Spanish (/ˈspænɪʃ/ (listen); español (help·info)) or Castilian (/kæˈstɪliən/ (listen), castellano (help·info)) is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas
Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. The oldest Latin
Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century, and the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo, then capital of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century. Beginning in 1492, the Spanish language was taken to the viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the newly-discovered Americas, as well as territories in Africa, Oceania
Oceania and the Philippines. Around 75% of modern Spanish vocabulary is derived from Latin
Latin and, through Latin, Ancient Greek. Spanish vocabulary has been in contact with Arabic from an early date, having developed during the Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has also been influenced by Basque, Iberian, Celtiberian, Visigothic, and by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages, particularly the Romance languages—French, Italian, Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Occitan, and Sardinian—as well as from Quechua, Nahuatl, and other indigenous languages of the Americas. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. It is also used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin
Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and many other international organizations. Despite its large number of speakers, the Spanish language
Spanish language does not feature prominently in scientific writing, with the exception of the humanities.
.mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul display:none Contents
1 Estimated number of speakers 2 Names of the language 3 History 4 Grammar 5 Phonology
5.1 Segmental phonology 5.2 Prosody
6 Geographical distribution
6.1 Europe 6.2 Americas
6.3 Africa 6.4 Asia-Pacific
7 Spanish speakers by country 8 Dialectal variation
8.1 Phonology 8.2 Morphology
22.214.171.124 Distribution in Spanish-speaking regions of the Americas
8.2.2 Ustedes 8.2.3 Usted 8.2.4 Third-person object pronouns
9 Relation to other languages
10 Writing system 11 Organizations
11.1 Royal Spanish Academy 11.2 Association of Spanish Language Academies 11.3 Cervantes Institute 11.4 Official use by international organizations
12 See also 13 References
14 Further reading 15 External links
Estimated number of speakers
It is estimated that more than 437 million people speak Spanish as a
native language, which qualifies it as second on the lists of
languages by number of native speakers. Instituto
Cervantes claims that there are an estimated 477 million Spanish
speakers with native competence and 572 million Spanish speakers as a
first or second language—including speakers with limited
competence—and more than 21 million students of Spanish as a foreign
Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial
Guinea, and 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas
total some 418 million. It is also an optional language in the
Names of the language
Main article: Names given to the Spanish language
This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with
Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The discussion page may
contain suggestions. (December 2014)
Map indicating places where the language is called castellano or
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castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las
demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas
Castilian is the official
The Spanish Royal Academy, on the other hand, currently uses the term
español in its publications, but from 1713 to 1923 called the
Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (a language guide published by
the Spanish Royal Academy) states that, although the Spanish Royal
Academy prefers to use the term español in its publications when
referring to the Spanish language, both terms—español and
castellano—are regarded as synonymous and equally valid.
Two etymologies for español have been suggested. The Spanish Royal
Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word
espaignol, and that in turn from the Medieval
Main article: History of the Spanish language
The Visigothic Cartularies of Valpuesta, written in a late form of
Latin, were declared in 2010 by the Spanish Royal Academy as the
record of the earliest words written in Castilian, predating those of
the Glosas Emilianenses.
Latin Spanish Ladino Aragonese Asturian Galician Portuguese Catalan Gascon / Occitan French Sardinian Italian Romanian English
petra piedra pedra pedra, pèira pierre perda pietra piatrǎ 'stone'
terra tierra terra tèrra terre terra țară 'land'
moritur muere muerre morre mor morís meurt mòrit muore moare 'dies (v.)'
mortem muerte morte mort mòrt mort mòrti morte moarte 'death'
Chronological map showing linguistic evolution in southwest Europe
Spanish is marked by the palatalization of the
Latin Spanish Ladino Aragonese Asturian Galician Portuguese Catalan Gascon / Occitan French Sardinian Italian Romanian English
filium hijo fijo (or hijo) fillo fíu fillo filho fill filh, hilh fils fillu figlio fiu 'son'
facere hacer fazer fer facer fazer fer far, faire, har (or hèr) faire fairi fare a face 'to do'
febrem fiebre febre fèbre, frèbe, hrèbe (or herèbe) fièvre (calentura) febbre febră 'fever'
focum fuego fueu fogo foc fuòc, fòc, huèc feu fogu fuoco foc 'fire'
Some consonant clusters of
Latin Spanish Ladino Aragonese Asturian Galician Portuguese Catalan Gascon / Occitan French Sardinian Italian Romanian English
clāvem llave, clave clave clau llave chave chave clau clé crai chiave cheie 'key'
flamma llama, flama flama chama chama, flama flama flamme framma fiamma flamă 'flame'
plēnum lleno, pleno pleno plen llenu cheo cheio, pleno ple plen plein prenu pieno plin 'plenty, full'
octō ocho güeito ocho, oito oito oito (oito) vuit, huit uèch, uòch, uèit huit otu otto opt 'eight'
multum muchomuy munchomuy muitomui munchumui moitomoi muito (muito)mui (arch.) molt molt (arch.) moult (arch.) (meda) molto mult 'much,very,many'
Antonio de Nebrija, author of Gramática de la lengua castellana,
the first grammar of modern European languages.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Spanish underwent a dramatic change in
the pronunciation of its sibilant consonants, known in Spanish as the
reajuste de las sibilantes, which resulted in the distinctive velar
[x] pronunciation of the letter ⟨j⟩ and—in a large
part of Spain—the characteristic interdental [θ] ("th-sound") for
the letter ⟨z⟩ (and for ⟨c⟩ before
⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩). See History of Spanish
(Modern development of the
Main article: Spanish grammar
Miguel de Cervantes, considered by many the greatest author of
Spanish literature, and author of Don Quixote, widely considered the
first modern European novel.
Most of the grammatical and typological features of Spanish are shared
with the other Romance languages. Spanish is a fusional language. The
noun and adjective systems exhibit two genders and two numbers, in
addition articles and some pronouns and determiners have a neuter
gender in singular. There are about fifty conjugated forms per verb,
with 3 tenses: past, present, future; 2 aspects for past: perfective,
imperfective; 4 moods: indicative, subjunctive, conditional,
imperative; 3 persons: first, second, third; 2 numbers: singular,
plural; 3 verboid forms: infinitive, gerund, and past participle.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering
support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other
symbols instead of
Segmental phonology Spanish vowel chart, from Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227) The Spanish phonemic inventory consists of five vowel phonemes (/a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/) and 17 to 19 consonant phonemes (the exact number depending on the dialect). The main allophonic variation among vowels is the reduction of the high vowels /i/ and /u/ to glides—[j] and [w] respectively—when unstressed and adjacent to another vowel. Some instances of the mid vowels /e/ and /o/, determined lexically, alternate with the diphthongs /je/ and /we/ respectively when stressed, in a process that is better described as morphophonemic rather than phonological, as it is not predictable from phonology alone. The Spanish consonant system is characterized by (1) three nasal phonemes, and one or two (depending on the dialect) lateral phoneme(s), which in syllable-final position lose their contrast and are subject to assimilation to a following consonant; (2) three voiceless stops and the affricate /tʃ/; (3) three or four (depending on the dialect) voiceless fricatives; (4) a set of voiced obstruents—/b/, /d/, /ɡ/, and sometimes /ʝ/—which alternate between approximant and plosive allophones depending on the environment; and (5) a phonemic distinction between the "tapped" and "trilled" r-sounds (single ⟨r⟩ and double ⟨rr⟩ in orthography). In the following table of consonant phonemes, /ʎ/ is marked with an asterisk (*) to indicate that it is preserved only in some dialects. In most dialects it has been merged with /ʝ/ in the merger called yeísmo. Similarly, /θ/ is also marked with an asterisk to indicate that most dialects do not distinguish it from /s/ (see seseo), although this is not a true merger but an outcome of different evolution of sibilants in Southern Spain. The phoneme /ʃ/ is in parentheses () to indicate that it appears only in loanwords. Each of the voiced obstruent phonemes /b/, /d/, /ʝ/, and /ɡ/ appears to the right of a pair of voiceless phonemes, to indicate that, while the voiceless phonemes maintain a phonemic contrast between plosive (or affricate) and fricative, the voiced ones alternate allophonically (i.e. without phonemic contrast) between plosive and approximant pronunciations.
Prosody Spanish is classified by its rhythm as a syllable-timed language: each syllable has approximately the same duration regardless of stress. Spanish intonation varies significantly according to dialect but generally conforms to a pattern of falling tone for declarative sentences and wh-questions (who, what, why, etc.) and rising tone for yes/no questions. There are no syntactic markers to distinguish between questions and statements and thus, the recognition of declarative or interrogative depends entirely on intonation. Stress most often occurs on any of the last three syllables of a word, with some rare exceptions at the fourth-last or earlier syllables. The tendencies of stress assignment are as follows:
In words that end with a vowel, stress most often falls on the penultimate syllable. In words that end with a consonant, stress most often falls on the last syllable, with the following exceptions: The grammatical endings -n (for third-person-plural of verbs) and -s (whether for plural of nouns and adjectives or for second-person-singular of verbs) do not change the location of stress. Thus, regular verbs ending with -n and the great majority of words ending with -s are stressed on the penult. Although a significant number of nouns and adjectives ending with -n are also stressed on the penult (joven, virgen, mitin), the great majority of nouns and adjectives ending with -n are stressed on their last syllable (capitán, almacén, jardín, corazón). Preantepenultimate stress (stress on the fourth-to-last syllable) occurs rarely, only on verbs with clitic pronouns attached (guardándoselos 'saving them for him/her/them/you'). In addition to the many exceptions to these tendencies, there are numerous minimal pairs that contrast solely on stress such as sábana ('sheet') and sabana ('savannah'); límite ('boundary'), limite ('[that] he/she limits') and limité ('I limited'); líquido ('liquid'), liquido ('I sell off') and liquidó ('he/she sold off'). The orthographic system unambiguously reflects where the stress occurs: in the absence of an accent mark, the stress falls on the last syllable unless the last letter is ⟨n⟩, ⟨s⟩, or a vowel, in which cases the stress falls on the next-to-last (penultimate) syllable. Exceptions to those rules are indicated by an acute accent mark over the vowel of the stressed syllable. (See Spanish orthography.)
Geographical distribution See also: Hispanophone Geographical distribution of the Spanish language Official or co-official language 1,000,000+ 100,000+ 20,000+ Active learning of Spanish. Spanish is the primary language of 20 countries worldwide. It is estimated that the combined total number of Spanish speakers is between 470 and 500 million, making it the second most widely spoken language in terms of native speakers. Spanish is the third most spoken language by total number of speakers (after Mandarin and English). Internet usage statistics for 2007 also show Spanish as the third most commonly used language on the Internet, after English and Mandarin.
Europe Main article: Peninsular Spanish Percentage of people who self reportedly know enough Spanish to hold a conversation, in the EU, 2005 Native country More than 8.99% Between 4% and 8.99% Between 1% and 3.99% Less than 1% In Europe, Spanish is an official language of Spain, the country after which it is named and from which it originated. It is widely spoken in Gibraltar, and also commonly spoken in Andorra, although Catalan is the official language there. Spanish is also spoken by small communities in other European countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. Spanish is an official language of the European Union. In Switzerland, which had a massive influx of Spanish migrants in the 20th century, Spanish is the native language of 2.2% of the population.
Main article: Equatoguinean Spanish
Donato Ndongo-Bidyogo, writer, poet, journalist and promoter of the
Bilingual signage of Museum of the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army
Early flag of the Filipino revolutionaries ("Long live the
Philippine Republic!"). The first two constitutions were written in
Spanish was removed from official status in 1973 under the
administration of Ferdinand Marcos, but regained its status as an
official language two months later under Presidential Decree No. 155,
dated 15 March 1973. It remained an official language
until 1987, with the ratification of the present constitution, in
which it was re-designated as a voluntary and optional auxiliary
language. In 2010, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
encouraged the reintroduction of Spanish-language teaching in the
Philippine education system. But by 2012, the number of
secondary schools at which the language was either a compulsory
subject or an elective had become very limited. Today,
despite government promotions of Spanish, less than 0.5% of the
population report being able to speak the language
proficiently. Aside from standard Spanish, a Spanish-based
creole language—Chavacano—developed in the southern Philippines.
The number of Chavacano-speakers was estimated at 1.2 million in 1996.
However, it is not mutually intelligible with Spanish.
Speakers of the Zamboangueño variety of
Spanish speakers by country The following table shows the number of Spanish speakers in some 79 countries.
Spanish as a native language speakers
Native speakers or very good speakers as a second language
Total number of Spanish speakers (including limited competence speakers)
42,926,496 (82% of the 57.4 mill. Hispanics + 2.8 mill. non Hispanics)
58,008,778 (40,5 million as a first language, 15 million as a second language, 7.8 million students and some of the 9 million undocumented Hispanics not accounted by the Census)
49,150,870 (850,000 with other mother tongue)
30,729,866 (1,098,244 with other mother tongue)
17,993,930 (281,600 with other mother tongue)
8,658,501 (207,750 with other mother tongue)
6,953,646 (2,232,120 limited proficiency)
477,564 (1% of 47,756,439)
1,910,258 (4% of 47,756,439)
6,685,901 (14% of 47,756,439)
6,349,939 (19,050 limited proficiency)
6,037,990 (97.1%) (490,124 with other mother tongue)
6,218,321 (180,331 limited proficiency)
6,056,018 (460,018 native speakers + 96,000 limited proficiency + 5,500,000 can hold a conversation)
1,037,248 (2% of 51,862,391)
5,704,863 (11% of 51,862,391)
4,806,069 (84,310 with other mother tongue)
3,263,123 (501,043 with other mother tongue)
3,330,022 (150,200 with other mother tongue)
518,480 (1% of 51,848,010)
3,110,880 (6% of 51,848,010)
644,091 (1% of 64,409,146)
2,576,366 (4% of 64,409,146)
182,467 (1% of 18,246,731)
912,337 (5% of 18,246,731)
323,237 (4% of 8,080,915)
808,091 (10% of 8,080,915)
643,800 (87% of 740,000) 736,653
133,719 (1% of 13,371,980)
668,599 (5% of 13,371,980 )
77,912 (1% of 7,791,240)
77,912 (1% of 7,791,240)
467,474 (6% of 7,791,240)
89,395 (1% of 8,939,546)
446,977 (5% of 8,939,546)
324,137 (1% of 32,413,735)
324,137 (1% of 32,413,735)
70,098 (1% of 7,009,827)
280,393 (4% of 7,009,827)
45,613 (1% of 4,561,264)
182,450 (4% of 4,561,264)
167,514 (60,000 students)
165,202 (14,420 students)
35,220 (1% of 3,522,000)
140,880 (4% of 3,522,000)
133,200 (3% of 4,440,004)
130,750 (2% of 6,537,510)
130,750 (2% of 6,537,510)
90,124 (1% of 9,012,443)
83,206 (1% of 8,320,614)
Trinidad and Tobago
35,194 (2% of 1,759,701)
52,791 (3% of 1,759,701)
47,322 (25,677 students)
45,500 (1% of 4,549,955)
28,297 (1% of 2,829,740)
4,049 (1% of 404,907)
8,098 (2% of 404,907)
24,294 (6% of 404,907)
US Virgin Islands
13,943 (1% of 1,447,866)
2% of 660,400
9,457 (1% of 945,733)
3,354 (1% of 335,476)
2,397,000 (934,984 already counted)
7,430,000,000 (Total World Population)
461,860,681 (6.2 %)
497,514,992 (6.6 % )
545,691,655 (7.3 %)
A world map attempting to identify the main dialects of Spanish.
Phonology The four main phonological divisions are based respectively on (1) the phoneme /θ/ ("theta"), (2) the debuccalization of syllable-final /s/, (3) the sound of the spelled ⟨s⟩, (4) and the phoneme /ʎ/ ("turned y"),
The phoneme /θ/ (spelled c before e or i and spelled
⟨z⟩ elsewhere), a voiceless dental fricative as in
English thing, is maintained by a majority of Spain's population,
especially in the northern and central parts of the country. In other
areas (some parts of southern Spain, the Canary Islands, and the
Americas), /θ/ doesn't exist and /s/ occurs instead. The maintenance
of phonemic contrast is called distinción in Spanish, while the
merger is generally called seseo (in reference to the usual
realization of the merged phoneme as [s]) or, occasionally, ceceo
(referring to its interdental realization, [θ], in some parts of
southern Spain). In most of
Main article: Voseo
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General voseo (River Plate Spanish)
The forms in bold coincide with standard tú-conjugation.
In Chilean voseo on the other hand, almost all verb forms are distinct from their standard tú-forms.
The forms in bold coincide with standard tú-conjugation.
The use of the pronoun vos with the verb forms of tú (vos piensas) is called "pronominal voseo". Conversely, the use of the verb forms of vos with the pronoun tú (tú pensás or tú pensái) is called "verbal voseo". In Chile, for example, verbal voseo is much more common than the actual use of the pronoun vos, which is usually reserved for highly informal situations. And in Central American voseo, one can see even further distinction.
Central American voseo
The forms in bold coincide with standard tú-conjugation.
Distribution in Spanish-speaking regions of the Americas
Although vos is not used in Spain, it occurs in many Spanish-speaking
regions of the
Ustedes functions as formal and informal second person plural in over
90% of the Spanish-speaking world, including all of
Usted is the usual second-person singular pronoun in a formal context,
but it is used jointly with the third-person singular voice of the
verb. It is used to convey respect toward someone who is a generation
older or is of higher authority ("you, sir"/"you, ma'am"). It is also
used in a familiar context by many speakers in
Third-person object pronouns
Most speakers use (and the
Real Academia Española
Some words can be significantly different in different Hispanophone
countries. Most Spanish speakers can recognize other Spanish forms
even in places where they are not commonly used, but Spaniards
generally do not recognize specifically American usages. For example,
Spanish mantequilla, aguacate and albaricoque (respectively, 'butter',
'avocado', 'apricot') correspond to manteca (word used for lard in
Peninsular Spanish), palta, and damasco, respectively, in Argentina,
Relation to other languages
Further information: Comparison of Portuguese and Spanish
Linguistic map of
nosaltres (arch. nós)
frater germanum(lit. "true brother")
germà (arch. frare)4
dies martis (Classical) feria tertia (Ecclesiastical)
canción (or canciu)
más (arch. plus)
mais (arch. chus or plus)
más (or més)
més (arch. pus or plus)
mano izquierda6(arch. mano siniestra)
mão esquerda6(arch. mão sẽestra)
manu izquierda6(or esquierda; also manzorga)
mà esquerra6 (arch. mà sinistra)
nihil nullam rem natam (lit. "no thing born")
nada (also ren and res)
nada (neca and nula rés in some expressions; arch. rem)
nada (also un res)
1. Also nós outros in early modern Portuguese (e.g. The Lusiads), and
nosoutros in Galician.
2. Alternatively nous autres in French.
3. Also noialtri in Southern Italian dialects and languages.
4. Medieval Catalan (e.g. Llibre dels fets).
5. Depending on the written norm used (see Reintegrationism).
6. From Basque esku, "hand" + erdi, "half, incomplete". Notice that
this negative meaning also applies for
Further information: Judaeo-Spanish
The Rashi script, originally used to print Judaeo-Spanish.
An original letter in Haketia, written in 1832.
Judaeo-Spanish, also known as Ladino, is a variety of
Spanish which preserves many features of medieval Spanish and
Portuguese and is spoken by descendants of the
Main article: Spanish orthography
History Old Middle Influences
Grammar Determiners Nouns gender Pronouns personal object Adjectives Prepositions Verbs conjugation irregular verbs
Dialects Peninsular Pan-American Standard
Dialectology seseo yeísmo voseo leísmo loísmo
Interlanguages Creoles Spanglish Portuñol
Spanish is written in the
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, Ñ, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V,
W, X, Y, Z.
Since 2010, none of the digraphs (ch, ll, rr, gu, qu) is considered a
letter by the Spanish Royal Academy.
The letters k and w are used only in words and names coming from
foreign languages (kilo, folklore, whisky, kiwi, etc.).
With the exclusion of a very small number of regional terms such as
Royal Spanish Academy
Association of Spanish Language Academies
Main article: Association of Spanish Language Academies
Countries members of the ASALE.
Association of Spanish Language Academies
Main article: Instituto Cervantes
Official use by international organizations
Main article: List of countries where Spanish is an official language
§ International organizations where Spanish is official
Spanish is one of the official languages of the United Nations, the
European Union, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of
American States, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the
African Union, the Union of South American Nations, the Antarctic
Treaty Secretariat, the
List of Spanish-language poets
Spanish as a second or foreign language
Spanish words and phrases
Longest word in Spanish
Most common words in Spanish
List of English–Spanish interlingual homographs
Countries where Spanish is an official language
Influences on the Spanish language Arabic influence on the Spanish language List of Spanish words of Germanic origin List of Spanish words of Nahuatl origin List of Spanish words of Indigenous American Indian origin List of Spanish words of Philippine origin Dialects and languages influenced by Spanish Caló Chamorro Chavacano Frespañol Ladino Llanito Palenquero Papiamento Philippine languages Portuñol Spanglish Spanish-based creole languages List of English words of Spanish origin
^ a b El español: una lengua viva – Informe 2018 (PDF) (Report). Instituto Cervantes. 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
^ Note that in English, "Castilian" or "Castilian Spanish" may be
understood as referring to European Spanish (peninsular Spanish) to
the exclusion of dialects in the New World or to
^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin. Asterisks mark the 2010 estimates for the top dozen languages.
^ "Summary by language size".
^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
^ "Logga in på NE". www.ne.se.
^ Según la revista
^ La RAE avala que
^ "Spanish languages "Becoming the language for trade" in
^ Robles, Heriberto Camacho Becerra, Juan José Comparán Rizo, Felipe Castillo (1998). Manual de etimologías grecolatinas (3. ed.). México: Limusa. p. 19. ISBN 968-18-5542-6.
^ Comparán Rizo, Juan José. Raices Griegas y latinas (in Spanish). Ediciones Umbral. p. 17. ISBN 978-968-5430-01-2.
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^ "Argentinian census INDEC estimate for 2017". Retrieved 24 March 2014.
^ a b Estimaciones y proyecciones de población 2010-2040: Total del país, INDEC, 2013
^ 40,872,286 people is the census population result for 2010
^ According to
^ "Proyecciones de Población". ine.gov.ve. (2017)
^ "Languages", VE, Ethnologue, There are 1,098,244 people who speak other language as their mother tongue (main languages: Chinese 400,000, Portuguese 254,000, Wayuu 199,000, Arabic 110,000)
^ Quispe Fernández, Ezio (2017). "Cifras" [Numbers] (PDF) (in Spanish). PE: INEI.
^ "Census", The World factbook, US: CIA, 2007, Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other 0.2%
^ "PE", Country, Ethnologue, There are 5,782,260 people who speak other language as mother tongue (main languages: Quechua (among 32 Quechua's varieties) 4,773,900, Aymara (2 varieties) 661 000, Chinese 100,000).
^ "Informes" [Reports] (PDF). Proyecciones (in Spanish). CL: INE. 2017. p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
^ "CL", Country, Ethnologue, There are 281,600 people who speak another language, mainly Mapudungun (250.000)
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^ There are 207,750 people who speak another language, mainly Garifuna (98,000).: Ethnologue
^ a b c d e f g h i j Informe 2017 (PDF), ES: Instituto Cervantes, 2017, p. 7
^ According to the 1992 census, 50% use both Spanish and the indigenous language Guarani at home, 37% speak Guarani only, 7% speak Spanish only.findarticles.com. About 75 percent can speak Spanish.pressreference.com
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^ a b c Eurobarometr 2012 (page T40): Native speakers.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap Eurobarometr 2012 (page TS2): Population older than 15. (age scale used for the Eurobarometer survey)
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Eurobarometr 2012 (page T74): Non native people who speak Spanish very well.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Eurobarometr 2012 (page T64): Non native people who speak Spanish well enough in order to be able to have a conversation.
^ There are 14,100 people who speak other language as their mother tongue (main language, Kekchí with 12,300 speakers): Ethnologue.
^ There are 490,124 people who speak another language, mainly Mískito (154,000).: Ethnologue
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Advance Tables" (PDF).
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^ The figure of 2 900 000 Spanish speakers is in Thompson, RW, Pluricentric languages: differing norms in different nations, p. 45
^ World wide Spanish language, Sispain
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inglés, Gráfico 2). 77.3% of the
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^ The Spanish 1970 census claims 16.648 Spanish speakers in Western
Sahara () but probably most of them were people born in
^ Page 34 of the Demografía de la Lengua Española
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^ 8,000 (Page 37 of the Demografía de la lengua española) + 4,346 Spanish Students (according to the Instituto Cervantes)
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^ a b c Languages of Jamaica,
^ El español en Namibia, 2005. Instituto Cervantes.
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^ Demografía de la lengua española, page 37 (2,397,000 people speak
Spanish as a native language in the E.U. excluded Spain, but It is
already counted population who speak Spanish as a native language in
^ "International Programs – People and Households – U.S. Census Bureau". Census.gov. 5 January 2016. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
^ a b Cite error: The named reference EthnologueSp was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
^ 426,515,910 speakers L1 in 2012 (ethnologue) of 7,097,500,000 people in the World in 2012 (): 6%.
^ "The 30 Most Spoken Languages in the World". KryssTal. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
^ 517,824,310 speakers L1 and L2 in 2012 (ethnologue) of 7,097,500,000 people in the World in 2012 (): 7.3%.
^ Eleanor Greet Cotton, John M. Sharp (1988) Spanish in the Americas, Volume 2, pp.154–155, URL
^ Lope Blanch, Juan M. (1972) En torno a las vocales caedizas del
español mexicano, pp.53 a 73, Estudios sobre el español de México,
editorial Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,
^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Random House Inc. 2006.
^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006.
^ Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 1998.
^ Encarta World English Dictionary. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. 2007. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
^ Penny, Ralph (2000). Variation and Change in Spanish. Cambridge
University Press. p. 199. ISBN 0-521-78045-4. whatever might
be claimed by other centres, such as Valladolid, it was educated
^ The IPA symbol "turned y" (ʎ), with its "tail" leaning to the right, resembles, but is technically different from, the Greek letter lambda (λ), whose tail leans to the left.
^ Charles B. Chang, "Variation in palatal production in Buenos Aires Spanish". Selected Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics, ed. Maurice Westmoreland and Juan Antonio Thomas, 54–63. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project, 2008.
^ a b "Real Academia Española" (in Spanish). Buscon.rae.es. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
^ Jensen (1989)
^ Penny (2000:14)
^ Dalby (1998:501)
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^ Often considered to be a substratum word. Other theories suggest, on
the basis of what is used to make cheese, a derivation from Latin
brandeum (originally meaning a linen covering, later a thin cloth for
relic storage) through an intermediate root *brandea. For the
development of the meaning, cf. Spanish manteca, Portuguese manteiga,
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^ Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas, 1st ed.
^ Real Academia Española, Explanation Archived 6 September 2007 at
^ Exclusión de ch y ll del abecedario, RAE
^ "Scholarly Societies Project". Lib.uwaterloo.ca. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
^ Batchelor, Ronald Ernest (1992). Using Spanish: a guide to contemporary usage. Cambridge University Press. p. 318. ISBN 0-521-26987-3.
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^ "Academia Colombiana de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Colombia. Archived from the original on 19 February 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
^ "Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Ecuador. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
^ "Academia Mexicana de la Lengua". Mexico. 22 September 2010. Archived from the original on 15 September 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
^ "Academia Salvadoreña de la Lengua". El Salvador. Archived from the original on 4 September 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
^ "Academia Venezolana de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Venezuela. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
^ "Academia Chilena de la Lengua". Chile. Archived from the original on 5 September 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
^ "Academia Peruana de la Lengua". Peru. Archived from the original on 12 October 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
^ "Academia Guatemalteca de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Guatemala. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
^ "Academia Costarricense de la Lengua". Costa Rica. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
^ "Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española" (in Spanish). Philippines. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
^ "Academia Panameña de la Lengua". Panama. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
^ "Academia Cubana de la Lengua". Cuba. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
^ "Academia Paraguaya de la Lengua Española". Paraguay. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
^ "Academia Dominicana de la Lengua". República Dominicana. Archived from the original on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
^ "Academia Boliviana de la Lengua". Bolivia. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
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^ "Academia Hondureña de la Lengua" (in Spanish). Honduras. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
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^ "Academia Ecuatoguineana de la Lengua Española". Equatorial Guinea. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
^ A First Spanish Reader, by Erwin W. Roessler and Alfred Remy
.mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em
.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100%
Abercrombie, David (1967). "Elements of General Phonetics". Edinburgh:
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Butt, John; Benjamin, Carmen (2011). A New Reference
Further reading "Hats Off: The Rise of Spanish". The Economist. 1 June 2013. Erichsen, Gerald (20 May 2017). "Does Spanish Have Fewer Words Than English?". ThoughtCo. Dotdash. "What is the future of Spanish in the United States?". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 27 November 2018. External links
Spanish edition of, the free encyclopedia
Spanish edition of Wikisource, the free library
Real Academia Española
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