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The Soyuz programme ( , ; russian: Союз , meaning "Union") is a
human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, the spacecraft being operated directly by the onboard human crew. Spacecraft can also be telerobotic ...

human spaceflight
programme initiated by the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a Political union, union of multiple national Republics of t ...
in the early 1960s. The Soyuz spacecraft was originally part of a
Moon landing A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft 275px, The US Space Shuttle flew 135 times from 1981 to 2011, supporting Spacelab, ''Mir'', the Hubble Space Telescope, and the ISS. (''Columbia'' STS-1">maiden launch, which had a white ext ...
project intended to put a Soviet
cosmonaut An astronaut (from the Greek "astron" (ἄστρον), meaning "star", and "nautes" (ναύτης), meaning "sailor") is a person trained, equipped, and deployed by a human spaceflight program to serve as a commander or crew member aboard a sp ...
on the
Moon The Moon is Earth's only proper natural satellite. At one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising ...

Moon
. It was the third
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the ...
human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, the spacecraft being operated directly by the onboard human crew. Spacecraft can also be telerobotic ...

human spaceflight
programme after the Vostok and Voskhod programmes. The programme consists of the
Soyuz spacecraft Soyuz () is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today, having made more than 140 flights. The Soyuz succeeded the Voskhod spacecraft and w ...
and the Soyuz rocket and is now the responsibility of the Russian
Roscosmos The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities,russian: Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос», ''Gosudarstvennaya korporatsiya po kosmicheskoy deyatye ...
. After the retirement of the
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft 275px, The US Space Shuttle flew 135 times from 1981 to 2011, supporting Spacelab, ''Mir'', the Hubble Space Telescope, and the ISS. (''Columbia'' STS-1">maiden lau ...
in 2011, Soyuz was the only way for human spaceflight to the
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a modular space station (habitable artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA The National Aeronaut ...

International Space Station
(ISS) until 30 May 2020, when Crew Dragon flew to the ISS for the first time with astronauts.


Soyuz rocket

upSoyuz rocket on launch pad. The launch vehicles used in the Soyuz
expendable launch system An expendable launch system (or expendable launch vehicle/ELV) is a launch vehicle File:Soyuz TMA-5 launch.jpg, Russian Soyuz TMA-5 lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan heading for the International Space Station A launch ...
are manufactured at the Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center (TsSKB-Progress) in
Samara, Russia Samara ( rus, Сама́ра, p=sɐˈmarə), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (; ), is the largest city and administrative centre of Samara Oblast. The city is located at the confluence of the Volga and the Samara (Volga), Samara rivers, wi ...
. As well as being used in the Soyuz programme as the launcher for the crewed Soyuz spacecraft, Soyuz launch vehicles are now also used to launch robotic Progress spacecraft, Progress supply spacecraft to the
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a modular space station (habitable artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA The National Aeronaut ...

International Space Station
and commercial launches marketed and operated by TsSKB-Progress and the Starsem company. Currently Soyuz vehicles are launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan and the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northwest Russia and, since 2011, Soyuz launch vehicles are also being launched from the Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana. The Spaceport's Ensemble de Lancement Soyouz, new Soyuz launch site has been handling Soyuz launches since 21 October 2011, the date of the first launch. As of December 2019, 19 Soyuz at the Guiana Space Centre, Guiana Soyuz launches had been made from Guiana Space Centre, French Guiana Space Centre, all successful.


Soyuz spacecraft

The basic
Soyuz spacecraft Soyuz () is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today, having made more than 140 flights. The Soyuz succeeded the Voskhod spacecraft and w ...
design was the basis for many projects, many of which were never developed. Its earliest form was intended to travel to the Moon without employing a huge booster like the Saturn V or the Soviet N1 rocket, N-1 by repeatedly docking with upper stages that had been put in orbit using the same rocket as the Soyuz. This and the initial civilian designs were done under the Soviet Chief Designer Sergei Korolev, Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, who did not live to see the craft take flight. Several military derivatives took precedence in the Soviet design process, though they never came to pass. A Soyuz spacecraft consists of three parts (from front to back): *a spheroid orbital module *a small aerodynamic reentry module *a cylindrical service module with solar panels attached There have been many variants of the Soyuz spacecraft, including: * Soyuz-A 7K-9K-11K circumlunar complex proposal (1963) ** Soyuz-A, Soyuz 7K crewed spacecraft concept ** Soyuz-B, Soyuz 9K proposed booster ** Soyuz-V, Soyuz 11K proposed fuel tanker * Soyuz 7K-OK (1967–1970) ** Soyuz 7K-L1 Zond (1967–1970) ** Soyuz 7K-LOK, Soyuz 7K-L3 LOK (1971–1972) * Soyuz 7K-OKS (1971) * Soyuz 7K-T or "ferry" (1973–1981) ** Soyuz 7K-T, Soyuz 7K-T/A9 (1974–1978) ** Soyuz 7K-T, 7K-MF6 (1976) * Soyuz 7K-TM (1974–1976) * Soyuz-T (1976–1986) * Soyuz-TM (1986–2003) * Soyuz-TMA (2003–2012) * Crew Space Transportation System, Soyuz-ACTS (2006) * Soyuz-TMA#TMA-M, Soyuz-TMA-M (2010–2016) * Soyuz MS (since 2016) * Military Soyuz (P, PPK, R, 7K-VI Zvezda, and OIS) ** Soyuz P crewed satellite interceptor proposal (1962) ** Military Soyuz#Soyuz R, Soyuz R command-reconnaissance spacecraft proposal (1962) *** Soyuz 7K-TK (1966) ** Military Soyuz#Soyuz PPK, Soyuz PPK revised version of Soyuz P (1964) ** Soyuz 7K-VI Zvezda space station proposal (1964) ** Military Soyuz#OIS (Orbital Research Station), Soyuz OIS (1967) *** Military Soyuz#Soyuz OB-VI, Soyuz OB-VI space station proposal (1967) *** Military Soyuz#Soyuz 7K-S, Soyuz 7K-S military transport proposal (1974) *** Military Soyuz#Soyuz 7K-ST, Soyuz 7K-ST concept for Soyuz T and TM (1974)


Derivatives

The Zond program, Zond spacecraft was designed to take a crew around the Moon, but never achieved the required degree of safety or political need. Zond 5 did circle the Moon in September, 1968, with two tortoises and other life forms, and returned safely to Earth although in an atmospheric entry which probably would have killed human travelers. The Progress spacecraft, Progress series of robotic cargo ships for the Salyut, Mir, and ISS use the engine section, orbital module, automatic navigation, docking mechanism, and overall layout of the Soyuz spacecraft, but are incapable of reentry. While not a direct derivative, the Chinese Shenzhou (spacecraft), Shenzhou spacecraft follows the basic template originally pioneered by Soyuz.


Soyuz crewed flights

* List of Soviet human spaceflight missions, Soviet human spaceflight missions started in 1961 and ended in 1991 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. * The List of Russian human spaceflight missions, Russian human spaceflight missions program started in 1991 and continues to this day. Soyuz crewed missions were the only spacecraft visiting the
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a modular space station (habitable artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA The National Aeronaut ...

International Space Station
, starting from when the
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft 275px, The US Space Shuttle flew 135 times from 1981 to 2011, supporting Spacelab, ''Mir'', the Hubble Space Telescope, and the ISS. (''Columbia'' STS-1">maiden lau ...
program ended in 2011, until the launch of Crew Dragon Demo-2 on 30 May 2020. The International Space Station always has at least one Soyuz spacecraft docked at all times for use as an escape craft.Beyond the Saga of Rocket Science: In Space to Stay, By Walter Sierra, page 225-226, 2019


Soyuz uncrewed flights

# Kosmos 133 - launch failure # Kosmos 140 - reentry damage # Kosmos 186 # Kosmos 188 # Kosmos 212 # Kosmos 213 # Kosmos 238 # Soyuz 2 - failed to dock # Kosmos 379 # Kosmos 396 # Kosmos 434 # Kosmos 496 # Kosmos 573 # Kosmos 613 # Kosmos 638 # Kosmos 656 # Kosmos 670 # Kosmos 672 # Kosmos 772 - partial fail # Soyuz 20 # Kosmos 869 # Kosmos 1001 # Kosmos 1074 # Soyuz T-1 # Soyuz TM-1 # Soyuz MS-14


Gallery

Image:Soyuz TMA-3 launch.jpg, Soyuz TMA-3 launch Image:Soyuz 19 (Apollo Soyuz Test Project) spacecraft.jpg, Soyuz 19 as seen from the Apollo spacecraft during Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, July 1975 Image:Expedition 42 Soyuz TMA-14M Landing (201503120102HQ).jpg, Soyuz TMA-14M landing Image:ISS-43 Soyuz TMA 16M approaches the ISS (a).jpg, Soyuz TMA-16M approaching the International Space Station, ISS


See also

*Shenzhou spacecraft, Shenzhou, a Chinese spacecraft influenced by Soyuz *
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft 275px, The US Space Shuttle flew 135 times from 1981 to 2011, supporting Spacelab, ''Mir'', the Hubble Space Telescope, and the ISS. (''Columbia'' STS-1">maiden lau ...
*Buran (spacecraft) *List of spaceflight-related accidents and incidents


References

{{Use British English, date=January 2014 Soyuz program, Human spaceflight programs Crewed space program of Russia Crewed space program of the Soviet Union Projects established in 1963 1963 establishments in the Soviet Union