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ISO 639-1 es
ISO 639-2 spa
ISO 639-3 spa
Spanish language in the world
SPANISH (/ˈspænᵻʃ/ (_ listen ); español_ (help ·info )), also called CASTILIAN (/kæˈstɪliən/ (_ listen ), castellano_ (help ·info )), is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese . Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages , which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. The oldest Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century, and the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo , then capital of the Kingdom of Castile , in the 13th century. Beginning in the early 16th century, Spanish was taken to the colonies of the Spanish Empire , most notably to the Americas , as well as territories in Africa , Oceania and the Philippines .
Around 75% of modern Spanish is derived from Latin . Ancient Greek has also contributed substantially to Spanish vocabulary, especially through Latin, where it had a great impact.
Spanish vocabulary has been in contact from an early date with Arabic , having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has also been influenced by Basque as well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. It also adopted words from non-Iberian languages such as Gothic language from the Visigoths in which many Spanish names and surnames have a Visigothic origin. It has absorbed vocabulary from other languages, particularly the Romance languages French , Italian , Occitan , and Sardinian , as well as from Nahuatl , Quechua , and other indigenous languages of the Americas .
Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations . It is also used as an official language by the European Union , the Organization of American States , the Union of South American Nations , the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States , and by many other international organizations .
* 1 Estimated number of speakers * 2 Names of the language * 3 History * 4 Grammar
* 5 Phonology
* 5.1 Segmental phonology * 5.2 Prosody
* 6 Geographical distribution
* 6.1 Europe
* 6.2 The Americas
* 6.3 Africa * 6.4 Asia-Pacific * 6.5 Spanish speakers by country
* 7 Dialectal variation
* 7.1 Phonology
* 7.2 Grammar
* 7.2.1 Voseo
* 18.104.22.168 Distribution in Spanish-speaking regions of the Americas
* 7.2.2 Ustedes * 7.2.3 Usted * 7.2.4 Third-person object pronouns
* 7.3 Vocabulary
* 8 Relation to other languages
* 8.1 Judaeo-Spanish
* 9 Writing system
* 10 Organizations
* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 Further reading * 15 External links
ESTIMATED NUMBER OF SPEAKERS
It is estimated that more than 437 million people speak Spanish as a native language , which qualifies it as second on the lists of languages by number of native speakers . Instituto Cervantes claims that there are an estimated 472 million Spanish speakers with native competence and 567 million Spanish speakers as a first or second language—including speakers with limited competence—and more than 21 million students of Spanish as a foreign language .
Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea , and 19 countries in the Americas . Speakers in the Americas total some 418 million. In the European Union , Spanish is the mother tongue of 8% of the population, with an additional 7% speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States . In 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over, 38 million speak Spanish at home.
NAMES OF THE LANGUAGE
Main article: Names given to the Spanish language
_ This section may need to be REWRITTEN ENTIRELY to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards . You can help . The discussion page may contain suggestions. (December 2014)_
_ Geographical distribution of the preferential use of the terms castellano_ (Castilian), in red, vs. _español_ (Spanish), in blue, according to the terminology found in these countries' legal constitutions.
In Spain and in some other parts of the Spanish-speaking world, Spanish is called not only _español_ (Spanish) but also _castellano_ (Castilian), the language from the kingdom of Castile , contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician , Basque and Catalan .
The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term _castellano_ to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to _las demás lenguas españolas_ (lit. "the other Spanish languages "). Article III reads as follows:
_El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas..._
The Spanish Royal Academy , on the other hand, currently uses the term _español_ in its publications, but from 1713 to 1923 called the language _castellano_.
The _ Diccionario panhispánico de dudas _ (a language guide published by the Spanish Royal Academy) states that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers to use the term _español_ in its publications when referring to the Spanish language, both terms—_español_ and _castellano_—are regarded as synonymous and equally valid.
Two etymologies for _español_ have been suggested. The Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word _espaignol_, and that in turn from the Medieval Latin word _Hispaniolus_, 'from—or pertaining to—Hispania'. Other authorities attribute it to a supposed mediaeval Latin *_hispaniōne_, with the same meaning.
Main article: History of the Spanish language The Visigothic Cartularies of Valpuesta were declared in 2010 by the Spanish Royal Academy as the record of the earliest words written in Castilian, predating those of the Glosas Emilianenses .
The Spanish language evolved from Vulgar Latin , which was brought to the Iberian Peninsula by the Romans during the Second Punic War , beginning in 210 BC. Previously, several pre-Roman languages (also called Paleohispanic languages )—unrelated to Latin, and some of them unrelated even to Indo-European—were spoken in the Iberian Peninsula. These languages included Basque (still spoken today), Iberian , Celtiberian and Celtic .
The first documents to show traces of what is today regarded as the precursor of modern Spanish are from the 9th century. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era , the most important influences on the Spanish lexicon came from neighboring Romance languages — Navarro-Aragonese , Leonese , Catalan , Portuguese , Galician , Occitan , and later, French and Italian . Spanish also borrowed a considerable number of words from Arabic , as well as a minor influence from Germanic languages through the migration of tribes and a period of Visigoth rule in Iberia. In addition, many more words were borrowed from Latin through the influence of written language and the liturgical language of the Church.
According to the theories of Ramón Menéndez Pidal , local sociolects of Vulgar Latin evolved into Spanish, in the north of Iberia, in an area centered in the city of Burgos , and this dialect was later brought to the city of Toledo , where the written standard of Spanish was first developed, in the 13th century. Known this period as Old Spanish was characterized by the coexistence of two genre in the Spanish literature , the Mester de Clerecía and the Mester de Juglaría .
Sample text from this period can be read below traslated into Modern Spanish and English :
_La Natura que cria toda-las creaturas_ _las que son paladinas e las que son escuras_ _tuuo que Alexandre dixo paraulas duras_ _que querie conquerir las secretas naturas_ _Tuuo la rrica donna que era subiugada_ _que queria el toller la rryna condonada_ _de su poder non fura nunca tan desarrada_ _se non que Alexandre l·auia aontada_ _Enas cosas secretas quiso el saber_ _que nunca omne uiuo las pudo entender_ _quiso-las Alexandre por forçia connoçer_ _nunca mayor soberuia comedio Luçifer_ _Auia-le Dios dado los regnos en so poder_ _non se le podia forçias nenguna defender_ _querie saber los mares los enfiernos ueer_ _lo que nunca pudo omne nenguno acabeçer_ _Peso al Criador que crio la Natura_ _ouo de Alexandre sanna e grant rancura_ _dixo este lunatico que non cata mesura_ _yo·l tornare el gozo todo en amargura._ _La Natura que cría todas las criaturas_ _las que son claras y las que son oscuras_ _pensó que Alejandro dijo palabras duras_ _que quería conquistar las secretas naturas_ _Creyó la rica dueña que era subyugada_ _que quería quitarle la ley condonada_ _ de su poder no fuera nunca desheredada_ _ni aun por Alejandro sería afrentada_ _En las cosas secretas quiso él entender_ _aquello que ningún hombre vivo jamás pudo saber_ _quísolas Alejandro por fuerza conocer_ _¡Nunca mayor soberbia cometió Lucifer!_ _Habíale Dios dado los reinos en su poder_ _no se le podia fuerza ninguna exceder_ _quería conocer los mares los infiernos ver_ _lo que no pudo hombre nunca acometer_ _Pesó al Creador que creó la Natura_ _ tuvo contra Alejandro saña y gran rancura_ _: «este lunático que no acata mesura_ _yo le tornaré el gozo todo en amargura»._ The Natura that breeds all creatures Those that are clear and those that are dark She thought Alexander said harsh words That he wanted to conquer the secret natures The wealthy owner thought she was subjugated That he wanted to remove the condoned law Of its power was never torn Not even for Alexander would be affronted In secret things, he wanted to understand Things that a living man could never know Alexander tried forcibly to know No greater pride ever committed for Lucifer! God had given the kingdoms in his power No force could stop him He wanted to see the seas and the hells What a man could never do Weighed this to the Creator who created Natura He had in Alexander rage and great rancor : "This lunatic who acts without moderation I will return to him all the joy in bitterness".
Fragment from Libro de Alexandre (The Book of Alexandre), 2325-2329 stanzas , sums up the fall of Alexander the Great because of his pride. In this formative stage, Spanish developed a strongly differing variant from its close cousin, Leonese , and, according to some authors, was distinguished by a heavy Basque influence (see Iberian Romance languages ). This distinctive dialect spread to southern Spain with the advance of the _ Reconquista _, and meanwhile gathered a sizable lexical influence from the Arabic of Al-Andalus , much of it indirectly, through the Romance Mozarabic dialects (some 4,000 Arabic -derived words, make up around 8% of the language today). The written standard for this new language was developed in the cities of Toledo , in the 13th to 16th centuries, and Madrid , from the 1570s.
The development of the Spanish sound system from that of Vulgar Latin exhibits most of the changes that are typical of Western Romance languages , including lenition of intervocalic consonants (thus Latin vīta > Spanish _vida_). The diphthongization of Latin stressed short e and o—which occurred in open syllables in French and Italian, but not at all in Catalan or Portuguese—is found in both open and closed syllables in Spanish, as shown in the following table:
LATIN SPANISH LADINO ARAGONESE ASTURIAN GALICIAN PORTUGUESE CATALAN GASCON / OCCITAN FRENCH SARDINIAN ITALIAN ROMANIAN ENGLISH
petra _pIEdra_ _pedra_ _pedra_/_pèira_ _pIErre_ _perda_ _pIEtra_ _pIAtrǎ_ 'stone'
terra _tIErra_ _terra_ _tèrra_ _terre_ _terra_ _țară_ 'land'
moritur _mUEre_ _mUErre_ _morre_ _mor_ _morís_ _mEUrt_ _mòrit_ _mUOre_ _mOAre_ 'dies (v.)'
mortem _mUErte_ _morte_ _mort_ _mòrt_ _mort_ _mòrti_ _morte_ _mOArte_ 'death'
Chronological map showing linguistic evolution in southwest Europe
The consonant written _u_ or _v_ in Latin and pronounced in Classical Latin had probably "fortified " to a bilabial fricative /β/ in Vulgar Latin. In early Spanish (but not in Catalan or Portuguese) it merged with the consonant written _b_ (a bilabial with plosive and fricative allophones). In modern Spanish, there is no difference between the pronunciation of orthographic _b_ and _v_, with some exceptions in Caribbean Spanish.
Peculiar to Spanish (as well as to the neighboring Gascon dialect of Occitan , and attributed to a Basque substratum ) was the mutation of Latin initial _f_ into _h-_ whenever it was followed by a vowel that did not diphthongize. The _h-_, still preserved in spelling, is now silent in most varieties of the language, although in some Andalusian and Caribbean dialects it is still aspirated in some words. Because of borrowings from Latin and from neighboring Romance languages, there are many _f_-/_h_-doublets in modern Spanish: _Fernando_ and _Hernando_ (both Spanish for "Ferdinand"), _ferrero_ and _herrero_ (both Spanish for "smith"), _fierro_ and _hierro_ (both Spanish for "iron"), and _fondo_ and _hondo_ (both Spanish for "deep", but _fondo_ means "bottom" while _hondo_ means "deep"); _hacer_ (Spanish for "to make") is cognate to the root word of _satisfacer_ (Spanish for "to satisfy"), and _hecho_ ("made") is similarly cognate to the root word of _satisfecho_ (Spanish for "satisfied").
Compare the examples in the following table:
LATIN SPANISH LADINO ARAGONESE ASTURIAN GALICIAN PORTUGUESE CATALAN GASCON / OCCITAN FRENCH SARDINIAN ITALIAN ROMANIAN ENGLISH
filium _Hijo_ _fijo_ (or _ijo_) _fillo_ _fíu_ _fillo_ _filho_ _fill_ _filh_/_Hilh_ _fils_ _fillu_ _figlio_ _fiu_ 'son'
facere _Hacer_ _fazer_ _fer_ _facer_ _fazer_ _fer_ _far_/_faire_/_Har_ (or _Hèr_) _faire_ _fairi_ _fare_ _a face_ 'to do'
febrem _fiebre_ _febre_ _fèbre_/_frèbe_/_Hrèbe_ (or _Herèbe_) _fièvre_ (_calentura_) _febbre_ _febră_ 'fever'
focum _fuego_ _fueu_ _fogo_ _foc_ _fuòc_/_fòc_/_Huèc_ _feu_ _fogu_ _fuoco_ _foc_ 'fire'
Some consonant clusters of Latin also produced characteristically different results in these languages, as shown in the examples in the following table:
LATIN SPANISH LADINO ARAGONESE ASTURIAN GALICIAN PORTUGUESE CATALAN GASCON / OCCITAN FRENCH SARDINIAN ITALIAN ROMANIAN ENGLISH
CLāvem _LLave_/_clave_ _clave_ _clau_ _LLave_ _chave_ _chave_ _clau_ _clé_ _crai_ _chiave_ _cheie_ 'key'
FLamma _LLama_/_flama_ _FLama_ _chama_ _chama_/_flama_ _flama_ _flamme_ _framma_ _fiamma_ _flamă_ 'flame'
PLēnum _LLeno_/_pleno_ _pleno_ _plen_ _LLenu_ _cheo_ _cheio_/_pleno_ _ple_ _plen_ _plein_ _prenu_ _pieno_ _plin_ 'plenty, full'
oCTō _oCHo_ _güeito_ _oCHo_/_oito_ _oito_ _oito_ (_oiTo_) _vuit_/_huit_ _uèCH_/_uòCH_/_uèit_ _huit_ _otu_ _otto_ _opt_ 'eight'
muLTum _muCHo_ _muY_ _muNCHo_ _muY_ _muito_ _muI_ _muNCHu_ _muI_ _moito_ _moI_ _muito_ (_muiTo_) _muI_ (arch.) _molt_ _molt_ (arch.) _moult_ (arch.) (_meda_) _molto_ _mult_ 'much, very, many'
_ Antonio de Nebrija , author of Gramática de la lengua castellana _, the first grammar of modern European languages.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Spanish underwent a dramatic change in the pronunciation of its sibilant consonants , known in Spanish as the _reajuste de las sibilantes_, which resulted in the distinctive velar pronunciation of the letter ⟨j⟩ and—in a large part of Spain—the characteristic interdental ("th-sound") for the letter ⟨z⟩ (and for ⟨c⟩ before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩). See History of Spanish (Modern development of the Old Spanish sibilants) for details.
The _ Gramática de la lengua castellana _, written in Salamanca in 1492 by Elio Antonio de Nebrija , was the first grammar written for a modern European language. According to a popular anecdote, when Nebrija presented it to Queen Isabella I , she asked him what was the use of such a work, and he answered that language is the instrument of empire. In his introduction to the grammar, dated 18 August 1492, Nebrija wrote that "... language was always the companion of empire."
From the sixteenth century onwards, the language was taken to America and the Spanish East Indies via Spanish colonization of America . Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra , author of _ Don Quixote _, is such a well-known reference in the world that Spanish is often called _la lengua de Cervantes_ ("the language of Cervantes").
In the twentieth century, Spanish was introduced to Equatorial Guinea and the Western Sahara , and to areas of the United States that had not been part of the Spanish Empire, such as Spanish Harlem in New York City . For details on borrowed words and other external influences upon Spanish, see Influences on the Spanish language .
Spanish is an inflected language, with a two-gender noun system and about fifty conjugated forms per verb , but with inflection of nouns , adjectives , and determiners limited to number and gender . (For a detailed overview of verbs, see Spanish verbs and Spanish irregular verbs .) Spanish syntax is considered right-branching , meaning that subordinate or modifying constituents tend to be placed after their head words. The language uses prepositions (rather than postpositions or inflection of nouns for case ), and usually—though not always—places adjectives after nouns , as do most other Romance languages.
The language is classified as a subject–verb–object language; however, as in most Romance languages, constituent order is highly variable and governed mainly by topicalization and focus rather than by syntax. It is a "pro-drop ", or "null-subject " language—that is, it allows the deletion of subject pronouns when they are pragmatically unnecessary. Spanish is described as a "verb-framed " language, meaning that the _direction_ of motion is expressed in the verb while the _mode_ of locomotion is expressed adverbially (e.g. _subir corriendo_ or _salir volando_; the respective English equivalents of these examples—'to run up' and 'to fly out'—show that English is, by contrast, "satellite-framed", with mode of locomotion expressed in the verb and direction in an adverbial modifier).
Subject/verb inversion is not required in questions, and thus the recognition of declarative or interrogative may depend entirely on intonation.
Main article: Spanish phonology
The Spanish phonemic system is originally descended from that of Vulgar Latin . Its development exhibits some traits in common with the neighboring dialects—especially Leonese and Aragonese —as well as other traits unique to Castilian . Castilian is unique among its neighbors in the aspiration and eventual loss of the Latin initial /f/ sound (e.g. Cast. _harina_ vs. Leon. and Arag. _farina_). The Latin initial consonant sequences _pl-_, _cl-_, and _fl-_ in Spanish typically become _ll-_ (pronounced , , , , or ), while in Aragonese they are preserved, and in Leonese they present a variety of outcomes, including , , and . Where Latin had _-li-_ before a vowel (e.g. _filius_) or the ending _-iculus_, _-icula_ (e.g. _auricula_), Modern Spanish produces the velar fricative (_hijo_, _oreja_, where neighboring languages have the palatal lateral (e.g. Portuguese _filho_, _orelha_; Catalan _fill_, _orella_).
(See History of the Spanish Language for more information)
Spanish vowel chart, from Ladefoged (2) three voiceless stops and the affricate /tʃ/; (3) three or four (depending on the dialect) voiceless fricatives ; (4) a set of voiced obstruents —/b/, /d/, /ɡ/, and sometimes /ʝ/—which alternate between approximant and plosive allophones depending on the environment; and (5) a phonemic distinction between the "tapped " and "trilled " _r_-sounds (single ⟨r⟩ and double ⟨rr⟩ in orthography).
In the following table of consonant phonemes, /θ/ and /ʎ/ are marked with an asterisk (*) to indicate that they are preserved only in some dialects. In most dialects they have been merged, respectively, with /s/ and /ʝ/, in the mergers called, respectively, _seseo _ and _yeísmo _. The phoneme /ʃ/ is in parentheses () to indicate that it appears only in loanwords . Each of the voiced obstruent phonemes /b/, /d/, /ʝ/, and /ɡ/ appears to the right of a _pair_ of voiceless phonemes, to indicate that, while the _voiceless_ phonemes maintain a phonemic contrast between plosive (or affricate) and fricative, the _voiced_ ones alternate allophonically (i.e. without phonemic contrast) between plosive and approximant pronunciations.
LABIAL DENTAL ALVEOLAR PALATAL VELAR
STOP p b t d
tʃ ʝ k ɡ
CONTINUANT f θ * s
(ʃ ) x
Spanish is classified by its rhythm as a syllable-timed language : each syllable has approximately the same duration regardless of stress.
Spanish intonation varies significantly according to dialect but generally conforms to a pattern of falling tone for declarative sentences and wh-questions (who, what, why, etc.) and rising tone for yes/no questions . There are no syntactic markers to distinguish between questions and statements and thus, the recognition of declarative or interrogative depends entirely on intonation.
Stress most often occurs on any of the last three syllables of a word, with some rare exceptions at the fourth-last or earlier syllables. The _tendencies_ of stress assignment are as follows:
* In words that end with a vowel, stress most often falls on the penultimate syllable. * In words that end with a consonant, stress most often falls on the last syllable, with the following exceptions: The grammatical endings _-n_ (for third-person-plural of verbs) and _-s_ (whether for plural of nouns and adjectives or for second-person-singular of verbs) do not change the location of stress. Thus, regular _verbs_ ending with _-n_ and the great majority of words ending with _-s_ are stressed on the penult. Although a significant number of nouns and adjectives ending with _-n_ are also stressed on the penult (_joven_, _virgen_, _mitin_), the great majority of nouns and adjectives ending with _-n_ are stressed on their last syllable (_capitán_, _almacén_, _jardín_, _corazón_). * Preantepenultimate stress (stress on the fourth-to-last syllable) occurs rarely, only on verbs with clitic pronouns attached (_guardándoselos_ 'saving them for him/her/them/you').
In addition to the many exceptions to these tendencies, there are numerous minimal pairs that contrast solely on stress such as _sábana_ ('sheet') and _sabana_ ('savannah'); _límite_ ('boundary'), _limite_ (' he/she limits') and _limité_ ('I limited'); _líquido_ ('liquid'), _liquido_ ('I sell off') and _liquidó_ ('he/she sold off').
The orthographic system unambiguously reflects where the stress occurs: in the absence of an accent mark, the stress falls on the last syllable unless the last letter is ⟨n⟩, ⟨s⟩, or a vowel, in which cases the stress falls on the next-to-last (penultimate) syllable. Exceptions to those rules are indicated by an acute accent mark over the vowel of the stressed syllable. (See Spanish orthography .)
See also: Hispanophone
Official or co-official language 1,000,000+ 100,000+ 20,000+
Active learning of Spanish.
Spanish is the primary language of 20 countries worldwide. It is estimated that the combined total number of Spanish speakers is between 470 and 500 million, making it the second most widely spoken language in terms of native speakers.
Spanish is the third most spoken language by total number of speakers (after Mandarin and English ). Internet usage statistics for 2007 also show Spanish as the third most commonly used language on the Internet, after English and Mandarin .
See also: Romance-speaking Europe Percentage of people who self reportedly know enough Spanish to hold a conversation, in the EU, 2005 Native country More than 8.99% Between 4% and 8.99% Between 1% and 3.99% Less than 1%
In Europe , Spanish is an official language of Spain, the country after which it is named and from which it originated. It is widely spoken in Gibraltar , although English is the official, international language. It is also commonly spoken in Andorra , although Catalan is the official language.
Spanish is also spoken by small communities in other European countries, such as the United Kingdom , France , Italy , and Germany . Spanish is an official language of the European Union . In Switzerland , which had a massive influx of Spanish migrants in the 20th century, Spanish is the native language of 2.2% of the population.
Main article: Spanish language in the Americas
Most Spanish speakers are in Hispanic America ; of all countries with a majority of Spanish speakers, only Spain and Equatorial Guinea are outside the Americas . Nationally, Spanish is the official language—either _de facto _ or _de jure _—of Argentina , Bolivia (co-official with Quechua , Aymara , Guarani , and 34 other languages), Chile , Colombia , Costa Rica , Cuba , Dominican Republic , Ecuador , El Salvador , Guatemala , Honduras , Mexico (co-official with 63 indigenous languages), Nicaragua , Panama , Paraguay (co-official with Guaraní ), Peru (co-official with Quechua , Aymara , and "the other indigenous languages" ), Puerto Rico (co-official with English), Uruguay , and Venezuela . Spanish has no official recognition in the former British colony of Belize ; however, per the 2000 census, it is spoken by 43% of the population. Mainly, it is spoken by the descendants of Hispanics who have been in the region since the seventeenth century; however, English is the official language.
Due to their proximity to Spanish-speaking countries, Trinidad and Tobago and Brazil have implemented Spanish language teaching into their education systems. The Trinidad government launched the _Spanish as a First Foreign Language_ (SAFFL) initiative in March 2005. In 2005, the National Congress of Brazil approved a bill, signed into law by the President , making it mandatory for schools to offer Spanish as an alternative foreign language course in both public and private secondary schools in Brazil. In September 2016 this law was revoked by Michel Temer after impeachment of Dilma Rousseff . In many border towns and villages along Paraguay and Uruguay, a mixed language known as Portuñol is spoken.
According to 2006 census data, 44.3 million people of the U.S. population were Hispanic or Hispanic American by origin; 38.3 million people, 13 percent, of the population over five years old speak Spanish at home. The Spanish language has a long history of presence in the United States due to early Spanish and, later, Mexican administration over territories now forming the southwestern states , as well as Florida , which was Spanish territory until 1821.
Spanish is by far the most common second language spoken and taught in the country, and with over 50 million total speakers, the United States is now the second largest Spanish-speaking country in the world after Mexico. While English is the de facto national language of the country, Spanish is often used in public services and notices at the federal and state levels. Spanish is also used in administration in the state of New Mexico . The language also has a strong influence in major metropolitan areas such as those of Los Angeles , Miami , San Antonio , New York , San Francisco , Dallas , and Phoenix ; as well as more recently, Chicago , Las Vegas , Boston , Denver , Houston , Indianapolis , Philadelphia , Cleveland , Salt Lake City , Atlanta , Nashville , Orlando , Tampa , Raleigh and Baltimore-Washington, D.C. due to 20th- and 21st-century immigration.
Donato Ndongo-Bidyogo , writer, poet, journalist and promoter of the Spanish language. Bilingual signage of Museum of the Sahrawi People\'s Liberation Army in Western Sahara written in Spanish and Arabic.
In Africa , Spanish is official (along with Portuguese and French) in Equatorial Guinea , as well as an official language of the African Union . In Equatorial Guinea, Spanish is the predominant language when native and non-native speakers (around 500,000 people) are counted, while Fang is the most spoken language by number of native speakers.
Spanish is also spoken in the integral territories of Spain in North Africa, which include the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla , the Plazas de soberanía , and the Canary Islands archipelago (population 2,000,000), located some 100 km off the northwest coast of mainland Africa.
Within Northern Morocco , a former Spanish protectorate that is also geographically close to Spain, approximately 20,000 people speak Spanish as a second language , while Arabic is the _de jure_ official language. A small number of Moroccan Jews also speak the Sephardic Spanish dialect Haketia (related to the Ladino dialect spoken in Israel ). Spanish is spoken by some small communities in Angola because of the Cuban influence from the Cold War and in South Sudan among South Sudanese natives that relocated to Cuba during the Sudanese wars and returned in time for their country's independence.
In Western Sahara , formerly Spanish Sahara , Spanish was officially spoken during the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Today, Spanish in this disputed territory is maintained by populations of Sahrawi nomads numbering about 500,000 people, and is de facto official alongside Arabic in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic , although this entity receives limited international recognition.
Spanish is present on Easter Island , as it was annexed as a Chilean province in 1888.
Spanish was an official language of the Philippines from the beginning of Spanish rule in 1565 to a constitutional change in 1973. During Spanish colonization (1565–1898), it was the language of government, trade and education, and spoken as a first language by Spaniards and educated Filipinos. In the mid-nineteenth century, the colonial government set up a free public education system with Spanish as the medium of instruction. This increased use of Spanish throughout the islands led to the formation of a class of Spanish-speaking intellectuals called the _ Ilustrados _. Until the Philippine independence in 1898, Spanish was spoken by around 10% of the population as their first and only language. Around 60% of the population spoke Spanish as their second or third language, that makes a total of 70%.
Despite American administration after the defeat of Spain in the Spanish–American War in 1898, the usage of Spanish continued in Philippine literature and press during the early years of American rule. Gradually, however, the American government began increasingly promoting the use of English, and it characterized Spanish as a negative influence of the past. Eventually, by the 1920s, English became the primary language of administration and education. But despite a significant decrease in influence and speakers, Spanish remained an official language of the Philippines when it became independent in 1946, alongside English and Filipino , a standardized version of Tagalog . Early flag of the Filipino revolutionaries ("Long live the Philippine Republic!"). The first two constitutions were written in Spanish.
Spanish was removed from official status in 1973 under the administration of Ferdinand Marcos , but regained its status as an official language two months later under Presidential Decree No. 155, dated 15 March 1973. It remained an official language until 1987, with the ratification of the present constitution, in which it was re-designated as a voluntary and optional auxiliary language. In 2010, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo encouraged the reintroduction of Spanish-language teaching in the Philippine education system. But by 2012, the number of secondary schools at which the language was either a compulsory subject or an elective had become very limited. Today, despite government promotions of Spanish, less than 0.5% of the population report being able to speak the language proficiently. Aside from standard Spanish, a Spanish-based creole language— Chavacano —developed in the southern Philippines. The number of Chavacano-speakers was estimated at 1.2 million in 1996. However, it is not mutually intelligible with Spanish. Speakers of the Zamboangueño variety of Chavacano were numbered about 360,000 in the 2000 census. The local languages of the Philippines also retain some Spanish influence, with many words being derived from Mexican Spanish , owing to the control of the islands by Spain through Mexico City until 1821, and then directly from Madrid until 1898.
Spanish was also used by the colonial governments and educated classes in the former Spanish East Indies , consisting of modern-day Guam , Northern Mariana Islands , Palau , and Micronesia , in addition to the Philippines. Spanish loan words are present in the local languages of these territories as a legacy of colonial rule. Today, Spanish is not spoken officially in any of these former Spanish territories.
SPANISH SPEAKERS BY COUNTRY
The following table shows the number of Spanish speakers in some 79 countries.
COUNTRY POPULATION SPANISH AS A NATIVE LANGUAGE SPEAKERS NATIVE SPEAKERS OR VERY GOOD SPEAKERS AS A SECOND LANGUAGE TOTAL NUMBER OF SPANISH SPEAKERS (INCLUDING LIMITED COMPETENCE SPEAKERS)
Mexico 123,518,270 114,501,436 (92.7%) 121,665,496 (98.5%)
United States 321,442,019 40,045,795 (13.3%) 42,561,531 (82% of the 56.6 mill. Hispanics + 2.8 mill. non Hispanics ) 57,515,582 (40 million as a first language, 15 million as a second language, 7.8 million students and some of the 9 million undocumented Hispanics not accounted by the Census )
Colombia 49,070,000 48,220,000 (850,000 with other mother tongue) 48,677,440 (99.2%)
Spain 46,557,008 42,879,004 (92,1%) 45,998,324 (98.8%)
Argentina 44,044,811 42,062,795 (95.5%) 43,780,542 (99.4%)
Venezuela 31,431,164 30,332,920 (1,098,244 with other mother tongue) 31,053,990 (98.8%)
Peru 31,826,018 26,765,681 (84.1%) 28,643,416 (86.6%)
Chile 18,373,917 18,092,317 (281,600 with other mother tongue) 18,245,300 (99.3%)
Ecuador 16,426,000 13,500,000 16,113,906 (98.1%)
Guatemala 17,005,000 10,203,000 (60%) 14,692,320 (86.4%)
Cuba 11,390,000 11,390,000 11,321,660 (99.4%)
Dominican Republic 10,767,000 9,300,000 10,723,932 (99.6%)
Bolivia 11,145,770 6,464,547 (58%) 9,797,132 (87.9%)
Honduras 8,866,351 8,658,501 (207,750 with other mother tongue) 8,777,687 (99.0%)
France 65,635,000 477,564 (1% of 47,756,439 ) 1,910,258 (4% of 47,756,439 ) 6,685,901 (14% of 47,756,439 )
El Salvador 6,581,940 6,090,000 6,562,194 (99.7%)
Brazil 206,120,000 460,018 460,018 6,056,018 (460,018 native speakers + 96,000 limited proficiency + 5,500,000 can hold a conversation)
Nicaragua 6,218,000 5,727,876 (490,124 with other mother tongue) 6,031,460 (97.0%)
Italy 60,795,612 255,459 1,037,248 (2% of 51,862,391 ) 5,704,863 (11% of 51,862,391 )
Costa Rica 4,890,379 4,806,069 (84,310 with other mother tongue) 4,851,256 (99.2%)
Paraguay 6,854,536 3,907,086 (57%) 4,763,903 (69.5%)
Panama 3,764,166 3,263,123 (501,043 with other mother tongue) 3,504,439 (93.1%)
Uruguay 3,480,222 3,330,022 (150,200 with other mother tongue) 3,441,940 (98.9%)
Puerto Rico 3,474,182 3,303,947 (95.1%) 3,432,492 (98.8%)
Morocco 34,378,000 6,586 6,586 3,415,000 (10%)
United Kingdom 64 105 700 120,000 518,480 (1% of 51,848,010 ) 3,110,880 (6% of 51,848,010 )
644,091 (1% of 64,409,146 ) 2,576,366 (4% of 64,409,146 )
Equatorial Guinea 1,622,000 1,683 918,000 (90.5%)
182,467 (1% of 18,246,731 ) 912,337 (5% of 18,246,731 )
323,237 (4% of 8,080,915 ) 808,091 (10% of 8,080,915 )
Canada 34,605,346 439,000 643,800 (87% of 740,000 ) 736,653
133,719 (1% of 13,371,980 ) 668,599 (5% of 13,371,980 )
Sweden 9,555,893 77,912 (1% of 7,791,240 ) 77,912 (1% of 7,791,240) 467,474 (6% of 7,791,240 )
Australia 21,507,717 111,400 111,400 447,175
89,395 (1% of 8,939,546 ) 446,977 (5% of 8,939,546 )
Ivory Coast 21,359,000
324,137 (1% of 32,413,735 ) 324,137 (1% of 32,413,735)
70,098 (1% of 7,009,827 ) 280,393 (4% of 7,009,827 )
Belize 333,200 173,597 173,597 195,597 (62.8%)
45,613 (1% of 4,561,264 ) 182,450 (4% of 4,561,264 )
Japan 127,288,419 100,229 100,229 167,514 (60,000 students)
Switzerland 7,581,520 150,782 (2,24%) 150,782 165,202 (14,420 students)
35,220 (1% of 3,522,000 ) 140,880 (4% of 3,522,000 )
133,200 (3% of 4,440,004 )
130,750 (2% of 6,537,510 ) 130,750 (2% of 6,537,510 )
Norway 5,165,800 21,187
Czech Republic 10,513,209
90,124 (1% of 9,012,443 )
83,206 (1% of 8,320,614 )
Aruba 101,484 6,800 6,800 75,402
Trinidad and Tobago 1,317,714 4,100 4,100 65,886 (5%)
Andorra 84,484 33,305 33,305 54,909
35,194 (2% of 1,759,701 ) 52,791 (3% of 1,759,701 )
21,645 21,645 47,322 (25,677 students)
45,500 (1% of 4,549,955 )
Gibraltar 29,441 22,758 (77.3% )
28,297 (1% of 2,829,740 )
Luxembourg 524,853 4,049 (1% of 404,907 ) 8,098 (2% of 404,907 ) 24,294 (6% of 404,907 )
Russia 143,400,000 3,320 3,320 23,320
Western Sahara 513,000 n.a.
16,788 16,788 16,788
13,943 (1% of 1,447,866 )
Turkey 73,722,988 1,134 1,134 13,480
2% of 660,400
9,457 (1% of 945,733 )
Jamaica 2,711,476 8,000 8,000 8,000
3,354 (1% of 335,476 )
European Union (excluding Spain) 460,624,488 2,397,000 (934,984 already counted)
TOTAL 7,362,000,000 (Total World Population) 456,136,615 (6.2 %) 493,202,839 (6.7 % ) 540,631,271 (7.4 %)
A world map attempting to identify the main dialects of Spanish. Main article: Spanish dialects and varieties
There are important variations (phonological , grammatical , and lexical ) in the spoken Spanish of the various regions of Spain and throughout the Spanish-speaking areas of the Americas.
The variety with the most speakers is Mexican Spanish . It is spoken by more than twenty percent of the world's Spanish speakers (more than 112 million of the total of more than 500 million, according to the table above). One of its main features is the reduction or loss of unstressed vowels , mainly when they are in contact with the sound /s/.
In Spain, northern dialects are popularly thought of as closer to the standard, although positive attitudes toward southern dialects have increased significantly in the last 50 years. Even so, the speech of Madrid, which has typically southern features such as yeísmo and s-aspiration, is the standard variety for use on radio and television. The educated Madrid variety has most influenced the written standard for Spanish.
The four main phonological divisions are based respectively on (1) the phoneme /θ/ ("theta"), (2) the debuccalization of syllable-final /s/, (3) the sound of the spelled ⟨s⟩, (4) and the phoneme /ʎ/ ("turned _y_"),
* The phoneme /θ/ (spelled _c_ before _e_ or _i_ and spelled ⟨z⟩ elsewhere), a voiceless dental fricative as in English _THing_, is maintained by a majority of Spain's population, especially in the northern and central parts of the country. In other areas (some parts of southern Spain, the Canary Islands , and the Americas), /θ/ is merged with /s/. The maintenance of phonemic contrast is called _distinción _ in Spanish, while the merger is generally called _seseo _ (in reference to the usual realization of the merged phoneme as ) or, occasionally, _ceceo _ (referring to its interdental realization, , in some parts of southern Spain). In most of Hispanic America, the spelled ⟨c⟩ before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩, and spelled ⟨z⟩ is always pronounced as a voiceless alveolar "hissing" sibilant . * The debuccalization (pronunciation as , or loss) of syllable-final /s/ is associated with the southern half of Spain and lowland Americas: Central America (except central Costa Rica and Guatemala), the Caribbean, coastal areas of southern Mexico, and South America except Andean highlands. Debuccalization is frequently called "aspiration" in English, and _aspiración_ in Spanish. When there is no debuccalization, the syllable-final /s/ is pronounced as voiceless "apico-alveolar" "grave" sibilant or as a voiceless alveolar "hissing" sibilant in the same fashion as in the next paragraph.
* The sound that corresponds to the letter ⟨s⟩ is pronounced in most of Spain as a voiceless "apico-alveolar" sibilant (also described acoustically as "grave " and articulatorily as "retracted"), with a weak "hushing" sound reminiscent of retroflex fricatives. In most of Hispanic America (except in the Paisa region of Colombia) it is pronounced as a voiceless alveolar _hissing_ sibilant , much like the most frequent pronunciation of the /s/ of English. Because /s/ is one of the most frequent phonemes in Spanish, the difference of pronunciation is one of the first to be noted by a Spanish-speaking person to differentiate Spaniards from Spanish-speakers of the Americas. * The phoneme /ʎ/ spelled ⟨ll⟩, palatal lateral consonant sometimes compared in sound to the sound of the ⟨lli⟩ of English _million_, tends to be maintained in less-urbanized areas of northern Spain and in highland areas of South America . Meanwhile, in the speech of most other Spanish-speakers, it is merged with /ʝ/ ("curly-tail _j_"), a non-lateral, usually voiced, usually fricative, palatal consonant, sometimes compared to English /j/ (_yod_) as in _Yacht_ and spelled ⟨y⟩ in Spanish. As with other forms of allophony across world languages, the small difference of the spelled ⟨ll⟩ and the spelled ⟨y⟩ is usually not perceived (the difference is not heard) by people who do not produce them as different phonemes. Such a phonemic merger is called _yeísmo _ in Spanish. In Rioplatense Spanish , the merged phoneme is generally pronounced as a postalveolar fricative, either voiced (as in English _measure_ or the French ⟨j⟩) in the central and western parts of the dialectal region (_zheísmo_), or voiceless (as in the French ⟨ch⟩ or Portuguese ⟨x⟩) in and around Buenos Aires and Montevideo (_sheísmo_).
The main grammatical variations between dialects of Spanish involve differing uses of pronouns, especially those of the second person and, to a lesser extent, the object pronouns of the third person .
Main article: Voseo
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An examination of the dominance and stress of the voseo dialect in Hispanic America. Data generated as illustrated by the Association of Spanish Language Academies . The darker the area, the stronger its dominance.
Virtually all dialects of Spanish make the distinction between a formal and a familiar register in the second-person singular and thus have two different pronouns meaning "you": _usted_ in the formal and either _tú_ or _vos_ in the familiar (and each of these three pronouns has its associated verb forms), with the choice of _tú_ or _vos_ varying from one dialect to another. The use of _vos_ (and/or its verb forms) is called _voseo _. In a few dialects, all three pronouns are used, with _usted_, _tú_, and _vos_ denoting respectively formality, familiarity, and intimacy.
In _voseo_, _vos_ is the subject form (_vos decís_, "you say") and the form for the object of a preposition (_voy con vos_, "I am going with you"), while the direct and indirect object forms, and the possessives , are the same as those associated with _tú_: _Vos sabés que tus amigos te respetan_ ("You know your friends respect you").
The verb forms of _general voseo_ are the same as those used with _tú_ except in the present tense (indicative and imperative ) verbs. The forms for _vos_ generally can be derived from those of _vosotros_ (the traditional second-person familiar _plural_) by deleting the glide , or /d/, where it appears in the ending: _vosotros pensáIs_ > _vos pensás_; _vosotros volvéIs_ > _vos volvés_, _pensaD!_ (_vosotros_) > _pensá!_ (_vos_), _volveD!_ (_vosotros_) > _volvé!_ (_vos_) .
General voseo (River Plate Spanish ) INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE IMPERATIVE
PRESENT SIMPLE PAST IMPERFECT PAST FUTURE CONDITIONAL PRESENT PAST
_pensás_ _PENSASTE_ _PENSABAS_ _PENSARáS_ _PENSARíAS_ _PIENSES_ _PENSARAS_ _PENSASES_ _pensá_
_volvés_ _VOLVISTE_ _VOLVíAS_ _VOLVERáS_ _VOLVERíAS_ _VUELVAS_ _VOLVIERAS_ _VOLVIESES_ _volvé_
_dormís_ _DORMISTE_ _DORMíAS_ _DORMIRáS_ _DORMIRíAS_ _DUERMAS_ _DURMIERAS_ _DURMIESES_ _dormí_
The forms in _BOLD_ coincide with standard _Tú-conjugation_.
In Chilean _voseo_ on the other hand, almost all verb forms are distinct from their standard _tú_-forms.
Chilean voseo INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE IMPERATIVE
PRESENT SIMPLE PAST IMPERFECT PAST FUTURE CONDITIONAL PRESENT PAST
_pensáis_ _PENSASTE_ _pensabais_ _pensarís_ _pensaríais_ _pensís_ _pensarais_ _pensases_ _PIENSA_
_volvís_ _VOLVISTE_ _volvíais_ _volverís_ _volveríais_ _volváis_ _volvierais_ _volvieses_ _VUELVE_
_dormís_ _DORMISTE_ _dormíais_ _dormirís_ _dormiríais_ _durmáis_ _durmieras_ _durmieses_ _DUERME_
The forms in _BOLD_ coincide with standard _Tú-conjugation_.
The use of the pronoun _vos_ with the verb forms of _tú_ (_vos piensas_) is called "pronominal _voseo_". Conversely, the use of the verb forms of _vos_ with the pronoun _tú_ (_tú pensás_ or _tú pensái_) is called "verbal _voseo_". In Chile, for example, _verbal voseo_ is much more common than the actual use of the pronoun _vos_, which is usually reserved for highly informal situations.
And in Central American _voseo_, one can see even further distinction.
Central American voseo INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE IMPERATIVE
PRESENT SIMPLE PAST IMPERFECT PAST FUTURE CONDITIONAL PRESENT PAST
_pensás_ _PENSASTE_ _PENSABAS_ _PENSARáS_ _PENSARíAS_ _pensés_ _PENSARAS_ _PENSASES_ _pensá_
_volvés_ _VOLVISTE_ _VOLVíAS_ _VOLVERáS_ _VOLVERíAS_ _volvás_ _VOLVIERAS_ _VOLVIESES_ _volvé_
_dormís_ _DORMISTE_ _DORMíAS_ _DORMIRáS_ _DORMIRíAS_ _durmás_ _DURMIERAS_ _DURMIESES_ _dormí_
The forms in _BOLD_ coincide with standard _Tú-conjugation_.
Distribution In Spanish-speaking Regions Of The Americas
Although _vos_ is not used in Spain, it occurs in many Spanish-speaking regions of the Americas as the primary spoken form of the second-person singular familiar pronoun, with wide differences in social consideration. Generally, it can be said that there are zones of exclusive use of _tuteo_ (the use of _tú_) in the following areas: almost all of Mexico , the West Indies, Panama , most of Colombia , Peru , Venezuela and coastal Ecuador .
_Tuteo_ as a cultured form alternates with _voseo_ as a popular or rural form in Bolivia , in the north and south of Peru, in Andean Ecuador, in small zones of the Venezuelan Andes (and most notably in the Venezuelan state of Zulia ), and in a large part of Colombia. Some researchers maintain that _voseo_ can be heard in some parts of eastern Cuba, and others assert that it is absent from the island.
_Tuteo_ exists as the second-person usage with an intermediate degree of formality alongside the more familiar _voseo_ in Chile , in the Venezuelan state of Zulia , on the Caribbean coast of Colombia , in the Azuero Peninsula in Panama, in the Mexican state of Chiapas , and in parts of Guatemala.
Areas of generalized _voseo_ include Argentina , Nicaragua , eastern Bolivia , El Salvador , Guatemala , Honduras , Costa Rica , Paraguay , Uruguay and the Colombian departments of Antioquia , Caldas , Risaralda , Quindio and Valle del Cauca .
_Ustedes_ functions as formal and informal second person plural in over 90% of the Spanish-speaking world, including all of Hispanic America, the Canary Islands , and some regions of Andalusia . In Seville , Huelva , Cadiz , and other parts of western Andalusia , the familiar form is constructed as _ustedes vais_, using the traditional second-person plural form of the verb. Most of Spain maintains the formal/familiar distinction with _ustedes_ and _vosotros_ respectively.
_Usted_ is the usual second-person singular pronoun in a formal context, but it is used jointly with the third-person singular voice of the verb. It is used to convey respect toward someone who is a generation older or is of higher authority ("you, sir"/"you, ma'am"). It is also used in a _familiar_ context by many speakers in Colombia and Costa Rica and in parts of Ecuador and Panama, to the exclusion of _tú_ or _vos_. This usage is sometimes called _ustedeo_ in Spanish.
In Central America, especially in Honduras, _usted_ is often used as a formal pronoun to convey respect between the members of a romantic couple. _Usted_ is also used that way as well as between parents and children in the Andean regions of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela.
Third-person Object Pronouns
Most speakers use (and the _ Real Academia Española _ prefers) the pronouns _lo_ and _la_ for _direct_ objects (masculine and feminine respectively, regardless of animacy , meaning "him", "her", or "it"), and _le_ for _indirect_ objects (regardless of gender or animacy , meaning "to him", "to her", or "to it"). The usage is sometimes called "etymological", as these direct and indirect object pronouns are a continuation, respectively, of the accusative and dative pronouns of Latin, the ancestor language of Spanish.
Deviations from this norm (more common in Spain than in the Americas) are called "_leísmo _", "_loísmo _", or "_laísmo _", according to which respective pronoun, _le_, _lo_, or _la_, has expanded beyond the etymological usage (_le_ as a direct object, or _lo_ or _la_ as an indirect object).
Some words can be significantly different in different Hispanophone countries. Most Spanish speakers can recognize other Spanish forms even in places where they are not commonly used, but Spaniards generally do not recognize specifically American usages. For example, Spanish _mantequilla_, _aguacate_ and _albaricoque_ (respectively, 'butter', 'avocado', 'apricot') correspond to _manteca_ (word used for lard in Peninsular Spanish ), _palta_, and _damasco_, respectively, in Argentina, Chile (except _manteca_), Paraguay, Peru (except _manteca_ and _damasco_), and Uruguay.
RELATION TO OTHER LANGUAGES
Further information: Comparison of Portuguese and Spanish
Spanish is closely related to the other West Iberian Romance languages , including Asturian , Aragonese , Galician , Ladino , Leonese , Mirandese and Portuguese .
It is generally acknowledged that Portuguese- and Spanish-speakers can communicate, although with varying degrees of difficulty. Meanwhile, mutual intelligibility of the _written_ Spanish and Portuguese languages is very high, given that the difficulties of the spoken forms are based more on phonology than on grammatical and lexical dissimilarities. _ Ethnologue _ gives estimates of the lexical similarity between related languages in terms of precise percentages. For Spanish and Portuguese, that figure is 89%. Italian, on the other hand—although its phonology is more similar to that of Spanish—is said to have a lexical similarity of 82%. Mutual intelligibility between Spanish and French or between Spanish and Romanian is lower still, given lexical similarity ratings of 75% and 71% respectively. And comprehension of Spanish by French speakers who have not studied the language is much lower, at an estimated 45%. In general, thanks to the common features of the writing systems of the Romance languages, interlingual comprehension of the written word is greater than that of oral communication.
The following table compares the forms of some common words in several Romance languages:
LATIN SPANISH GALICIAN PORTUGUESE ASTUR-LEONESE ARAGONESE CATALAN FRENCH ITALIAN ROMANIAN ENGLISH
nos _nosotros_/_nos_ _nós_1 _nós_1 _nós_, _nosotros_ _nusatros_ _nosaltres_ (arch. _nós_) _nous_2 _noi/noialtri_3 _noi_ 'we'
frater germanum (lit. "true brother") _hermano_ _irmán_ _irmão_ _hermanu_ _chirmán_ _germà_ (arch. _frare_)4 _frère_ _fratello_ _frate_ 'brother'
dies martis (Classical ) feria tertia (Ecclesiastical ) _martes_ _martes_/_terza feira_ _terça-feira_ _martes_ _martes_ _dimarts_ _mardi_ _martedì_ _marți_ 'Tuesday'
cantiō(nem) canticum _canción_ _cántico_ _canción/cançom_5 _cántico_ _canção_ _cântico_ _canción_ (or _canciu_) _canta_ _cançó_ _chanson_ _canzone_ _cântec_ 'song'
magis plus _más_ (arch. _plus_) _máis_ _mais_ (arch. _chus_ or _plus_) _más_ _más_ (or _més_) _més_ (arch. _pus_ or _plus_) _plus_ _più_ _mai/plus_ 'more'
manus sinistra _mano izquierda_6 (arch. _mano siniestra_) _man esquerda_6 _mão esquerda_6 (arch. _mão sẽestra_) _manu izquierda_6 (or _esquierda_; also _manzorga_) _man cucha_ _mà esquerra_6 (arch. _mà sinistra_) _main gauche_ _mano sinistra_ _mâna stângă_ 'left hand'
nihil nullam rem natam (lit. "no thing born") _nada_ _nada_ (also _ren_ and _res_) _nada_ (_neca_ and _nula rés_ in some expressions; arch. _rem_) _nada_ (also _un res_) _cosa_ _res_ _rien/nul_ _niente/nulla_ _nimic/nul_ 'nothing'
cāseus formaticus _queso_ _queixo_ _queijo_ _quesu_ _queso_ _formatge_ _fromage_ _formaggio/cacio_ _caș_7 'cheese'
1. Also _nós outros_ in early modern Portuguese (e.g. _The Lusiads _), and _nosoutros_ in Galician. 2. Alternatively _nous autres_ in French . 3. Also _noialtri_ in Southern Italian dialects and languages . 4. Medieval Catalan (e.g. _ Llibre dels fets _). 5. Depending on the written norm used (see Reintegrationism ). 6. From Basque _esku_, "hand" + _erdi_, "half, incomplete". Notice that this negative meaning also applies for Latin _sinistra(m)_ ("dark, unfortunate"). 7. Romanian _caș_ (from Latin cāsevs) means a type of cheese. The universal term for cheese in Romanian is _brânză_ (from unknown etymology).
Judaeo-Spanish, also known as Ladino, is a variety of Spanish which preserves many features of medieval Spanish and Portuguese and is spoken by descendants of the Sephardi Jews who were expelled from Spain in the fifteenth century . Conversely, in Portugal the vast majority of the Portuguese Jews converted and became 'New Christians'. Therefore, its relationship to Spanish is comparable with that of the Yiddish language to German . Ladino speakers today are almost exclusively Sephardi Jews, with family roots in Turkey, Greece, or the Balkans, and living mostly in Israel, Turkey, and the United States, with a few communities in Hispanic America. Judaeo-Spanish lacks the Native American vocabulary which was acquired by standard Spanish during the Spanish colonial period , and it retains many archaic features which have since been lost in standard Spanish. It contains, however, other vocabulary which is not found in standard Spanish, including vocabulary from Hebrew , French, Greek and Turkish , and other languages spoken where the Sephardim settled.
Judaeo-Spanish is in serious danger of extinction because many native speakers today are elderly as well as elderly _olim_ (immigrants to Israel ) who have not transmitted the language to their children or grandchildren. However, it is experiencing a minor revival among Sephardi communities, especially in music. In the case of the Latin American communities, the danger of extinction is also due to the risk of assimilation by modern Castilian.
Main article: Spanish orthography
* Pronunciation * History * Orthography * Names
* Determiners * Nouns * Pronouns * Adjectives * Prepositions
* conjugation * irregular verbs
* Peninsular * American * Standard * Spanglish
* seseo * yeísmo * voseo * leísmo * loísmo
* v * t * e
Spanish is written in the Latin script , with the addition of the character ⟨ñ ⟩ (_eñe_, representing the phoneme /ɲ /, a letter distinct from ⟨n⟩, although typographically composed of an ⟨n⟩ with a tilde ) and the digraphs ⟨ch⟩ (_che_, representing the phoneme /t͡ʃ/) and ⟨ll⟩ (_elle_, representing the phoneme /ʎ /). However, the digraph ⟨rr⟩ (_erre fuerte_, 'strong r', _erre doble_, 'double r', or simply _erre_), which also represents a distinct phoneme /r/, is not similarly regarded as a single letter. Since 1994 ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨ll⟩ have been treated as letter pairs for collation purposes, though they remain a part of the alphabet. Words with ⟨ch⟩ are now alphabetically sorted between those with ⟨cg⟩ and ⟨ci⟩, instead of following ⟨cz⟩ as they used to. The situation is similar for ⟨ll⟩.
Thus, the Spanish alphabet has the following 27 letters and 2 digraphs: _A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, Ñ, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z._ _Ch, Ll_.
The letters _k_ and _w_ are used only in words and names coming from foreign languages (_kilo, folklore, whisky, kiwi_, etc.).
With the exclusion of a very small number of regional terms such as _ México _ (see Toponymy of Mexico ), pronunciation can be entirely determined from spelling. Under the orthographic conventions, a typical Spanish word is stressed on the syllable before the last if it ends with a vowel (not including ⟨y⟩) or with a vowel followed by ⟨n⟩ or an ⟨s⟩; it is stressed on the last syllable otherwise. Exceptions to this rule are indicated by placing an acute accent on the stressed vowel .
The acute accent is used, in addition, to distinguish between certain homophones , especially when one of them is a stressed word and the other one is a clitic : compare _el_ ('the', masculine singular definite article) with _él_ ('he' or 'it'), or _te_ ('you', object pronoun) with _té_ ('tea'), _de_ (preposition 'of') versus _dé_ ('give' ), and _se_ (reflexive pronoun) versus _sé_ ('I know' or imperative 'be').
The interrogative pronouns (_qué_, _cuál_, _dónde_, _quién_, etc.) also receive accents in direct or indirect questions, and some demonstratives (_ése_, _éste_, _aquél_, etc.) can be accented when used as pronouns. Accent marks used to be omitted on capital letters (a widespread practice in the days of typewriters and the early days of computers when only lowercase vowels were available with accents), although the _Real Academia Española_ advises against this and the orthographic conventions taught at schools enforce the use of the accent.
When _u_ is written between _g_ and a front vowel _e_ or _i_, it indicates a "hard g " pronunciation. A diaeresis _ü_ indicates that it is not silent as it normally would be (e.g., _cigüeña_, 'stork', is pronounced ; if it were written *_cigueña_, it would be pronounced *).
Interrogative and exclamatory clauses are introduced with inverted question and exclamation marks (_¿_ and _¡_, respectively).
ROYAL SPANISH ACADEMY
Main article: Real Academia Española Arms of the Royal Spanish Academy
The _Real Academia Española_ (Royal Spanish Academy), founded in 1713, together with the 21 other national ones (see Association of Spanish Language Academies ), exercises a standardizing influence through its publication of dictionaries and widely respected grammar and style guides. Because of influence and for other sociohistorical reasons, a standardized form of the language ( Standard Spanish ) is widely acknowledged for use in literature, academic contexts and the media.
ASSOCIATION OF SPANISH LANGUAGE ACADEMIES
Main article: Association of Spanish Language Academies Countries members of the ASALE.
The Association of Spanish Language Academies (_Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española_, or _ASALE_) is the entity which regulates the Spanish language. It was created in Mexico in 1951 and represents the union of all the separate academies in the Spanish-speaking world. It comprises the academies of 22 countries, ordered by date of Academy foundation: Spain (1713), Colombia (1871), Ecuador (1874), Mexico (1875), El Salvador (1876), Venezuela (1883), Chile (1885), Peru (1887), Guatemala (1887), Costa Rica (1923), Philippines (1924), Panama (1926), Cuba (1926), Paraguay (1927), Dominican Republic (1927), Bolivia (1927), Nicaragua (1928), Argentina (1931), Uruguay (1943), Honduras (1949), Puerto Rico (1955), and United States (1973).
The _Instituto Cervantes_ (Cervantes Institute) is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991. This organization has branched out in over 20 different countries with 54 centers devoted to the Spanish and Hispanic American culture and Spanish Language. The ultimate goals of the Institute are to promote the education, the study and the use of Spanish universally as a second language, to support the methods and activities that would help the process of Spanish language education, and to contribute to the advancement of the Spanish and Hispanic American cultures throughout non-Spanish-speaking countries.
OFFICIAL USE BY INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
Spanish is recognised as one of the official languages of the United Nations , the European Union , the World Trade Organization , the Organization of American States , the Organization of Ibero-American States , the African Union , the Union of South American Nations , the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat , the Latin Union , the Caricom and the North American Free Trade Agreement .
Spanish words and phrases
* Arabic influence on the Spanish language * List of Spanish words of Germanic origin * List of Spanish words of Nahuatl origin * List of Spanish words of Indigenous American Indian origin * List of Spanish words of Philippine origin
Dialects and languages influenced by Spanish
* Caló * Chamorro * Chavacano * Frespañol * Ladino * Llanito * Palenquero * Papiamento * Philippine languages * Portuñol * Spanglish * Spanish-based creole languages * List of English words of Spanish origin
* EUROPEAN SPANISH
* Insular Spanish
* SPANISH IN THE AMERICAS
* SPANISH IN AFRICA
* SPANISH IN ASIA
* Spanish in the Philippines
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Page T46: Speakers who speak well enough in order to be able to have a conversation. es:Anexo:Hablantes de español en la U.E. según el Eurobarómetro (2012), 2012 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ "Cifras", _El español: una lengua viva_ (PDF) (in Spanish) (2015), ES: Instituto Cervantes, p. 10 Students across the World. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ _Demografía de la lengua española_ (PDF) (in Spanish), ES, p. 10 , to countries with official Spanish status. * ^ _2017 population estimate_ (in Spanish), MX: CONAPO estimate * ^ "MX", _The World Factbook_, USA: CIA : Spanish only 92.7% * ^ _(4 ,July ,2015) Population clock_, US: Census Bureau * ^ Spanish speakers older than 5 years old (_Table_, US: Census Bureau, 2015 ) * ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results". _census.gov_. * ^ Taylor, Paul. "(2011)". pewhispanic.org. 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* ^ Ansón, José Ma, _José Ma. Ansón: "Casi cincuenta millones" hablan español en EE. UU._, El Castellano * ^ "La amenaza al idioma español – Voces de Univision". Univision.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2012. * ^ Rodríguez Barilari, Elbio, _Congresos de la lengua_ (in Spanish), ES * ^ _Más de 70 expertos participaran en la III Acta Internacional de la Lengua Española_ (in Spanish), ES: ABC de Sevilla, 29 March 2008 * ^ _CNN en español restructures its programming_, The New York Times, 13 March 2011 (The United States is now the second-largest Spanish-speaking country in the world, with more Spanish speakers than Spain, and exceeded only by Mexico). * ^ "Reloj animado" (in Spanish). CO: DANE. Retrieved 1 February 2017. * ^ There are 850,000 speakers of American Indian languages ("CO", _Ethnologue_, archived from the original on 26 March 2014 ) * ^ "Datos básicos" (in Spanish). ES: INE. 1 January 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2017. * ^ "Argentinian census INDEC estimate for 2017". Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _Estimaciones y proyecciones de población 2010-2040: Total del país_, INDEC, 2013 * ^ 40,872,286 people is the census population result for 2010 * ^ According to Ethnologue (see "Argentina". _Ethnologue_ ), there were 40,3 million speakers Spanish as mother tongue in 2013. The Argentinian population in 2013 was projected to be 42,2 million. * ^ "Proyecciones de Población". _ine.gov.ve_. (2017) * ^ "Languages", _VE_, Ethnologue, There are 1,098,244 people who speak other language as their mother tongue (main languages: Chinese 400,000, Portuguese 254,000, Wayuu 199,000, Arabic 110,000) * ^ Quispe Fernández, Ezio (2017). "Cifras" (PDF) (in Spanish). PE : INEI. * ^ "Census", _The World factbook_, US : CIA, 2007, Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other 0.2% * ^ "PE", _Country_, Ethnologue, There are 5,782,260 people who speak other language as mother tongue (main languages: Quechua (among 32 Quechua's varieties) 4,773,900, Aymara (2 varieties) 661 000, Chinese 100,000). * ^ "Informes" (PDF). _Proyecciones_ (in Spanish). CL : INE. 2017. p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010. * ^ "CL", _Country_, Ethnologue, There are 281,600 people who speak another language, mainly Mapudungun (250.000) * ^ "Estimate", _Pop. clock_ ( SWF ), EC : INEC * ^ Ethnologue (19 February 1999). "(2011)". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ "GT", _The World factbook_, CIA, Spanish (official) 60%, Amerindian languages 40% * ^ "Cuba". _Country_ (report). Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 August 2012. * ^ Ethnologue (19 February 1999). "(2011)". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ "(2017)". INE. Archived from the original on 11 October 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010. * ^ According to the 1992 Census, 58 per cent of the population speaks Spanish as its mother tongue. unicef.org * ^ "INE (2017 estimate)". Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ There are 207,750 people who speak another language, mainly Garifuna (98,000).: Ethnologue * ^ "INSEE estimate to 1/11/2012". Insee.fr. Retrieved 20 August 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Eurobarometr 2012 (page T40): Native speakers. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ _X_ _Y_ _Z_ _AA_ _AB_ _AC_ _AD_ _AE_ _AF_ _AG_ _AH_ _AI_ _AJ_ _AK_ _AL_ _AM_ _AN_ _AO_ _AP_ Eurobarometr 2012 (page TS2): Population older than 15. (age scale used for the Eurobarometer survey) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ Eurobarometr 2012 (page T74): Non native people who speak Spanish very well. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ _X_ Eurobarometr 2012 (page T64): Non native people who speak Spanish well enough in order to be able to have a conversation. * ^ Census 2017 estimate (page 32) Archived 6 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ There are 14,100 people who speak other language as their mother tongue (main language, Kekchí with 12,300 speakers): Ethnologue. * ^ _IBGE population estimation_ (in Portuguese), BR, 2016 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _Informe 2017_ (PDF), ES : Instituto Cervantes, 2017, pp. 7, 12 * ^ There are 490,124 people who speak another language, mainly Mískito (154,000).: Ethnologue * ^ "Eurostat 2015 estimation". Istat.it. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ Languages of Italy * ^ "ENEC estimation to 2016". INEC. Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Costa Rica". _Ethnologue_. * ^ DGEEC 2016 estimation * ^ According to the 1992 census, 50% use both Spanish and the indigenous language Guarani at home, 37% speak Guarani only, 7% speak Spanish only.findarticles.com. About 75 percent can speak Spanish.pressreference.com * ^ Census INE estimate for 2013 Archived 7 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine . (véase "Proyección de Población por municipio 2008–2020") * ^ There are 501,043 people who speak another language as mother tongue: _PA_, Ethnologue * ^ "2016 INE estimation". 2016. * ^ There are 150,200 people who speak another language as mother tongue, _UY_, Ethnologue * ^ "2015 US. census Bureau". Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 December 2015. * ^ 95.10% of the population speaks Spanish (US. Census Bureau) * ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revi sion, Key Findings and Advance Tables" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division. p. 15. Retrieved 10 January 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ _X_ _Y_ _Z_ _AA_ _AB_ _El español en el mundo_ (PDF), ES : Instituto Cervantes, 2012, p. 6 * ^ El español en el contexto Sociolingüístico marroquí: Evolución y perspectivas (page 39): Between 4 and 7 million people have Spanish knowledge (M. Ammadi, 2002) Archived 6 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Euromonitor, 2012" (PDF). _exteriores.gob.es_. p. 32. * ^ "Annual Mid year Population Estimates: 2013". U.K. Gov. Census. 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2016. * ^ Languages of the United Kingdom * ^ _Medium projection_, PH: National Statistics Office, 2015 * ^ "native knowledge speakers" (in Spanish). Realinstitutoelcano.org. 18 February 2009. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ 1,816,773 Spanish + 1,200,000 Spanish creole: Quilis, Antonio (1996), _La lengua española en Filipinas_ (PDF), Cervantes virtual, p. 54 and 55 * ^ _Ten Reasons_ (PDF), ES: Mepsyd, p. 23 * ^ _Philippines_, Spanish differences, archived from the original on 21 December 2012 * ^ Spanish in the world 2012 (Instituto Cervantes): 3,017,265 Spanish speakers. 439,000 with native knowledge, 2,557,773 with limited knowledge (page 6), and 20,492 Spanish students (page 10). * ^ Nestor Diaz: More than 2 million Spanish speakers and around 3 million with Chavacano speakers (24 April 2010). "FILIPINAS / Vigoroso regreso del español". Aresprensa.com. Retrieved 20 August 2012. * ^ The figure of 2 900 000 Spanish speakers is in Thompson, RW, _Pluricentric languages: differing norms in different nations_, p. 45 * ^ _World wide Spanish language_, Sispain * ^ _German census_, DE: Destatis, 31 March 2015 * ^ " Equatorial Guinea census". Population statistics. 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010. * ^ Spanish according to INE 2011 * ^ 14% of the population speaks Spanish natively and other 74% as a second language: "Anuario", _CVC_ (PDF) (in Spanish), ES: Cervantes, 2007 * ^ "Eurostat (1/1/2012 estimate)". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ Eurostat 1 January 2010 * ^ _Statcan_, CA: GC * ^ "www12.statcan.gc.ca/census". 2.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ 87% of the Hispanics, speak Spanish. mequieroir.com * ^ There are 740,000 Hispanics in Canada in 2015, according to "Hispanovation: La creciente influencia hispánica en Canadá" (Social Media Week in Toronto): www.univision.com, www.abc.es. * ^ "Netherland Census ClockPop". Cbs.nl. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
* ^ 2012 censusArchived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "2011 Census". Censusdata.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ "2071.0 – Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Abs.gov.au. Retrieved 14 June 2013. * ^ Page 32 of the "Demografía de la lengua española" * ^ "Eurostat estimate to 1/1/2011". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012. * ^ 2013 census estimate * ^ ins.ci Census, 2009 * ^ statisticsbelize.org.bz (2009 mid-year) Archived 9 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Page 32 of Demografía de la lengua española (52,1% native speakers + 11,7% with some Spanish knowledge)) * ^ Pages 34, 35 of the "Demografía de la lengua española", page 35. * ^ Peruvian immigrants in 2012 * ^ www.state.gov. 2015 estimate * ^ www.bfs.admin.ch * ^ 111,942 Spaniards in 2016 (INE) + 17,113 Peruvians in 2012 () + 5706 Argentines in 2012 () + 2864 Chileans in 2012 * ^ cvc.cervantes.es (annuary 2006–07) * ^ Archived 30 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "cvc.cervantes.es". cvc.cervantes.es. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ "czso.cz" (in Czech). czso.cz. 31 December 2013. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ "(2012)". ksh.hu. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ "Resultado 2010 – Persona". Censo2010.aw. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 20 August 2012. * ^ Archived 7 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ http://cvc.cervantes.es/lengua/anuario/anuario_06-07/pdf/paises_41.pdf * ^ Evolution de la population par sexe de 1976 à 2012 en: _Annuaire Statistique du Cameroun 2010_. Consultado el 23 August 2012. * ^ " New Zealand census (2006)". Stats.govt.nz. 13 February 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ "Press Release on Major Figures of the 2010 National Population Census". Stats.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012. * ^ 25,000 Spanish students in the university + 5,000 in the "Instituto Cervantes"cervantes.es (page 4) * ^ "Statistics – FAQ\'s". Gibraltar.gov.gi. 12 November 2012. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
* ^ www.um.es (5.2. Datos descriptivos de los usos de español e inglés, Gráfico 2). 77.3% of the Gibraltar population speak Spanish with their mother more, or equal than English. * ^ "(2013)". db1.stat.gov.lt. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ "Демография". Gks.ru. 27 December 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ "2009 estimate" (PDF). UN. 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2010. * ^ The Spanish 1970 census claims 16.648 Spanish speakers in Western Sahara () but probably most of them were people born in Spain who left after the Moroccan annexation * ^ Page 34 of the Demografía de la Lengua Española * ^ "2010 Census". Census.gov. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013. * ^ "Population – Key Indicators Latvijas statistika". Csb.gov.lv. Retrieved 14 June 2013. * ^ "::Welcome to Turkish Statistical Institute(TurkStat)\'s Web Pages::". TurkStat. Retrieved 20 August 2012. * ^ 8,000 (Page 37 of the Demografía de la lengua española) + 4,346 Spanish Students (according to the Instituto Cervantes) * ^ "Census of India : Provisional Population Totals : India :Census 2011". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ "cervantes.es (page 6)" (PDF). Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ "Jamaican Population". Statinja.gov.jm. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Languages of Jamaica, * ^ El español en Namibia, 2005. _ Instituto Cervantes _. * ^ "cvc.cervantes.es" (PDF). Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2014. * ^ Demografía de la lengua española, page 37 (2,397,000 people speak Spanish as a native language in the E.U. excluded Spain, but It is already counted population who speak Spanish as a native language in France (477,564), Italy (255,459), U.K. (120,000) Sweden (77,912) and Luxemburg (4,049)). * ^ "International Programs – People and Households – U.S. Census Bureau". Census.gov. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2012. * ^ 426,515,910 speakers L1 in 2012 (ethnologue) of 7,097,500,000 people in the World in 2012 (UN): 6%. * ^ "The 30 Most Spoken Languages in the World". KryssTal. Retrieved 16 January 2013. * ^ 517,824,310 speakers L1 and L2 in 2012 (ethnologue) of 7,097,500,000 people in the World in 2012 (UN): 7.3%. * ^ Eleanor Greet Cotton, John M. Sharp (1988) _Spanish in the Americas, Volume 2_, pp.154–155, URL * ^ Lope Blanch, Juan M. (1972) _En torno a las vocales caedizas del español mexicano_, pp.53 a 73, Estudios sobre el español de México, editorial Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México URL. * ^ _Random House Unabridged Dictionary_. Random House Inc. 2006. * ^ _The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language_ (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006. * ^ _Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary_. MICRA, Inc. 1998. * ^ _Encarta World English Dictionary_. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. 2007. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2008. * ^ Penny, Ralph (2000). _Variation and Change in Spanish_. Cambridge University Press. p. 199. ISBN 0-521-78045-4 . _whatever might be claimed by other centres, such as Valladolid, it was educated varieties of Madrid Spanish that were mostly regularly reflected in the written standard._ * ^ The IPA symbol "turned _y_" (ʎ), with its "tail" leaning to the right, resembles, but is technically different from, the Greek letter lambda (λ), whose tail leans to the left. * ^ Charles B. Chang, "Variation in palatal production in Buenos Aires Spanish". Selected Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics, ed. Maurice Westmoreland and Juan Antonio Thomas, 54–63. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Real Academia Española" (in Spanish). Buscon.rae.es. Retrieved 21 April 2010. * ^ Katia Salamanca de Abreu, review of Humberto López Morales, _Estudios sobre el español de Cuba_ (New York: Editorial Las Américas, 1970), in _Thesaurus_, 28 (1973), 138–146. * ^ Jensen (1989) * ^ Penny (2000 :14) * ^ Dalby (1998 :501) * ^ Ginsburgh & Weber (2011 :90) * ^ "Spanish". _Ethnologue_. * ^ "Similar languages to Spanish". _EZGlot_. * ^ Often considered to be a substratum word. Other theories suggest, on the basis of what is used to make cheese, a derivation from Latin _brandeum_ (originally meaning a linen covering, later a thin cloth for relic storage) through an intermediate root *_brandea_. For the development of the meaning, cf. Spanish _manteca_, Portuguese _manteiga_, probably from Latin _mantica_ ('sack'), Italian _formaggio_ and French _fromage_ from _formaticus_. Romanian Explanatory Dictionary * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Alfassa, Shelomo (December 1999). "Ladinokomunita". Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture. Retrieved 4 February 2010. * ^ Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas, 1st ed. * ^ Real Academia Española, Explanation Archived 6 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine . at Spanish Pronto Archived 14 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine . (in Spanish), (in English) * ^ "Abecedario". _Diccionario panhispánico de dudas_ (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2008. * ^ "Ch". _Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española _. * ^ "Ll". _Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española _. * ^ "Scholarly Societies Project". Lib.uwaterloo.ca. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010. * ^ Batchelor, Ronald Ernest (1992). _Using Spanish: a guide to contemporary usage_. Cambridge University Press. p. 318. ISBN 0-521-26987-3 . * ^ "Association of Spanish Language Academies" (in Spanish). Asale. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Real Academia Española". Spain: RAE. Archived from the original on 29 September 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010. * ^ "Academia Colombiana de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Colombia. Archived from the original on 19 February 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Ecuador. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Mexicana de la Lengua". Mexico. 22 September 2010. Archived from the original on 15 September 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010. * ^ "Academia Salvadoreña de la Lengua". El Salvador. Archived from the original on 4 September 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Venezolana de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Venezuela. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Chilena de la Lengua". Chile. Archived from the original on 5 September 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010. * ^ "Academia Peruana de la Lengua". Peru. Retrieved 6 November 2010. * ^ "Academia Guatemalteca de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Guatemala. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Costarricense de la Lengua". Costa Rica. Retrieved 6 November 2010. * ^ "Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española" (in Spanish). Philippines. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Panameña de la Lengua". Panama. Retrieved 6 November 2010. * ^ "Academia Cubana de la Lengua". Cuba. Retrieved 6 November 2010. * ^ "Academia Paraguaya de la Lengua Española". Paraguay. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Dominicana de la Lengua". República Dominicana. Archived from the original on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Boliviana de la Lengua". Bolivia. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Nicaragüense de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Nicaragua. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Argentina de Letras". Argentina. 25 March 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Nacional de Letras del Uruguay". Uruguay. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Hondureña de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Honduras. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española". Puerto Rico. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ "Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española". United States. Retrieved 5 February 2011. * ^ A First Spanish Reader, by Erwin W. Roessler and Alfred Remy
* Abercrombie, David (1967). "Elements of General Phonetics". Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press . * Cressey, William Whitney (1978). _Spanish Phonology and Morphology: A Generative View_. Georgetown University Press . ISBN 0878400451 . * Dalby, Andrew (1998). _Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages_. Columbia University Press . ISBN 0-231-11568-7 . * Eddington, David (2000). "Spanish Stress Assignment within the Analogical Modeling of Language" (PDF). _Language_. 76 (1): 92–109. JSTOR 417394 . doi :10.2307/417394 . * Ginsburgh, Victor; Weber, Shlomo (2011). _How Many Languages Do We Need?: The Economics of Linguistic Diversity_. Princeton University Press . ISBN 978-0-691-13689-9 . * Harris, James (1967). "Sound Change in Spanish and the Theory of Markedness". _Language_. Language. 45 (3): 538–52. JSTOR 411438 . doi :10.2307/411438 . * Hualde, José Ignacio (2014). _Los sonidos del español_. Cambridge University Press . ISBN 978-0-521-16823-6 . * Jensen, John B. (1989). "On the Mutual Intelligibility of Spanish and Portuguese". _Hispania_. 72 (4): 848–852. JSTOR 343562 . doi :10.2307/343562 . * Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003). "Castilian Spanish". _Journal of the International Phonetic Association_. 33 (2): 255–59. doi :10.1017/S0025100303001373 . * Ladefoged, Peter ; Johnson, Keith (2010), _A Course in Phonetics_ (6th ed.), Boston, Massachusetts: Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4282-3126-9 * Moreno Fernández, Francisco ; Otero, Jaime (2008), _Atlas de la lengua española en el mundo_, Barcelona: Ariel * Penny, Ralph (2000). _Variation and Change in Spanish_. Cambridge University Press . ISBN 0-521-78045-4 . * _Population by age, both sexes, annual; estimate for 2012_ (XLS), UN * Rubino, Carl (2008), "Zamboangueño Chavacano and the Potentive Mode.", in Michaelis, Susanne, _Roots of Creole Structures: Weighing the Contribution of Substrates and Superstrates_, Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 279–299, ISBN 9027252556 * Zamora Vicente, Alonso (1967), _Dialectología española_, Madrid: Gredos
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* v * t * e
Varieties of Spanish by continent
* Canarian * Equatoguinean
Americas (Pan-American )
* Cuban * Dominican * Puerto Rican
* Belizean * Costa Rican * Guatemalan * Honduran * Nicaraguan * _Pachuco _ * Panamanian * Salvado