Field Army) and the Operational Defence Forces (Territorial Army) and were divided into the following:

The IIF (FA) had the mission of defending the Pyrenean and the Gibraltar frontiers and of fulfilling Spain's security commitments abroad and thus were composed of the following:

Armoured Division, with two Brigades Mechanised Division, with two Brigades Motorized Division, with two Brigades Parachute Brigade (raised 1973) Airborne Brigade Armored Cavalry
Cavalry
Brigade Army
Army
Corps support units

ODF (TA) units had the missions of maintaining security in the regional commands and of reinforcing the Civil Guard) and the police against subversion and terrorism categorized into:

9 independent TA Infantry Brigades (one in every Military Region), with two Infantry Battalions each, 2 TA Mountain Divisions, 1 Mountain Reserve of the Army
Army
High Command (TA), The Canary Islands, Balearic Islands, Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla
Melilla
commands, with their respective TA units including the Regulares
Regulares
(6 Groups later reduced to 4) and the Spanish Legion
Spanish Legion
(4 Tercios), and the Army
Army
General Reserve Command, composed of TA units working as the reserve force of the Army
Army
and are the equivalent to the United States Army
Army
Reserve.[13]

Members of the Spanish Legion.

During the last years of the Francoist regime, contemporary weapons were ordered for the Spanish Army. In 1973, the military education system was reformed in depth, in order to make its structure and objectives similar to those existing in the civilian universities. It was during this time that the Spanish Army
Army
fought in the campaigns in what is now Western Sahara
Western Sahara
against Arab forces in the area who agitated for the end of Spanish colonial rule. The Spanish Army
Army
under King Juan Carlos I[edit] Initial years (1975–1989)[edit] Main article: Structure of the Spanish Army
Army
in 1989 Three main events characterise this period: creation of a single Ministry of Defence (1977) to replace the three existing military ministries (Army, Navy and Air Ministries), the failed coup d'état in February 1981 and the accession to NATO
NATO
in 1982. The Army
Army
modernisation program (META plan) was done between 1982 and 1988 in order for Spain
Spain
to achieve full compliance with NATO standards.[16] When the plan was completed the following results were achieved:

Military regions in the mainland were reduced from 9 to 6. The IIF (FA) and the ODF (TA) were merged into one single structure. The number of Brigades was reduced from 24 to 15. Personnel numbers were reduced from 279,000 to 230,000.

After the end of the Cold War
Cold War
(1989–present)[edit] The end of the Cold War
Cold War
came with the reduction of the term of military service for conscripts until its complete abolition in 2001[17] and the increasing participation of Spanish forces in multinational peacekeeping operations abroad[18] are the main drivers for changes in the Spanish Army
Army
after 1989. Three reorganisation plans were implemented since: the RETO plan (1990), the NORTE plan (1994)[19] and the Instruction for Organisation and Operation of the Army
Army
(IOFET) 2005. Today[edit] Personnel[edit]

Spanish soldiers of the Airborne Brigade in Afghanistan.

In 2001, when compulsory military service was still in effect, the army was about 135,000 troops (50,000 officers and 86,000 soldiers). Following the suspension of conscription the Spanish Army
Army
became a fully professionalised volunteer force and by 2008 had a personnel strength of 75,000.[20] In case of a war or national emergency, an additional force of 80,000 Civil Guards comes under the Ministry of Defence command. Equipment[edit] Weapons[edit]

Heckler & Koch USP - 9 mm pistol Standard weapon. Heckler & Koch MP5 - 9 mm submachine gun Special
Special
Operations Forces. Heckler & Koch G36 - 5.56 mm assault rifle. Without integral red dot sight, Spanish variants use a Picatinny Rail
Picatinny Rail
to mount an EoTech holographic sight Heckler & Koch G36KE and G36CE - 5.56 mm assault rifle Special Operations Forces. Heckler & Koch HK417 - 7.62 mm NATO
NATO
assault rifle Special Operations Forces. Rheinmetall MG3
Rheinmetall MG3
- 7.62 mm NATO
NATO
medium machine gun Heckler & Koch MG4 - 5.56 mm light machine gun (standard LMG) Browning M2 HB - 12.70 mm heavy machine gun SB LAG 40
SB LAG 40
grenade Launcher Instalaza Alhambra-DO hand grenade Instalaza C-100 Alcotán - 100 mm anti-tank rocket launcher Instalaza C-90 CR (M3)
C-90 CR (M3)
- 90 mm disposable anti-tank rocket launcher Spike - anti-tank missile launcher Milan - anti-tank missile launcher TOW 2 - anti-tank missile launcher Barrett M95
Barrett M95
- 12.7 mm heavy sniper rifle Accuracy International Arctic Warfare
Accuracy International Arctic Warfare
- 7.62 mm sniper rifle ECIA L65/60 60 mm light mortar ECIA L65/81 mortar - 81 mm medium mortar ECIA L65/105 mortar - 105 mm medium mortar ECIA L65/120 mortar - 120 mm heavy mortar

Combat vehicles[edit] Main article: Tanks in the Spanish Army

219 Leopardo 2E
Leopardo 2E
(A6) Main Battle Tank 108 Leopard 2
Leopard 2
A4 Main Battle Tank ( 54 in reserve ) 84 VRC-105 B1 Centauro
B1 Centauro
wheeled tank-destroyer 4 VCREC Centauro 261 Pizarro infantry fighting vehicles in two versions 500+ M113
M113
armored personnel carriers in seven versions 648 BMR-M1 medium six-wheeled APC 135 VEC-M1
VEC-M1
cavalry scout vehicle 90 TOM Bv206S
Bv206S
tracked vehicle 185 IVECO LMV Lince 4WD tactical vehicle (575 total order) 100 RG-31
RG-31
Mk5E Nyala (MRAP) 4WD tactical vehicle (MRAP) 10 Cardom
Cardom
Recoil Mortar System (RMS) 6 Husky 2G (mine detection system) URO VAMTAC, all terrain 4x4 tactical vehicle (more than 1,500) Santana Anibal, an all terrain 4x4 utility vehicle (more than 1,500) Iveco Euro Cargo all terrain utility vehicle Iveco M250W.37 VEMPAR Tactic Heavy Lorry 450HP, 20t cargo lorry

Artillery[edit]

M109A5 - 155/39 mm self-propelled howitzer, as the M109A5(+96) 155/52 APU SBT - 155/52 mm howitzer (84) L-118A1 - 105/37 mm light field howitzer (56) with Base Bleed (range 21 km) by Expal OERLIKON GDF-005 35/90 35 mm Anti-aircraft artillery piece (92) Raytheon
Raytheon
MIM-104 Patriot
MIM-104 Patriot
- Surface-to-Air missile system (3 batteries) Skyguard-Aspide - Surface-to-Air missile system (13) NASAMS
NASAMS
- Surface-to-Air missile system (8) MBDA
MBDA
SATCP Mistral missile
Mistral missile
- Anti-aircraft infrared homing missile system (168)

Aircraft[edit] Main article: Spanish Army
Army
Airmobile Force

Type Origin Class Role Introduced In service Total Notes

Agusta-Bell 212 Italy Rotorcraft Utility

6

[21]

Bell UH-1H Iroquois USA Rotorcraft Utility

14

[21]

Boeing CH-47D Chinook USA Rotorcraft Transport

17

[21]

Eurocopter AS332B1 Super Puma France Rotorcraft Transport

16

[21]

Eurocopter AS532UL Cougar France Rotorcraft Transport

17

[21]

Eurocopter EC-135 Germany Rotorcraft Trainer/utility

14

[21]

Eurocopter Tigre France/Germany/Spain Rotorcraft Attack

20

4 on order[21]

NHI NH90 France/Germany/Italy/Netherlands Rotorcraft Transport

10

12 on order[21]

Unmanned aerial vehicles[edit]

4 x INTA SIVA 4 x IAI Searcher
IAI Searcher
MK II J 47 x RQ-11 Raven
RQ-11 Raven
(mini UAV) 6 x 2 Atlantic and 4 Tucan

Formation and structure[edit] Main article: Structure of the Spanish Army Commanders in Chief of the Spanish Army[edit] Main article: Captain general (Spain) Army
Army
Ministers[edit] Source: es:Ministerio del Ejército

Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General José Enrique Varela
José Enrique Varela
Iglesias (1939–1942) Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Carlos Asensio Cabanillas
Carlos Asensio Cabanillas
(1942–1945) Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Fidel Dávila Arrondo (1945–1951) Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Agustín Muñoz Grandes
Agustín Muñoz Grandes
(1951–1957) Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Antonio Barroso y Sánchez-Guerra (1957–1962) Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Pablo Martín Alonso (1962–1964) Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Camilo Menéndez Tolosa (1964–1969) Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Juan Castañón de Mena (1969–1973) Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Francisco Coloma Gallegos (1973–1975) Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Félix Álvarez-Arenas y Pacheco (1975–1977)

Chiefs of the Army
Army
Staff[edit]

Command Guidon of the Spanish Army

Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General José Vega Rodríguez (1976–1978)[22] Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Tomás de Liniers y Pidal (1978–1979)[22] Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General José Gabeiras Montero (1979–1982)[22] Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Ramón de Ascanio y Togores (1982–1984)[22] Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General José María Sáenz de Tejada y Fernández de Bobadilla (1984–1986)[22] Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Miguel Íñiguez del Moral (1986–1990)[22] Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Ramón Porgueres Hernández (1990–1994)[22] Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General José Faura Martín (1994–1998)[22] Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Alfonso Pardo de Santayana y Coloma (1998–2003)[22] Army
Army
General Luis Alejandre Sintes (2003–2004)[22] Army
Army
General José Antonio García González (2004–2006)[22] Army
Army
General Carlos Villar Turrau (2006–2008)[22] Army
Army
General Fulgencio Coll Bucher
Fulgencio Coll Bucher
(2008–2012)[22] Army
Army
General Jaime Domínguez Buj (2012–2017)[23] Army
Army
General Francisco Javier Varela Salas (2017–present)[2]

Uniforms[edit]

Digital Woodland

Digital desert

Ranks and insignia[edit] Main article: Military ranks of Spain The military ranks of the Spanish army are as follows below. For a comparison with other NATO
NATO
ranks see Ranks and Insignia of NATO. Ranks are wore on the cuff, sleeves and shoulders of all army uniforms, but differ by the type of the uniform being used.

NATO
NATO
code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer

 Spain (Edit)

Capitán general[24] General de Ejército Teniente general General de división General de brigada Coronel Teniente coronel Comandante Capitán Teniente Alférez Caballero Alférez Cadete Alumno repetidor Alumno 2º Alumno 1º

1 Retained by His Majesty the King of Spain
Spain
as his constitutional role.

NATO
NATO
Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1

Spain (Edit)

Suboficial mayor Subteniente Brigada Sargento primero Sargento Cabo mayor Cabo primero Cabo Soldado de primera Soldado

See also[edit]

Spanish Armed Forces Army
Army
of Spain
Spain
(Peninsular War) NATO FAMET Spanish legion Regulares Spanish Republican Army Coats of Arms, Badges and Emblems of the Spanish Army

References[edit]

^ "España Hoy 2016-2016". lamoncloa.gob.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 May 2017.  ^ a b New chiefs of Army, Navy and Air Force. Ministry of Defence (Spain). Retrieved 31 March 2017 ^ Davies, 1961 ^ Elton, p. 181. ^ Anderson, p. 17. ^ Meade, p. 180. ^ Anderson, pp. 109–10. ^ Comparative Atlas of Defence in Latin America / 2008 Edition, p.42 (PDF) ^ Charles J. Esdaile, The Spanish Army
Army
in the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
(1988) ^ Philip Haythornthwaite; Christa Hook (2013). Corunna 1809: Sir John Moore's Fighting Retreat. Osprey. pp. 17–18.  ^ Russell Crandall (2014). America's Dirty Wars: Irregular Warfare from 1776 to the War on Terror. Cambridge UP. p. 21.  ^ Otto Pivka, Spanish Armies
Armies
of the Napoleonic Wars (Osprey Men-at-Arms, 1975) ^ a b c d PUELL DE LA VILLA, Fernando (2010). "El devenir del Ejército de Tierra (1945-1975)". In Fernando Puell de la Vega y Sonia Alda Mejías (ed.). Los Ejércitos del franquismo. Madrid: IUGM-UNED. 2010. Pp. 63-96. ^ a b c MUÑOZ BOLAÑOS, Roberto (2010). "La institución militar en la posguerra (1939-1945)". In Fernando Puell de la Vega y Sonia Alda Mejías (ed.). Los Ejércitos del franquismo. Madrid: IUGM-UNED. 2010. Pp. 15-55. ^ a b c Bowen, Wayne H.; José E. Álvarez (2007). A Military History of Modern Spain. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-275-99357-3.  ^ YÁRNOZ, Carlos (February 10, 1983). "El plan de modernización del Ejército de Tierra renovará completamente la estructura actual". elpais.com. Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ See an announcement by the Minister of Defence ^ http://www.defensa.gob.es/en/areasTematicas/misiones/%20 ^ CERVERA ARTEAGA, Eva. "Retrospectiva de tres décadas en el Ejército de Tierra español". Retrieved December 31, 2013.  ^ Estadística de Personal Militar de Complemento , Militar Profesional de Tropa y Marinería y Reservista Voluntario (PDF) ^ a b c d e f g h "World Air Forces 2016". Flightglobal: p. 29. Retrieved 8 December 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m La transformación de los ejércitos españoles (1975-2008). Madrid: UNED. 2009. p. 366.  ^ Real Decreto 1164/2012, de 27 de julio (PDF) ^ The King only

Bibliography[edit]

Instruction no. 59/2005, of 4 April 2005, from the chief of the army staff on army organisation and function regulations, published in B.O.D. NO. 80 of 26 April 2005 Lehardy, Diego, Spanish Army
Army
in a difficult phase of its transformation, RID magazine, July 1991.

External links and further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Army
Army
of Spain.

Home page of the Spanish Land Army
Army
(in English) Recruitment page (in Spanish) The Spanish Military Forum

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Army Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Marechaussee

Norwegian Army Norwegian Home Guard

Polish Land Forces Polish Special
Special
Forces Polish Territorial Defence Force

Portuguese Army Romanian Land Forces Ground Forces of the Slovak Republic Slovenian Ground Force

Spanish Army Spanish Royal Guard Common Corps of the Spanish Armed Forces Military Emergencies Unit

Turkish Land Forces Turkish Gendarmerie General Command

British Army United States
United States
Army

Maritime land forces

Military Police Company of the Bulgarian Naval Forces Command Croatian Naval Security Company Estonian Naval Base Defense Company French Fusiliers Marins German Naval Force Protection Battalion Italian Navy San Marco Marine Brigade Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps Portuguese Marine Corps Romanian Naval Forces 307th Marine Battalion Spanish Navy
Spanish Navy
Marines Turkish Naval Amphibious Marine Brigade British Royal Marines United States
United States
Marine Corps

Air force land forces

Belgian Air Component Force Protection Squadron Military Police Company of the Bulgarian Air Forces Command Czech Air Force
Czech Air Force
Security Squadrons Estonian Air Force
Estonian Air Force
Base Defense Operations Center French Fusiliers Commandos de l'Air German Air Force Regiment Latvian Air Force Security Platoon Lituanian Air Force Air Defence Battalion Montenegrin Air Force
Montenegrin Air Force
Air Base Security Platoon Royal Norwegian Air Force Base Defense Squadron Portuguese Polícia Aérea British Royal Air Force Regiment United States
United States
Air Force Security Forces

v t e

Armies
Armies
(land forces) in Europe

Sovereign states

European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Republic of Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Other

Albania Andorra Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Georgia Iceland Kazakhstan Liechtenstein Republic of Macedonia Moldova Monaco Montenegro Norway Russia San Marino Serbia Switzerland Turkey Ukraine

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Kosovo Nagorno-Karabakh Northern Cyprus South Os

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